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Sample records for providing gasification technology

  1. Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

  2. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  3. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  4. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    This report provides an overview of existing technologies and projects in Denmark and Sweden with a focus on the Öresund region. Furthermore it presents the research and development of biomass gasification in the region and these two countries. The list of existing gasification plants from...... laboratory scale projects to big scale plants is given. The report ends with an overview of future gasification projects as well as potential experience exchanges that could occur between the countries. We regard biomass gasification as one of the key technologies in future renewable energy systems....

  5. Simulation analysis of wastes gasification technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year a significant growth in the amount of wastes generated is observed. Due to this fact technologies enabling utilization of wastes are needed. One of the ways to utilizes wastes is thermal conversion. Most widely used technology for thermal conversion is gasification that enables to produce syngas that can be either combusted or directed to further synthesis to produce methanol or liquid fuels. There are several commercially available technologies that enable to gasify wastes. The first part of this study is subjected to general description of waste gasification process. Furthermore the analysis and comparison of commercially available gasification technologies is presented, including their process arrangement, limits and capabilities. Second part of the study is dedicated to the development of thermodynamic model for waste gasification. The model includes three zones of gasification reactors: drying, gasification and eventually ash melting. Modified Gibbs minimization method is used to simulate gasification process. The model is capable of predicting final gas composition as a function of temperature or equivalence ratio. Calculations are performed for a specified average wastes composition and different equivalence ratios of air to discuss its influence on the performance of gasification (temperature of the process and gas composition. Finally the model enables to calculate total energy balance of the process as well as gasification and final gas temperature.

  6. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  7. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  8. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  9. Small Scale Gasification of Biomass and Municipal Wastes for Heat and Electricity Production using HTAG Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiek Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and gasification technology utilizing high-cycle regenerative air/steam preheater has drawn increased attention in many application areas. The process is to be realized at temperature level above ash melting point using highly preheated agent. The use of highly preheated media above 900°C provides additional energy to conversion processes and results in considerable changes to the design of combustion and gasification equipment and its performance. This paper presents an advanced gasification system that utilizes high-temperature air and steam to convert biomass and municipal wastes into syngas production as well as selected results from experimental studies of high temperature air/steam gasification.

  10. Clean Coal and Gasification Technology: How it Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of coal is the oldest method for the production of hydrogen. Coal gasification is a process that converts coal from a solid to a gaseous state. The gas that is created is very similar to natural gas and can be used to produce chemicals, fertilizers, and/or the electric power [1]. Cleanest of all coal-based electric power technologies, gasification has significantly lower levels of air emissions (including volatile mercury, solid wastes, and wastewater.Due to its high efficiencies, gasification also uses less coal to produce the same amount of energy, resulting in lower carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. Some scientists believe that CO2 in the atmosphere contributes to a "greenhouse effect" that will lead to the global warming. Coal gasification has a proven technology for capturing CO2 at a fraction of the cost required for coal combustion technologies.

  11. Gasification — the process and the technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1981-01-01

    Thermochemical gasification of biomass can produce low, medium and high calorific value gases. The characteristics, applications and potential of the different processes and reactor types are discussed. The introduction of biomass gasification on a large or intermediate scale for the production of

  12. Clean coal technology: gasification of South African coals - IFSA 2008

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available source to meet increasing electricity demand for the foreseeable future. The challenge in the future is to enhance both the efficiency and environmental acceptability of coal use by adopting clean technologies (CCTs). Integrated gasification combined...

  13. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  14. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  15. Technologies relevant for gasification and methanation in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2012-09-15

    This report is a Milestone report for Task 3.1 of the project ''Detailed analysis of bio-SNG technologies and other RE-gases'', Forsk-NG 10689. It is a report on inventory of relevant bio-SNG technologies. In this report a list of technologies relevant for production of bio-SNG from gasification of biomass is presented. During a long period of time a range of gasification technologies has been developed in Denmark. All Danish gasification technologies are characterised by the fact that the producer gases - immediately after gasification - are used in a boiler or an engine. This use is initially the most effective because after purification and without modification the gases can be used directly in a boiler or an engine. However, a gasifier plant is rather expensive, which means that in order to be cost-effective the gasifier must operate as base load. In the future, an expected larger production of producer gases will, therefore, cause a need for storage of the energy - because there won't be correspondence between production and utilisation. This storage is possible by producing bio-SNG by methanation and then adding it to the natural gas grid and storages. There are two ways of making gasification plants more cost effective: ''Saving by size'' and ''Saving by number''. Large plants of course have the advantage of smaller specific price for the installation. On the other hand a great number of equal plants scattered across the country would also reduce the specific cost of installations and the expenses for transport would reduce as well. Even a third possibility is to install at a plant several parallel units for gasification technologies that have maximum unit size and attaching one common methanation unit. This increases the operational reliability of the plant and save installation costs where possible. In Denmark, as an example, a plant of 60 MW (output) might be considered, corresponding to

  16. Gasification - Status and Technology; Foergasning - Status och teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2011-07-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect atmospheric gasification and Pressurized oxygen blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them is based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others more advantageous solutions, still need further development. The report deals to a minor extent with the conversion of syngas to synthetic fuels. The ongoing research and development of gasification techniques is extensive, both on national and international level. Although many process concepts and components have been demonstrated, there is still no full-scale plant for the production of synthetic fuels based on biomass. Factors affecting the choice of technology are plant size, operating conditions, the possibility for process integration, access to feedstock, market aspects, incentives and economic instruments et cetera. Increased competition for biofuels will inevitably lead to higher raw material costs. This in turn means that the fuel chains with high efficiency, such as biomethane through gasification and methanation, are favored

  17. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  18. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass : A Literature and Technology Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakaboylu, O.; Harinck, J.; Smit, K.G.; De Jong, W.

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification process is an alternative to both conventional gasification as well as anaerobic digestion as it does not require drying and the process takes place at much shorter residence times; a few minutes at most. The drastic changes in the thermo-physical properties of

  19. Clean coal technology: gasification of South African coals - 2nd CSIR Biennial Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available source to meet increasing electricity demand for the foreseeable future. The challenge in the future is to enhance both the efficiency and environmental acceptability of coal use by adopting clean coal technologies (CCTs). Integrated gasification combined...

  20. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG– is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national GDP. According with the Energy Ministry (Ministerio de Minas y Energía [1] mining has been around 5% of total GDP in the last years. This is a significant fact due to the existence of a considerable volume of reserves not accounted for (proved reserves at year 2010 were 6.700 million of tons. Source: INGEOMINAS and UPME, and the coal future role’s prospect, in the world energy production.

  1. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    Gasification is considered one of the most promising technologies in biomass applications. The higher efficiency compared to boiler power systems, the perspectives in fuel synthesis and its environmental friendly features are some examples of its potential. Biomass gasification has evolved since its first applications, but it has not been possible to reach a solid commercial stage, except during periods of crises and only for some specific applications. Meanwhile, other gasification technologies, fed by fossil fuels, are currently widely used on industrial scales. This thesis aims to analyze the knowledge development and diffusion patterns of the biomass gasification technology since 1970s in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden. Additionally, it seeks to identify the factors that strengthen and weaken the learning process. Finally, the concept of learning curve will be used to numerically assess the rate of learning in small scale biomass gasification for electricity generation. The feasibility of various future scenarios will be evaluated in order to know what is the likelihood for the technology to become competitive in the short term. To do so, the historical evolution of biomass gasification in Austria, Finland, Germany and Sweden has been analyzed. These countries have been selected due to the increasing number of ongoing projects and initiatives since 1970. Subsequently, the development of this technology has been encouraged by two historical facts. Initially, the price of fossil fuels grew in 1973 and 1979 enhancing the interest for biomass gasification as a future alternative. Afterwards, the willingness, shown by the mentioned countries, to reduce greenhouse gases emissions following the Kyoto protocol has revived the interest in biomass gasification. However, none of these two events has driven this technology sufficiently to achieve a sustainable commercial status. In addition, small and large scale projects have followed different development processes

  2. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume......Wh of electricity from straw through gasification would lead to a global warming potential of 0.08 kg CO2e, non-renewable energy use of 0.2 MJ primary, acidification of 1.3 g SO2e, respiratory inorganics of 0.08 g PM2.5e and eutrophication potential of -1.9 g NO3e. The production of electricity from straw based...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  3. Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1979-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk to the environment is involved. The complete gasification process involves coal storage, coal preparation, gasification, gas cooling, particulate removal, acid gas cleanup, shift conversion, oxygen manufacture, cleanup of waste water and makeup water, and utility operation. The status of each of these technologies with respect to environmental acceptability is discussed. Very little is known about the behavior of trace elements in the K-T, Texaco and Winkler gasification systems. Airborne emissions of trace elements can occur from the utility boiler, and from wind entrainment of discharged residue and stored coal. Ash components are discharged from the gasification processes with gasifier residues and gas-cleanup sludges and residues. The trace element composition of coal is geochemically similar to the makeup of the earth's crust and includes almost all of the elements of the periodic table. The potential hazard from emissions of trace elements is mainly from long-term, low-level exposures to increased atmospheric pollution levels. Discharges from the K-T, Texaco and Winkler processes can be expected to have very minor contributions to atmospheric pollution levels of trace elements. Table 1 summarizes the status of technology and data needs for the different processing steps. The different process areas and their potential for intrusion of the environment are discussed.

  4. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  5. Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

    2013-11-01

    Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  6. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  7. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  8. Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan

    2011-06-01

    To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  10. Development of coal gasification and gas cleanup technologies in ICC, CAS[Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yang; Zhang Jianmin; Huang Jiejie; Xu Yifeng; Chen Hanshi; Yang Jinquan; Cao Yan

    2000-07-01

    Coal is major energy resource in China. In 1997, about 75% of industrial and steam fuel, 65% of chemical feedstock raw material and 65% of the domestic fuel requirements came from coal. And according to the predictions, coal will continue to be the major energy source for the next 30{approximately}50 years. However, coal utilization has caused serious environmental problems, especially where the coal is directly burned. It was indicated from national statistics that in 1998, 70% of the total dust suspension, 80% of the SOx and 75% of the NOx in the air were originated from coal combustion. Today there is a need for China to consider how to meet its needs for increased coal utilization in the way that is cost effective, highly efficient and environmentally friendly. Coal gasification is one of the most efficient and clean coal technologies; it provides syngas for China's chemicals production, industrial fuel gas and town gas. However, the technologies used in China are rather out-of-date, although several units of modern entrained gasifiers are in operation for ammonia synthesis. Based on this situation and the process analysis, the Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences conducted the research and development of fluidized bed coal gasification technologies. And in order to meet the requirement of advanced power generation system, hot gas cleaning is also studied. This paper presents the status and further studies the planning.

  11. Biomass gasification with CHP production: A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the state of the art of biomass gasification and the future of using biomass in Serbia and it presents researches within the project “The Development of a CHP Plant with Biomass Gasification”. The concept of downdraft demonstration unit coupled with gas engine is adopted. Downdraft fixed-bed gasification is generally favored for CHP, owing to the simple and reliable gasifiers and low content of tar and dust in produced gas. The composition and quantity of gas and the amount of air are defined by modeling biomass residues gasification process. The gas (290-400m3/h for 0.5- 0.7MW biomass input obtained by gasification at 800oC with air at atmospheric pressure contains 14% H2, 27% CO, 9% CO2, 2% CH4, and 48% N2, and its net heating value is 4.8-6 MJ/Nm3. The expected gasifier efficiency is up to 80%. The review of the work on biomass gasification has shown that the development of technology has reached the mature stage. There are CHP plants with biomass gasification operating as demonstration plants and several gasification demonstration units are successfully oriented to biofuel production. No attempt has been made here to address the economic feasibility of the system. Economics will be the part of a later work as firmer data are acquired.

  12. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes...

  13. Gasification technologies for heat and power from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, AACM; Maniatis, K; Kaltschmitt, M; Bridgwater, AV

    1997-01-01

    A critical review is presented of biomass gasifier systems presently commercially available or under development. Advantages and possible problem areas are discussed in relation to particular applications. Both large and small scale technologies are reviewed. Catalysed by the EC JOULE and AIR

  14. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource from which a broad variety of commodities can be produced. However, the resource is scarce and must be used with care to avoid depleting future stock possibilities. Flexibility and efficiency in production are key characteristics for biomass conversion technologies...... in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following...

  15. Determination of the Technological Parameters of Borehole Underground Coal Gasification for Thin Coal Seams

    OpenAIRE

    Falshtynskyi, Volodymyr S.; Dychkovskyi, Roman O.; Vasyl G. Lozynskyi; Pavlo B. Saik

    2013-01-01

    In this article the characteristics of the criteria of borehole underground coal gasification for thin coal seams are defined. The thermal and material balance calculations for coal seam gasification processes are also explained. The construction, method of in situ gasifier preparation, and the sequence of coal seam gasification for area No 1 (located in the field of Solenovsk coal deposits) are also described. The parameters of borehole underground coal gasification for the Solenovsk coal mi...

  16. Thermochemical Biomass Gasification: A Review of the Current Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted on the use of thermochemical biomass gasification for producing biofuels, biopower and chemicals. The upstream processes for gasification are similar to other biomass processing methods. However, challenges remain in the gasification and downstream processing for viable commercial applications. The challenges with gasification are to understand the effects of operating conditions on gasification reactions for reliably predicting and optimizing the product compositions, and for obtaining maximal efficiencies. Product gases can be converted to biofuels and chemicals such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, green gasoline, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, and higher alcohols. Processes and challenges for these conversions are also summarized.

  17. Pinch technology in theory and its application to a biomass integrated gasification and humid air turbine process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.L.

    1998-03-01

    The Pinch Technology has become a powerful tool for the optimization of the design of heat exchanger networks during the last 20 years. In this work, the different aspects of the methodology have been studied both in a theoretical way and in a practical approach. The first part of the work is a systematic analysis of the pinch technology: what it is, how it works, what are its advantages and disadvantages. There is also a brief discussion about the pinch method and other methods which handle energy recovery problems. Once the philosophy of the pinch technology has been theoretically studied, the second part of the work is its application to two different processes. The first process analyzed is a relatively simple but realistically practical problem based on a two distillation columns system. The knowledge gained during the calculations of this process is used in the second and more complex one. This second process is an integrated biomass gasification and humid air turbine (IGHAT) which has been already optimized by a heat balance program. The application of the pinch technology to this process shows the huge potential for improvements that this technology can provide in order to save energy. All the calculations are handled by the pinch technology software program `SuperTarget`. This program is evaluated along the work. In spite of some shortcomings that have been noticed, the usefulness of the program can be claimed 26 refs, 28 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  19. Technical assessment of discarded tires gasification as alternative technology for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed. The combustion of producer gas derived from the gasification of TDF in an internal combustion engine driving a generator (ICE-G) appears as the more efficient route for electricity generation when compared with the efficiency obtained with the use of gas turbine (GT-G). A higher global efficiency, considering the electric and thermal generation efficiency can be expected with the use of TDF producer gas in GT-G, where is expected an overall efficiency of 77.49%. The assessment shows that is possible produces up to 7.67MJ and 10.62MJ of electric and thermal energy per kilogram of TDF gasified using an ICE-G and up to 6.06MJ and 13.03MJ of electric and thermal energy respectively per kilogram of gasified TDF using a GT-G. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. The Gas turbine Engine-based Power Technology Plant Using Wood Waste Gasification Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Danilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the problems of energy supply and waste utilization of the forest industries. As a solution, it proposes to use gasification to utilize wood leftovers, which is followed by electric power generation from combustion of producer gas. The plant was expected to have a power of 150 kW. The proposed power technology plant comprises a line for pre-treatment of wood chips, a gas generator (gasifier and a gas turbine unit.The paper justifies a need for preliminary preparation of wood waste, particularly chipping and drying. Various drying schemes have been analyzed. A line for pre-treatment of wood chips comprises a drum chipper, a receiving raw material wood container and a drum dryer using fume gases.A co-current gasifier is chosen because of the high content of tar in the original fuel. In the co-current gasifier, most of the tar, passing through the high temperature area, is burned. The paper offers high temperature dry cleaning of producer gas in the cyclone separator. Such a scheme of cleaning provides high efficiency of the plant and simplifies its design, but suspended particles still remain in the producer gas. When analyzing the schemes of power converters this is taken into account.A choice of the gas turbine as a power converter is justified. To reduce the erosion damage of the turbine blades there is a proposal to use an unconventional gas turbine scheme with air turbine and a combustion chamber located downstream of the turbine. In this plant the air rather than the combustion gas passes through the turbine. The air from turbine goes into the combustion chamber, the combustion gas passes through the air heater, where it transfers heat to the air. Such scheme allows reducing power costs for the fuel gas compression before the combustion chamber.Optimization of the gas turbine cycle is performed. The optimum compressor pressure ratio is 3,7. The plant efficiency for this pressure ratio is 25,7%. Calculation results of the

  2. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  3. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  4. A life cycle assessment of environmental performances of two combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Umberto; Ardolino, Filomena; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    An attributional life cycle analysis (LCA) was developed to compare the environmental performances of two waste-to-energy (WtE) units, which utilize the predominant technologies among those available for combustion and gasification processes: a moving grate combustor and a vertical shaft gasifier coupled with direct melting. The two units were assumed to be fed with the same unsorted residual municipal waste, having a composition estimated as a European average. Data from several plants in operation were processed by means of mass and energy balances, and on the basis of the flows and stocks of materials and elements inside and throughout the two units, as provided by a specific substance flow analysis. The potential life cycle environmental impacts related to the operations of the two WtE units were estimated by means of the Impact 2002+ methodology. They indicate that both the technologies have sustainable environmental performances, but those of the moving grate combustion unit are better for most of the selected impact categories. The analysis of the contributions from all the stages of each specific technology suggests where improvements in technological solutions and management criteria should be focused to obtain further and remarkable environmental improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of the Technological Parameters of Borehole Underground Coal Gasification for Thin Coal Seams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr S. Falshtynskyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the characteristics of the criteria of borehole underground coal gasification for thin coal seams are defined. The thermal and material balance calculations for coal seam gasification processes are also explained. The construction, method of in situ gasifier preparation, and the sequence of coal seam gasification for area No 1 (located in the field of Solenovsk coal deposits are also described. The parameters of borehole underground coal gasification for the Solenovsk coal mine on the model of rock and coal massif are detailed too. The method of in situ gasifier preparation, and the sequence of coal seam gasification during a standard installation are also described in detail. Interpretations based on the conducted research and investigation are also presented.

  6. The technology of extracting gaseous fuel based on comprehensive in situ gasification and coalbed degassing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Н. Шабаров

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study considers a comprehensive technology (designed and patented by the authors of developing coal and methane deposits which combines in situ gasification of lower coalbeds in the suite of rock bump hazardous gassy beds, extraction of coal methane and mechanized mining of coal. The first stage of the technology consists in mining gaseous fuel that enables one to extract up to 15-20 % of total energy from the suite of coalbeds. Geodynamic zoning is used to select positions for boring wells. Using the suggested technology makes it possible to solve a number of tasks simultaneously. First of all that is extracting gaseous fuel from the suite of coalbeds without running any mining works while retaining principal coalbeds in the suite and preparing them for future processing (unloading and degassing. During the first phase the methane-coal deposit works as a gas deposit only, the gas having two sources – extracted methane (which includes its locked forms, absorbed and adsorbed and the products of partial incineration of thin coalbeds, riders and seams from thee suite. The second stage consists in deep degassing and unloading of coal beds which sharply reduces the hazards of methane explosion and rock bumps, thus increasing the productivity of mechanized coal mining. During the second stage coal is mined in long poles with the account of degassing and unloading of coal beds, plus the data on gas dynamic structure of coal rock massif.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies. An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Technology

    2003-05-01

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion. which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development. The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion. of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced. from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical

  8. Environmental life cycle assessment of methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Anna; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process. Cause-effect relationships in the analysed production process were identified, allowing for the identification of allocation factors. The 'system expansion' method involved expanding the analysis to include five additional variants of electricity production technologies in Poland (alternative technologies). This method revealed environmental consequences of implementation for the analysed technologies. It was found that the LCA of polygeneration technologies based on the 'system expansion' method generated a more complete source of information on environmental consequences than the 'allocation' method. The analysis shows that alternative technologies chosen for generating LCA results are crucial. Life cycle assessment was performed for the analysed, reference and variant alternative technologies. Comparative analysis was performed between the analysed technologies of methanol and electricity co-production from coal gasification as well as a reference technology of methanol production from the natural gas reforming process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of parameters of coal gasification process for demand of clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaporowski, B. (Technical University of Poznan, Poznan (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the complex energy analysis of the process of total, pressure coal gasification. The basis of this analysis is an elaborated mathematical model of the coal gasification process. This model is elaborated in a form that allows a simulation of the total pressure of gasification of coal, with the use of various gasifying media. The model constitutes a system of equations, describing chemical, physical and energy processes taking place in the gas generator. The laws of statistical quantum thermodynamics are used to formulate the equations describing chemical and physical processes proceeding in the gas generator. On the basis of the elaborated mathematical model of coal gasification process, special computer program was derived. This program allows multivariant calculations of parameters of coal gasification process to be made. For each variant the following were calculated: composition of gas produced in the process of coal gasification, caloric value of produced gas, volume of gas obtained from 1 kg of coal, consumption of gasifying medium per 1 kg of coal and chemical and energy efficiency of coal gasification process. 4 refs., 14 figs.

  10. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  11. Energy and economic effects of CHP with combined technologies of corn cobs gasification and gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guteša Milana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance and economic analysis of the gas turbine with co-firing gas from corn cob gasification and natural gas. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic expansion in the turbine is considered. The analysis is performed parametrically with corn cob gasification gas and natural gas ratio. The volumetric energy content of fuels with different share of gas from the corn cob gasification therefore, with different calorific values, is compared by means of the Wobbe Index. In energy and economic analyses, the following configurations are dealt with: single manifold, dual manifold and separate gas systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 33049: The Development of CHP Demonstration Plant with Biomass Gasification

  12. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catalytic syngas conversion processes. In comparison to hydrolysis-fermentation, gasification-fermentation has a major advantage of utilizing all organic components of biomass, including lignin, to yield higher fuel production. Furthermore, syngas fermentation microorganisms do not require strict CO:H2:CO2 ratios, hence gas reforming is not required. However, several issues must be addressed for successful deployment of gasification-fermentation, particularly those that involve the integration of gasification and fermentation. Most previous reviews have focused only on either biomass gasification or syngas fermentation. In this review, the critical factors that affect the integration of biomass gasification with syngas fermentation, such as carbon conversion efficiency, effect of trace gaseous species, H2 to CO ratio requirements, and microbial preference of carbon substrate, are thoroughly discussed.

  13. Life cycle assessment of pyrolysis, gasification and incineration waste-to-energy technologies: Theoretical analysis and case study of commercial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Tang, Yuanjun; Nzihou, Ange; Chi, Yong; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Ni, Mingjiang

    2018-01-19

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis and gasification are in development, stimulated by a more sustainable waste-to-energy (WtE) option. Since comprehensive comparisons of the existing WtE technologies are fairly rare, this study aims to conduct a life cycle assessment (LCA) using two sets of data: theoretical analysis, and case studies of large-scale commercial plants. Seven systems involving thermal conversion (pyrolysis, gasification, incineration) and energy utilization (steam cycle, gas turbine/combined cycle, internal combustion engine) are modeled. Theoretical analysis results show that pyrolysis and gasification, in particular coupled with a gas turbine/combined cycle, have the potential to lessen the environmental loadings. The benefits derive from an improved energy efficiency leading to less fossil-based energy consumption, and the reduced process emissions by syngas combustion. Comparison among the four operating plants (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, gasification-melting) confirms a preferable performance of the gasification plant attributed to syngas cleaning. The modern incineration is superior over pyrolysis and gasification-melting at present, due to the effectiveness of modern flue gas cleaning, use of combined heat and power (CHP) cycle, and ash recycling. The sensitivity analysis highlights a crucial role of the plant efficiency and pyrolysis char land utilization. The study indicates that the heterogeneity of MSW and syngas purification technologies are the most relevant impediments for the current pyrolysis/gasification-based WtE. Potential development should incorporate into all process aspects to boost the energy efficiency, improve incoming waste quality, and achieve efficient residues management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  15. Life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification versus other technologies for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification for electricity production in Denmark is evaluated and compared with that of direct combustion and anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, the results obtained are compared to those of natural gas to assess the potential...... of miscanthus as an energy source. Our results indicate that production of 1 kWh electricity from miscanthus via gasification leads to a global warming potential (100-year GWP) of 26 g and 296 g CO2e, without and with consideration of CO2 emissions from indirect land use change respectively. For other impact...... categories, the production results in non-renewable energy use of 0.6 MJ primary, acidification of 1.6 g SO2e, eutrophication of 7.8 g NO3e and respiratory inorganics of 0.1 g PM2.5e. Of the three alternatives, gasification is found to have the best performance in all impact categories considered...

  16. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  17. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2013-01-01

    in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following...... gasification platforms are included in the assessment: The Harboøre up draft gasifier with gas engine, the Güssing FICFB gasifier with gas engine or PDU, the LT-CFB gasifier with steam cycle and nutrient recycling and finally the TwoStage down draft gasifier with gas engine, micro gas turbine (MGT), SOFC, SOFC...

  18. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-10-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on Aspen Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6% higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the third annual technical progress report for the UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26

  19. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  20. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling with best-case scenario assumptions, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program

  1. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

    2011-02-15

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities.

  2. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya; Dimple K. Kundiyana; Ashokkumar M. Sharma; Ajay Kumar; Atiyeh, Hasan K.; Raymond L. Huhnke; Wilkins, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catal...

  3. Intentional Planning to Provide Technology to Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg-Williams, Joan B.; Rey, Janice M.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology plays a prominent role in teaching and learning. To address this vital component of teacher preparation, the education department of a small college provided the freshman class with iPads. iPads were selected because they are common in public schools, lightweight, portable, touch-screen controlled and have an abundance of…

  4. Combining plasma gasification and solid oxide cell technologies in advanced power plants for waste to energy and electric energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Lubrano Lavadera, Antonio; Jannelli, Elio

    2018-03-01

    The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The plant configurations differ for the utilization of electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma gasification section and in the power generation section. In the first plant configuration IAPGFC (Integrated Air Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell), the renewable oxygen enriches the air stream, that is used as plasma gas in the gasification section, and the renewable hydrogen is used to enrich the anodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. In the second plant configuration IHPGFC (Integrated Hydrogen Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell) the renewable hydrogen is used as plasma gas in the plasma gasification section, and the renewable oxygen is used to enrich the cathodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. The analysis has been carried out by using numerical models for predicting and comparing the systems performances in terms of electric efficiency and capability in realizing the waste to energy and the electric energy storage of renewable sources. Results have highlighted that the electric efficiency is very high for all configurations (35-45%) and, thanks to the combination with the waste to energy technology, the storage efficiencies are very attractive (in the range 72-92%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Computational fluid dynamic model for glycerol gasification in supercritical water in a tee junction shaped cylindrical reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yukananto, Riza; Pozarlik, Artur K.; Brem, Gerrit

    2018-01-01

    Gasification in supercritical water is a very promising technology to process wet biomass into a valuable gas. Providing insight of the process behavior is therefore very important. In this research a computational fluid dynamic model is developed to investigate glycerol gasification in

  6. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Raul Subia; Arnaldo Frydman; Parag Kulkarni; Jennifer Schwerman; Valadimir Zamansky; John Reinker; Kanchan Mondal; Lubor Stonawski; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2005-02-28

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy technology for coal gasification with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into three separate streams of hydrogen-rich gas, sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in gas turbines. This is the draft final report for the first stage of the DOE-funded Vision 21 program. The UFP technology development program encompassed lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP concept. Modeling and economic assessments were also key parts of this program. The chemical and mechanical feasibility were established via lab and bench-scale testing, and a pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated, demonstrating the major UFP features. Experimental and preliminary modeling results showed that 80% H{sub 2} purity could be achieved, and that a UFP-based energy plant is projected to meet DOE efficiency targets. Future work will include additional pilot plant testing to optimize performance and reduce environmental, operability and combined cycle integration risks. Results obtained to date have confirmed that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  7. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  8. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air

  9. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  10. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available -going investigation into one potential Clean Coal Technology (CCT), namely fluidised bed gasification. Coal gasification holds the potential benefits of increased efficiency, reduced water consumption and co-production of liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals...

  11. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  12. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  13. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  14. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  16. Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.P. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the U.S.A., the widely recognized importance of biomass utilization in controlling carbon build-up in the biosphere and the potential benefit of creating new industries associated with new job opportunities, particularly in the rural areas, have added impetus to the development and commercialization of advanced biomass energy conversion methods. Recent analyses and evaluations have shown that many short rotation energy crops (SREC) produce significant net-energy (i.e., energy yield greater than the energy input for plant growth). SREC such as willow, poplar, and miscanthus may yield up to 20 dry tonnes/yr/ha/year of biomass feedstocks, some with about 20 % moisture, after the third year of plantation. Implementation by U.S. EPA of the recent Clean Water Act Federal Biosolids Rules specified as Code 40 of Federal Register 503, should make available large quantities of high nitrogen content, pathogen-free municipal sludges ideally suited as an inexpensive source of organic fertiliser, thus improving the economics of SREC. The concept of herbaceous SREC can be further augmented when value-added byproducts, such as cattle feed, could be produced along with biomass energy feedstocks. Since 1990, there has been renewed interest in the United States in developing advanced power-generating cycles utilizing biomass gasification. The advanced systems have the potential for higher generation efficiencies, 35 % to 40 %, and lower costs of electricity, $0.045 to $0.055/kWh, compared to conventional direct-combustion systems. The efficiency of power production can be even higher (about 55 %) when the fuel gas is converted to hydrogen followed by electrochemical conversion to electricity in a fuel cell. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes a number of provisions to promote the commercialisation of biomass power production. The recent Global Climate Change Action Plan also includes several programs and incentives for biomass power production. A summary of U.S. demonstration

  17. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogash, Kevin [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Air Products carried out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications” with subcontractors Ceramatec, Penn State, and WorleyParsons. The scope of work under this award was aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration-scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). Specific activities will help to enable design and construction of the ODF through advancement of a number of challenging technical elements that are required to manage risk in the initial deployment of ITM technology. Major objectives of the work included developing ITM Oxygen ceramic membrane materials with improved performance and reliability, optimizing ceramic module geometry and fabrication methods, testing module performance, trialing the improved fabrication process at commercial scale in the Ceramic Membrane Module Fabrication Facility (CerFab), and advancing engineering development of the ITM oxygen production process, including vessel design and contaminant control measures to prepare for deployment of the ODF. The comprehensive report that follows details the team’s work, which includes several notable accomplishments: 1) compressive creep, a likely limiter of ceramic module lifetime in service, was demonstrated to be retarded by an order of magnitude by changes in material formulation, module joining dimensions, and internal wafer geometry; 2) two promising new materials were shown to be superior to the incumbent ITM material in a key material parameter related to oxygen flux; 3) module degradation mechanisms were identified following operation in large pilot-scale equipment; 4) options for utilizing ITM in a coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility to enable liquids production with carbon capture were identified and studied; and 5) the benefits of potential improvements to the technology

  18. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2015-12-15

    Air Products carried out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications” with subcontractors Ceramatec, Penn State, and WorleyParsons. The scope of work under this award was aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration-scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). Specific activities will help to enable design and construction of the ODF through advancement of a number of challenging technical elements that are required to manage risk in the initial deployment of ITM technology. Major objectives of the work included developing ITM Oxygen ceramic membrane materials with improved performance and reliability, optimizing ceramic module geometry and fabrication methods, testing module performance, trialing the improved fabrication process at commercial scale in the Ceramic Membrane Module Fabrication Facility (CerFab), and advancing engineering development of the ITM oxygen production process, including vessel design and contaminant control measures to prepare for deployment of the ODF. The comprehensive report that follows details the team’s work, which includes several notable accomplishments: 1) compressive creep, a likely limiter of ceramic module lifetime in service, was demonstrated to be retarded by an order of magnitude by changes in material formulation, module joining dimensions, and internal wafer geometry; 2) two promising new materials were shown to be superior to the incumbent ITM material in a key material parameter related to oxygen flux; 3) module degradation mechanisms were identified following operation in large pilot-scale equipment; 4) options for utilizing ITM in a coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility to enable liquids production with carbon capture were identified and studied; and 5) the benefits of potential improvements to the technology

  19. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T. [NICERT, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI-DEECA, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, University of Saragossa, 50018 Saragossa (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  20. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification...

  1. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  2. Sewage sludge as a fuel and raw material for phosphorus recovery: Combined process of gasification and P extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorazda, K; Tarko, B; Werle, S; Wzorek, Z

    2018-03-01

    Increasing problems associated with sewage sludge disposal are observed nowadays. As the thermal conversion of sewage sludge (combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) appears to be the most promising alternative for its management, the solid residues left after gasification were examined. The present study evaluates the potential of this waste as an alternative phosphorus source in the context of phosphorus recovery. The obtained solid gasification residues were characterised (chemical and phase composition, thermal properties, surface properties and technological parameters used for phosphorus raw materials) and compared to commercial phosphate raw materials. It was revealed that gasification residue is a valuable source of phosphorus and microelements, comparable to sewage sludge ash (SSA) considered nowadays as secondary phosphorus raw materials. Chemical properties as well as technological parameters characteristic for natural phosphate ores are different. Solid gasification residue was leached with mineral acids (phosphoric and nitric) according to the patented method of phosphorus recovery - PolFerAsh, developed by Cracow University of Technology. It was revealed that phosphorus can be selectively leached from solid gasification residue with high efficiency (73-82%); moreover, most of the iron and heavy metals stay in the solid phase due to the low concentration of acids and proper solid to liquid phase ratio. The obtained leachates are valuable products that can be considered for the production of fertilisers. Combining the gasification process with nutrient recovery provides the opportunity for more environmentally efficient technologies driven by sustainable development rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gasification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  4. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification (HTAG). Technical report no. 2: High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of biomass and wastes - Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasiak, W.; Kalisz, S.; Szewczyk, D.; Lucas, C.; Abeyweera, R. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dep of Materials Science and Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This report aims to provide information on activity of Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology in the field of solid biomass conversion into fuel gas within year 2003. Contrary to the conventional gasification, in this work highly preheated air and steam is used as a gasifying agent and supplied to newly designed continuous gasifier. Preheating of air and steam is realised by means of the modern high-cycle regenerative Air/steam preheater. Maximum temperature of preheated air or steam is raised up to 1600 deg C. In this work the laboratory test facility called High Temperature Air/steam Gasification (HTAG) plant with flow rate of preheated air or steam up to 110 Nm{sup 3}/h is used. Use of highly preheated gasifying media provides additional energy into the gasification, which enhances the thermal decomposition of solids being gasified. Together with continuous operation mode of the new gasifier, a stable process producing relatively clean fuel gas is reported. High Temperature Air/steam Gasification has very clear economical and environmental benefits. It will increase consumption of biomass (like wood pellets) thus decreases CO{sub 2} emissions from energy intensive industries. Apart from CO{sub 2} reduction possibility, the new process, High Temperature Gasification of wastes, fulfils all new regulations proposed by European Commission on wastes incineration since: no landfilling of ash residues is required, no need to treat ashes from gasification since there is no ash produced but slag which is non leachable and can be used as building material, clean gas for combustion and production of heat or electricity. In this work only gasification of wood pellets is reported but all efforts are targeted on later continuous gasification of other kinds of biomass and wastes.

  5. Gasification of shredder residue (AUTOGAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Suomalainen, M.; Maekinen, T. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Jalkanen, H.; Huitu, K. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    The disposal of shredder residue is presently based worldwide on landfilling. However, the current trend in the legislation of European Union is to emphasise, at a first priority, material recycling and, in addition, to prefer energy recovery to landfilling. Gasification is a potential option to utilise shredder residue in energy production in environmentally acceptable way. In addition some metals in shredder residue may be recovered from gasification ash leading to increase in material recycling. An air blown fluidised bed gasification process for thermal treatment of shredder residue will be developed in the project. The process will produce fuel gas, which will be clean enough to be used as replacement of other fuels in coal fired boilers, industrial kilns or other applications. Attention is also paid on the economic feasibility of the process concept. Three authentic shredder residue samples delivered by shredders were characterised by chemical analysis and then used as a feedstock in bench- scale and PDU-scale fluidised bed gasification test trials. The results indicated that the process concept is a potential application for treating shredder residue. Based on the gasification test results, a preliminary evaluation of technological and economic feasibility of the process concept was carried out. The overall conclusion after the preliminary evaluation was that air-blown gasification of shredder residue is a very interesting and economically competitive alternative for treating shredder residue. However, there are still needs for further development of process details. (orig.)

  6. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  7. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  8. Technologies for Energy from Biomass by Direct Combustion, Gasification, and Liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    technologies. Also sought was any available cost information. The literature search consisted of a manual search of a few library listings and a computerized... Indormation Exchange, JuLy 1976 (PSW Experiment Station, Angeles National Forest), pp 118-123. Anderson, L.L., ed., Fuet4 from Wastes (Academic Press, 1977...Administration, 1976). Bergland, B., Production o6 Fue2 - Grade Ethanol 6jtom Grain, USDA 1032-79 (House of Representatives Committee on Science and

  9. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  10. Fluidized Bed Gasification as a Mature And Reliable Technology for the Production of Bio-Syngas and Applied in the Production of Liquid Transportation Fuels—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.M. Verkooijen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the renewable and potentially sustainable energy sources and has many possible applications varying from heat generation to the production of advanced secondary energy carriers. The latter option would allow mobile services like the transportation sector to reduce its dependency on the fossil fuel supply. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of the fluidization technology applied for the gasification of biomass aimed at the production of gas for subsequent synthesis of the liquid energy carriers via, e.g., the Fischer-Tropsch process. It discusses the advantages of the gasification technology over combustion, considers the size of the conversion plant in view of the local biomass availability, assesses the pros and cons of different gasifier types in view of the application of the product gas. Subsequently the article focuses on the fluidized bed technology to discuss the main process parameters and their influence on the product composition and the operability of the gasifier. Finally a synthesis process (FT is introduced shortly to illustrate the necessary gas cleaning steps in view of the purity requirements for the FT feed gas.

  11. Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project Utilizing Gasification Technology: Feedstock Supply Plan; March 15, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes a Feedstock Supply Plan for the proposed Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project to be located in the City of Gridley Industrial Park in Gridley, California. This report also includes information on the establishment of the required infrastructure required for collecting approximately 113,000 Bone Dry Tons (BDT) annually for the proposed facility. Using the Pearson Technology from Aberdeen, Mississippi, and the related engineering assumptions for required feedstock, it is estimated that the proposed Gridley Ethanol Project will use approximately 113,000 BDT of rice straw to produce approximately up to 20 million gallons of ethanol annually, and/or process steam and or electricity. Based on TSS's survey of planted rice acreage in the Sacramento Valley, a total of 379,765 acres of rice are grown within a 30-mile radius of the Gridley site and that 759,530 BDT of recoverable rice straw are generated annually. This volume of rice straw is 6.7 times the 113,000 BDT of tot al feedstock needed by the proposed Gridley facility. Sufficient infrastructure exists with additional market potential for further private market infrastructure expansion in California and the Northwest (Oregon, Washington and Idaho) to collect the annual feedstock requirement of 113,000 BDT for the proposed Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project. The projected feedstock cost for 113,000 BDT of rice straw delivered annually to the Gridley facility is approximately $35.00/BDT.

  12. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  13. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  14. SLAG CHARACTERIZATION AND REMOVAL USING PULSE DETONATION TECHNOLOGY DURING COAL GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. DANIEL MEI; DR. JIANREN ZHOU; DR. PAUL O. BINEY; DR. ZIAUL HUQUE

    1998-07-30

    Pulse detonation technology for the purpose of removing slag and fouling deposits in coal-fired utility power plant boilers offers great potential. Conventional slag removal methods including soot blowers and water lances have great difficulties in removing slags especially from the down stream areas of utility power plant boilers. The detonation wave technique, based on high impact velocity with sufficient energy and thermal shock on the slag deposited on gas contact surfaces offers a convenient, inexpensive, yet efficient and effective way to supplement existing slag removal methods. A slight increase in the boiler efficiency, due to more effective ash/deposit removal and corresponding reduction in plant maintenance downtime and increased heat transfer efficiency, will save millions of dollars in operational costs. Reductions in toxic emissions will also be accomplished due to reduction in coal usage. Detonation waves have been demonstrated experimentally to have exceptionally high shearing capability, important to the task of removing slag and fouling deposits. The experimental results describe the parametric study of the input parameters in removing the different types of slag and operating condition. The experimental results show that both the single and multi shot detonation waves have high potential in effectively removing slag deposit from boiler heat transfer surfaces. The results obtained are encouraging and satisfactory. A good indication has also been obtained from the agreement with the preliminary computational fluid dynamics analysis that the wave impacts are more effective in removing slag deposits from tube bundles rather than single tube. This report presents results obtained in effectively removing three different types of slag (economizer, reheater, and air-heater) t a distance of up to 20 cm from the exit of the detonation tube. The experimental results show that the softer slags can be removed more easily. Also closer the slag to the exit of

  15. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading : Technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification

  16. Chemicals Derived from Biomass Thermolysis and Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaidle, Joshua A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nimlos, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The United States has the potential to sustainably produce over 1 billion dry tons of nonfood biomass per year by 2030. While conversion of this biomass into fuels has garnished significant attention, these renewable feedstocks can also be converted into valuable chemicals. Analogous to petroleum refining, the coproduction of fuels and chemicals from biomass enables more complete utilization of the feedstock and supports the growth of a bio-economy by improving biorefinery economics. This chapter provides an overview of biomass thermolysis and gasification technologies, highlights existing and future chemical production opportunities, and elaborates on specific challenges associated with product separation and purification.

  17. Research of lignite underground gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Sasvári

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground Coal Gasification (UCG is an in situ technique to recover the fuel or feedstock value of coal that is noteconomically available through conventional recovery technologies. First tentative works directed toward the utilization of the in situmethod of gasification under conditions of Northern Bohemian brown-coal basin date back to 1956 in formerly Czechoslovakia.6 experiments of UCG were realized later. The obtained results did not confirm the technological assumptions of gasification especiallyregarding the quality of the gas recovered. The average heating capacity reached the value from 1.59 – 3.44 MJ.m-3. Today, similarly allother countries in the world, in Slovakia there is an interest in the revival and perfection of the UCG technology. In this paperit is described a laboratory plant including monitoring and controlling system and some reached results.During these experiments were find out that the gasification process depends on many factors/parameters. Most the important aretopologies/methods, humidity of coal, heat losses, temperatures in relevant zones, composition of oxidation agents and permeability.The calorific value of syngas is 2 - 5 MJ.m-3 if the oxidation agent was used air only. In case of using the air + oxygen mix the calorificvalue to 10 MJ.m-3 has been obtained.

  18. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Gasification Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a highly instrumented half-ton/day pilot scale plant capable of demonstrating industrially relevant thermochemical technologies from lignocellulosic biomass conversion, including gasification. Gasification creates primarily Syngas (a mixture of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide) that can be utilized with synthesis catalysts to form transportation fuels and other valuable chemicals. Biomass derived gasification products are a very complex mixture of chemical components that typically contain Sulfur and Nitrogen species that can act as catalysis poisons for tar reforming and synthesis catalysts. Real-time hot online sampling techniques, such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS), and Gas Chromatographs with Sulfur and Nitrogen specific detectors can provide real-time analysis providing operational indicators for performance. Sampling typically requires coated sampling lines to minimize trace sulfur interactions with steel surfaces. Other materials used inline have also shown conversion of sulfur species into new components and must be minimized. Sample line Residence time within the sampling lines must also be kept to a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Solids from ash and char contribute to plugging and must be filtered at temperature. Experience at NREL has shown several key factors to consider when designing and installing an analytical sampling system for biomass gasification products. They include minimizing sampling distance, effective filtering as close to source as possible, proper line sizing, proper line materials or coatings, even heating of all components, minimizing pressure drops, and additional filtering or traps after pressure drops.

  19. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  20. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  1. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  2. Biomass gasification : The understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly

  3. Using Technology to Provide Differentiated Instruction for Deaf Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Carol M.; Alpert, Madelon

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge is power. Technological devices provide the new pathway to online learning and student retention. This is especially true for deaf learners, who have difficulty learning with the traditional pedagogies used in teaching. Results of studies have indicated that students using the suggested new technologies become more interested and…

  4. Underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydra, J.; Pragr, P.; Skalicka, J.

    1988-03-01

    Discusses principles of underground coal gasification, which comprises 2 stages: drilling boreholes into the seams to be gasified and connecting them together and actual gasification process. Describes method used in USA and USSR involving multiple narrow extraction fronts and gas removal through a network of parallel channels in the seam. Refers to possibility of using inclined-horizontal drilling method (adapted from oil industry practice) to perform gasification in deep seams and discusses gasification media (air or oxygen, either alone or mixed with water vapor or carbon dioxide). Lists 3 basic gasification schemes in use today: production of low-energy gas for power plants by gasification using an air/water vapor mixture; production of medium-energy gas for use as chemical synthesis gas by gasification using oxygen/water vapor mixture; production of substitute natural gas, rich in methane, by gasification using high gas pressure and high hydrogen content. Describes 3 main stages of gasification: 0-300 degrees C - drying stage, when hygroscopically bound water and crystalline water are removed; 300- 700 degrees C - pyrolysis stage, when bituminous substances are converted to gaseous products; 700-1200 degrees C - gasification stage, when coke is formed and coke gasification occurs. 5 refs.

  5. The underground coal gasification First step of community collaboration; Gasification Subterranea del Carbon. Primer Intento en el Ambito de una Colaboracion Comunitaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification in coal seams at 600 metre depth, in order to asses its potential as a means of energy exploitation in Europe. The trial was based on the use of deviated boreholes and a retractable injection system techniques, which have both been developed by the oil and gas industries. One borehole, the injection well, was drilled in the coal seam. The other, the vertical production well, was run to intercept it in the lower part of the coal seam as closely as possible, in order to construct a continuous channel for gasification. The well were completed with casing and concentric tubing to provide the necessary paths for production, injection, purging gas and cooling water flows. A coiled tubing located in the injection well was used to execute the retraction (or CRIP) manoeuvre, which is a process in which the injector head for the gasification agents, i. e. oxygen and water, and the ignitor, are directed to a specific section of the coal seam. The gasification products passes to a surface production line for flow measurement and sampling of gas and condensate products. Production gases were either flared or incinerated, while the liquids were collected for appropriate disposal. The first trial achieved its principal objectives of in seam drilling, channel communication, the CRIP manoeuvres and the gasification of significant quantity of coal. The post-gasification study also identified the shape and extent of the cavity. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification at the intermediate depths of European coal and proposals are made for further development and semi-commercial exploitation of this promising extraction technology. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  7. Copyright and New Technologies : Technology Providers as "New" Old Actors in Copyright Law and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hazucha, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    This Article examines the role of technology providers as "new" o1d actors in the three recent institutional turns within copyright law and its enforcement in the digital environment. First, many international technical standards for reproduction or dissemination technologies, e.g. CDs. DVDs or Blu-ray Discs, have incorporated various proprietary technologies. including digital rights management technologies, at the expense of other creators, technology providers and consumers. Second, many c...

  8. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  9. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  10. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM...... the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings...

  11. The FICFB - gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, H.; Veronik, G.; Fleck, T.; Rauch, R. [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Mackinger, H.; Fercher, E. [Austrian Energy and Environment, Graz (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    A novel fluidized bed gasification reactor has been developed to get a product gas with a high calorific value (up to 15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}) and nearly free of nitrogen. The gasification process is based on an internally circulating fluidized system and consists of a gasification zone fluidized with steam and a combustion zone fluidized with air. The circulating bed material acts as heat carrier from the combustion to the gasification zone. Gas mixing between these two zones is avoided by construction measures. Furthermore, the apparatus is characterized by a very compact design. The results attained came fully up to expectations. (author)

  12. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  13. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  14. 77 FR 59166 - South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliffe, Kemper County Integrated Gasification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) Project AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Facility located in Kemper County, Mississippi (the Project). The... the feasibility of the Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) technology for commercial...

  15. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  16. Providing Learning Computing Labs using Hosting and Virtualization Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Armide González; Carmelo Rubén García; Santiago Candela

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computing hosting system to provide virtual computing laboratories for learning activities. This system is based on hosting and virtualization technologies. All the components used in its development are free software tools. The computing lab model provided by the system is a more sustainable and scalable alternative than the traditional academic computing lab, and it requires lower costs of installation and operation.

  17. Providing Learning Computing Labs using Hosting and Virtualization Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armide González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computing hosting system to provide virtual computing laboratories for learning activities. This system is based on hosting and virtualization technologies. All the components used in its development are free software tools. The computing lab model provided by the system is a more sustainable and scalable alternative than the traditional academic computing lab, and it requires lower costs of installation and operation.

  18. Application of Ethics for Providing Telemedicine Services and Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Moghbeli, Fatemeh; Aliabadi, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Advanced technology has increased the use of telemedicine and Information Technology (IT) in treating or rehabilitating diseases. An increased use of technology increases the importance of the ethical issues involved. The need for keeping patients' information confidential and secure, controlling a number of therapists' inefficiency as well as raising the quality of healthcare services necessitates adequate heed to ethical issues in telemedicine provision. The goal of this review is gathering all articles that are published through 5 years until now (2012-2017) for detecting ethical issues for providing telemedicine services and Information technology. The reason of this time is improvement of telemedicine and technology through these years. This article is important for clinical practice and also to world, because of knowing ethical issues in telemedicine and technology are always important factors for physician and health providers. the required data in this research were derived from published electronic sources and credible academic articles published in such databases as PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct. The following key words were searched for in separation and combination: tele-health, telemedicine, ethical issues in telemedicine. A total of 503 articles were found. After excluding the duplicates (n= 93), the titles and abstracts of 410 articles were skimmed according to the inclusion criteria. Finally, 64 articles remained. They were reviewed in full text and 36 articles were excluded. At the end, 28 articles were chosen which met our eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Ethics has been of a great significance in IT and telemedicine especially the Internet since there are more chances provided for accessing information. It is, however, accompanied by a threat to patients' personal information. Therefore, suggestions are made to investigate ethics in technology, to offer standards and guidelines to therapists. Due to the advancement in

  19. Plant Availability of Phosphorus in Five Gasification Biochars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Müller-Stöver, Dorette S.

    2017-01-01

    energy and agriculture systems. In this study, the P availability was tested in five gasification biochars (GBs) produced via a novel low-temperature (gasification technology. The feedstocks used were wheat straw (STR), shea nut shells (NUT), poultry manure (POUL), and two types of sewage sludge...

  20. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  1. The United States of America and the People`s Republic of China experts report on integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A report written by the leading US and Chinese experts in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, intended for high level decision makers, may greatly accelerate the development of an IGCC demonstration project in the People`s Republic of China (PRC). The potential market for IGCC systems in China and the competitiveness of IGCC technology with other clean coal options for China have been analyzed in the report. Such information will be useful not only to the Chinese government but also to US vendors and companies. The goal of this report is to analyze the energy supply structure of China, China`s energy and environmental protection demand, and the potential market in China in order to make a justified and reasonable assessment on feasibility of the transfer of US Clean Coal Technologies to China. The Expert Report was developed and written by the joint US/PRC IGCC experts and will be presented to the State Planning Commission (SPC) by the President of the CAS to ensure consideration of the importance of IGCC for future PRC power production.

  2. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  3. EMC Corporation Provides Colleges with a Course in Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, Ed

    2008-05-01

    EMC Corporation, the world leader in data storage, created the EMC Academic Alliance Program to educate students on storage and close the education gap that exists. EMC developed a Storage Technology course to teach students about the design of storage technologies and the "big picture" of an information infrastructure. The course is "open" and focused on storage technologies, not products. College and universities use the course to teach students about a very important topic in IT: Storage. EMC collaborates with colleges and universities by providing the course, knowledge transfer sessions to faculty and program support. There is no cost to join and no cost to obtain the courses. EMC requires partners to sign an agreement for course use. Several colleges are using the course as an upper level elective and the course is taught by faculty. The alliance program has reduced faculty time to develop a storage course and time to learn the topic. Faculty is responsible for credentialing students and they supplement the course with additional materials. Students are being recruited for jobs by EMC and others, including internships. The Alliance program provides academic institutions with a way to differentiate. This paper will explain the program and the Storage Technology course.

  4. Hydrothermal Gasification for Waste to Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Brenden; Laser, Mark; Choo, Yeunun

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal gasification is a promising technology for harvesting energy from waste streams. Applications range from straightforward waste-to-energy conversion (e.g. municipal waste processing, industrial waste processing), to water purification (e.g. oil spill cleanup, wastewater treatment), to biofuel energy systems (e.g. using algae as feedstock). Products of the gasification process are electricity, bottled syngas (H2 + CO), sequestered CO2, clean water, and inorganic solids; further chemical reactions can be used to create biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. We present a comparison of gasification system architectures, focusing on efficiency and economic performance metrics. Various system architectures are modeled computationally, using a model developed by the coauthors. The physical model tracks the mass of each chemical species, as well as energy conversions and transfers throughout the gasification process. The generic system model includes the feedstock, gasification reactor, heat recovery system, pressure reducing mechanical expanders, and electricity generation system. Sensitivity analysis of system performance to various process parameters is presented. A discussion of the key technological barriers and necessary innovations is also presented.

  5. Materials of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  6. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency of 45.4% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,096 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to coproduce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. As gasification technology matures, SCOHS and other improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements.

  7. Techno-economic analysis of wastewater sludge gasification: a decentralized urban perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Nicholas P G; Ramey, Dotti F; Prieto, Ana L; Braun, Robert J; Cath, Tzahi Y; Porter, Jason M

    2014-06-01

    The successful management of wastewater sludge for small-scale, urban wastewater treatment plants, (WWTPs), faces several financial and environmental challenges. Common management strategies stabilize sludge for land disposal by microbial processes or heat. Such approaches require large footprint processing facilities or high energy costs. A new approach considers converting sludge to fuel which can be used to produce electricity on-site. This work evaluated several thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies from the perspective of small urban WWTPs. Among TCC technologies, air-blown gasification was found to be the most suitable approach. A gasification-based generating system was designed and simulated in ASPEN Plus® to determine net electrical and thermal outputs. A technical analysis determined that such a system can be built using currently available technologies. Air-blown gasification was found to convert sludge to electricity with an efficiency greater than 17%, about triple the efficiency of electricity generation using anaerobic digester gas. This level of electricity production can offset up to 1/3 of the electrical demands of a typical WWTP. Finally, an economic analysis concluded that a gasification-based power system can be economically feasible for WWTPs with raw sewage flows above 0.093m(3)/s (2.1 million gallons per day), providing a profit of up to $3.5 million over an alternative, thermal drying and landfill disposal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 1998 report on development of high-efficiency waste power generation technology. 2. Development of waste gasification and ash melting power generation technology; 1998 nendo kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Haikibutsu gas ka yoyu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In regard to waste gasification and ash melting power generation, a basic test and examination were conducted in fiscal 1998, with a full-scale development test made ready to start. In the development of technology for raising steam temperature, evaluation of high temperature corrosivity of SH materials and development of high-temperature dust removal system were carried out for example, as were development of dechlorination technology for thermal decomposition process and development of ceramic high-temperature air heater. In the development of technology to prevent exhaust gas reheating, preliminary examination was made on denitrification technologies using a catalyst with superior low-temperature activity. In the development of technology to reduce self-heat melting critical calorific value, investigation and basic test were carried out concerning a stable waste feed system, with a pilot test device experimentally manufactured and tested based on the findings. In the development of technology for reducing external fuel input, examination and analysis were performed on pretreatment techniques for waste plastics, with basic data obtained for a waste blowing system project. In addition, the thermal decomposition and combustion characteristics of waste plastics were clarified by the basic test. (NEDO)

  9. Providing Assistive Technology Applications as a Service Through Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Users with disabilities interact with Personal Computers (PCs) using Assistive Technology (AT) software solutions. Such applications run on a PC that a person with a disability commonly uses. However the configuration of AT applications is not trivial at all, especially whenever the user needs to work on a PC that does not allow him/her to rely on his / her AT tools (e.g., at work, at university, in an Internet point). In this paper, we discuss how cloud computing provides a valid technological solution to enhance such a scenario.With the emergence of cloud computing, many applications are executed on top of virtual machines (VMs). Virtualization allows us to achieve a software implementation of a real computer able to execute a standard operating system and any kind of application. In this paper we propose to build personalized VMs running AT programs and settings. By using the remote desktop technology, our solution enables users to control their customized virtual desktop environment by means of an HTML5-based web interface running on any computer equipped with a browser, whenever they are.

  10. Technology Innovation Of Organic Waste Decomposition In Providing Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prawirodigdo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations in Indonesia indicated that an inactive ovary was a chronically reproduction problem in ruminants. There was a tendency that nutrition deficiency inhibited ovulation, oestrus occurrence, and conception in ruminants. Obviously, there is a correlation between sufficient nutrient consumption and reproduction performance of such animals. Thus, application of the production/reproduction technology innovation for improving ruminant’s productivity in the villages needs to be supported by the availability of sufficient feed. Whilst, there is a competition among ruminants in fulfilling feed requirement. On the other hand, there are large amounts of organic waste of food and plantation estate industries which are potential for non-traditional feedstuffs. The examples of such organic wastes are: 4,817,630 ton dry matter (DM of cacao pod, 314,042.51 ton DM of coffee pulp and hulls, and 29,700,000 ton DM of palm frond, leaves and trunks. Unfortunately, such materials contain anti-nutritive substance. Nevertheless, technology innovation for decomposing organic waste is available and its validity has been proven to be satisfactory and appropriate. Regarding the limitation of feedstuffs, introduction of technology innovation for organic waste decomposition to provide feed for improving livestock productivity is promising to be applied.

  11. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  12. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  13. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  14. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Gasification with gas turbine/engine for power plants; Incl. English lang. appendix of 24 p. titled 'Status of large-scale biomass gasification for power production'; Inventering av framtidens el och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Foergasning med gasturbin/motor foer kraftvaerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldheim, Lars; Larsson, Eva K. (TPS Termiska Processer, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This subproject is limited to applications with gas turbines or engines from approximately 1 MWe and firing of gas in a boiler either as indirect cofiring or as separate firing of gas from waste gasification. Gasification with gas engine, BIG-ICE (Biomass Integrated Gasification Internal-Combustion Engine) is realized in approximately 10 plants in Europe between 1 and 7 MWe. The gas needs to be cleaned from particles and tar before it is fed to the engine. A number of different gasifiers and gas cleaning technologies are applied in these prototypes, and in certain cases a second generation is being built. Gas engines from GE Jenbacher are most common, but there are also other producers with engines for low-calorific-value gas. The exhausts from engines must, unlike gas turbines, be cleaned catalytically, but emissions of hydrocarbons in particular are still higher than from gas turbines. It is possible to increase the electricity generation by applying a 'bottoming cycle' in the form of a steam or an ORC cycle. Such a plant with ORC has been started in Austria this year. During the 1990's expectations were high concerning the development of biomass gasification with gas turbine in a combined cycle BIG-CC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) towards commercialisation. Two demonstration plants were built for the same gas turbine model, Siemens SGT 100 (earlier Typhoon); Vaernamo with pressurised gasification and ARBRE in Eggborough, England, with atmospheric gasification. The atmospheric technology has basically the same demands on gas cleaning as in the engine application, but downstream the gas is compressed to the pressure required by the gas turbine. In pressurised gasification, the gasifier pressure is set by the gas turbine. The gas is not cooled below 350-400 deg C and is cleaned in a high-temperature filter. Despite successful demonstration in Vaernamo, no more plants have been built. The ARBRE plant was never put into regular

  15. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  16. Incinerators for coping with environmental issue. Gasification melting technology for municipal waste (direct melting system for municipal waste recycling); Kankyo mondai ni taiosuru shokyakuro. Ippan haikibutsu no gas ka yoyu gijutsu (chokusetsu shigenka system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibaike, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    In the above named system, waste including incombustibles is subjected to high-temperature direct gasification and melting for the waste to be reduced in volume and rendered harmless and recyclable. The system comprises a gasification melting furnace, combustion chamber, gas treatment facility, and a melt recycling facility. Coke and coal, together with waste, are fed into the vertical shaft furnace through a port at the middle. The inside of the furnace is divided, from the top section downward, into a drying/pre-heating zone (300degC), a pyrolytic gasification zone (300-1000degC), and a combustion/melting zone (1700-1800degC). The pyrolytic gas is exhausted from the top section, led into the combustion chamber, and, after perfect combustion, forwarded into the waste heat boiler. The residual ash and inorganic matters descend together with coke to the combustion/melting zone. The coke is burnt to high temperature by oxygen-enriched air from the tuyere, and melts the ash and organic matters perfectly. The melt is then taken out of the furnace, cooled by water for conversion into granular slag and metal iron, to be magnetically separated for the collection of iron. This is attracting attention as a next-generation technology because it will facilitate the siting of ultimate disposal plants, solve environmental pollution problems, and enable the reuse of resources. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Investigation into the gasification characteristics of SA power station coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available energy source to meet increasing electricity demand for the foreseeable future. The challenge in the future is to enhance both the efficiency and environmental acceptability of coal use by adopting clean coal technologies (CCTs). Integrated gasification...

  18. Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As distinct from gas generation from biological/ organic wastes the biomass by biological conversion process, which is limited to non-lignaceous matter, the thermo chemical conversion route also termed gasification can process any solid organic matter. Harnessing of energy through gasification route is not only providing to ...

  19. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  20. Catalytic gasification of dry and wet biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Potic, B.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic gasification of dry biomass and of wet biomass streams in hot compressed water are reviewed and discussed as potential technologies for the production of synthesis gas, hydrogen- and methane-rich gas. Next to literature data also new experimental results from our laboratory on catalytic

  1. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  2. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  3. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  4. Selected Environmental Aspects of Gasification and Co-Gasification of Various Types of Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kamińska-Pietrzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of gasification of carbonaceous fuels is a technology with a long-standing practice. In recent years, the technology has been extensively developing to produce energy or chemicals on the basis of obtained gas. Studies focused on the improvement of the gasification process aims at developing the process by increasing environmental safety, the efficiency and the possibilities to utilize various types of alternative fuels (post-consumer waste, various types of biomass waste, by-products and post-process residues, sewage sludge independently or by co-gasification with coal. The choice of the gas purification system, the process operating parameters and introducing the necessary modifications to the existing technologies are essential steps while processing these kinds of feedstock, with regard to their individual characteristics. This paper discusses selected environmental aspects of the gasification and co-gasification of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, various types of biomass waste and post-process residues. Selected alternative fuels are also characterized, focusing on the influence of their presence in the feedstock in terms of production and the emission of polychlorinated organic compounds, tars, heavy metals and toxic elements.

  5. Mathematical Modelling of Coal Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, T.; Raghavan, V.; Ajilkumar, A.; Vijay Kumar, K.

    2017-07-01

    Coal is by far the most commonly employed fuel for electrical power generation around the world. While combustion could be the route for coal utilization for high grade coals, gasification becomes the preferred process for low grade coals having higher composition of volatiles or ash. Indian coals suffer from high ash content-nearly 50% by weight in some cases. Instead of transporting such high ash coals, it is more energy efficient to gasify the coal and transport the product syngas. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants and Underground Gasification of coal have become attractive technologies for the best utilization of high ash coals. Gasification could be achieved in fixed beds, fluidized beds and entrained beds; faster rates of gasification are possible in fluidized beds and entrained flow systems, because of the small particle sizes and higher gas velocities. The media employed for gasification could involve air/oxygen and steam. Use of oxygen will yield relatively higher calorific value syngas because of the absence of nitrogen. Sequestration of the carbon dioxide after the combustion of the syngas is also easier, if oxygen is used for gasification. Addition of steam can increase hydrogen yield in the syngas and thereby increase the calorific value also. Gasification in the presence of suitable catalysts can increase the composition of methane in the product gas. Several competing heterogenous and homogenous reactions occur during coal major heterogenous reaction pathways, while interactions between carbon monoxide, oxygen, hydrogen, water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide result in several simultaneous gas-phase (homogenous) reactions. The overall product composition of the coal gasification process depends on the input reactant composition, particle size and type of gasifier, and pressure and temperature of the gasifier. The use of catalysts can also selectively change the product composition. At IIT Madras, over the last one decade, both

  6. Gasification and combustion technologies of agro-residues and their application to rural electric power systems in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Anshu

    Biomass based power generation has the potential to add up to 20,000 MW of distributed capacity in India close to the rural load centers. However, the present production of biomass-based electricity is modest, contributing a mere 300 MW of installed capacity. In this thesis, we shall examine some of the scientific, technological and policy issues concerned with the generation and commercial viability of biomass-based electric power. We first consider the present status of biomass-based power in India and make an attempt to understand the reasons for low utilization. Our analysis suggests that the small-scale biomass power plants (engine since it can run totally on biomass gas. The gasifier and engine are modeled using the chemical equilibrium approach. The simulation is used to study the impact of fuel moisture and the performance of different biomass feedstock. Biomass power plants when used for decentralized power generation; close to the rural load centers can solve some of the problems of rural power supply: provide voltage support, reactive power and peak shaving. We consider an innovative option of setting up a rural electricity micro-grid using a decentralized biomass power plant and selected a rural feeder in Tumkur district, Karnataka for three-phase AC load flow studies. Our results suggest that this option significantly reduces the distribution losses and improves the voltage profiles. We examine a few innovative policy options for making a rural micro-grid economically viable and also a pricing mechanism for reactive power and wheeling. We next consider co-firing biomass and coal in utility boilers as an attractive option for biomass utilization because of low capital costs; high efficiency of utility boilers; lower CO2 emissions (per kWh) and also lower NOx and SO2. However, efficiency derating of the boilers caused by unburnt carbon in the fly ash is a major concern of the utilities. We develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based model to

  7. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  8. Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

    2012-04-01

    The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in

  9. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  10. Providing geoscience information for geoexchange technology implementation in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobe, M. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Earth Systems Section

    2007-07-01

    The mission of the Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) is to provide, data, information, knowledge, and advice about the geology of Alberta needed by government, industry, and the public for earth-resource stewardship and sustainable development in Alberta. This presentation discussed the provision of geoscience information for geoexchange technology implementation in Alberta. Surficial and bedrock geology influences the selection, installation cost and performance of geoexchange systems. The AGS is currently examining the feasibility of transforming geological maps to geothermal property maps for geoexchange design purposes and decision making by policy makers and industry. Shallow or ground-source geothermal energy in Alberta and the role of geoscience information were presented. The role of the AGS and its activities were outlined. The presentation also identified a project approach to two studies, notably a geoscience needs and utilities assessment as well as a pilot study in the Edmonton area. Data compilation and maps of the pilot study were presented. Last, the presentation discussed drilling, sampling and thermal testing in an area of thick drift over bedrock. It was determined that quality geoscience information is an important factor for site assessment and proper geoexchange design and decision making. The sharing data and experience for better decision making was found to be an important benefit. tabs., figs.

  11. Evaluating the costs and achievable benefits of extending technologies for uneconomical coal resources in South Africa: the case of underground coal gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zieleniewski, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available possible gas calorific value, based on geological surveys and gasification agents for a predefined need; direct process-related costs that are derived from the expected capital and operational expenditures and compared to the value and volume of the gas...

  12. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  13. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  14. Numerical investigation of the staged gasification of wet wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskoi, I. G.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.; Shamanskii, V. A.

    2017-04-01

    Gasification of wooden biomass makes it possible to utilize forestry wastes and agricultural residues for generation of heat and power in isolated small-scale power systems. In spite of the availability of a huge amount of cheap biomass, the implementation of the gasification process is impeded by formation of tar products and poor thermal stability of the process. These factors reduce the competitiveness of gasification as compared with alternative technologies. The use of staged technologies enables certain disadvantages of conventional processes to be avoided. One of the previously proposed staged processes is investigated in this paper. For this purpose, mathematical models were developed for individual stages of the process, such as pyrolysis, pyrolysis gas combustion, and semicoke gasification. The effect of controlling parameters on the efficiency of fuel conversion into combustible gases is studied numerically using these models. For the controlling parameter are selected heat inputted into a pyrolysis reactor, the excess of oxidizer during gas combustion, and the wood moisture content. The process efficiency criterion is the gasification chemical efficiency accounting for the input of external heat (used for fuel drying and pyrolysis). The generated regime diagrams represent the gasification efficiency as a function of controlling parameters. Modeling results demonstrate that an increase in the fraction of heat supplied from an external source can result in an adequate efficiency of the wood gasification through the use of steam generated during drying. There are regions where it is feasible to perform incomplete combustion of the pyrolysis gas prior to the gasification. The calculated chemical efficiency of the staged gasification is as high as 80-85%, which is 10-20% higher that in conventional single-stage processes.

  15. Co-gasification of coal and wood in a dual fluidized bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabella Aigner; Christoph Pfeifer; Hermann Hofbauer [Vienna University of Technology (VUT), Vienna (Austria). Institute of Chemical Engineering

    2011-07-15

    In the last decade the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels became a worldwide topic. Co-gasification of coal and wood provides an opportunity to combine the advantages of the well-researched usage of fossil fuels such as coal with CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass. Gasification itself is a technology with many advantages. The producer gas can be used in many ways; for electric power generation in a gas engine or gas turbine, for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of liquid fuels and also for production of gaseous products such as synthetic natural gas (bio SNG). Moreover, the use of the producer gas in fuel cells is under investigation. The mixture of coal and wood leads to the opportunity to choose the gas composition as best befits the desired process. Within this study the focus of investigation was of gasification of coal and wood in various ratios and the resulting changes in producer gas composition. Co-gasification of coal and wood leads to linear producer gas composition changes with linear changing load ratios (coal/wood). Hydrogen concentrations rise with increasing coal ratio, while CO concentrations decrease. Due to the lower sulfur and nitrogen content of wood, levels of the impurities NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in the producer gas fall with decreasing coal ratio. It is also shown that the majority of sulfur is released in the gasification zone and, therefore, no further cleaning of the flue gas is necessary. All mixture ratios, from 100 energy% to 0 energy% coal, performed well in the 100 kW dual fluidized bed gasifier. Although the gasifier was originally designed for wood, an addition of coal as fuel in industrial sized plants based on the same technology should pose no problems. 24 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Technology for dementia: attitudes and practices of occupational therapists in providing assistive technology for way finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Fiona; Clemson, Lindy Maxted; Mackenzie, Lynette

    2017-05-01

    One of the many difficulties a person with dementia can experience is difficulty with way finding and subsequently getting lost in the community. Prescriptions of assistive technology are a key role for occupational therapists. This study aimed to describe the attitudes and practices of occupational therapists in recommending and using assistive technology for persons with dementia who have difficulties with way finding in the community. An online survey was distributed to members of Occupational Therapy Australia NSW and included 25 items on demographics, frequency of use of assistive technology and assessment. A total of 85 occupational therapists responded to the survey. Significant differences were identified in the approaches used, the types of assistive technology used and the evaluation of outcomes, between community-based and hospital-based occupational therapists. Over half of the participants had never prescribed any of the assistive devices listed in the survey for people with dementia. The most frequently prescribed assistive devices were low-tech items that were already freely available to carers and other professions. Therapists used a conservative approach to problem solving with their clients with dementia. There is a limited understanding from occupational therapists about available interventions for people with dementia. Implications for Rehabilitation There is limited awareness on how assistive technology might be used to support occupational performance for persons with dementia. This survey suggests that occupational therapists experience barriers in identifying and providing appropriate assistive technology for this group. Access to targeted education and online resources for occupational therapists is recommended to provide better awareness of the types of assistive technology available to assist persons with dementia and their caregivers.

  17. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  18. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Chemical Technology

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second

  19. Information Providers and Videodisc/Optical Disk Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Emily; Paris, Judith

    1983-01-01

    Explores the possibilities of using videodisc and optical disk technology as publishing media, highlighting the videodisc as an educational tool and visual supplement to online databases, digital database publishing on videodisc, optical disks for electronic document and image delivery systems, and costs associated with videodisc design and…

  20. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  1. Numerical simulation of coal gasification process using the modifying Watanabe ? Otaka model

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, T.;Losurdo, M.;Spliethoff, H.

    2017-01-01

    High-pressure entrained flow coal gasification is becoming increasingly important particularly in the development of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for the production of electricity. However, there is a lack of knowledge worldwide for the gasification process and more especially for the chemical reactions (reactions rates, constants) that take place under high pressure and temperature. Therefore a gasifier has been designed and is being built at the Institute fo...

  2. Gasification of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  3. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  4. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-03GO13175 and DE-FC36-02GO12024) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. This multi-year effort to develop methods to effectively monitor gaseous species produced in thermochemical process streams resulted in a sampling and analysis approach that is continuous, sensitive, comprehensive, accurate, reliable, economical, and safe. The improved approach for sampling thermochemical processes that GTI developed and demonstrated in its series of field demonstrations successfully provides continuous transport of vapor-phase syngas streams extracted from the main gasification process stream to multiple, commercially available analyzers. The syngas stream is carefully managed through multiple steps to successfully convey it to the analyzers, while at the same time bringing the stream to temperature and pressure conditions that are compatible with the analyzers. The primary principle that guides the sample transport is that throughout the entire sampling train, the temperature of the syngas stream is maintained above the maximum condensation temperature

  5. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... with steam/carbon ratio of 5, the syngas components are similar with that in equilibrium. A synergistic effect exists between coal and bio-oil in coal/bio-oil slurry gasification which might be caused by the catalysis effect of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in bio-oil....

  6. Macauba gasification; Gaseificacao da macauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    For development of a productive activity, with reduced environmental degradation, the use of renewable energy sources as an important option. The gasification has been increasing among the ways of obtaining energy from biomass, and consists of a process where the necessary oxygen to the complete combustion of a fuel it is restricts and, in high temperatures it generates fuel gas of high-quality. In this direction, this work is justified and has its importance as the study of a renewable energy source, macauba coconut (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq] Lodd), with the gasification process. The objective of this study is to build a biomass concurrent gasifier and evaluate the viability to provide heating for dehydration of fruits, using the macauba coconut as fuel. It was measured the temperature in five points distributed in both gasifier and combustor chamber, being the input area of primary combustor air and also the speed of rotation of the electric motor, using a factorial 3X3 experimental design with three repetitions and interval of measurements of five minutes. The analytical results take to infer that the macauba coconut have potential to be gasified and used for the dehydration of fruits. (author)

  7. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two...... major global biomass fuels: straw gasification biochar (SGB) and wood gasification biochar (WGB), produced by a Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed gasifier (LT-CFB) and a TwoStage gasifier, respectively, optimized for energy conversion. Stability of carbon in GB against microbial degradation...

  8. Providing information communication technology-based support to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student support is a major factor in distance education. This study was concerned with the use of ICT as a medium for providing student support at the University of Zambia. It was necessary to study the factors that would affect the application of ICT, in order to inform policy makers and managers of distance education which ...

  9. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  10. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  11. Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difs, Kristina; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Trygg, Louise; Soederstroem, Mats [Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO{sub 2} emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WB), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives - short-term and medium-term - and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO{sub 2} emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments. (author)

  12. Microwave-driven plasma gasification for biomass waste treatment at miniature scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, G.S.J.; Navarrete Muñoz, A.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.; Stefanidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    Gasification technology may combine waste treatment with energy generation. Conventional gasification processes are bulky and inflexible. By using an external energy source, in the form of microwave-generated plasma, equipment size may be reduced and flexibility as regards to the feed composition

  13. Vision of the U.S. biofuel future: a case for hydrogen-enriched biomass gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Mark Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Product Laboratory (FPL) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) envision a future for biofuels based on biomass gasification with hydrogen enrichment. Synergisms between hydrogen production and biomass gasification technologies will be necessary to avoid being marginalized in the biofuel marketplace. Five feasible engineering solutions...

  14. Comparison of benefits provided by different hearing aid technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, B E; Surr, R K; Cord, M T; Edwards, B; Olson, L

    2000-01-01

    The performance of 40 hearing-impaired adults with the GN ReSound digital BZ5 hearing instrument was compared with performance with linear hearing aids with input compression limiting (AGC-I) or two-channel analog wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) instruments. The BZ5 was evaluated with an omnidirectional microphone, dual-microphone directionality, and a noise reduction circuit in combination with dual-microphone directionality. Participants were experienced hearing aid users who were wearing linear AGC-I or analog WDRC instruments at the time of enrolment. Performance was assessed using the Connected Speech Test (CST) presented at several presentation levels and under various conditions of signal degradation and by the Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (PHAB). Subjective ratings of speech understanding, listening comfort, and sound quality/naturalness were also obtained using 11-point interval scales. Small performance advantages were observed for WDRC over linear AGC-I, although WDRC did not have to be implemented digitally for these performance advantages to be realized. Substantial performance advantages for the dual microphones over the omnidirectional microphone were observed in the CST results in noise, but participants generally did not perceive these large advantages in everyday listening. The noise reduction circuit provided improved listening comfort but little change in speech understanding.

  15. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  16. The Effect of Temperature on the Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Baláš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a technology that uses fuel to produce power and heat. This technology is also suitable for biomass conversion. Biomass is a renewable energy source that is being developed to diversify the energy mix, so that the Czech Republic can reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and on raw materials for energy imported from abroad. During gasification, biomass is converted into a gas that can then be burned in a gas burner, with all the advantages of gas combustion. Alternatively, it can be used in internal combustion engines. The main task during gasification is to achieve maximum purity and maximum calorific value of the gas. The main factors are the type of gasifier, the gasification medium, biomass quality and, last but not least, the gasification mode itself. This paper describes experiments that investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on gas composition and low calorific value. The experiments were performed in an atmospheric gasifier in the laboratories of the Energy Institute atthe Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology.

  17. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  18. Pilot scale steam-oxygen CFB gasification of commercial torrefied wood pellets. The effect of torrefaction on the gasification performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Marcello, M.; Tsalidis, G.A.; Spinelli, G.; de Jong, W.; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising biomass upgrading technology as it makes biomass more coal alike and offers benefits in logistics and handling operations. Gasification is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology due to its flexibility in the product gas end-uses. Therefore, it is valuable

  19. Transient behavior of devolatilization and char reaction during steam gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jihong; Lee, Jeungwoo; Lee, Uendo; Hwang, Jungho

    2013-04-01

    Steam gasification of biomass is a promising method for producing high quality syngas for polygeneration. During the steam gasification, devolatilization and char reaction are key steps of syngas production and the contributions of the two reactions are highly related to gasification conditions. In this study, the transient characteristics of devolatilization and char reaction in biomass steam gasification were investigated by monitoring cumulative gas production and composition changes in terms of reaction temperature and S/B ratio. Contribution of each reaction stage on the product gas yield was studied in detail. The results provide important insight for understanding the complex nature of biomass gasification and will guide future improvements to the biomass gasification process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    . Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system design, identification and selection of tar compounds and 2 mixtures for use in CPO tests, and preparation of CPO catalysts for validation. (Q3 2009 ~ Q4 2009) - Task C: Test CPO with biomass gasification product gas. Optimize CPO performance with selected tar compounds. Optimize CPO performance with multi-component mixtures. Milestones include optimizing CPO catalysts design, collecting CPO experimental data for next stage kinetic modeling and understanding the effect of relative reactivities on ultimate tar conversion and syngas yields. (Q1 2010 ~ Q3 2010) - Task D: Develop tar CPO kinetic model with CPO kinetic model and modeling results as deliverables. (Q3 2010 ~ Q2 2011) - Task E: Project management and reporting. Milestone: Quarterly reports and presentations, final report, work presented at national technical conferences (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2011) At the beginning of the program, IP landscaping was conducted to understand the operation of various types of biomass gasifiers, their unique syngas/tar compositions and potential tar mitigation options using the catalytic partial oxidation technology. A process simulation model was developed to quantify the system performance and economics impact of CPO tar removal technology. Biomass gasification product compositions used for performance evaluation tests were identified after literature review and system modeling. A reaction system for tar conversion tests was designed, constructed, with each individual component shaken-down in 2009. In parallel, University of Minnesota built a lab-scale unit and evaluated the tar removal performance using catalytic reforming. Benzene was used as the surrogate compound. The biomass gasification raw syngas composition was provided by GE through system studies. In 2010, GE selected different tar compounds and evaluated the tar removal effectiveness of the CPO catalyst. The catalytic performance was

  1. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Arash

    An important challenge of biomass gasification is the limitation of feedstock quality especially the moisture content, which plays a significant role on the performance of gasification process. Gasification requires low moisture levels (20% and less) and several reports have emphasized on the moisture as a typical problem while gasifying biomass. Moisture affects overall reaction rates in the gasifiers as a result of temperature drop and ultimately increases tar content, decreases gas yield, changes the composition of produced gas and affects the efficiency. Therefore, it is mandatory to pre-treat the biomass before gasification and reduce the moisture content to the suitable and economic level. The well-known solutions are either natural drying (not practical for commercial plants) or conventional drying technologies (have high operating costs). Biodrying is an alternative process, which uses both convective air and heat of biological reactions as a source of energy, to reduce the moisture. In the biodrying reactor heat is generated from exothermic decomposition of organic fraction of biomass and that is why the process is called "self-heating process". Employing such technology for drying biomass at pre-treatment units of gasification process returns several economic and environmental advantages to mills. In Europe, municipal waste treatment (MSW) plants use the biodrying at commercial scale to degrade a part of the biodegradable fraction of waste to generate heat and reduce the moisture content for high quality SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) production. In Italy, wine industry is seeking to develop biodrying for energy recovery of grape wastes after fermentation and distillation, which returns economic benefits to the industry. In Canada, the development of biodrying technology for pulp and paper industry was started at Ecole polytechnique de Montreal as an option for sludge management solution. Therefore, batch biodrying reactor was successfully developed in 2004

  2. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  3. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  4. Effects of Biomass Feedstocks and Gasification Conditions on the Physiochemical Properties of Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Huhnke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon and carbon-based catalysts. Considering these high-value applications, char could provide economic benefits to a biorefinery utilizing gasification or pyrolysis technologies. However, the properties of char depend heavily on biomass feedstock, gasifier design and operating conditions. This paper reports the effects of biomass type (switchgrass, sorghum straw and red cedar and equivalence ratio (0.20, 0.25 and 0.28, i.e., the ratio of air supply relative to the air that is required for stoichiometric combustion of biomass, on the physiochemical properties of char derived from gasification. Results show that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface areas of most of the char were 1–10 m2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The corresponding Fourier Transform Infrared spectra showed that the surface functional groups of char differed between biomass types but remained similar with change in equivalence ratio.

  5. 77 FR 1708 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Technology To Provide Wireless Precise Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ..., disadvantages, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using alternative wireless time technology... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Technology To Provide Wireless Precise... Agreements (CRADAs), are authorized by the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99- 502, codified...

  6. Technology Assessment Report - Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sludge production in the United States is increasing with an increase in population. An estimated 7.2 million dry tons of treated and tested sewage sludge was generated in 2004 and 4.1 million tons of paper mill sludge was produced in 1995. Consequently, there is an increased ne...

  7. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  8. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  9. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  10. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon Kramer

    2003-09-01

    This project developed optimized designs and cost estimates for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC coproduction projects that produced hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and hydrocarbon liquid fuel precursors in addition to power. The as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project was the starting point for this study that was performed by Bechtel, Global Energy and Nexant under Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-99FT40342. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This non-optimized plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW.1 This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for

  11. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  12. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  13. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  14. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  15. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  16. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  17. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  18. UTILIZATION OF AQUEOUS-TAR CONDENSATES FORMED DURING GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of solid fuels is an alternative process for energy production using conventional and renewable fuels. Apart from desired compounds, i.e. carbon oxide, hydrogen and methane, the produced gas contains complex organic (tars and inorganic (carbonizate, ammonia contaminants. Those substances, together with water vapor, condensate during cooling of the process gas, what results in the formation of aqueous-tar condensate, which requires proper methods of utilization. The management of this stream is crucial for commercialization and application of the gasification technology. In the paper the treatment of aqueous-tar condensates formed during biomass gasification process is discussed. The removal of tars from the stream was based on their spontaneous separation. The aqueous stream was subjected to ultrafiltration operated at different pressures. Such a treatment configuration enabled to obtain highly concentrated retentate, which could be recycled to the gasifier, and filtrate, which could be subjected to further treatment.

  19. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-12-15

    Technology for thermal gasification of biomass is one of the key elements to make the vision of an energy system without fossil fuels a reality. Gasification technology can enhance the flexibility needed to maintain a future energy system with a large share of wind power. Furthermore, gasification has advantages in terms of ash recycling and utilisation of vast but challenging biomass residues. Danish companies are globally well advanced with this technology and the market for gasification technology is great in both Denmark and abroad. There is a clear need for targeted technology RD and D in order to reach the last stretch to a commercial breakthrough. The project ''Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark'' is the Danish industrys contribution to the development of biomass gasification and goes into detail with the RD and D needs. The project has been conducted by FORCE Technology for DI Bioenergy with funding from EUDP, Energinet.dk, DI Bioenergy and FORCE Technology and five stakeholder companies. (LN)

  1. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  2. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Imparato, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study...... investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped...

  3. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  4. Hot Gas Conditioning: Recent Progress with Larger-Scale Biomass Gasification Systems; Update and Summary of Recent Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D. J.

    2001-09-01

    As a result of environmental and policy considerations, there is increasing interest in using renewable biomass resources as feedstock for power, fuels, and chemicals and hydrogen. Biomass gasification is seen as an important technology component for expanding the use of biomass. Advanced biomass gasification systems provide clean products that can be used as fuel or synthesis gases in a variety of environmentally friendly processes. Advanced end-use technologies such as gas turbines or synthesis gas systems require high quality gases with narrowly defined specifications. Other systems such as boilers may also have fuel quality requirements, but they will be substantially less demanding. The gas product from biomass gasifiers contains quantities of particulates, tars, and other constituents that may exceed these specified limits. As a result, gas cleaning and conditioning will be required in most systems. Over the past decade, significant research and development activities have been conducted on the topic of gas cleanup and conditioning. This report provides an update of efforts related to large-scale biomass gasification systems and summarizes recent progress. Remaining research and development issues are also summarized.

  5. Design of a 2.5MW(e) biomass gasification power generation module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, R.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this contract was to produce a detailed process and mechanical design of a gasification and gas clean up system for a 2.5MW(e) power generation module based on the generation of electrical power from a wood chip feed stock. The design is to enable the detailed economic evaluation of the process and to verify the technical performance data provided by the pilot plant programme. Detailed process and equipment design also assists in the speed at which the technology can be implemented into a demonstration project. (author)

  6. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery

  7. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  8. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  9. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator: Formalization of Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the formalization of relationships with external service providers in the development of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report summarizes the process in developing and formalizing relationships with those service providers and includes a sample letter of cooperation executed with each provider.

  10. Use of technology with health care providers: perspectives from urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Tandon, S Darius; Trent, Maria; Jones, Vanya; Cheng, Tina L

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate urban youths' use of and access to technology and solicit their opinions about using technology with healthcare providers. Urban youth (aged 14-24 years) were invited to participate in focus groups in which a trained focus group facilitator used a survey and a structured guide to elicit responses regarding the foregoing objective. All sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Emergent themes were determined with the assistance of Atlas TI. Survey data were analyzed in SPSS (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois). Eight focus groups including 82 primarily low-income urban African-American adolescents and young adults (mean age, 18.5 years) were completed. The participants reported fairly high access to and use of technology. However, they expressed some concerns regarding the use of technology with healthcare providers. Many worried about the confidentiality of conversations conducted using technology. Face-to-face meetings with a healthcare provider were preferred by most participants, who felt that the information provided would be better tailored to their individual needs and more credible. Although urban youth were high users of technology, they expressed reservations about using technology with health care providers. When developing new technology communication and information dissemination strategies, it is critical to understand and address these concerns while involving young people in the research and development process. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects and characterization of an environmentally-friendly, inexpensive composite Iron-Sodium catalyst on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, Rodolfo

    Coal gasification has been commercially used for more than 60 years in the production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, and due to the lowered environmental impacts and high efficiency derived from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), this process has received increased attention. Furthermore, upcoming strict CO2 emissions regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will no longer be achievable by traditional means of coal combustion, therefore, growing dependence on different energy sources has drawn attention to clean coal technologies, such as coal-to-liquids processing, and the core of this process is also gasification. Gasification is an energy intensive process that can be substantially improved in terms of efficiency through the use of catalysts. In this study, the effect of the composite catalyst, FeCO3-Na2CO3, on gasification of a low-sulfur sub-bituminous Wyodak coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming was investigated. The catalytic effects of the composite catalysts were evaluated by comparing their effluent gas compositions and carbon conversion kinetics to those achieved in the presence of either FeCO3 or Na2CO3 catalyst alone or without the presence of any catalyst. All of the evaluation work was conducted in a fixed bed gasifier at atmospheric pressure. Compared to raw coal with no catalyst, the composite catalyst is efficient in increasing the carbon conversion rate constant by as much as two times within the 700-800°C range due to its ability to reduce the activation energy of gasification by about 30-40%. Compared to pure sodium and iron catalysts, the composite catalyst can increase the yields of desired products H2 and CO at 800°C by 15% and 40%, respectively. The composite catalyst can not only synergize the advantages, but also overcome the challenges of pure iron or pure sodium based catalytic coal gasification processes. Moreover, the mechanisms of this particular catalytic coal gasification process

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  13. Modelling and simulation of energy conversion in combined gas-steam power plant integrated with coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaporowski, B. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the modeling and simulation of energy conversion in technological systems of combined gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification. The energy analysis of technological systems of gas-steam power plants is connected with energy analysis of various technologies of coal gasification. The base of the performed energy analysis are the elaborate mathematical models of coal gasification process, and of energy processes proceeding in gas and in steam parts of power plants. The mathematical model of coal gasification process for gas-steam power plants allows them to calculate: the composition and physical properties, and energy parameters of gas produced in the process of coal gasification, the consumption and temperature of gasifying medium, and both the chemical and the energy efficiency of coal gasification. The mathematical models of energy conversion processes in the gas generator and in the gas cycle of gas-steam power plants are elaborated on the base of quantum statistical physics, and on the base of phenomenological thermodynamics for the steam cycle of these power plants. The mathematical models were the basis for computer programs for multivariant numerical simulation of energy conversion processes in gas-steam power plants. The results of numerical simulation are shown in the form of tables, presenting the influence of the methods of coal gasification process, and of the structure and of the energy parameters of technological systems of gas-steam power plants on the efficiency of electric energy generation in combined gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification.

  14. The economics of gasification: a market-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, L. M. [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Gran Via 30, 48009 Bilbao (Spain); Chamorro, J. M. [Departamento Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, University of the Basque Country, Av. Lehendakari Aguirre 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)

  15. Providing Value to New Health Technology: The Early Contribution of Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Regulatory Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Miller, Fiona A; Daudelin, Geneviève; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-25

    New technologies constitute an important cost-driver in healthcare, but the dynamics that lead to their emergence remains poorly understood from a health policy standpoint. The goal of this paper is to clarify how entrepreneurs, investors, and regulatory agencies influence the value of emerging health technologies. Our 5-year qualitative research program examined the processes through which new health technologies were envisioned, financed, developed and commercialized by entrepreneurial clinical teams operating in Quebec's (Canada) publicly funded healthcare system. Entrepreneurs have a direct influence over a new technology's value proposition, but investors actively transform this value. Investors support a technology that can find a market, no matter its intrinsic value for clinical practice or healthcare systems. Regulatory agencies reinforce the "double" value of a new technology-as a health intervention and as an economic commodity-and provide economic worth to the venture that is bringing the technology to market. Policy-oriented initiatives such as early health technology assessment (HTA) and coverage with evidence may provide technology developers with useful input regarding the decisions they make at an early stage. But to foster technologies that bring more value to healthcare systems, policy-makers must actively support the consideration of health policy issues in innovation policy.

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to understand the gasification performance of municipal solid waste (MSW by means of thermodynamic analysis. Thermodynamic analysis is based on the assumption that the gasification reactions take place at the thermodynamic equilibrium condition, without regard to the reactor and process characteristics. First, model components of MSW including food, green wastes, paper, textiles, rubber, chlorine-free plastic, and polyvinyl chloride were chosen as the feedstock of a steam gasification process, with the steam temperature ranging from 973 K to 2273 K and the steam-to-MSW ratio (STMR ranging from 1 to 5. It was found that the effect of the STMR on the gasification performance was almost the same as that of the steam temperature. All the differences among the seven types of MSW were caused by the variation of their compositions. Next, the gasification of actual MSW was analyzed using this thermodynamic equilibrium model. It was possible to count the inorganic components of actual MSW as silicon dioxide or aluminum oxide for the purpose of simplification, due to the fact that the inorganic components mainly affected the reactor temperature. A detailed comparison was made of the composition of the gaseous products obtained using steam, hydrogen, and air gasifying agents to provide basic knowledge regarding the appropriate choice of gasifying agent in MSW treatment upon demand.

  17. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-01

    Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of biomass char-CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahijani, Pooya, E-mail: pooya.lahijani@gmail.com [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohammadi, Maedeh, E-mail: m.mohammadi@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, 47148 Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin, E-mail: mezainal@eng.usm.my [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO{sub 2}. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO{sub 2} conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO{sub 2} conversion of 58%. • E{sub a} of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO{sub 2} gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO{sub 2} gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO{sub 2} (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO{sub 2} through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO{sub 2} gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO{sub 2} conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO{sub 2} conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition.

  19. Historical development of underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olness, D.; Gregg, D.W.

    1977-06-30

    The development of underground coal gasification is traced through a discussion of the significant, early experiments with in situ gasification. Emphasized are the features of each experiment that were important in helping to alter and refine the process to its present state. Experimental details, coal characteristics, and gasification data are supplied for many of the experiments. 69 refs.

  20. Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lara; Furusjö, Erik; Kirtania, Kawnish; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Anheden, Marie; Wolf, Jens

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130€/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25€/MWh to be economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Geng, Ping; Liu, Rui

    2017-12-01

    Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO 2 gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated gasification combined cycle versus supercritical pulverized coal for power generation from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants provide potential performance, environmental, and fuel flexibility advantages over more conventional combustion technologies such as Supercritical Pulverized Coal (SCPC) plants. Projected pollutant emissions from IGCC plants are the lowest of all coal power generation technologies. Mercury and carbon dioxide emissions reductions can be achieved at a much lower cost for IGCC plants than for conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Future IGCC developments, such as improvements in process technologies and development of larger, more efficient combustion turbines, offer the potential to further increase the competitiveness and performance of IGCC. For these reasons, IGCC is likely to evolve as the future technology of choice for generation of electricity from coal. An overview is presented of the components of an IGCC plant, along with a discussion of integration options and commercial status. IGCC plant performance and economics are compared against SCPC power generation for Chinese coals. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  4. High-temperature entrained flow gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Biomass (wood and straw) gasification has been studied in a laboratory scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of reaction temperature, steam/carbon molar ratio, excess air ratio, and biomass type on the solid, liquid and gas products were investigated. The biomass was completely...... soot. Increasing excess air ratio from 0.25 to 0.50 gave no significant change in the producer gas yield, but the yields of H2, CO, and soot decreased, the CO2 yield increased, and the molar ratio of H2/CO decreased. Moreover, wood and straw gasification provided similar product compositions. At 1350°C...

  5. Real-time Optimisation of a Microwave Plasma Gasification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalan, B; Wylie, S; Mason, A; Al-khaddar, R; Al-Shamma' a, A [RF Microwave Group, Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies Research Institute, School of Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Lupa, C; Herbert, B; Maddocks, E, E-mail: B.kabalan@2009.ljmu.ac.uk [Stopford Energy and Environment Ltd, Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    A microwave plasma gasifier has been designed to produce syngas from waste. Gasification using microwave plasma has various controllable parameters to achieve optimal syngas production. These parameters include the microwave power applied, the reflected power from the microwave plasma jet, the EH tuner arm position, the gas flow and pressure, in addition to the temperature inside the gasifier. A variety of sensors are required to provide feedback and control for each of these parameters. This paper discusses the benefits of gasification, particularly via microwave plasma techniques, the first steps toward the optimisation of such a system and some preliminary results of this optimisation.

  6. Using Mathematica software for coal gasification simulations – Selected kinetic model application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Iwaszenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal gasification is recognized as a one of promising Clean Coal Technologies. As the process itself is complicated and technologically demanding, it is subject of many research. In the paper a problem of using volumetric, non-reactive core and Johnson model for coal gasification and underground coal gasification is considered. The usage of Mathematica software for models' equations solving and analysis is presented. Coal parameters were estimated for five Polish mines: Piast, Ziemowit, Janina, Szczygłowice and Bobrek. For each coal the models' parameters were determined. The determination of parameters was based on reactivity assessment for 50% char conversion. The calculations show relatively small differences between conversion predicted by volumetric and non reactive core model. More significant differences were observed for Johnson model, but they do not exceeded 10% for final char conversion. The conceptual model for underground coal gasification was presented.

  7. CFD simulation of coal gasification in an entrained-flow gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, V.; Hjertager, B.H.; Solberg, T.

    2010-01-01

    A study on predicting different chemical and physical processes occurring within an entrained-flow coal gasifier using computational fluid dynamics is carried out. The synthesis gas produced as a result of the gasification process is composed primarily of a combustible mixture of CO and hydrogen...... (water and CO being the other major constituents). The abundant availability of coal coupled with the flexibility of feedstock usage, fluctuations in natural gas prices, and increased environmental concerns make gasification an attractive alternative to conventional thermal power plant solutions...... for the energy requirements of tomorrow. Power plants using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology are being developed to utilize conventional feedstock in a cleaner and more efficient manner. Their intended use in gasification technology based power plants are expected to bring about improvements...

  8. Providing Value to New Health Technology: The Early Contribution of Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Regulatory Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Miller, Fiona A.; Daudelin, Geneviève; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Background: New technologies constitute an important cost-driver in healthcare, but the dynamics that lead to their emergence remains poorly understood from a health policy standpoint. The goal of this paper is to clarify how entrepreneurs, investors, and regulatory agencies influence the value of emerging health technologies. Methods: Our 5-year qualitative research program examined the processes through which new health technologies were envisioned, financed, developed and commercialized by entrepreneurial clinical teams operating in Quebec’s (Canada) publicly funded healthcare system. Results: Entrepreneurs have a direct influence over a new technology’s value proposition, but investors actively transform this value. Investors support a technology that can find a market, no matter its intrinsic value for clinical practice or healthcare systems. Regulatory agencies reinforce the "double" value of a new technology—as a health intervention and as an economic commodity—and provide economic worth to the venture that is bringing the technology to market. Conclusion: Policy-oriented initiatives such as early health technology assessment (HTA) and coverage with evidence may provide technology developers with useful input regarding the decisions they make at an early stage. But to foster technologies that bring more value to healthcare systems, policy-makers must actively support the consideration of health policy issues in innovation policy. PMID:28949463

  9. Providing Appropriate Technology for Emerging Markets: Case Study on China’s Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on a case study of five Chinese solar thermal companies and one association, our study aims to understand how the innovator’s choices regarding the use of technology and organizational practices for new product development enable companies to design and diffuse appropriate technology in emerging markets. The study uncovers two critical factors that enhance the appropriateness of technology: redefining the identity of technology and building a local supply system. Our analysis shows that synergic innovation in both architecture and component leads to the appropriate functionalities desired by emerging markets. Moreover, modular design and the building of a local supply system enhance the process appropriateness of technology. Our study provides an empirical basis for advocating going beyond minor adaptations of existing products to creating appropriate technology for emerging markets, and extends our understandings of the upstream process of designing appropriate technology. Moreover, the emphasis on the local supply system reflects a holistic framework for shaping and delivering appropriate technology, expanding the existing research focus on the perspective of the technology itself. Our research also has managerial implications that may help firms tap into emerging markets.

  10. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  11. Simulation of Steam Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor with Energy Self-Sufficient Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaree Suwatthikul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biomass gasification process is widely accepted as a popular technology to produce fuel for the application in gas turbines and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. Chemical reactions of this process can be separated into three reaction zones: pyrolysis, combustion, and reduction. In this study, sensitivity analysis with respect to three input parameters (gasification temperature, equivalence ratio, and steam-to-biomass ratio has been carried out to achieve energy self-sufficient conditions in a steam gasification process under the criteria that the carbon conversion efficiency must be more than 70%, and carbon dioxide gas is lower than 20%. Simulation models of the steam gasification process have been carried out by ASPEN Plus and validated with both experimental data and simulation results from Nikoo & Mahinpey (2008. Gasification temperature of 911 °C, equivalence ratio of 0.18, and a steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.78, are considered as an optimal operation point to achieve energy self-sufficient condition. This operating point gives the maximum of carbon conversion efficiency at 91.03%, and carbon dioxide gas at 15.18 volumetric percentages. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA is included to compare the environmental performance of conventional and energy self-sufficient gasification for steam biomass gasification.

  12. Modelling of Biomass Gasification Integrated with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is of major interest as a renewable energy source in the context of climate change and energy security. Traditional biomass conversion technologies achieve low electrical efficiencies. Biomass gasification (BG) coupled with fuel cells offer higher efficiencies. Gasification is a process in which a carbonaceous fuel is converted to a combustible gas. It occurs when a controlled amount of oxidant is reacted at high temperatures with available carbon in a fuel within a gasifier. Two tech...

  13. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

    1996-10-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  14. Simulation of Steam Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor with Energy Self-Sufficient Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ajaree Suwatthikul; Siripong Limprachaya; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Iqbal Mohammed Mujtaba

    2017-01-01

    The biomass gasification process is widely accepted as a popular technology to produce fuel for the application in gas turbines and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Chemical reactions of this process can be separated into three reaction zones: pyrolysis, combustion, and reduction. In this study, sensitivity analysis with respect to three input parameters (gasification temperature, equivalence ratio, and steam-to-biomass ratio) has been carried out to achieve energy self-sufficient conditions in a...

  15. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  16. Methane rich gasification of wood pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joka Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work there are shown the results of experimental studies on methane rich gasification of pinewood pellets in Bio-CONOx technology. The experiment was carried out on a laboratory scale gasifier (5 kW, which design features allow producing a high quality gas with a high methane content. In the results there was identified the impact of the quantity of Bio-CONOx on the amount of flammable gas compounds (methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the synthesis gas and the gas calorific value. The additive was added in 10,20,30 and 50% concentrations to the gasifier chamber. It has been shown that increasing the amount of the additive has a positive effect on the calorific value of the synthesis gas (Fig.1,2. Gas with a high content of methane (and high calorific value was obtained from gasification of biomass with a 50% addition of Bio-CONOx. There was also examined the proportion of blowing air (gasifying medium for which the properties of obtained syngas were the best.

  17. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-06-11

    Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a

  18. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: energy balance and GHG accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used - eventually after upgrading - for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600-1000kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  20. Gasification of yeast industry treatment plant sludge using downdraft Gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayol, Azize; Tezer, Ozgun; Gurgen, Alim

    2018-01-01

    Sludges produced in biological wastewater treatment plants have rich organic materials in their characteristics. Recent research studies have focused on the energy recovery from sludge due to its high organic content. The gasification process is a thermal conversion technology transforming the chemical energy contained in a solid fuel into thermal energy and electricity. The produced syngas as a mixture of CO, CH 4 , H 2 and other gases can be used to generate electrical energy. The gasification of yeast industry sludge has been experimentally evaluated in a pilot scale downdraft-type gasifier as a route towards the energy recovery. The gasifier has 20 kg biomass/h fuel capacity. During gasification, the temperature achieved was more than 1,000°C in the gasifier, and then the syngas was transferred to the gas engine to yield the electricity. A load was connected to the grid box and approximately 1 kWh electrical power generation for 1 kg dry sludge was determined. The characteristics of residuals - ash, glassy material - were also analyzed. It was found that most of the heavy metals were fixed in the glassy material. Experimental results showed that the yeast industry sludge was an appropriate material for gasification studies and remarkable energy recovery was obtained in terms of power production by using syngas.

  1. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  2. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  3. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  4. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  5. A financial feasibility model of gasification and anaerobic digestion waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Laith A; Omer, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in Saudi Arabia is increasingly growing at a fast rate, as it hurtles towards ever increasing urban development coupled with rapid developments and expanding population. Saudi Arabia's energy demands are also rising at a faster rate. Therefore, the importance of an integrated waste management system in Saudi Arabia is increasingly rising and introducing Waste to Energy (WTE) facilities is becoming an absolute necessity. This paper analyzes the current situation of MSW management in Saudi Arabia and proposes a financial model to assess the viability of WTE investments in Saudi Arabia in order to address its waste management challenges and meet its forecasted energy demands. The research develops a financial model to investigate the financial viability of WTE plants utilizing gasification and Anaerobic Digestion (AD) conversion technologies. The financial model provides a cost estimate of establishing both gasification and anaerobic digestion WTE plants in Saudi Arabia through a set of financial indicators, i.e. net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), modified internal rate of return (MIRR), profitability index (PI), payback period, discounted payback period, Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and Levelized Cost of Waste (LCOW). Finally, the analysis of the financial model reveals the main affecting factors of the gasification plants investment decision, namely: facility generation capacity, generated electricity revenue, and the capacity factor. Similarly, the paper also identifies facility waste capacity and the capacity factor as the main affecting factors on the AD plants' investment decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION USED BY LOGISTICS SERVICE PROVIDERS: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Luisa dos Santos Vieira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth in the supply of logistics services, and the increase of competition, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT is now considered by logistics service providers (LSP, a source of competitive advantage. Through a literature review, this paper seeks to identify which technologies have been used by the PSL. Analyzing 47 articles on the subject, published in international journal that has the largest number of works on PSL, applications of technologies by PSL were analyzed according to a taxonomy suggested based on literature - software, hardware and networks. Among the results highlight the technologies cited by categories and greater scientific interest, such as EDI, RFID, TTS, WMS and Internet.

  7. Presentation of the Gaseifamaz Project and tests results in the gasification system of the 20 Kw imported from the Indian Institute of Science - IISC; Apresentacao do projeto Gaseifamaz e dos testes no sistema de gaseificacao de 20 Kw importado do Indian Institute of Science - IISC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani T.; Velazquez, Silvia M.S.G.; Martins, Osvaldo S.; Santos, Sandra M.A. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ushima, Ademar H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The project 'Comparison Among Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification', accord FINEP/CT-ENERG 23.01.0695.00, is a partnership between CENBIO - The Brazilian Reference Centre on Biomass, BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil, IPT - Technology Research Institute and UA - Amazon University. The main aim of the project is to test the Indian biomass gasification technology, imported from the Indian Institute of Science - IISc; in order to provide electric energy in a sustainable way to isolated communities in the North Region, offering an alternative to replace fossil fuel. The project aims, as well, to capacitate people for maintenance and operation of this technology, thus utilizing the knowledge gained to improve the national equipment according to tests that were under taken at IPT - Technology Research Institute. The project intends to evaluate the operation conditions of the gasification system: gas cleaning, electric energy generation and to transfer the technology to Brazil, not only collaborating whit the institutions that already worked in this area, but also allowing the formation of human resources in the Brazilian North region. Besides, once developed an adequate operation and maintenance system at IPT we will be able to use it in another isolated community. This paper objective is to present the GASEIFAMAZ project and the tests results in the gasification system. (author)

  8. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  9. Electric power generation from biomass gasification; Geracao de eletricidade a partir da gaseificacao de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Cristina Aparecida Vilas Boas de; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/IEM/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mails: cristinasales@unifei.edu.br, ruben@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a techno-economical evaluation of the biomass gasification utilization with different technologies such as: reciprocating engine, gas micro turbine, Stirling engine and fuel cells for small scale electricity generation. The comparative evaluation about the technologies is limited to the utilization in isolated areas. This paper shows the principal characteristics of these technologies. (author)

  10. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  11. Environmental research program for slagging fixed-bed coal gasification. Status report, November 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K. E.; Stetter, J. R.; Reilly, Jr., C. A.; Willson, W. G.

    1982-02-01

    A collaborative environmental research program to provide information needed to assess the health and environmental effects associated with large-scale coal gasification technology is being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center (GFETC). The objectives are to: investigate the toxicology and chemical composition of coal gasification by-products as a function of process variables and coal feed; compare the characteristics of isokinetic side-stream samples with those of process stream samples; identify the types of compounds responsible for toxicity; evaluate the chemical and toxicological effectiveness of various wastewater treatment operations; refine methodology for the collection and measurement of organic vapors and particulates in workplace air; and obtain preliminary data on workplace air quality. So far the toxicities of a set of process stream samples (tar, oil, and gas liquor) and side-stream condensates from the GFETC gasifier have been measured in a battery of cellular screening tests for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. Preliminary data on the effects of acute and chronic exposures of laboratory animals to process tar have been obtained. The process tar has been chemically fractionated and the distribution of mutagenicity and compound types among the fractions has been determined. Organic vapors and particulates collected at various times and locations in the gasifier building have been characterized.

  12. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  13. Self-fill oxygen technology: benefits for patients, healthcare providers and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphie, Phyllis; Hex, Nick; Setters, Jo; Little, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    "Non-delivery" home oxygen technologies that allow self-filling of ambulatory oxygen cylinders are emerging. They can offer a relatively unlimited supply of ambulatory oxygen in suitably assessed people who require long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), providing they can use these systems safely and effectively. This allows users to be self-sufficient and facilitates longer periods of time away from home. The evolution and evidence base of this technology is reported with the experience of a national service review in Scotland (UK). Given that domiciliary oxygen services represent a significant cost to healthcare providers globally, these systems offer potential cost savings, are appealing to remote and rural regions due to the avoidance of cylinder delivery and have additional lower environmental impact due to reduced fossil fuel consumption and subsequently reduced carbon emissions. Evidence is emerging that self-fill/non-delivery oxygen systems can meet the ambulatory oxygen needs of many patients using LTOT and can have a positive impact on quality of life, increase time spent away from home and offer significant financial savings to healthcare providers. Provide update for oxygen prescribers on options for home oxygen provision.Provide update on the evidence base for available self-fill oxygen technologies.Provide and update for healthcare commissioners on the potential cost-effective and environmental benefits of increased utilisation of self-fill oxygen systems.

  14. Hydrogen production from molten metal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eatwell-Hall, R.E.A.; Sharifi, V.N.; Swithenbank, J. [Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Group (EEERG), Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    As fossil fuel reserves are depleted, more innovative technologies are needed to facilitate fuel production, such as molten media gasification. This technique uses a liquid metal bath in a two-stage process: Stage 1) superheated steam is injected into the melt, with metal oxides formed, and H{sub 2} released; Stage 2) carbon is injected, the oxide is reduced, and CO and CO{sub 2} are released. The main study objective was to develop and test the first stage of this process. The results showed that hydrogen production peaked 100 s into the test, and then levelled off, with a maximum output of 13.6% hydrogen. XRD analysis of the metal samples showed that no tin oxides or magnetite were formed during the process, only a form of wustite (FeO). The syngas produced was very clean, and would need little gas cleaning for use as a feedstock in industrial processes or fuel cells. (author)

  15. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  16. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  18. Studies on biomass char gasification and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhanping; You, Shijun; Ma, Xiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    The gasification performances of two kinds of biomass char by experiment methods are studied, including conversion rate and gasification gas component with temperature and time. Experimental results show that gasification temperature has important effects on the conversion rate and gas component. In the range of experimental temperature, char conversion rates are no more than 30.0%. The apparent activation energies and apparent reaction frequency factors of two biomass chars are obtained through kinetic studies.

  19. Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase II. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooverman, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The Wright-Malta gasification process is characterized by low-temperature, catalyzed steam gasification in a pressurized rotary kiln. Fresh biomass moves slowly and continuously through the kiln, where it is gradually heated to around 1200/sup 0/F in an atmosphere of 300 psi steam. During its traverse, pyrolysis and reaction of steam with the nascent char convert nearly all of the organic solids to the gaseous phase. The volatile pyrolysis products pass through the kiln co-currently with the solids and are similarly cracked and steam-reformed within the kiln to fixed gases. Heat for the gasification process is provided by sensible heat recovered from the product gas and the wood decomposition exotherm, making the process inherently very energy-efficient. This report summarizes the work done during the experimental, laboratory-scale phase of development of the W-M biomass gasification process. Two bench-scale experimental gasifiers were constructed and tested: the ''minikiln'', a batch-feed, rotating autoclave; and the ''biogasser'', a stationary, continuous-feed, tubular reactor with zone heating and auger transport. Studies were carried out in these reactors to determine the extent of conversion of biomass solids to gas, and the makeup of the product gas, over a wide range of process conditions. The process variables that were investigated included reactor pressure and temperature, catalyst type and concentration, moisture content and type of biomass feed.

  20. Transformation of indigenous iron-bearing phases during coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, I. S.; Federighi, C.; McKee, D. W.; Patchen, H. J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactivity of coal toward CO2 and steam is enhanced by indigenous mineral impurities or by added catalysts. The prominence of iron compounds among the natural impurities in coal and the known catalytic effect of metallic iron for carbon gasification suggests that such ``iron-specific'' techniques as Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization may provide unique insight into these effects. The early stages of coal gasification have been examined using the cited reactant gases on an Illinois no. 6 coal char at 900-950 °C, with no added catalysts. The iron-bearing minerals in the coal transformed in different ways depending on the gaseous environment. The dominant impurity pyrite FeS2 in the raw coal converted during the preliminary inert-gas pyrolysis at 700 °C to a pyrrhotite Fe1-xS. During CO2 gasification a major portion of the pyrrhotite was converted into magnetite Fe3O4. By contrast, during steam gasification, the iron remained in less oxidized states with important fractions found as wüstite, Fe1-xO, ferrous glass/silicates, and metallic iron. These differences may influence the catalytic activity of the iron in the two gaseous environments.

  1. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats [Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised. (author)

  2. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  3. Hazardous air pollutant testing at the LGTI coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetherold, R.G.; Williams, W.A.; Maxwell, D.P.; Mann, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive hazardous air pollutant test program was conducted in November 1994 at the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI), plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. This program was sponsored by DOE/PETC, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Destec Energy. In May of 1995, additional testing of the hot syngas stream was conducted at the LGTI facility under this same program. DOE/METC provided additional technical support for the hot gas testing effort. In this paper, the sampling and analytical methods used during the November and May test program are summarized. The hot gas testing is described in greater detail. In particular, the hot gas sampling probe and probe insertion/withdrawal system are discussed. The sampling probe was designed to collect particulate and extract gas samples at process temperature and pressure. The design of the probe system is described, and the operating procedures are summarized. The operation of the probe during the testing is discussed, and photographs of the testing are provided. In addition to the summaries and descriptions of the test methodologies, selected preliminary emissions results of the November sampling are included in the paper.

  4. In-situ coal gasification as a progressive coal utilization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, E.V.; Saltykov, I.F.

    1988-02-01

    Describes the Podzemgaz coal gasification station at Angren that was put into operation in 1961. It exploits a 15 m thick and 120-250 m deep seam of brown coal. Technology of in-situ coal gasification is described and its results are compared in regard to cost and efficiency with the results of conventional surface mining. Air blowing is used for most in-situ coal gasification in USSR. Trials using air enriched in oxygen for this purpose were conducted in 1953 and 1957 but did not find wider application. A station using oxygen enrichment technology is planned for Angren at the Apartak section, as cheaper oxygen production methods have emerged. A new concept for in-situ coal gasification using membrane technology (molecular sieves) is set out. This technology assures total chemical and power utilization of coal, yielding not only coal gas but also liquid nitrogen, hydrogen, a mixture of both these gases for ammonia production, and carbonic acid. Prospective site selection for in-situ coal gasification stations is discussed and conditions required for the respective coalfields are outlined.

  5. Characteristics of Adults Seeking Health Care Provider Support Facilitated by Mobile Technology: Secondary Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosak, Kelly; Park, Shin Hye

    2017-12-21

    Mobile health technology is rapidly evolving with the potential to transform health care. Self-management of health facilitated by mobile technology can maximize long-term health trajectories of adults. Little is known about the characteristics of adults seeking Web-based support from health care providers facilitated by mobile technology. This study aimed to examine the following: (1) the characteristics of adults who seek human support from health care providers for health concerns using mobile technology rather than from family members and friends or others with similar health conditions and (2) the use of mobile health technology among adults with chronic health conditions. Findings of this study were interpreted in the context of the Efficiency Model of Support. We first described characteristics of adults seeking Web-based support from health care providers. Using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t test for the continuous variable of age, we compared adults seeking Web-based and conventional support by demographics. The primary aim was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to examine whether chronic health conditions and demographic factors (eg, sex, income, employment status, race, ethnicity, education, and age) were associated with seeking Web-based support from health care providers. The sample included adults (N=1453), the majority of whom were female 57.60% (837/1453), white 75.02% (1090/1453), and non-Hispanic 89.13% (1295/1453). The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 92 years (mean 48.6, standard deviation [SD] 16.8). The majority 76.05% (1105/1453) of participants reported college or higher level of education. A disparity was found in access to health care providers via mobile technology based on socioeconomic status. Adults with annual income of US $30,000 to US $100,000 were 1.72 times more likely to use Web-based methods to contact a health care provider, and adults with an annual income above US $100,000 were 2.41 to

  6. An overview of peat gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwani, D. V.

    Thermal and biological peat gasification processes are reviewed, with research showing that peat is high in both oxygen and hydrogen, and also nitrogen, which can be used to form ammonia as a byproduct. The hydrogen-carbon ratio of peat has been shown to exceed that of subbituminous coal, indicating less of a need to supply more hydrogen in the formation of gaseous fuels. The gasification process involves crushing the peat into particles smaller than 2 mm, which cascade through drying air into a gasifier, where gases from the hydrogasifier induce hydropyrolysis. The char then flows into a reactor with steam and oxygen to make synthesis gas. Minnesota peat has shown the highest hydrocarbon yields in the U.S., and economic comparisons show peak gasification has economic parity with other means of producing SNG. Experiments have also shown the feasibility of wet peat conversion using a peat-water slurry in an anaerobic digestor to produce methane. Building of pilot plants is suggested as necessary to verify existing processes.

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  8. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The

  9. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  10. MODEL OF PROVIDING WITH DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kuzkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper presents research and instructional tools for assessment of providing with the development strategy for information technologies in an organization. Method. The corresponding assessment model is developed which takes into consideration IT-processes equilibrium according to selected efficiency factors of information technologies application. Basic results. The model peculiarity resides in applying neuro-fuzzy approximators where the conclusion is drawn upon fuzzy logic, and membership functions are adjusted through the use of neural networks. For the adequacy testing of the suggested model, due diligence result analysis has been carried out for the IT-strategy executed in the “Navigator” group of companies at the stage of implementation and support of new technologies and production methods. Data visualization with a circle diagram is applied for the comparative evaluation of the analysis results. The chosen model adequacy is proved by the agreement between predictive assessments for IT-strategy performance targets derived by means of the fuzzy cognitive model over 12 months planning horizon and the real values of these targets upon the expiry of the given planning term. Practical significance. The developed model application gives the possibility to solve the problem of sustainability assessment for the process of providing the required IT-strategy realization level based upon the fuzzy cognitive map analysis and to reveal IT-objectives changing tendencies for an organization over the stated planning interval.

  11. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  12. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  13. Modeling integrated biomass gasification business concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Ted Bilek; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pulp mills. This paper describes a generic modeling system for evaluating integrated biomass gasification business...

  14. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  15. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification.

  16. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  17. Sulfur Rich Coal Gasification and Low Impact Methanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the methanol was employed in numerous innovative applications and is a key compound widely used as a building block or intermediate for producing synthetic hydrocarbons, solvents, energy storage medium and fuel. It is a source of clean, sustainable energy that can be produced from traditional and renewable sources: natural gas, coal, biomass, landfill gas and power plant or industrial emissions. An innovative methanol production process from coal gasification is proposed in this work. A suitable comparison between the traditional coal to methanol process and the novel one is provided and deeply discussed. The most important features, with respect to the traditional ones, are the lower carbon dioxide emissions (about 0.3% and the higher methanol production (about 0.5% without any addition of primary sources. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a coal feed/fuel with a high sulfur content allows higher reductions of carbon dioxide emissions. The key idea is to convert hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. This is the Acid Gas to Syngas technology, a completely new and effective route of processing acid gases. The main concept is to feed an optimal ratio of hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide and to preheat the inlet acid gas before the combustion. The reactor is simulated using a detailed kinetic scheme.

  18. Upgrading oil sands bitumen with FLUID COKING and FLEXICOKING technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamienski, P.; Phillips, G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); McKnight, C.; Rumball, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described EMRE's Fluid Coking and Flexicoking technologies that are well suited for upgrading Alberta's heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen into pipelineable crudes or synthetic crudes, which can be further processed into transportation fuels. The Fluid Coking technology uses a fluidized bed reactor that thermally converts the heavy oils into light gases, liquids and coke. The metals and much of the sulphur are concentrated in the coke. Combustion of the coke provides process heat and the remaining coke is sold or stored on site for later recovery. Syncrude Canada currently operates 3 Fluid Coking units in northern Alberta. Flexicoking extends fluid coking by integrating air gasification to produce a carbon monoxide/hydrogen rich fuel gas that helps meet fuel and energy requirements of bitumen recovery and upgrading. The yields of light gas and liquids are similar to those of the Fluid Coking process. The partial combustion of coke provides the process heat for the thermal conversion and gasification steps. The remaining coke is gasified and desulphurized using Flexsorb technology. At present, there are 5 Flexicoking units in operation around the world. Interest in the technology is growing, particularly in locations with large demand for clean fuel or electricity. It is also suitable for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations in Alberta. This presentation outlined the operating principles of the Flexicoking integrated gasification system and compared it with more expensive oxygen gasification processes. tabs., figs.

  19. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castello, Daniele; Rolli, Birgit; Kruse, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet) biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 ◦C, p > 22 MPa) are definitely a challenge for the manufact......Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet) biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 ◦C, p > 22 MPa) are definitely a challenge...

  20. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  1. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Integration of stationary fuel cells with biomass gasification is a developing technology that is in need of demonstration. Innovation for Our...the PureCell®400 Innovation for Our Energy Future Gasification of wood wastes is another potential source of useful fuel gas. Wood waste... Gasification → Cleanup → Fuel Cell Gasification uses high temperature to convert cellulosic materials to fuel gas • Hydrogen (H2) • Carbon monoxide (CO

  2. Computational Studies for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a well proven technology in order to access the coal lying either too deep underground, or is otherwise too costly to be extracted using the conventional mining methods. UCG product gas is commonly used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. During the UCG process, a cavity is formed in the coal seam during its conversion to gaseous products. The cavity grows in a three-dimensional fashion as the gasification proceeds. The UCG process is indeed a result of several complex interactions of various geo-thermo-mechanical processes such as the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, water influx, thermo-mechanical failure, and other geological aspects. The rate of the growth of this cavity and its shape will have a significant impact on the gas flow patterns, chemical kinetics, temperature distributions, and finally the quality of the product gas. It has been observed that there is insufficient information available in the literature to provide clear insight into these issues. It leaves us with a great opportunity to investigate and explore the UCG process, both from the experimental as well as theoretical perspectives. In the development and exploration of new research, experiment is undoubtedly very important. However, due to the excessive cost involvement with experimentation it is not always recommended for the complicated process like UCG. Recently, with the advent of the high performance computational facilities it is quite possible to make alternative experimentation numerically of many physically involved problems using certain computational tools like CFD (computational fluid dynamics). In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physical phenomena, modeling strategies have frequently been utilized for the UCG process. Keeping in view the above, the various modeling strategies commonly deployed for carrying out mathematical modeling of UCG process are described here in

  3. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  4. Providing Fast Discovery in D2D Communication with Full Duplex Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    is done according to a fixed probability. However, this configuration may be not appropriate to meet the 10 milliseconds control plane latency target defined for the next 5th generation (5G) system. In this work, we propose a distributed radio resource management framework supporting full duplex...... technology to provide D2D fast discovery. Such framework provides an algorithm to estimate the number of neighbor devices and to dynamically decide the transmission probability, for adapting to network changes and meeting the 10 milliseconds target. Finally, a signaling scheme is proposed to reduce...... the network interference. Results show that our framework performs better than a static approach, reducing the time it takes to complete the discovery phase. In addition, supporting full duplex allows to further reduce the discovery time compared to half duplex transmission mode....

  5. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  6. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations in Data Sparse Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions of the World, surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), with support from USAID, has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The project is focused on improving weather observations for environmental monitoring and early warning alert systems on a regional to global scale. Instrumentation that has been developed use innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The goal of the project is to make the weather station designs, software, and processing tools an open community resource. The weather stations can be built locally by agencies, through educational institutions, and residential communities as a citizen effort to augment existing networks to improve detection of natural hazards for disaster risk reduction. The presentation will provide an overview of the open source weather station technology and evaluation of sensor observations for the initial networks that have been deployed in Africa.

  7. Providing Sources of Self-Efficacy Through Technology Enhanced Post-Stroke Rehabilitation in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack; Mawson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This research explores the impact of receiving feedback through a Personalised Self-Managed Rehabilitation System (PSMrS) for home-based post-stroke rehabilitation on the users' self-efficacy; more specifically, mastery experiences and the interpretation of biomechanical data. Embedded within a realistic evaluation methodological approach, exploring the promotion of self-efficacy from the utilisation of computer-based technology to facilitate post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home included; semi-structured interviews, quantitative user data (activity and usage), observations and field notes. Data revealed that self-efficacy was linked with obtaining positive knowledge of results feedback. Encouragingly, this also transferred to functional activities such as, confidence to carry out kitchen tasks and bathroom personal activities. Findings suggest the PSMrS was able to provide key sources of self-efficacy by providing feedback which translated key biomechanical data to the users. Users could interpret and understand their performance, gain a sense of mastery and build their confidence which in some instances led to increased confidence to carry out functional activities. However, outcome expectations and socio-structural factors impacted on the self-efficacy associated with the use of the system. Increasing the understanding of how these factors promote or inhibit self-management and self-efficacy is therefore crucial to the successful adoption of technology solutions and promotion of self-efficacy.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cells powered by biomass gasification for high efficiency power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadsbøll, Rasmus Østergaard; Thomsen, Jesper; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Increased use of bioenergy is a very cost-effective and flexible measure to limit changes in the climate and the infrastructure. One of the key technologies toward a higher implementation of biomass is thermal gasification, which enables a wide span of downstream applications. In order to improve...... efficiencies, flexibility and possibly costs of current biomass power generating systems, a power plant concept combining solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gasification is investigated experimentally. The aim of the study is to examine the commercial operation system potential of these two technologies...... part-load operation; and a longer test to investigate stability. The study shows experimentally the potential and feasibility of a SOFC-gasification system with a commercial gasifier and a SOFC stack by measuring the highest reported values of such a system, with biomass-to-electricity efficiencies up...

  9. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS DURING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal treatment is an interesting strategy to dispose of municipal solid waste: it reduces the volume and weight of the material dumped in landfills and generates alternative energy. However, the process emits pollutants, such as dioxins and furans. The present study evaluated MSW gasification-combustion integrated technologies in terms of dioxin and furan emission; and compared the obtained data with literature results on incineration, to point out which operational features differentiate the release of pollutants by these two processes. The results show that the process of integrated gasification and combustion emitted 0.28 ng N-1 m-3, expressed in TEQ (Total Equivalent Toxicity, of PCDD/F, less than the maximum limits allowed by local and international laws, whereas incineration normally affords values above these limits and requires a gas treatment system. The distinct operational conditions of the two thermal processes, especially those related to temperature and the presence of oxygen and fixed carbon, led to a lower PCDD/F emission in gasification.

  11. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  12. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chr. Christodoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experiments were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH, using fuel cardoon and 50% w/w cardoon blended with 50% w/w giant reed respectively. Both experimental campaigns were carried out in similar atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. Apart from the feedstock, the other differences were the gasification medium and the bed material used in each trial. The oxidizing agent at TUD׳s run was O2/steam, whereas CERTH׳s tests used air. When experiments with the cardoon 50% w/w–giant reed 50% w/w blend were performed no agglomeration problems were presented. Consequently, gasification could be achieved in higher temperature than that of pure cardoon which led to the reduction of tar concentration.

  13. Investigation of sewage sludge treatment using air plasma assisted gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striūgas, Nerijus; Valinčius, Vitas; Pedišius, Nerijus; Poškas, Robertas; Zakarauskas, Kęstutis

    2017-06-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation of downdraft gasification process coupled with a secondary thermal plasma reactor in order to perform experimental investigations of sewage sludge gasification, and compare process parameters running the system with and without the secondary thermal plasma reactor. The experimental investigation were performed with non-pelletized mixture of dried sewage sludge and wood pellets. To estimate the process performance, the composition of the producer gas, tars, particle matter, producer gas and char yield were measured at the exit of the gasification and plasma reactor. The research revealed the distribution of selected metals and chlorine in the process products and examined a possible formation of hexachlorobenzene. It determined that the plasma assisted processing of gaseous products changes the composition of the tars and the producer gas, mostly by destruction of hydrocarbon species, such as methane, acetylene, ethane or propane. Plasma processing of the producer gas reduces their calorific value but increases the gas yield and the total produced energy amount. The presented technology demonstrated capability both for applying to reduce the accumulation of the sewage sludge and production of substitute gas for drying of sewage sludge and electrical power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sharing risk between payer and provider by leasing health technologies: an affordable and effective reimbursement strategy for innovative technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard; Hall, Peter; Wallner, Klemens; McCabe, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The challenge of implementing high-cost innovative technologies in health care systems operating under significant budgetary pressure has led to a radical shift in the health technology reimbursement landscape. New reimbursement strategies attempt to reduce the risk of making the wrong decision, that is, paying for a technology that is not good value for the health care system, while promoting the adoption of innovative technologies into clinical practice. The remaining risk, however, is not shared between the manufacturer and the health care payer at the individual purchase level; it continues to be passed from the manufacturer to the payer at the time of purchase. In this article, we propose a health technology payment strategy-technology leasing reimbursement scheme-that allows the sharing of risk between the manufacturer and the payer: the replacing of up-front payments with a stream of payments spread over the expected duration of benefit from the technology, subject to the technology delivering the claimed health benefit. Using trastuzumab (Herceptin) in early breast cancer as an exemplar technology, we show how a technology leasing reimbursement scheme not only reduces the total budgetary impact of the innovative technology but also truly shares risk between the manufacturer and the health care system, while reducing the value of further research and thus promoting the rapid adoption of innovative technologies into clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental study of cyclone pyrolysis - Suspended combustion air gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijun; Feng, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhibo; Sun, Shaozeng; Zhou, Xinwei; Luan, Jiyi; Wu, Jiangquan

    2017-11-01

    Based on the original biomass cyclone gasifier, the cyclone pyrolysis-suspension combustion gasification technology was constituted with a bottom wind ring to build the biochar suspension combustion zone. This technology decouples the biomass pyrolysis, gasification (reduction reaction) and combustion (oxidation reaction) within the same device. With the feed amount and total air fixed, the effect of air rate arrangement on temperature distribution of the gasifier, syngas components and gasification parameters was studied. With the secondary air rate (0.20) and bottom air rate (0.50), the gasification efficiency was best, with gas heating value of 5.15MJ/Nm 3 , carbon conversion rate of 71.50%, gasification efficiency of 50.80% and syngas yield of 1.29Nm 3 /kg. The device with biochar for the tar catalytic cracking was installed at the gasifier outlet, effectively reducing the tar content in syngas, with a minimum value of 1.02g/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wind Generator & Biomass No-draft Gasification Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthew R.

    or an anticipated 1,766 tonnes of biomass. The levelized cost of electricity (COE) ranged from 65.6/GJ (236/MWh) to 208.9/GJ (752/MWh) with the price of generated electricity being most sensitive to the biomass feedstock cost and the levelized COE being significantly impacted by the high cost of compressed storage. The resulting electrical energy available to the grid has an approximate wholesale value of 13.5/GJ (48.6/MWh) based on year 2007 Midwest Reliability Organization (MRO) regional averages [1]. Therefore, the annual average wholesale value of the generated electricity is lower than the cost to produce the electricity. A significant deficiency of this simple comparison is that it does not consider the fact that the proposed wind and biomass gasification hybrid is now a dispatchable source of electricity with a near net-zero lifetime carbon footprint and storage capability. Dispatchable power can profit from market fluctuations that dramatically increase the value of available electricity so that in addition to providing base power the hybrid facility can store energy during low price points in the market and generate at full capacity during points of high prices. Any financial incentive for energy generated from reduced carbon technologies will also increase the value of electricity produced. Also, alternative operational parameters that do not require the costly storage of synthetic natural gas (SNG) will likely result in a more competitive levelized COE. Additional benefits of the system are in the flexibility of transporting wind and biomass energy produced as well as the end use of the energy. Instead of high-voltage electrical transmission a gas line can now be used to transport energy produced by the wind. Syngas can also be further processed into higher energy density liquefied syngas. Liquid fuels can then be transported via commercial freight on existing road infrastructure.

  17. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

  18. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund. to protect human health and the environment from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. CERCLA was amended by the Superfund Amendments and R...

  19. A Portal of Educational Resources: Providing Evidence for Matching Pedagogy with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blas, Nicoletta; Fiore, Alessandro; Mainetti, Luca; Vergallo, Roberto; Paolini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The TPACK (Technology, Pedagogy and Content Knowledge) model presents the three types of knowledge that are necessary to implement a successful technology-based educational activity. It highlights how the intersections between TPK (Technological Pedagogical Knowledge), PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) and TCK (Technological Content Knowledge)…

  20. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    The study is part 2 of 2 in an investigation of gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge in low temperature gasifiers. In this work, solid residuals from thermal gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge were investigated for their potential use as fertilizer....... Ashes from five different low temperature circulating fluidized bed (LT-CFB) gasification campaigns including two mono-sludge campaigns, two sludge/straw mixed fuels campaigns and a straw reference campaign were compared. Experiments were conducted on two different LT-CFBs with thermal capacities of 100...... in a pot experiment with the most promising ash material. Co-gasification of straw and sludge in LT-CFB gasifiers produced ashes with a high content of recalcitrant C, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), a low content of heavy metals (especially cadmium) and an improved plant P availability compared...

  1. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki theme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of output: 555,000 kW) are selling power. In terms of industrial waste, 53 places (209,000 kW) have power generation facilities. The output will be 2 million kW in FY 2000. In relation to the solar energy utilization, the number of solar systems introduced in FY 1996 is 25,000, that of water heating appliances produced in FY 1996 is 170,000. Geothermal power of 494,000 kW and 37,000 kW was introduced for electric power industry use and private use, respectively. Clean energy vehicles have not been so much spread, but the hybrid car was put on sale in 1997. Concerning the coal liquefaction, the R and D were made at a pilot plant of NEDOL process, and operation started in 1997. As to the coal gasification, investigational study and element study on the demonstration plant are being conducted in FY 1997 and 1998, making use of the research results obtained from the existing pilot plant of coal gasification combined power generation

  2. iRoam: Leveraging Mobile Technology to Provide Innovative Point of Need Reference Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MacDonald

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The University of Northern British Columbia’s Geoffrey R. Weller Library can boast of a healthy and stable reference service. While statistical analysis reveals that patron use of this service is on the decline, this is not unlike current trends experienced by many libraries today. The library averages a total of 6300 reference transactions per year, a significant number for a small, research-intensive university serving 3500 FTE. The unanswered question is why are the numbers dropping? One theory is that providing research and reference assistance in a traditional manner is affecting the number of transactions. Reference service is traditionally provided in a stationary manner, whereby patrons are required to visit the reference desk of their own volition. Recognizing that a stationary librarian cannot reach a stationary patron, UNBC library began an innovative roaming reference pilot project in September, 2010. Combining the power of wireless networks, tablet computing and chat services, 5 librarians provided point-of-need, face-to-face and virtual reference services during peak reference hours over the fall 2010 semester. This article outlines the project and technologies employed to make it happen (iPad, apps, instant messaging widgets and wireless networks.

  3. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: environmental assessment of alternative systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report provides a basis for the comparative assessment of the potential performance capability, technological development, and economic and environmental impact associated with the operation of integrated low-Btu coal-gasification/combined-cycle power systems. Characterization of the integrated power system in terms of fuel processing, power production, and auxiliary systems is followed up with comparisons of alternative integrated-plant-design/fuel combinations with reference to the conventional coal-fired power plant, taking into account both economic and environmental factors. The report includes an assessment of the effects of recent regulatory changes on the prospects for integrated power systems and establishes a timetable for the probable commercial development of such systems by the utilities.

  4. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process......, and the design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...

  5. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  6. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  8. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions in Africa (and other global locations), surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The US National Weather Service (NWS) International Activities Office (IAO) in partnership with University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The goal is to provide observations for environmental monitoring, and early warning alert systems that can be deployed at weather services in developing countries. Instrumentation is being designed using innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The initial effort is focused on designing a surface network using GIS-based tools, deploying an initial network in Zambia, and providing training to Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD) staff. The presentation will provide an overview of the project concepts, design of the low cost instrumentation, and initial experiences deploying a surface network deployment in Zambia.

  9. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    ...), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used...

  10. A portal of educational resources: providing evidence for matching pedagogy with technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Blas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The TPACK (Technology, Pedagogy and Content Knowledge model presents the three types of knowledge that are necessary to implement a successful technology-based educational activity. It highlights how the intersections between TPK (Technological Pedagogical Knowledge, PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge and TCK (Technological Content Knowledge are not a sheer sum up of their components but new types of knowledge. This paper focuses on TPK, the intersection between technology knowledge and pedagogy knowledge – a crucial field of investigation. Actually, technology in education is not just an add-on but is literally reshaping teaching/learning paradigms. Technology modifies pedagogy and pedagogy dictates requirements to technology. In order to pursue this research, an empirical approach was taken, building a repository (back-end and a portal (front-end of about 300 real-life educational experiences run at school. Educational portals are not new, but they generally emphasise content. Instead, in our portal, technology and pedagogy take centre stage. Experiences are classified according to more than 30 categories (‘facets’ and more than 200 facet values, all revolving around the pedagogical implementation and the technology used. The portal (an innovative piece of technology supports sophisticated ‘exploratory’ sessions of use, targeted at researchers (investigating the TPK intersection, teachers (looking for inspiration in their daily jobs and decision makers (making decisions about the introduction of technology into schools.

  11. EPS (Electric Particulate Suspension) Microgravity Technology Provides NASA with New Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Gerald M.; Greene, Nate; Xu, Hua

    2004-01-01

    The Electric Particulate Suspension is a fire safety ignition test system being developed at Iowa State University with NASA support for evaluating combustion properties of powders, powder-gas mixtures, and pure gases in microgravity and gravitational atmospheres (quenching distance, ignition energy, flammability limits). A separate application is the use of EPS technology to control heat transfer in vacuum and space environment enclosures. In combustion testing, ignitable powders (aluminum, magnesium) are introduced in the EPS test cell and ignited by spark, while the addition of inert particles act as quenching media. As a combustion research tool, the EPS method has potential as a benchmark design for quenching powder flames that would provide NASA with a new fire safety standard for powder ignition testing. The EPS method also supports combustion modeling by providing accurate measurement of flame-quenching distance as an important parameter in laminar flame theory since it is closely related to characteristic flame thickness and flame structure. In heat transfer applications, inert powder suspensions (copper, steel) driven by electric fields regulate heat flow between adjacent surfaces enclosures both in vacuum (or gas) and microgravity. This simple E-field control can be particularly useful in space environments where physical separation is a requirement between heat exchange surfaces.

  12. Ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling of thermal conversion of methyl chloride: implications for gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Mallika; Rasmussen, Morten Lund; Hashemi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride....... In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH3Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature. Key reactions of CH2Cl with O2 and C2H4...... for which data are scarce were studied by ab initio methods. The model was used to analyze the fate of methyl chloride in gasification processes. The results indicate that CH3Cl emissions will be negligible for most gasification technologies, but could be a concern for fluidized bed gasifiers, in particular...

  13. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  14. Co-combustion and gasification of various biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland). Ahlstrom Pyropower

    1996-12-31

    During the last twenty years the development of fluidized bed combustion and gasification technology has made it possible to increase significantly utilisation of various biomasses in power and heat generation. The forerunner was the pulp and paper industry that has an adequate biomass fuel supply and energy demand on site. Later on municipalities and even utilities have seen biomass as a potential fuel. The range of available biomasses includes wood-based fuels and wastes like bark, wood chips, and saw dust, agricultural wastes like straw, olive waste and rice husk, sludges from paper mills and de-inking plants, other wastes like municipal sludges, waste paper and RDF. Recently new environmental regulations and taxation of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of biomasses in energy generation. However, in many cases available quantities and/or qualities of biomasses are not adequate for only biomass-based energy generation in an economic sense. On the other hand plant owners want to maintain a high level of fuel flexibility and fuel supply security. In some cases disposing by burning is the only feasible way to handle certain wastes. In many cases the only way to fulfil these targets and utilize the energy is to apply co-combustion or gasification of different fuels and wastes. Due to the fact that fluidized bed combustion technology offers a very high fuel flexibility and high combustion efficiency with low emissions it has become the dominating technology in co-combustion applications. This presentation will present Alhstrom`s experiences in co-combustion of biomasses in bubbling beds and Ahlstrom Pyroflow circulating fluidized beds based on about 200 operating references worldwide. CFB gasification will also be discussed 9 refs.

  15. Biomass-oxygen gasification in a high-temperature entrained-flow gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinsong; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Hui; Cao, Xiaowei; Mei, Qinfeng; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2009-01-01

    The technology associated with indirect biomass liquefaction is currently arousing increased attention, as it could ensure a supply of transportation fuels and reduce the use of petroleum. The characteristics of biomass-oxygen gasification in a bench-scale laminar entrained-flow gasifier were studied in the paper. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of some key factors, including reaction temperature, residence time and oxygen/biomass ratio, on the gasification. The results indicated that higher temperature favored H2 and CO production. Cold gas efficiency was improved by N10% when the temperature was increased from 1000 to 1400 degrees C. The carbon conversion increased and the syngas quality was improved with increasing residence time. A shorter residence resulted in incomplete gasification. An optimal residence time of 1.6 s was identified in this study. The introduction of oxygen to the gasifier strengthened the gasification and improved the carbon conversion, but lowered the lower heating value and the H2/CO ratio of the syngas. The optimal oxygen/biomass ratio in this study was 0.4. The results of this study will help to improve our understanding of syngas production by biomass high-temperature gasification.

  16. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  17. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castello, Daniele; Rolli, Birgit; Kruse, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet) biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 ◦C, p > 22 MPa) are definitely a challenge...

  18. Micro-scale Plasma Arc Gasification for Waste Treatment and Energy Production Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As NASA continues to develop technology for spaceflight beyond low earth orbit, we must develop the right systems for sustaining human life on a long duration or planetary mission. Plasma arc gasification (PAG) is an energy efficient mechanism of waste management for power generation and synthetic gas(syngas) production.

  19. Single char particle model for naphthalene reduction in a biomass gasification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu El-Rub, Ziad; Brem, Gerrit; Bramer, Eduard A.

    2015-01-01

    Tar removal in biomass gasification systems is one of the key challenges to overcome for the successful commercialization of this technology. This study focused on tar conversion over the active char particle besides the simultaneous carbon conversion of the char particle. In the presented model,

  20. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

    2005-08-31

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber.

  1. Performance of HT-WGS Catalysts for Upgrading of Syngas Obtained from Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano Bujan, M.; Sanchez Hervas, J. M.

    2009-05-21

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology is being investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which has started in September 2004 and has a duration of five years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participates in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the period 2005-2007 regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification. (Author) 28 refs.

  2. Closing the Loop - Utilization of Secondary Resources by Low Temperature Thermal Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape

    application of low temperature thermal gasification could be applied to reduce the environmental impact of such management systems and increase the value and positive awareness of the resources in question. In the first part of this study, the Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed (LT‐CFB gasifier......) is described.The LT‐CFB gasifier is a technology originally developed for pre‐processing of biomass fuels like cereal straw. In popular terms, the LT‐CFB gasification process separates the inorganic and organic fractions of the straw. The majority of the inorganic material is extracted in one or several...... different ash fractions and the organic material is converted into a hot combustible gas product, which is subsequently combusted in an adjacent boiler. This substantially reduces the influence of the fuels inorganic composition on thecombustion properties. When combining LT‐CFB gasification with existing...

  3. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  4. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  5. Impact of video technology on efficiency of pharmacist-provided anticoagulation counseling and patient comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J; Blair, Elizabeth A; Steeb, David R; Reed, Brent N; Hull, J Heyward; Rodgers, Jo Ellen

    2015-06-01

    Discharge anticoagulation counseling is important for ensuring patient comprehension and optimizing clinical outcomes. As pharmacy resources become increasingly limited, the impact of informational videos on the counseling process becomes more relevant. To evaluate differences in pharmacist time spent counseling and patient comprehension (measured by the Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge [OAK] test) between informational videos and traditional face-to-face (oral) counseling. This prospective, open, parallel-group study at an academic medical center randomized 40 individuals-17 warfarin-naïve ("New Start") and 23 with prior warfarin use ("Restart")-to receive warfarin discharge education by video or face-to-face counseling. "Teach-back" questions were used in both groups. Although overall pharmacist time was reduced in the video counseling group (P counseling method (P = 0.012) suggests the difference between counseling methods was smaller in New Start participants. Following adjustment, mean total time was reduced 8.71 (95% CI = 5.15-12.26) minutes (adjusted P counseling. Postcounseling OAK test scores did not differ. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, and years of education were not predictive of total time or OAK test score. Use of informational videos coupled with teach-back questions significantly reduced pharmacist time spent on anticoagulation counseling without compromising short-term patient comprehension, primarily in patients with prior warfarin use. Study results demonstrate that video technology provides an efficient method of anticoagulation counseling while achieving similar comprehension. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Gasification of empty fruit bunch with carbon dioxide in an entrained flow gasifier for syngas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, N. F. H.; Rasid, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    The main objectives of this work are to study the gasification of EFB in an atmospheric entrained flow gasifier, using carbon dioxide (CO2) as its gasifying agent and to determine the optimum gasification operating conditions, which includes temperature and the oxidant to fuel (OTF) ratio. These were evaluated in terms of important gasification parameters such as the concentration of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) produced the syngas ratio H2/CO and carbon conversion. The gasification reactions take place in the presence of CO2 at very high reaction rate because of the high operating temperature (700°C - 900°C). The use of CO2 as the oxidant for gasification process can improve the composition of syngas produced as in the Boudouard reaction. Rise of reaction temperature which is 900°C will increase the concentration of both H2 & CO by up to 81 and 30 respectively, though their production were decreased after the OTF ratio of 0.6 for temperature 700°C & 800°C and OTF ratio 0.8 for temperature 750°C. The operating temperature must be higher than 850°C to ensure the Boudouard reaction become the more prominent reaction for the biomass gasification. The syngas ratio obtained was in the range of ≈ 0.6 - 2.4 which is sufficient for liquid fuel synthesis. For the carbon conversion, the highest fuel conversion recorded at temperature 850°C for all OTF ratios. As the OTF ratio increases, it was found that there was an increase in the formation of CO and H2. This suggests that to achieve higher carbon conversion, high operating temperature and OTF ratio are preferable. This study provides information on the optimum operating conditions for the gasification of biomass, especially the EFB, hence may upsurge the utilization of biomass waste as an energy source.

  7. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2016-12-20

    The overall objective of the current project was to investigate the high pressure gasification characteristics of a feed containing both coal and biomass. The two feed types differ in their ash contents and ash composition, particularly the alkali content. Gasification of a combined feed of coal and biomass has the potential for considerable synergies that might lead to a dramatic improvement in process economics and flexibility. The proposed study aimed to develop a detailed understanding of the chemistry, kinetics, and transport effects during high pressure gasification of coal-biomass blend feed. Specifically, we studied to develop: (a) an understanding of the catalytic effect of alkali and other inorganic species present in the biomass and coal, (b) an understanding of processing conditions under which synergistic effects of the blending of coal and biomass might be observed. This included the role of particle size, residence time, and proximity of the two feed types, (c) kinetics of high pressure gasification of individual feeds as well as the blends, and (d) development of mathematical models that incorporate kinetics and transport models to enable prediction of gasification rate at a given set of operating conditions, and (e) protocols to extend the results to other feed resources. The goal was to provide a fundamental understanding of the gasification process and guide in optimizing the configurations and design of the next generation of gasifiers. The approach undertaken was centered on two basic premises: (1) the gasification for small particles without internal mass transfer limitations can be treated as the sum of two processes in series (pyrolysis and char gasification) , and (2) the reactivity of the char generated during pyrolysis not only depends on the pressure and temperature but is also affected by the heating rates. Thus low heating rates (10-50 °C/min) typical of PTGA fail to produce char that would typically be formed at high heating rates

  8. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  9. The Toe Dip or the Big Plunge: Providing Teachers Effective Strategies for Using Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gary; Henscheid, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Washington State University has adopted a new long-term immersion model for incorporating technology into teaching in which teachers invest fewer than 20 hours over 16 weeks getting used to the idea of teaching with technology before committing themselves to using it in the classroom. This article examines the four-step approach, its…

  10. Analysis of green liquor influence on coal steam gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczewski Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a clean and efficient technology with a long history dating up to the 19th century. The possible application of this process ranges from gas production and chemical synthesis to the energy sector and therefore this technology holds noticeable potential for future applications. In order to advance it, a new efficient approaches for this complex process are necessary. Among possible methods, a process enhancing additives, such as alkali and alkaline earth metals seems to be a promising way of achieving such a goal, but in practice might turn to be a wasteful approach for metal economy, especially in large scale production. This paper shows alkali abundant waste material that are green liquor dregs as a viable substitute. Green liquor dregs is a waste material known for its low potential as a fuel, when used separately, due to its low organic content, but its high ash content that is also abundant in alkali and alkaline earth elements seems to make it a suitable candidate for application in coal gasification processes. The aim of this work is an evaluation of the suitability of green liquor waste to work as a potential process enhancing additive for coal steam gasification process. During the experiment, three blends of hard coal and green liquor dregs were selected, with consideration for low corrosive potential and possibly high catalytic activity. The mixtures were gasified in steam under four different temperatures. Their energies syngas yield, coal conversion degree and energies of activation were calculated with use of Random Pore Model (RPM and Grain Model (GM which allowed for their comparison.

  11. Science Notebooks for the 21st Century. Going Digital Provides Opportunities to Learn "with" Technology Rather than "from" Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Lori; Paek, Seungoh; Taoka, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Students of today are digital natives who for the most part come to school with experiences that may surpass those of their teachers. They use tablet computers and other devices in their personal lives and are eager to use them in the classroom. For teachers, this means they must integrate technology in ways that allow their students to learn with…

  12. Providing assistive technology in Italy: the perceived delivery process quality as affecting abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Borsci, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The study brings together three aspects rarely observed at once in assistive technology (AT) surveys: (i) the assessment of user interaction/satisfaction with AT and service delivery, (ii) the motivational analysis of AT abandonment, and (iii) the management/design evaluation of AT delivery services. 15 health professionals and 4 AT experts were involved in modelling and assessing four AT Local Health Delivery Service (Centres) in Italy through a SWOT analysis and a Cognitive Walkthrough. In addition 558 users of the same Centres were interviewed in a telephone survey to rate their satisfaction and AT use. The overall AT abandonment was equal to 19.09%. Different Centres' management strategies resulted in different percentages of AT disuse, with a range from 12.61% to 24.26%. A significant difference between the declared abandonment and the Centres' management strategies (p = 0.012) was identified. A strong effect on abandonment was also found due to professionals' procedures (p = 0.005) and follow-up systems (p = 0.002). The user experience of an AT is affected not only by the quality of the interaction with the AT, but also by the perceived quality of the Centres in support and follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation AT abandonment surveys provide useful information for modelling AT assessment and delivery process. SWOT and Cognitive Walkthrough analyses have shown suitable methods for exploring limits and advantages in AT service delivery systems. The study confirms the relevance of person centredness for a successful AT assessment and delivery process.

  13. Final Report on the Proposal to Provide Asian Science and Technology Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahaner, David K. [Asian Technology Information Program

    2003-07-23

    The Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP) conducted a seven-month Asian science and technology information program for the Office:of Energy Research (ER), U.S: Department of Energy (DOE.) The seven-month program consists of 1) monitoring, analyzing, and dissemiuating science and technology trends and developments associated with Asian high performance computing and communications (HPC), networking, and associated topics, 2) access to ATIP's annual series of Asian S&T reports for ER and HPC related personnel and, 3) supporting DOE and ER designated visits to Asia to study and assess Asian HPC.

  14. The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, Victor O.

    2010-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…

  15. PTC test bed upgrades to provide ACSES testing support capabilities at transportation technology center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    FRA Task Order 314 upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed at the Transportation Technology Center to support : testing of PTC systems, components, and related equipment associated with the Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System : (ACSES)...

  16. Fluidized bed gasification of selected South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken to ascertain the suitability of four selected low grade, South African coals for gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed for production of synthesis gas and for the development of integrated gasification combined...

  17. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

  18. The influence of chlorine on the gasification of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, C. von; Struis, R.; Stucki, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Chlorides of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc inhibit the CO{sub 2}-gasification reaction of charcoal. This is observed either by impregnation the wood with the salts before pyrolysis or by mechanically mixing the salts with the charcoal before gasification. Charcoal impregnated or mixed with ammonium chloride reacts more slowly than untreated charcoal. Treating the charcoal with HCl also influences negatively the gasification reactivity, indicating that chlorine plays an important role in the gasification. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Gasification of wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.C. de; Marti, T.; Frankenhaeuser, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A first series of gasification experiments with our fluidized bed gasifier was performed using clean sawdust as fuel. The installation and the analytical systems were tested in a parametric study in which gasification temperature and equivalence ratio were varied. The data acquired will serve to establish the differences between the gasification of clean wood and the gasification of Altholz (scrapwood) and wood/plastics mixtures. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  20. Comparative evaluation of kinetic, equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models for biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Chakma, Sankar; Kumar, Peeush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Mahanta, Pinakeswar [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of biomass gasification has been an active area of research for past two decades. In the published literature, three approaches have been adopted for the modeling of this process, viz. thermodynamic equilibrium, semi-equilibrium and kinetic. In this paper, we have attempted to present a comparative assessment of these three types of models for predicting outcome of the gasification process in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Two model biomass, viz. rice husk and wood particles, have been chosen for analysis, with gasification medium being air. Although the trends in molar composition, net yield and LHV of the producer gas predicted by three models are in concurrence, significant quantitative difference is seen in the results. Due to rather slow kinetics of char gasification and tar oxidation, carbon conversion achieved in single pass of biomass through the gasifier, calculated using kinetic model, is quite low, which adversely affects the yield and LHV of the producer gas. Although equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models reveal relative insensitivity of producer gas characteristics towards temperature, the kinetic model shows significant effect of temperature on LHV of the gas at low air ratios. Kinetic models also reveal volume of the gasifier to be an insignificant parameter, as the net yield and LHV of the gas resulting from 6 m and 10 m riser is same. On a whole, the analysis presented in this paper indicates that thermodynamic models are useful tools for quantitative assessment of the gasification process, while kinetic models provide physically more realistic picture.

  1. High temperature solid oxide fuel cell integrated with novel allothermal biomass gasification. Part II: Exergy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulos, K. D.; Fryda, L.; Karl, J.; Poulou, S.; Kakaras, E.

    Biomass gasification derived gas is a renewable fuel, which can be used for SOFC applications. This work investigates the integration of a near atmospheric solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a novel allothermal biomass steam gasification process into a combined heat and power (CHP) system of less than MW e range. Heat for steam gasification is supplied from SOFC depleted fuel in a fluidised bed (FB) combustor via high temperature sodium heat pipes. In the first paper, the integrated system was modelled in Aspen Plus™ and critical aspects for its feasibility were identified. The aim of this second part is the evaluation of the integrated system in exergy terms. Satisfying allothermal gasification heat demand is illustrated by examining each sub-process involved separately as well as combined. For a relatively low STBR = 0.6, the SOFC fuel utilisation for which the system operates under optimum conditions is U f = 0.7. Above that value additional biomass has to be used in the FB combustor to provide gasification heat with considerable exergy losses. For SOFC operation at current density 2500 A m -2, the system uses 90 kg h -1 biomass, operates with electrical exergetic efficiency 32% producing 140 kW e, while the combined electrical and thermal exergetic efficiency is 35%.

  2. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  3. Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project, Final Scientific / Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Larry, E.

    2007-04-30

    The Mississippi Ethanol (ME) Project is a comprehensive effort to develop the conversion of biomass to ethanol utilizing a proprietary gasification reactor technology developed by Mississippi Ethanol, LLC. Tasks were split between operation of a 1/10 scale unit at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) of Mississippi State University (MSU) and the construction, development, and operation of a full scale pilot unit located at the ME facility in Winona, Mississippi. In addition to characterization of the ME reactor gasification system, other areas considered critical to the operational and economic viability of the overall ME concept were evaluated. These areas include syngas cleanup, biological conversion of syngas to alcohol, and effects of gasification scale factors. Characterization of run data from the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units has allowed development of the factors necessary for scale-up from the small unit to the larger unit. This scale range is approximately a factor of 10. Particulate and tar sampling gave order of magnitude values for preliminary design calculations. In addition, sampling values collected downstream of the ash removal system show significant reductions in observed loadings. These loading values indicate that acceptable particulate and tar loading rates could be attained with standard equipment additions to the existing configurations. Overall operation both the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units proceeded very well. The Pilot Unit was operated as a system, from wood receiving to gas flaring, several times and these runs were used to address possible production-scale concerns. Among these, a pressure feed system was developed to allow feed of material against gasifier system pressure with little or no purge requirements. Similarly, a water wash system, with continuous ash collection, was developed, installed, and tested. Development of a biological system for alcohol production was conducted at Mississippi State University with

  4. Policy and Regulatory Issues for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is in its nascent stage of development. Most of the projects are in the nature of pilot projects. UCG technology requires acceptance in general commercial framework as it matures with the progress of time. Policy and regulatory framework, therefore, is considered here only in the expectation that UCG technology may finally be rolled out sooner than later. India is actively pursuing consultations with major countries which have recorded successes in implementing UCG technology in varying measures. In this background, the discussion on policy and regulatory framework is essentially an effort to capture the broad outline of the understanding of the UCG process in a regulatory construct as compared with other regulatory regimes of similar nature.

  5. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2007-01-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of gasification operation with lignite coal following the 2006 gasifier configuration modifications. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC21, occurring from November 7, 2006, through January 26, 2007. The test campaign began with low sodium lignite fuel, and after 304 hours of operation, the fuel was changed to high sodium lignite, for 34 additional hours of operation. Both fuels were from the North Dakota Freedom mine. Stable operation with low sodium lignite was maintained for extended periods, although operation with high sodium lignite was problematic due to agglomeration formation in the gasifier restricting solids circulation.

  6. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  7. Biochar for Soil Improvement: Evaluation of Biochar from Gasification and Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Fryda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing need for food, energy and materials demands a resource efficient approach as the world’s population keeps increasing. Biochar is a valuable product that can be produced in combination with bio-energy in a cascading approach to make best use of available resources. In addition, there are resources that have not been used up to now, such as, e.g., many agro-residues that can become available. Most agro-residues are not suitable for high temperature energy conversion processes due to high alkali-content, which results in slagging and fouling in conventional energy generation systems. Using agro-residues in thermal processes, therefore, logically moves to lower temperatures in order to avoid operational problems. This provides an ideal situation for the combined energy and biochar production. In this work a slow pyrolysis process (an auger reactor at 400 °C and 600 °C is used as well as two fluidized bed systems for low-temperature (600 °C–750 °C gasification for the combined energy and biochar generation. Comparison of the two different processes focuses here on the biochar quality parameters (physical, chemical and surface properties, although energy generation and biochar quality are not independent parameters. A large number of feedstock were investigated on general char characteristics and in more detail the paper focuses on two main input streams (woody residues, greenhouse waste in order to deduct relationships between char parameters for the same feedstock. It is clear that the process technology influences the main biochar properties such as elemental- and ash composition, specific surface area, pH, in addition to mass yield quality of the gas produced. Slow pyrolysis biochars have smaller specific surface areas (SA and higher PAH than the gasification samples (although below international norms but higher yields. Higher process temperatures and different gaseous conditions in gasification resulted in lower biochar

  8. LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Costa, Giulia; Pantini, Sara; Allegrini, Elisa; Lombardi, Francesco; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics and environmental properties of the bottom ash (BA) generated from thermal treatment of waste may vary significantly depending on the type of waste and thermal technology employed. Thus, to ensure that the strategies selected for the management of these residues do not cause adverse environmental impacts, the specific properties of BA, in particular its leaching behavior, should be taken into account. This study focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with two different management options for BA from thermal treatment of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): landfilling and recycling as a filler for road sub bases. Two types of thermal treatment were considered: incineration and gasification. Potential environmental impacts were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASETECH model. Both non-toxicity related impact categories (i.e. global warming and mineral abiotic resource depletion) and toxic impact categories (i.e. human toxicity and ecotoxicity) were assessed. The system boundaries included BA transport from the incineration/gasification plants to the landfills and road construction sites, leaching of potentially toxic metals from the BA, the avoided extraction, crushing, transport and leaching of virgin raw materials for the road scenarios, and material and energy consumption for the construction of the landfills. To provide a quantitative assessment of the leaching properties of the two types of BA, experimental leaching data were used to estimate the potential release from each of the two types of residues. Specific attention was placed on the sensitivity of leaching properties and the determination of emissions by leaching, including: leaching data selection, material properties and assumptions related to emission modeling. The LCA results showed that for both types of BA, landfilling was associated with the highest environmental impacts in the non-toxicity related categories. For the toxicity

  9. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samolada, M.C. [Dept. Secretariat of Environmental and Urban Planning – Decentralized Area Macedonian Thrace, Taki Oikonomidi 1, 54008 Thessaloniki (Greece); Zabaniotou, A.A., E-mail: azampani@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University Box 455, University Campus, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  10. Advanced geophysical underground coal gasification monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, Robert; Yang, X.; White, J. A.; Ramirez, A.; Wagoner, J.; Camp, D. W.

    2014-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) produces less surface impact, atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gas than traditional surface mining and combustion. Therefore, it may be useful in mitigating global change caused by anthropogenic activities. Careful monitoring of the UCG process is essential in minimizing environmental impact. Here we first summarize monitoring methods that have been used in previous UCG field trials. We then discuss in more detail a number of promising advanced geophysical techniques. These methods – seismic, electromagnetic, and remote sensing techniques – may provide improved and cost-effective ways to image both the subsurface cavity growth and surface subsidence effects. Active and passive seismic data have the promise to monitor the burn front, cavity growth, and observe cavity collapse events. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produces near real time tomographic images autonomously, monitors the burn front and images the cavity using low-cost sensors, typically running within boreholes. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique that has the capability to monitor surface subsidence over the wide area of a commercial-scale UCG operation at a low cost. It may be possible to infer cavity geometry from InSAR (or other surface topography) data using geomechanical modeling. The expected signals from these monitoring methods are described along with interpretive modeling for typical UCG cavities. They are illustrated using field results from UCG trials and other relevant subsurface operations.

  11. Underground coal gasification - the Velenje Coal Mine energy and economic calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konovšek Damjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a viable possibility for the exploitation of vast coal deposits that are unreachable by conventional mining and can meet the energy, economic and environmental demands of the 21st century. Due to the complexity of the process, and the site-specific coal and seam properties, it is important to acknowledge all the available data and past experiences, in order to conduct a successful UCG operation. Slovenia has huge unmined reserves of coal, and therefore offers the possibility of an alternative use of this domestic primary energy source. According to the available underground coal gasification technology, the energy and economic assessment for the exploitation of coal to generate electricity and heat was made. A new procedure for the estimation of the energy efficiency of the coal gasification process, which is also used to compare the energy analyses for different examples of coal exploitation, was proposed, as well as the technological schemes and plant operating mode in Velenje, and the use of produced synthetic coal gas (syngas. The proposed location for the pilot demonstration experiment in Velenje Coal Mine was reviewed and the viability of the underground coal gasification project in Velenje was determined.

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  13. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  14. Valorization of horse manure through catalytic supercritical water gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sonil; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2016-06-01

    The organic wastes such as lignocellulosic biomass, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and livestock manure have attracted attention as alternative sources of energy. Cattle manure, a waste generated in surplus amounts from the feedlot, has always been a chief environmental concern. This study is focused on identifying the candidacy of horse manure as a next generation feedstock for biofuel production through supercritical water gasification. The horse manure was gasified in supercritical water to examine the effects of temperature (400-600°C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15-45min) at a pressure range of 23-25MPa. The horse manure and resulting biochar were characterized through carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulfur (CHNS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of alkali catalysts such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 at variable concentrations (1-2wt%) were investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields. Supercritical water gasification of horse manure with 2wt% Na2CO3 at 600°C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45min revealed maximum hydrogen yields (5.31mmol/g), total gas yields (20.8mmol/g) with greater carbon conversion efficiency (43.1%) and enhanced lower heating value of gas products (2920kJ/Nm(3)). The manure-derived biochars generated at temperatures higher than 500°C also demonstrated higher thermal stability (weight loss 70wt%) suggesting their application in enhancing soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The results propose that supercritical water gasification could be a proficient remediation technology for horse manure to generate hydrogen-rich gas products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Japanese Projections: A Trip to Tokyo Provides a Glimpse into the Technology of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly describes one person's experience with the juxtaposition of ancient religion, pop culture, and high technology of Tokyo. She describes the amazing sights she saw at the Hitachi Central Research Laboratory on a tour of the company's digital projector factory and development labs.

  16. Migrants and Mobile Technology Use: Gaps in the Support Provided by Current Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Carrie Demmans

    2017-01-01

    Our current understanding of how migrants use mobile tools to support their communication and language learning is inadequate. This study, therefore, explores the learner-initiated use of technologies to support their comprehension, production, and acquisition of English following migration to Canada. Information about migrant use of technologies…

  17. Inventions shaping technological trajectories: do existing patent indicators provide a comprehensive picture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Sam; Appio, Francesco Paolo; van Looy, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Since Schumpeter’s (The theory of economic development, 1934) seminal work on economic development, innovation is considered as one of the main drivers of firm performance and economic growth. At the same time, technological innovations vary considerably in terms of impact with only a minority of

  18. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments ("receiver" perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others' work ("giver" perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students were randomly assigned in two…

  19. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  20. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  1. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  2. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  3. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  6. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  7. Through the Looking Glass: Real-Time Video Using 'Smart' Technology Provides Enhanced Intraoperative Logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Andrew C W; Mallidi, Hari R; Baldwin, John C; Sandoval, Elena; Cohn, William E; Frazier, O H; Singh, Steve K

    2016-01-01

    In the setting of increasingly complex medical therapies and limited physician resources, the recent emergence of 'smart' technology offers tremendous potential for improved logistics, efficiency, and communication between medical team members. In an effort to harness these capabilities, we sought to evaluate the utility of this technology in surgical practice through the employment of a wearable camera device during cardiothoracic organ recovery. A single procurement surgeon was trained for use of an Explorer Edition Google Glass (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA) during the recovery process. Live video feed of each procedure was securely broadcast to allow for members of the home transplant team to remotely participate in organ assessment. Primary outcomes involved demonstration of technological feasibility and validation of quality assurance through group assessment. The device was employed for the recovery of four organs: a right single lung, a left single lung, and two bilateral lung harvests. Live video of the visualization process was remotely accessed by the home transplant team, and supplemented final verification of organ quality. In each case, the organs were accepted for transplant without disruption of standard procurement protocols. Media files generated during the procedures were stored in a secure drive for future documentation, evaluation, and education purposes without preservation of patient identifiers. Live video streaming can improve quality assurance measures by allowing off-site members of the transplant team to participate in the final assessment of donor organ quality. While further studies are needed, this project suggests that the application of mobile 'smart' technology offers not just immediate value, but the potential to transform our approach to the practice of medicine.

  8. Product development and services provided by the German National Library of Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemann, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The TIB (i.e. German National Library of Science and Technology) is one of the largest libraries in the world specialised in technical and scientific literature, whose task is to collect, archive and grant access nationwide to documents coming from all over the world and written in all languages. These services are mainly meant for the academic world and Research and Development in the industrial field. In co-operation with its major customers, the library has also developed several produc...

  9. New advanced technologies to provide decentralised and secure access to medical records: case studies in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, Catherine; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Allaert, François André; Fassa, Maniane; Bourquard, Karima; Boire, Jean-Yves; de Vlieger, Paul; Maigne, Lydia; Breton, Vincent

    2009-08-07

    The main problem for health professionals and patients in accessing information is that this information is very often distributed over many medical records and locations. This problem is particularly acute in cancerology because patients may be treated for many years and undergo a variety of examinations. Recent advances in technology make it feasible to gain access to medical records anywhere and anytime, allowing the physician or the patient to gather information from an "ephemeral electronic patient record". However, this easy access to data is accompanied by the requirement for improved security (confidentiality, traceability, integrity, ...) and this issue needs to be addressed. In this paper we propose and discuss a decentralised approach based on recent advances in information sharing and protection: Grid technologies and watermarking methodologies. The potential impact of these technologies for oncology is illustrated by the examples of two experimental cases: a cancer surveillance network and a radiotherapy treatment plan. It is expected that the proposed approach will constitute the basis of a future secure "google-like" access to medical records.

  10. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350 °C-550 °C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20 kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  12. Survey for making a data book on the new energy technological development. Waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traversal themes; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika, gas ka oyobi odanteki tema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper concerns the following six fields among the fields of new energy technology: the waste-fueled power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction and coal gasification. The up-to-date data made public were collected and classified into the following items: outline of systems, specific examples of the introduction in Japan and other countries, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems, production quantity/actual amount of introduction/projected amount of introduction (target), cost, terminology, listing of main related companies and groups, etc. Further, arrangement was traversally conducted on the outlook of the energy introduction by the Japanese government and measures taken for development of new energy by Japan and other countries. Namely, the items of the book are as follows: classification of new energy, outlook for energy supply/demand, cost of new energy technology (power generation) and outlook for the introduction, menus of buying surplus electricity of electric companies, policies/laws and rules/subsidy systems concerning the new energy introduction in Japan and overseas, and a list of organizations engaged in the new energy technological development.

  13. Decentralized heat and power supply from biogenic solid fuels. A technical and economic evaluation of the gasification in comparison to combustion. 2. ed.; Dezentrale Strom- und Waermeerzeugung aus biogenen Festbrennstoffen. Eine technische und oekonomische Bewertung der Vergasung im Vergleich zur Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A.

    2007-04-15

    The previous technologies for the development of the decentralized combined heat and power generation are based on various concepts with different ripeness. Gasification is regarded as an energetically promising technology, which is not yet marketable. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on an economic evaluation of the decentralized power and heat production by gasification of biogenic solid fuels and on a comparison with existing alternative technologies of combustion. In particular, the author examines the following central issues: (a) Which technologies of gasification can be regarded as promising with respect to a decentralized application?; (b) How are the technologies of gasification to be evaluated with respect to the alternative technologies of combustion from technical and economic view? For the comparative view of these different techniques, an electrical output of 500 W is specified as a uniform characteristic value of performance according to the decentralized gasification and combustion.

  14. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  15. Allothermal steam gasification of biomass in cyclic multi-compartment bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier/combustor - new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuta, Ion; Leclerc, Arnaud; Larachi, Faïçal

    2010-05-01

    A new reactor concept of allothermal cyclic multi-compartment fluidized bed steam biomass gasification is proposed and analyzed numerically. The concept combines space and time delocalization to approach an ideal allothermal gasifier. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in periodic time and space sequences of steam biomass gasification and char/biomass combustion is simulated in which the exothermic combustion compartments provide heat into an array of interspersed endothermic steam gasification compartments. This should enhance unit heat integration and thermal efficiency and procure N(2)-free biosyngas with recourse neither to oxygen addition in steam gasification nor contact between flue and syngas. The dynamic, one-dimensional, multi-component, non-isothermal model developed for this concept accounts for detailed solid and gas flow dynamics whereupon gasification/combustion reaction kinetics, thermal effects and freeboard-zone reactions were tied. Simulations suggest that allothermal operation could be achieved with switch periods in the range of a minute supporting practical feasibility for portable small-scale gasification units. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Application of dry stackable tailings technologies : providing the base for reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The tailings containment structures are some of the largest man made features on the planet. This presentation demonstrated that dry stackable tailings technology may reduce the volume of the accumulated fluid fine tailings. Dry stackable tailings can contribute to boreal forest reclamation and reduce water requirement from the Athabasca River. Much of the water used for the production of each barrel of bitumen is recycled. The water is tied up in the pore spaces of the mineral sand, silt, and clay component which forms the mature fine tailings (MFT) that are contained behind large dykes. Syncrude and Suncor have used a wide variety of technologies to create a dry stackable tailings from this fluid fine tailings substrate. The availability of dry stackable tailings will open options for reclamation strategies that end with the original wetlands or boreal forest. Some of the tailings management options that would lead to a dry stackable tailings naturally also significantly decrease the barrels of water lost with each barrel of bitumen production. These options were discussed along with an analysis of their impact on recycle and pore water quality and quantity. There is an opportunity to remove residual bitumen during the transfer of fluid fine tailings to recover water and create dry stackable tailings. If this bitumen removal is extensive enough, it might be possible to use the dry stackable tailings directly as a reclamation material. tabs., figs.

  19. Catalytic gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. As a biomass crop, aquatic species are particularly attractive because their cultivation does not compete with land-based agricultural activities designed to produce food for consumption or export. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feed for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost associated with drying it is too high. This research seeks to address this problem by employing water as the gasification medium. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 Wa after a 30 s reaction time. Higher concentrations of glucose (up to 22% by weight in water) resulted in incomplete conversion under these conditions. The gas contained hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, propane, and traces of other hydrocarbons. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are easily converted to hydrogen by commercial technology available in most refineries. This prior work utilized capillary tube reactors with no catalyst. A larger reactor system was fabricated and the heterogeneous catalytic gasification of glucose and wet biomass slurry of higher concentration was studied to attain higher conversions.

  20. Technologies for coal based hydrogen and electricity co-production power plants with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, C.G.; Tzimas, E.; Peteves, S.D.

    2009-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants allow the combination of the production of hydrogen and electricity because coal gasification process produces a syngas that can be used for the production of both commodities. A hydrogen and electricity power plant has been denominated as HYPOGEN. This report starts by reviewing the basics of the coal gasification process and continues by trying to map all the technological options currently available in the market as well as possible future trends that can be included in a HYPOGEN system. Besides, it offers an overview of the operating conditions and outputs of each process in order to provide the modeller with a useful information tool enabling an easier analysis of compatibilities and implementation of the model. 119 refs., 53 figs., 38 tabs.

  1. Biomass gasification, the key to efficient electricity and fuel supply? Conference proceedings; Biomasse-Vergasung - der Koenigsweg fuer eine effiziente Strom- und Kraftstoffbereitstellung? Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltschmitt, M. [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Hofbauer, H. (eds.) [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    From the technological view, the decisive factor in efficient supply of electric power or biogenic fuels is the gasification of biogenic solids for production of a synthesis gas of defined qualities. For this reason, this has been and still is one of the most researched technologies ever. Promising results were achieved with wood gasification and with liquid fuels (sun-fuels or syn-fuels). This conference was to provide an outline, a review and a critical assessment of the state of the art of gasification of biogenic solids. The papers are contained in this proceedings volume. (uke) [German] Fuer die effiziente Bereitstellung elektrischer Energie bzw. biogener Kraftstoffe ist aus technologischer Sicht die Vergasung der biogenen Festbrennstoffe zur Erzeugung eines Synthesegases mit definierten Eigenschaften entscheidend. Deshalb war und ist diese Technologie weltweit Gegenstand zahlreicher Forschungs- und Entwicklungsaktivitaeten. So wurden beispielsweise im Bereich der Stromerzeugung aus Holz in der juengeren Vergangenheit sehr vielversprechende Erfahrungen gesammelt, die erwarten lassen, dass diese Technologie in den kommenden Jahren den technischen Durchbruch schaffen und damit kommerziell verfuegbar sein koennte. Aehnliches gilt auch fuer die Bereitstellung fluessiger Bioenergietraeger wie z. B. Sun- oder Syn-Fuels. Vor diesem Hintergrund war es das Ziel der Internationalen Tagung Biomasse-Vergasung - Der Koenigsweg fuer eine effiziente Strom- und Kraftstoffbereitstellung?'', den aktuellen Stand der Technik zur Vergasung biogener Festbrennstoffe sowohl zur Stromerzeugung als auch zur Bereitstellung synthetisierter Kraftstoffe umfassend darzustellen, zu diskutieren und kritisch zu bewerten. Damit wurde eine Standortbestimmung zum technischen Stand der Biomasse-Vergasung erarbeitet, die in dem hier vorliegenden Tagungsband umfassend dokumentiert ist. (orig./Uke)

  2. Software to provide security for Web Browser Cookies and Passwords using Trusted Computing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kannamanani, R.

    2008-01-01

    For further development and enhancement of browser security, there is need to develop something new which provides the better security for the user credential information which will be stored in user PC through the web browser. Although we have many softwares which provide the security functionalities for system, there are many vulnerabilities, so for this there is need to use some functions and specifications mentioned by Trusted Computing group. Therefore, the goal of this semester thesis w...

  3. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hardy, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bohn, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smart, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hovsapian, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Saxena, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kahl, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pratt, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-28

    The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

  4. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. The influence of catalytic additives on kinetics of coal gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubek Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic coal gasification is a process that has the potential to become one of the efficient industrial technology of energy production. For this reason, the subject of this study was to analyze the kinetics of catalytic gasification of ‘Janina’ coal with steam. Isothermal measurements were performed at 800 °C, 900 °C, 950 °C and 1000 °C at a pressure of 1 MPa using cations of sodium, potassium and calcium as catalysts. During examination the thermovolumetric method was used. This method allows to determine the formation rates of a gaseous product such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide as well as their contribution to the resulting gas. Moreover, the influence of catalysts on the kinetics of CO and H2 formation at various temperatures was determined and the kinetics parameters were calculated with the use of isoconversional model, Random Pore Model and Grain Model. The obtained results confirmed the positive effect of catalysts on the coal gasification process. The catalytic measurements were characterized by higher reaction rate and shorter duration of the process, and the calculated values of the kinetic parameters were lower than for the gasification process without the addition of catalysts.

  6. CFD simulations of influence of steam in gasification agent on parameters of UCG process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is considered to be a perspective and constantly developing technology. Nevertheless it is a very complex and technically difficult process, which results depend on many variables. Mathematical models enable detailed analysis of UCG process – for example – give possibility of prediction of syngas composition depending on applied gasification medium. In practice, mixtures of oxygen, air and steam are the most frequently used as converting agents. Steam is injected to the reactor in order to obtain combustible components. Nevertheless higher concentrations of steam create a problem of reduction of temperature in reactor. This issue of amount of steam in reacting system was analyzed in given paper. Computer simulations were used as test method applied in presented work. Calculations were carried by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF method and Ansys Fluent software. Changes in outlet concentrations of syngas components (CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, H2, in relation with time of process, were presented. Composition of product gas, its heating value and temperature of process were also examined (on outlet of rector in function of content of steam in gasification agent (which was mixture of O2 and H2O. Obtained results indicated a possibility of conduct of stable gasification process (with predictable characteristic of gas. The simulation also demonstrated a possibility of deterioration of conditions in real reactors as a results of applying of too high amounts of steam.

  7. Process simulation of biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Wayne; Reynolds, Anthony; Kennedy, David

    2015-03-01

    Biomass gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (BG-SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are of major interest in the context of climate change mitigation, energy security and increasing energy efficiency. Aspen Plus is employed to simulate various BG-SOFC CHP systems. The aim of the research work is to investigate the technical feasibility of these systems and to study the influence of important operating parameters and examine integration options. Systems based on dual fluidised bed steam gasification and tubular SOFC technologies are modelled. The cathode recycle and electric heater integration options are not attractive in comparison to the base case anode recycle system. Thermal integration, i.e. using SOFC flue gas as gasifier oxidant, is desirable. Lowering the syngas preheat temperature (prior to SOFC anodes) is highly recommended and is more practical than lowering the cathode air preheat temperature. Results of the parametric study indicate that: steam to carbon ratio and biomass moisture content should be as low as possible; fuel utilisation factor can change the mode of operation of the plant (focus on electricity or heat); high temperature syngas cleaning is very attractive; gasification air preheating is more attractive than gasification steam superheating. High efficiencies are predicted, proving the technical feasibility of BG-SOFC CHP systems.

  8. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  9. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  10. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  11. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  12. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  13. Examination of oxygen-enriched gasification process for municipal solid wastes in south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongyu [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). EcoTopia Science Inst.; Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yuan, Haoran; Zuhong, Xiong; Chen, Yong [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion; Kobayashi, Noriyuki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gupta, Ashwani K. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kitagawa, Kuniyuki [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). EcoTopia Science Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on the MSW gasification using oxygen is conducted to determine the favorable conditions for the production of increased syngas production of higher heating value. The technology utilizes oxygen enrichment of air for minimum combustion of the waste to increase heating value of the fuel due to decreased amounts of nitrogen in the syngas. The results showed that increase in equivalence ratio (ER) decreased CO and CH{sub 4} content in the syngas while H{sub 2} content increased at ER = 0.25 and then decreased. When the ER is greater than 0.30, the gasification controlled reaction change to combustion controlled. The equivalence ratio of in the range of 0.2-0.3 is the most suitable range for oxygen-enriched gasification. The calculated and experimental results showed good agreement. The equivalence ratio is crucial in oxygen enriched gasification of MSW since it impacts the heating value and gas phase components of the syngas produced.

  14. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix C. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: comparison of alternative systems. 1977 technology status report. [246 references w. abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental aspects of low-Btu gasification/combined-cycle power-generation (LBG/CCPG) plants are assessed, using available published data. Six base-case plants, based on three different gasifiers and two different coals, are investigated. A representative combined power cycle is selected for analysis, and material and energy balances for the six systems are developed. Emissions of various air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and discharge rates of aqueous effluents are also calculated. The costs of electricity produced are derived for the six systems, using estimated plant-investment and operating costs. These costs and the emissions of various pollutants are compared with those for a conventional 500-MWe coal-based power plant using flue-gas cleaning and in compliance with the federal New Source Performance Standards. Finally, the commercialization potential of coal-based combined-cycle plants, based on the technical feasibility of building a first plant in the 1985 period and on economic viability, is evaluated. This evaluation is based on the current status of research and development programs for various components of the combined-cycle plant, such as gas turbines and fuel-gas-cleaning systems, and on the status of the demonstration plant.

  15. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO{sub 2}-capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-04-17

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  16. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  17. Supporting Early Childhood Educators' Use of Embedded Communication Strategies by Providing Feedback via Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…

  18. Providing Students with an Easystart to Higher Education: The Emerging Role of Digital Technologies to Facilitate Students' Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshire, Claire; Cullen, W. Rod

    2014-01-01

    The transition to higher education can be problematic for some students as they adapt to institutional procedures and degree level working at the same time as developing new social networks. To help facilitate these complex transitions institutions are increasingly turning towards digital technologies to provide both flexible access to resources…

  19. Catalytic and noncatalytic gasification of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of pyrolysis oil was studied in a fluidized bed over a wide temperature range (523−914 °C) with and without the use of nickel-based catalysts. Noncatalytically, a typical fuel gas was produced. Both a special designed fluid bed catalyst and a crushed commercial fixed bed catalyst showed

  20. Biomass utilization for the process of gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Spěvák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as one of the renewable resources of energy has bright future in utilization, especially in obtaining various forms of energy (heat, electrical energy, gas.According to the conception of energy policy of the Czech Republic and according to the fulfillment of the indicators of renewable resources using until the year 2010, the research of thermophysical characteristics of biofuels was realized.There were acquired considerable amount of results by combustion and gasification process on the basis of three-year project „Biomass energy parameters.” By means of combustion and gasification tests of various (biomass fuels were acquired the results which were not published so far.Acquired results are published in the fuel sheets, which are divided into four parts. They consist of information on fuel composition, ash composition, testing conditions and measurand overview. Measurements were realized for the process of combustion, fluidized-bed gasification and fixed-bed gasification. Following fuels were tested: Acacia, Pine, Birch, Beech, Spruce, Poplar, Willow, Rape, Amaranth, Corn, Flax, Wheat, Safflower, Mallow, and Sorrel.

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  2. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  3. Multi Staged Gasification Systems - A New Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M.B.; Koidl, F.; Kreutner, G.; Giovannini, A. (MCI - Univ. of Applied Science for Environmental-, Process- and Biotechnology, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)); Kleinhappl, M.; Roschitz, C.; Hofbauer, H. (Austrian Bioeneregy Centre, Graz (Austria)); Gruber, F. (GE Jenbacher, Jenbach (Austria)); Krueger, J. (SynCraft Engineering, Schwaz (Austria))

    2008-10-15

    Multi-staged fixed bed (MFB) gasification systems represent one of the most promising and effective methods of transforming solid biomass into power and heat (CHP). The underlying magic of this gasification process is, that a clean producer gas suitable for gas engines at high cold-gas efficiency rates can be produced. These two attributes allow multi-staged gasification systems to minimize the efforts for gas cleaning, while maximizing the energy retrieval out of the biomass. Though already demonstrated in small-scale, MFB gasification becomes a challenge when thinking of commercial-sized plants above 150kW{sub el}. In such a dimension especially the pressure loss over the char bed and bulk instabilities become the major process obstacles. After years of investigation the MCI developed a new process pathway which allows avoiding these bottle necks while maintaining the advantages of MFB systems. The core of the new staged alignment is the combination of a partial-oxidation-accelerator with a floating-bed-reduction-reactor. The process has already achieved technical proof of concept during ongoing investigations at a 250 kW{sub th} pilot plant in Jenbach and will be upscaled to demonstration plant size as soon as sufficient long time experience is gained

  4. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part I: effect of operational conditions on product gas characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of R&D activities on the development of gasification and reforming technologies for energy and chemical recovery from biomass resources. Gasification of the Japanese cedar wood has been investigated under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Parametric tests by varying the residence times, gasification temperatures, equivalence ratios (ERs) and steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios were performed to determine their effects on the product gas characteristics. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were preformed to predict the equilibrium gas composition and compared with the experimental value. We found that the product gas characteristics in terms of the H(2)/CO ratio, CO(2)/CO ratio, and CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons concentrations are significantly affected by the operating conditions used. Increasing the residence time decreased the CO(2)/CO ratio; however, a nominal effect was noticed on H(2) concentration as a function of the residence time. At sufficient residence time, increasing the temperature led to higher H(2) yields, CO efficiency and higher heating value (HHV) of the product gas. The presence of steam during gasification effectively enhanced the proportion of H(2) in the product gas. However, higher S/C ratio reduced the HHV of the product gas. Increasing the ER from 0 to 0.3 increased the H(2) yields and CO efficiency and decreased the HHV of the product gas. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at low gasification temperatures was relatively higher than that at high temperature gasification. The evolution of CH(4) and lighter hydrocarbons at high gasification temperatures hardly varied over the investigated operating conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1993-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  6. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  7. Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerle, I.; Chambert, L.; Hallgren, A.; Hellgren, R.; Johansson, Anders; Mirazovic, M.; Maartensson, R.; Padban, N.; Ye Zhicheng [comps.] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB biomass gasifier. A thorough feasibility study was made during the first half year including extensive calculations on an internal circulating fluidized bed concept. The experimental phase was intended to study pressurized gasification up to 2.5 MPa (N{sub 2}, air) at temperatures in the interval 850-950 deg C. The more specific experimental objective was to examine the impact from various process conditions on the product formation as well as on the function of the different systems. The technical concept has been able to offer novel approaches regarding biomass feeding and PCFB gasification. The first gasification test run was made in December 1993 after almost 18 months of installation work. Extensive work was made during 1994 and the first half of 1995 to find the balance of the PCFB gasifier. It turned out to be very difficult to find operating parameters such that gave a stable circulation of the bed material during gasification mode. Apparently, the produced gas partly changed the pressure profile over the riser which in turn gave unstable operation. After a comprehensive investigation involving more than 100 hours of tests runs it was decided to leave the circulating bed concept and focus on bubbling bed operations. The test rig is currently operating as a bubbling bed gasifier. 4 refs, 24 figs, 6 tabs

  8. H{sub 2} rich syngas by selective CO{sub 2} removal from biomass gasification in a dual fluidized bed system - Process modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proell, Tobias; Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9, 1060 Wien (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    A process model of dual fluidized bed gasification is presented based on mass- and energy balances. The model further covers the evaluation of thermodynamic equilibrium states. The gasification is investigated for the special case that CaO/CaCO{sub 3} is used as bed material allowing selective transport of CO{sub 2} from the gasification reactor to the combustion reactor by repeated carbonation and calcination. Experimental data are used to determine the model parameters. An empirical approach towards the kinetics of fuel conversion allows prediction of process behaviour at varied fuel water content. The selective transport of CO{sub 2} results in high H{sub 2} contents in the produced syngas. The lower operating temperatures in the gasification reactor increase the efficiency of energy conversion. The results are in agreement with experimental data and show the thermodynamic limitations of the technology. (author)

  9. Use of multimedia technology to provide solutions to existing curriculum problems: Virtual frog dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Christine

    The objective of this research was to determine whether currently available multimedia technology can resolve existing problems in the K--12 science curriculum. There are several practical and ethical problems relating to the classroom use of animal dissection and this led to the selection of hands-on frog dissection as the curriculum activity where the use of multimedia was investigated. The major finding was that multimedia-based virtual dissection was more effective than hands-on dissection in helping students learn about frog anatomy. Moreover, this result was achieved when the time available for the virtual dissection was approximately 44% less than that available for hands-on dissection. Examination of possible relationships between student characteristics and achievement revealed that students' attitudes to educational uses of animal dissection and their computer experience were positively correlated with their achievement scores. No relationships were found between either student gender or dissection experience and achievement test outcomes. Students rated virtual dissection as the easier of the two types of dissection, though they gave equivalent ratings for their enjoyment of virtual and hands-on dissection. Despite favorable feedback on the virtual dissection, a significant majority of students stated that they felt they would be "missing-out" on a valuable experience if they were not given the opportunity to perform a hands-on frog dissection. Comparing how students spent their time during each type of dissection showed that students spent a significantly larger proportion of their time On-Task when using the multimedia-based virtual dissection. In particular, the average increase in the proportion of time spent on activities directly related to the subject matter was over 36%. Time spent On-Task had a significant positive relationship with achievement for hands-on dissection. It may play a similar role for achievement with virtual dissection, but the

  10. Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project... availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project Preliminary... the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, which would be...

  12. Integration of National Laboratory and Low-Activity Waste Pre-Treatment System Technology Service Providers - 16435

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Karthik H.; Thien, Michael G.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Herman, Connie C.

    2017-03-08

    The National Laboratories are a critical partner and provide expertise in numerous aspects of the successful execution of the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste Program. The National Laboratories are maturing the technologies of the Low-Activity Waste Pre-Treatment System (LAWPS) consistent with DOE Order 413.3B “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets” expectations. The National Laboratories continue to mature waste forms, i.e. glass and secondary waste grout, for formulations and predictions of long-term performance as inputs to performance assessments. The working processes with the National Laboratories have been developed in procurements, communications, and reporting to support the necessary delivery-based technology support. The relationship continues to evolve from planning and technology development to support of ongoing operations and integration of multiple highly coordinated facilities.

  13. Ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling of thermal conversion of methyl chloride: implications for gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Mallika; Rasmussen, Morten Lund; Hashemi, Hamid; Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Pelucchi, Matteo; Faravelli, Tiziano; Marshall, Paul

    2018-01-24

    Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride. In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH 3 Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature. Key reactions of CH 2 Cl with O 2 and C 2 H 4 for which data are scarce were studied by ab initio methods. The model was used to analyze the fate of methyl chloride in gasification processes. The results indicate that CH 3 Cl emissions will be negligible for most gasification technologies, but could be a concern for fluidized bed gasifiers, in particular in low-temperature gasification. The present work illustrates how ab initio theory and chemical kinetic modeling can help to resolve emission issues for thermal processes in industrial scale.

  14. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate options for increasing the electrical efficiency of decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants fuelled with biomass compared to conventional technology, this research explored the performance of an alternative plant design based on thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide...... fuel cells (SOFC). Based on experimental data from a demonstrated 0.6 MWth two-stage gasifier, a model of the gasifier plant was developed and calibrated. Similarly, an SOFC model was developed using published experimental data. Simulation of a 3 MWth plant combining two-stage biomass gasification...

  15. Application tests of a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG is stored under low temperature and high pressure. It has to be gasified before it is used. Therefore, LNG gasification unit is essential and it is vital to the high-efficiency utilization of LNG. In this paper, a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit was developed. Adopted in this unit are some innovative technologies authorized with the national patent of invention, such as the umbrella-shape gas flow circle unit, the flue gas circulation system and the water feeding system, which help to guarantee its operation safety and increase its operation efficiency. After it was justified in lab test, the unit for industrial application was designed and manufactured and then tested to verify its design rationality. The results show that the new-type LNG rapid gasification unit meets the design requirements in the aspect of efficiency, exhaust gas loss, radiation loss and fuel gas consumption rate; at a load of 1800–2200 m3/h, its efficiency is over 95%; at a load of 1976.0 m3/h which is close to the design value of 2000 m3/h, its efficiency is 96.34% or even up to 2800 m3/h. This new-type LNG rapid gasification unit is adaptable to a large range of loads and can adapt to the rapid increase of external load. Its fuel gas consumption rate is only 1.5%, which is in the range of energy conservation. It presents the advantages of high heating efficiency, rapid startup, high gasification rate, compact structure, small land occupation and invulnerability to the environment, therefore, it is applicable to the middle and small independent regions which cannot be connected to the natural gas supply pipeline networks due to various reasons.

  16. Combined Air Sparge and Bioremediation of an Underground Coal Gasification Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covell, J.R.; Thomas, M.H.

    1996-12-01

    EG&G Technical Services of West Virginia (TSWV) Inc. is successfully remediating a former underground coal gasification (UCG) test site in northeastern Wyoming. EG&G is demonstrating the effectiveness of combined air sparge and biostimulation technology. This project is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE ) - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the lease holder of the site. UCG testing from 1976 through 1979 contaminated three water-bearing units at the site with benzene. Previous pump and treat operations at the site showed the presence of a persistent non-dissolved benzene source material. The Felix I coal seam is the most contaminated unit at the site and was the target unit for the initial demonstration. Air sparging was selected to strip dissolved benzene, volatilize the non- dissolved benzene source material, and to provide oxygen for increasing aerobic bacteria populations. Indigenous bacteria populations were stimulated with ammonium phosphate addition. EG&G designed the remediation system to take advantage of the hydrogeologic environment to produce a cost-effective approach to the groundwater remediation. Groundwater pumping was used to manipulate subsurface air flow, nutrient transport, and biomass management. Demonstration operations began on September 29, 1995, and were suspended on April 30, 1996 to begin demonstration expansion. Initial results of the demonstration show substantial reduction in benzene concentrations across the demonstration area. Benzene concentration reductions greater than 80% were observed two months after demonstration operations were suspended.

  17. The effect of torrefaction on the process performance of oxygen-steam blown CFB gasification of hardwood and softwood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsalidis, George; di Marcello, Manuela; Spinelli, Giacomo; de Jong, Wiebren; Kiel, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising biomass upgrading method, offering advantages in logistics and handling. Gasification is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology due to its flexibility in the product gas end-use. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of torrefaction on the

  18. Steam gasification of various feedstocks at a dual fluidised bed gasifier: Impacts of operation conditions and bed materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Christoph; Koppatz, Stefan; Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-03-15

    Gasification of biomass is an attractive technology for combined heat and power production as well as for synthesis processes such as production of liquid and gaseous biofuels. Dual fluidised bed (DFB) technology offers the advantage of a nearly nitrogen-free product gas mainly consisting of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. The DFB steam gasification process has been developed at Vienna University of Technology over the last 15 years using cold flow models, laboratory units, mathematical modelling and simulation. The main findings of the experimental work at a 100-kW pilot scale unit are presented. Different fuels (wood pellets, wood chips, lignite, coal, etc.) and different bed materials (natural minerals such as olivine, limestones, calcites, etc. as well as modified olivines) have been tested and the influence on tar content as well as gas composition was measured and compared among the different components. Moreover, the influence of operating parameters such as fuel moisture content, steam/fuel ratio and gasification temperature on the product gas has been investigated. DFB steam gasification of solid biomass coupled with CO{sub 2} capture, the so-called absorption enhanced reforming (AER) process, is highlighted. The experiments in pilot scale led to commercial realisation of this technology in demonstration scale. Summarising, the DFB system offers excellent fuel flexibility to be used in advanced power cycles as well as in polygeneration applications. (orig.)

  19. The effect of torrefaction on the process performance of oxygen-steam blown CFB gasification of hardwood and softwood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsalidis, G.A.; Di Marcello, M.; Spinelli, G.; de Jong, W.; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising biomass upgrading method, offering advantages in logistics and handling. Gasification is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology due to its flexibility in the product gas end-use. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of torrefaction on the

  20. Potential application of gasification to recycle food waste and rehabilitate acidic soil from secondary forests on degraded land in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhanyu; Koh, Shun Kai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Lim, Reuben C J; Tan, Hugh T W; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-05-01

    Gasification is recognized as a green technology as it can harness energy from biomass in the form of syngas without causing severe environmental impacts, yet producing valuable solid residues that can be utilized in other applications. In this study, the feasibility of co-gasification of woody biomass and food waste in different proportions was investigated using a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. Subsequently, the capability of biochar derived from gasification of woody biomass in the rehabilitation of soil from tropical secondary forests on degraded land (adinandra belukar) was also explored through a water spinach cultivation study using soil-biochar mixtures of different ratios. Gasification of a 60:40 wood waste-food waste mixture (w/w) produced syngas with the highest lower heating value (LHV) 5.29 MJ/m(3)-approximately 0.4-4.0% higher than gasification of 70:30 or 80:20 mixtures, or pure wood waste. Meanwhile, water spinach cultivated in a 2:1 soil-biochar mixture exhibited the best growth performance in terms of height (a 4-fold increment), weight (a 10-fold increment) and leaf surface area (a 5-fold increment) after 8 weeks of cultivation, owing to the high porosity, surface area, nutrient content and alkalinity of biochar. It is concluded that gasification may be an alternative technology to food waste disposal through co-gasification with woody biomass, and that gasification derived biochar is suitable for use as an amendment for the nutrient-poor, acidic soil of adinandra belukar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals - Pyrolysis and Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Mante, Nii Ofei

    2011-01-01

    The development of advance thermochemical technologies is critical for sustainable production of affordable biofuel, biopower and bioproduct from biomass. Thermochemical conversion processes are flexible and independent of feedstock. Currently, pyrolysis and gasification are promising thermochemical conversion processes that use heat and chemistry to produce bio-oil, syngas, bio-char and chemicals from a wide spectrum of biomass feedstocks, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to ...

  2. Gasification and combined cycles: Present situation and future prospects; Gassificazione e ciclo combinato: Situazione attuale e prospettive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brustia, G.F.; Bressan, L.; Domenichini, R.

    1992-12-31

    The gasification of coal and/or residual fuels from refineries together with the use of combined cycle power generation systems represents a technically and economically feasible method for the conversion of poor quality fossil fuels into electric power. The conversion is accomplished with maximum respect for the severest environmental normatives. In addition, foreseen technical improvements for components and plant systems are expected to heighten the marketing potential of gasification/combined cycle power plants. After Italy`s moratorium on nuclear energy, the passing eras of conventional fossil fuel and then combined cycle power plants, the need for highly competitive industrial production technologies and the urgency of nation-wide energy conservation appear to be ushering in the new era of gasification with combined cycles.

  3. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  4. Power from Pellets Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical description of the technology of pellet production on the basis of renewable sources as well as the utilization of pellets. The author explains what kinds of biomass are usable in addition to wood, how to produce pellets and how to use pellets to produce energy. Starting with the basics of combustion, gasification and the pelletizing process, several different technologies are described. The design, planning, construction and economic efficiency are discussed as well. The appendix gives useful advice about plant concepts, calculations, addresses, conversion tables and formulas.

  5. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Volume IV of the ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications, but relates closely with Chapter II of Volume I. The emphasis in that chapter is on providing an overview of where each technology fits into the general-model logic. Volume IV presents the actual cost structure and specification of every technology modeled in ISTUM. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data base. It includes an explanation of the data base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters are devoted to documenting the specific-technology cost specifications. Technologies included are: conventional technologies (boiler and non-boiler conventional technologies); fossil-energy technologies (atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, low Btu coal and medium Btu coal gasification); cogeneration (steam, machine drive, and electrolytic service sectors); and solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies), and conservation technologies.

  6. CO2 Capture and Storage in Coal Gasification Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand B.; Phadke, Pranav C.

    2017-07-01

    concerns about climate change problem. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is being considered as a promising carbon mitigation technology, especially for large point sources such as coal power plants. Gasification of coal helps in better utilization of this resource offering multiple advantages such as pollution prevention, product flexibility (syngas and hydrogen) and higher efficiency (combined cycle). It also enables the capture of CO2 prior to the combustion, from the fuel gas mixture, at relatively lesser cost as compared to the post-combustion CO2 capture. CCS in gasification projects is considered as a promising technology for cost-effective carbon mitigation. Although many projects (power and non-power) have been announced internationally, very few large-scale projects have actually come up. This paper looks at the various aspects of CCS applications in gasification projects, including the technical feasibility and economic viability and discusses an Indian perspective. Impacts of including CCS in gasification projects (e.g. IGCC plants) have been assessed using a simulation tool. Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) - a modelling framework to simulate power plants - has been used to estimate the implications of adding CCS units in IGCC plants, on their performance and costs.

  7. High Performance Gasification with the Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøbel, Benny; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars....... In the two-stage gasification concept, the pyrolysis and the gasification processes are physical separated. The volatiles from the pyrolysis are partially oxidized, and the hot gases are used as gasification medium to gasify the char. Hot gases from the gasifier and a combustion unit can be used for drying...... a cold gas efficiency exceeding 90% is obtained. In the original design of the two-stage gasification process, the pyrolysis unit consists of a screw conveyor with external heating, and the char unit is a fixed bed gasifier. This design is well proven during more than 1000 hours of testing with various...

  8. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  9. LIEKKI 2 - Annual Review 1996. Gasification Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 - Vuosikirja 1996. Seurantaryhmaeraportit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Matinlinna, J. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    The LIEKKI 2 program is planned to cover the research work to be performed in the period beginning in 1993 and ending in 1998. LIEKKI 2 is largely a continuation of the combustion and gasification research earlier included in the national research programmes LIEKKI and JALO. The research within the scope of the LIEKKI 2 research programme is aimed at supporting the development of energy conversion techniques relating to combustion and gasification in Finland. Research serving the development of new, more efficient and environmentally sound techniques will receive special attention, but research developing conventional combustion techniques is also to be included in the programme. Another important objective of the programme is to maintain and develop the competence of different research groups in this field of technology on a long term basis. The main research areas are: (1) modelling of the furnace processes, (2) the chemistry of gaseous emission components, (3) ash, aerosols and the behaviour of particles, (4) new combustion and gasification technologies, (5) black liquor, (6) conventional combustion technologies and waste incineration. This part of the book contains the reports of the review group chairmen for 1995 and the entire text of the LIEKKI 2 Board of Directors internal evaluation report. (author)

  10. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  11. Power production from biomass III. Gasification and pyrolysis R and D and D for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass III. Gasification and Pyrolysis R and D and D for Industry, was held on 14-15 September 1998 in Espoo. The seminar was organised by VTT Energy in co-operation with the University of Groningen, EU-Thermie Programme and Technology Development Centre, Finland (Tekes). Overviews of current activities on power production from biomass and wastes in Europe and in the United States were given, and all European and U. S. demonstration projects on biomass gasification were presented. In Europe, the target is to produce additional 90 Mtoe/a of bioenergy for the market by 2010. This is a huge challenge for the bioenergy sector, including biomass production and harvesting, conversion technology, energy companies, and end users. In USA, U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the Biomass Power Programme to encourage and assist industry in the development and validation of renewable, biomass-based electricity generation systems, the objective being to double the present use of 7 000 MW biomass power by the year 2010. The new Finnish PROGAS Programme initiated by VTT was also introduced. Several gasification projects are today on the demonstration stage prior to entering the commercial level. Pyrolysis technologies are not yet on the demonstration stage on the energy market. Bio-oils can easily be transported, stored and utilised in existing boiler and diesel plants. The proceedings include the presentations given by the keynote speakers and other invited speakers, as well as some extended poster presentations. (orig.)

  12. A Modified Gibbs Free Energy Minimisation Model for Fluid Bed Coal Gasification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marek Ściążko; Leszek Stępień

    2015-01-01

    A modified approach to equilibrium modelling of coal gasification is presented, based on global thermodynamic analysis of both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions occurring during a gasification...

  13. Gasification of torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, G; Kwapinska, M; Horvat, A; Kwapinski, W; Rabou, L P L M; Dooley, S; Czajka, K M; Leahy, J J

    2014-05-01

    Torrefaction is suggested to be an effective method to improve the fuel properties of biomass and gasification of torrefied biomass should provide a higher quality product gas than that from unprocessed biomass. In this study, both raw and torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus (M×G) were gasified in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier using olivine as the bed material. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER) (0.18-0.32) and bed temperature (660-850°C) on the gasification performance were investigated. The results obtained suggest the optimum gasification conditions for the torrefied M × G are ER 0.21 and 800°C. The product gas from these process conditions had a higher heating value (HHV) of 6.70 MJ/m(3), gas yield 2m(3)/kg biomass (H2 8.6%, CO 16.4% and CH4 4.4%) and cold gas efficiency 62.7%. The comparison between raw and torrefied M × G indicates that the torrefied M × G is more suitable BFB gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating

  16. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  17. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  18. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathe, Mandar [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Xu, Dikai [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Hsieh, Tien-Lin [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Simpson, James [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Statnick, Robert [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Tong, Andrew [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  19. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  20. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  1. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom

    2011-01-01

    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  2. UK wood gasification project under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-24

    It is reported that a wood gasification pilot plant will be built in the UK by John Brown and Wellman Engineering as part of the EEC solar energy programme. The construction of the plant is scheduled to start in November 1982 and will convert up to 12 ton/day of biomass into around 20 ton/day of synthesis gas suitable for methanol production.

  3. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Sewage Sludge Gasification for CHP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCahey, S.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.

    2003-07-01

    Many routes previously available for sewage sludge disposal within the European Union are now prohibited or constrained by environmental legislation. Meanwhile, sewage sludge production increases annually as more rigorous treatment processes are used. This paper introduces an ongoing project, supported by the European Commission FP5 Programme, which seeks to examine the key technical environmental and economic issues relating to the gasification of sewage sludge for utilisation in CHP applications and ultimately to establish the commercial viability of the process. Sewage sludge treatment data has been collected by country and region and a database compiled. Laboratory and pilot plant scale gasification trials are underway and two small engines and a generator have been installed and commissioned. This paper discusses the concurrent development of ECLIPSE process simulation models for the three selected gasification processes, namely fluidised bed, spouted bed and fixed bed. These models have been validated and are being used to predict the behaviour of appropriately sized commercial scale plant, enabling informed decisions regarding technical suitability. The next step in this project is to determine capital costs and economic performance. Process routes will be identified that offer the most cost effective routes to reducing environmental burdens by using sewage sludge in CHP applications. (author)

  5. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  6. Optical spectra of coal gasification products in the RF plasmatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovich, S. D.; Burakov, I. A.; Dudolin, A. A.; Markov, A. A.; Khtoo Naing, Aung; Ulziy, Batsamboo; Kavyrshin, D. I.

    2017-11-01

    The use of solid fuel gasification process is relevant to the regions where there is no opportunity to use natural gas as the main fuel. On the territory of the Russian Federation such regions are largely the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. In order to reduce the harmful effects on the environment solid fuel with high sulfur content, ash content and moisture are subjected to gasification process. One of the major problems of this process is to produce syngas with a low calorific value. For conventional types of gasification (gasification), the value of this quantity ranges 8 - 10 MJ / m3. The use of plasma gasification increases the calorific value of 12 - 16 MJ / m3 which allows the most efficient use of the syngas. The reason for the increase of the value lies in the change of temperature in the reaction zone. A significant rise in temperature in the reaction zone leads to an increase in methane formation reactions constant value, which allows to obtain a final product with a large calorific value. The HFI-plasma torch coal temperature reaches 3000 ° C, and the temperature of coal gasification products can reach 8000 ° C. The aim is to develop methods for determining the composition of the plasma gasification products obtained optical spectra. The Kuznetsky coal used as the starting material. Received and decrypted gasification products optical spectra in a wavelength range from 220 to 1000 nm. Recommendations for the use of the developed method for determining the composition of the plasma gasification products. An analysis of the advantages of using plasma gasification as compared with conventional gasification and coal combustion.

  7. ECONOMIC AND ENERGETICAL ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED WASTE UTILIZATION PLASMA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei VAMBOL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy and economic evaluation of the improved plasma waste utilization technological process, as well as an expediency substantiation of the use of improved plasma technology by comparing its energy consumption with other thermal methods of utilization. Methodology. Analysis of existing modern and advanced methods of waste management and its impact on environmental safety. Considering of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies. Results. Studies have shown regular gasification ensure greater heating value due to differences, a significant amount of nitrogen than for plasma gasification. From the point of view of minimizing energy and monetary costs and environmental safety more promising is to offer advanced technology for plasma waste. To carry out the energy assessment of the appropriateness of the considered technologies-comparative calculation was carried out at the standard conditions. This is because in the processing of waste produced useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas (94% methane and a fuel gas for heating, suitable for sale that provides cost-effectiveness of this technology. Originality. Shown and evaluated ecological and economic efficiency of proposed improved plasma waste utilization technology compared with other thermal techniques. Practical value. Considered and grounded of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies, namely ordinary gasification and using plasma generators. Proposed plasma waste utilization technology allows to obtain useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas and a fuel gas for heating, which are suitable for sale. Plant for improved plasma waste utilization technological process allows to compensate the daily and seasonal electricity and heat consumption fluctuations by allowing the storage of obtained fuel products.

  8. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    was respired as CO2, compared to 80% of the straw carbon added. The stability of GB was also confirmed by low H/C and O/C atomic ratios with lowest values for WGB (H/C 0.12 and O/C 0.10). The soil application of GBs exhibited a liming effect increasing the soil pH from ca 8 to 9. Results from scanning electron......Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two...... was assessed in a shortterm soil incubation study and compared to the traditional practice of direct incorporation of cereal straw. The GBs were chemically and physically characterized to evaluate their potential to improve soil quality parameters. After 110 days of incubation, about 3% of the added GB carbon...

  9. Allothermal gasification of biomass using micron size biomass as external heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Li, Qian; Qi, Fangjie; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; He, Piwen

    2012-03-01

    An allothermal biomass gasification system using biomass micron fuel (BMF) as external heat source was developed. In this system, heat supplied to gasifier was generated from combustion of BMF. Biomass feedstock was gasified with steam and then tar in the produced gas was decomposed in a catalytic bed with NiO/γ-Al(2)O(3) catalyst. Finally the production gas was employed as a substitute for civil fuel gas. An overall energy analysis of the system was also investigated. The results showed that the lower heating value of the product gas reached more than 12 MJ/Nm(3). The combusted BMF accounted for 26.8% of the total energy input. Allothermal gasification based on the substituted BMF for conventional energy was an efficient and economical technology to obtain bioenergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  11. High temperature solid oxide fuel cell integrated with novel allothermal biomass gasification. Part I: Modelling and feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulos, K. D.; Fryda, L. E.; Karl, J.; Poulou, S.; Kakaras, E.

    Biomass gasification derived fuel gas is a renewable fuel that can be used by high temperature fuel cells. In this two-part work an attempt is made to investigate the integration of a near atmospheric pressure solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a novel allothermal biomass steam gasification process into a combined heat and power (CHP) system of less than MW e nominal output range. Heat for steam gasification is supplied from SOFC depleted fuel into a fluidised bed combustor via high temperature sodium heat pipes. The integrated system model was built in Aspen Plus™ simulation software and is described in detail. Part I investigates the feasibility and critical aspects of the system based on modelling results. A low gasification steam to biomass ratio (STBR = 0.6) is used to avoid excess heat demands and to allow effective H 2S high temperature removal. Water vapour is added prior to the anode to avoid carbon deposition. The SOFC off gases adequately provide gasification heat when fuel utilisation factors are electrical efficiency is estimated at 36% while thermal efficiency at 14%. An exergy analysis is presented in Part II.

  12. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary studies on the treatment of wastewater from biomass gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Roksana; Chrubasik, Maciej; Stelmach, Sławomir; Sajdak, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents completed research on the purification of undiluted raw water and organic condensates obtained in biomass thermal conversion processes such as gasification, which are rarely addressed in published studies. However, similar studies involving the characterization and purification of aqueous solutions obtained from process gas treatment after the gasification of biomass are available. Condensation of water-organic condensate from process gas helps to reduce the amount of water required by the purification process and the cost of the process technology and water consumption. Oil scrubbers can be used in this case instead of water scrubbers. In this case, the obtained condensate must be subjected to purification processes. This paper presents the results of our research, possible methods of treatment (chemical and biological methods), and the approximate cost of the reagents required for the purification of condensate for specific assumed degrees of purification. The best results from the chemical purification using the Fenton method were obtained with the ratio V(H2O2)/V(cond.) = 6.0 and the ratio V(H2O2)/Fe = 0.0375. To prevent precipitation of ferric hydroxide, this value can be reduced 20-fold, which reduces the total degree of purification to 90%. The cost of almost complete cleaning of tested condensates was calculated to be approximately 2000 USD per/m(3). This cost can be reduced by a factor of approximately four assuming 100% cleaning for 2-furaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and phenol; acetaldehyde, propane-2-one (acetone), methanol and acetic acid are oxidized by 50%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  15. Providing Policy Implication Based on the R and D Portfolio Analysis in Advanced Countries in the Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, K. H.; Lee, M. K.; Won, B. C.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I. K.; Lee, Y. C.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, Y. S.

    2013-08-15

    This study is to provide the investment direction of nuclear R and D, which is the most efficient and reasonable integrating the various aspects comprehensively. This study includes four parts. In the first part, we extracted Mega-trend and driving forces of nuclear R and D field by using various reports published by National Intelligence Council of US, UN, etc. Also, in this part we established the linkage between megatrend factors focussing on nuclear and the five aspects including society, technology, ecology, economics and politics. In the second part, we analyzed the nuclear R and D investment directions of major advanced countries including US, Japan, EU and China for comparing the investment portfolio in the specific research area. In the third part, domestic investment of nuclear R and D was reviewed by analyzing the investment trend of nuclear R and D in the past, with their connection to nuclear policy, and to the levels and capacities of national technologies of nuclear. In the final part, the desirable directions of nuclear R and D investment were suggested comprehensively taking into consideration various aspects including the Mega-trend associated with nuclear, nuclear R and D directions of major advanced countries, and the level and capacities of the domestic nuclear technologies.

  16. Direct and Standard Injection of Sewage Sludge in a Supercritical Water Gasification System - Optimization of the Energy Efficiency Using Pinch Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yukananto, Riza; Louwes, Alexander Charnchai; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical Water Gasification is a promising technology to convert wet biomass into syngas. One of the challenges of this technology is the coke formation during heating-up of the wet biomass to its supercritical condition. Literature studies show that coke is the result of polymerization

  17. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables | Coetzer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimisation of the Sasol-Lurgi gasification process was carried out by utilising the method of Factorial Experimental Design on the process variables of interest from a specifically equipped full-scale test gasifier. The process variables that govern gasification are not always fully controllable during normal operation.

  18. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  19. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  20. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  1. Recycling of automobile shredder residue with a microwave pyrolysis combined with high temperature steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaj, Pawel; Yang, Weihong; Błasiak, Włodzimierz; Forsgren, Christer

    2010-10-15

    Presently, there is a growing need for handling automobile shredder residues--ASR or "car fluff". One of the most promising methods of treatment ASR is pyrolysis. Apart of obvious benefits of pyrolysis: energy and metals recovery, there is serious concern about the residues generated from that process needing to be recycled. Unfortunately, not much work has been reported providing a solution for treatment the wastes after pyrolysis. This work proposes a new system based on a two-staged process. The ASR was primarily treated by microwave pyrolysis and later the liquid and solid products become the feedstock for the high temperature gasification process. The system development is supported within experimental results conducted in a lab-scale, batch-type reactor at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The heating rate, mass loss, gas composition, LHV and gas yield of producer gas vs. residence time are reported for the steam temperature of 1173 K. The sample input was 10 g and the steam flow rate was 0.65 kg/h. The conversion reached 99% for liquids and 45-55% for solids, dependently from the fraction. The H(2):CO mol/mol ratio varied from 1.72 solids and 1.4 for liquid, respectively. The average LHV of generated gas was 15.8 MJ/Nm(3) for liquids and 15 MJ/Nm(3) for solids fuels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Operation of the nuclear technology program for improving the public acceptance by providing the right information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kang, Mincheol; Min, Sangky; Yi, Jongmin; Yi, Yunyoung

    2013-11-15

    This detailed assignment conducted to improve the communication efficiency through the operation of differentiated programs to accomplish 'Establishment of knowledge diffusion system for improvement of Nuclear understanding', which is the purpose of the general assignment. We developed the programs on each social opinion leader groups by providing the right information on nuclear(radiation) technology, and had a forum for providing the right information on each social groups. Also, Consisted the consultant group, which participates humanities and social sciences, civic group, science teachers, the press, national assembly workers. Technology PR was performed 4 times, which is 1 time more than the original plan of 4 times. In the theme of affection of radiation, we broadened the vision of various fields which enabled to approach in general for the PR program. We Induced a positive reaction from the participants in political areas which coexistent of uncertain expectation and difficult vision of nuclear and radiation, by sharing the development possibility in relation with potential values of radiation industry and other industries and delivering accurate information, not a fragmentary knowledge, but in general. We hope that this results will contribute to establishing the effective nuclear knowledge diffusion program system.

  3. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. Copyright

  4. Characterization of Residual Particulates from Biomass Entrained Flow Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Fæster, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Biomass gasification experiments were carried out in a bench scale entrained flow reactor, and the produced solid particles were collected by a cyclone and a metal filter for subsequent characterization. During wood gasification, the major part of the solid material collected in the filter is soot....... Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show agglomerated nanosize spherical soot particles (gasification, the soot content in the filter sample from straw gasification is quite low, while...... the contents of KCl and K2SO4 in the filter sample are high. SEM images of the straw filter samples show that with steam addition during gasification, where the soot yield is lower, the filter sample becomes richer in KCl and K2SO4 and appears as irregular crystals, and the typical particle size increases from...

  5. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  6. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  7. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  8. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabedin, Ehsan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Rahim, Murad A.; Topal, Hüseyin

    2014-12-01

    Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP) which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP) systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP) can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  9. Research of forming of the system of transport pores in the structure of carbon composites by their gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Олексійович Скачков

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of pores for carbonized carbon plastics is considered. Description of porous structure by the parabolic law of distribution on four local maximums is offered. Mechanism of forming for the system of transport pores are researched in the structure of carbonized carbon plastics taking into account oxidization of its lateral face and real distribution of porous structure on the size of radiuses at gasification in the medium of carbon dioxide. The task of carbon dioxide transfer on length of carbonizing carbon plastic pores, providing the given profiling of its structure in the process of gasification, is considered

  10. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  11. FY 1998 survey report. Survey to prepare a data book related to new energy technology development (Trends on the waste power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy cars, coal liquefaction/coal gasification and new energy); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy, jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi shin energy kanren doko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Together with the progress of technology development, policies for the introduction/promotion of new energy technology are being developed such as promotion of the commercialization development, revision of the law system, and expansion of the subsidy system for promotion. To push the introduction/promotion forward more effectively, it is necessary to arrange various kinds of data comprehensively/systematically and to make them the basic data for contribution to the spread/education. As to the six fields of the waste power generation, solar heat utilization, geothermal power generation, clean energy cars, coal liquefaction, and coal gasification of the technology fields of new energy, this report collected/arranged the data made public recently in terms mainly of the following: trends of the introduction in Japan and abroad, policy/law/subsidy system in Japan and abroad, cost, system outline, basic terms, a list of the main affiliated companies and groups, and the nation's outlook for energy introduction and policies of each new energy technology in Japan and abroad, and the trends. Moreover, characteristics by field were described of the state of the commercialization/introduction of new energy technology. (NEDO)

  12. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  13. Water and emerging energy technologies: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    An assessment of possible energy development in structural basins of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The energy technologies examined include small hydro, geothermal electric, geothermal heat, biomass/cogeneration, and coal gasification.

  14. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  15. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  16. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    Renewable hydrogen is one option for a clean energy carrier in the future. There were several research programs in the past, to produce hydrogen on a renewable basis by electrolysis, direct conversion of water or by gasification of biomass. None of these options were developed to a stage, that they could be used on a commercial basis. At the moment almost all hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels and one main consumer of hydrogen are refineries. So a good option to demonstrate the production of renewable hydrogen and bring it later into the market is over refineries. The most economic option to produce renewable hydrogen at the moment is over gasification of biomass. In Austria an indirect gasification system was developed and is demonstrated in Guessing, Austria. The biomass CHP Guessing uses the allothermal steam dual fluidised bed gasifier and produces a high grade product gas, which is used at the moment for the CHP in a gas engine. As there is no nitrogen in the product gas and high hydrogen content, this gas can be also used as synthesis gas or for production of hydrogen. The main aim of this paper is to present the experimental and simulation work to convert biomass into renewable hydrogen. The product gas of the indirect gasification system is mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Within the ERA-Net project ''OptiBtLGas'' the reforming of methane and the CO-shift reaction was investigated to convert all hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to hydrogen. On basis of the experimental results the mass- and energy balances of a commercial 100 MW fuel input plant was done. Here 3 different cases of complexity of the overall plant were simulated. The first case was without reforming and CO-shift, only by hydrogen separation. The second case was by including steam - reforming and afterwards separation of hydrogen. The third case includes hydrocarbon reforming, CO-shift and hydrogen separation. In all cases the off-gases (CO

  17. Air emission control in a modern industrial gasification-cogeneration plant; Il controllo delle emissioni in atmosfera di un moderno impianto industriale. L'impianto di gassificazione-cogenerazione di ISAB energy di Priolo Gargallo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bifulco, S.; Panico, A. [Catania Univ., Catania (Italy). Facolta' di Farmacia, Dipt. di Science Farmaceutiche

    2001-06-01

    The present paper reports the study technology and environmental of new industry integrated gasification - combinated cycle - in Priolo Gargallo area at Siracusa. The analysis shows as the suggested industry waste strategy would bring about benefits on both the environmental and economic view points. [Italian] Nel presente articolo vengono illustrati gli aspetti tecnologici ed ambientali di un moderno impianto di I.G.C.C. (Integrated Gasification - Combined Cycle) dell'Isab Energy di Priolo Gargallo.

  18. Small Scale Gasification: Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan (Linnaeus Univ., Vaexjoe. Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering (Sweden)); Tuner, Martin; Odenbrand, Ingemar (The Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    In a joint project, Linnaeus Univ. in Vaexjoe (LNU) and the Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) were commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency to make an inventory of the techniques and systems for small scale gasifier-gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) production and to evaluate the technology. Small scale is defined here as plants up to 10 MW{sub th}, and the fuel used in the gasifier is some kind of biofuel, usually woody biofuel in the form of chips, pellets, or sawdust. The study is presented in this report. The report has been compiled by searching the literature, participating in seminars, visiting plants, interviewing contact people, and following up contacts by e-mail and phone. The first, descriptive part of the report, examines the state-of-the-art technology for gasification, gas cleaning, and gas engines. The second part presents case studies of the selected plants: - Meva Innovation's VIPP-VORTEX CHP plant - DTU's VIKING CHP plant - Guessing bio-power station - Harbooere CHP plant -Skive CHP plant The case studies examine the features of the plants and the included unit operations, the kinds of fuels used and the net electricity and overall efficiencies obtained. The investment and operating costs are presented when available as are figures on plant availability. In addition we survey the international situation, mainly covering developing countries. Generally, the technology is sufficiently mature for commercialization, though some unit operations, for example catalytic tar reforming, still needs further development. Further development and optimization will probably streamline the performance of the various plants so that their biofuel-to-electricity efficiency reaches 30-40 % and overall performance efficiency in the range of 90 %. The Harbooere, Skive, and Guessing plant types are considered appropriate for municipal CHP systems, while the Viking and VIPP-VORTEX plants are smaller and considered appropriate for replacing hot

  19. Optimization of a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Plant for Low-Temperature Gasification of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar González-Vázquez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into clean energies has been focused on finding an alternative to fossil fuels in order to reduce global warming while at the same time satisfying the world’s energy needs. Biomass gasification is seen as a promising thermochemical conversion technology as it allows useful gaseous products to be obtained from low-energy-density solid fuels. Air–steam mixtures are the most commonly used gasification agents. The gasification performances of several biomass samples and their mixtures were compared. One softwood (pine and one hardwood (chestnut, their torrefied counterparts, and other Spanish-based biomass wastes such as almond shell, olive stone, grape and olive pomaces or cocoa shell were tested, and their behaviors at several different stoichiometric ratios (SR and steam/air ratios (S/A were compared. The optimum SR was found to be in the 0.2–0.3 range for S/A = 75/25. At these conditions a syngas stream with 35% of H2 + CO and a gas yield of 2 L gas/g fuel were obtained, which represents a cold-gas efficiency of almost 50%. The torrefaction process does not significantly affect the quality of the product syngas. Some of the obtained chars were analyzed to assess their use as precursors for catalysts, combustion fuel or for agricultural purposes such as soil amendment.

  20. Syngas production by two-stage method of biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinglong; Kong, Sifang; Liu, Yangsheng; Zeng, Hui

    2012-04-01

    A two-stage technology integrated with biomass catalytic pyrolysis and gasification processes was utilized to produce syngas (H(2)+CO). In the presence of different nickel based catalysts, effects of pyrolysis temperature and gasification temperature on gas production were investigated. Experimental results showed that more syngas and char of high quality could be obtained at a temperature of 750°C in the stage of pyrolysis, and in the stage of gasification, pyrolysis char (produced at 750°C) reacted with steam and the maximum yield of syngas was obtained at 850°C. Syngas yield in this study was greatly increased compared with previous studies, up to 3.29Nm(3)/kg biomass. The pyrolysis process could be well explained by Arrhenius kinetic first-order rate equation. XRD analyses suggested that formation of Mg(0.4)Ni(0.6)O and increase of Ni(0) crystallite size were two main reasons for the deactivation of nickel based catalysts at higher temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomass gasification chars for mercury capture from a simulated flue gas of coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente-Cuesta, A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Lopez-Anton, M A; Cieplik, M; Fierro, J L G; Martínez-Tarazona, M R

    2012-05-15

    The combustion of coal can result in trace elements, such as mercury, being released from power stations with potentially harmful effects for both human health and the environment. Research is ongoing to develop cost-effective and efficient control technologies for mercury removal from coal-fired power plants, the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. A number of activated carbon sorbents have been demonstrated to be effective for mercury retention in coal combustion power plants. However, more economic alternatives need to be developed. Raw biomass gasification chars could serve as low-cost sorbents for capturing mercury since they are sub-products generated during a thermal conversion process. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomass gasification chars as mercury sorbents in a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial activated carbon. Chars from a mixture of paper and plastic waste showed the highest retention capacity. It was found that not only a high carbon content and a well developed microporosity but also a high chlorine content and a high aluminium content improved the mercury retention capacity of biomass gasification chars. No relationship could be inferred between the surface oxygen functional groups and mercury retention in the char samples evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's fourth quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002.

  3. Biomass gasification in cost-optimized district heating systems-A regional modelling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Martin, E-mail: martin.borjesson@chalmers.s [Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Ahlgren, Erik O. [Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plants could, in combined heat and power (CHP) generation, increase the power-to-heat ratio compared to conventional biomass steam turbine plants. Furthermore, biomass gasification could also be used for the efficient production of biofuels for transport. In this study, different applications of biomass gasification in connection to district heating (DH) are analysed and contrasted to conventional technology options. An application of the cost-optimizing energy system model MARKAL with a detailed description of the DH sector in a southwestern region of Sweden was developed within the study and used in the analysis. Policy measures for CO{sub 2} reduction and for promotion of 'green' electricity are assumed, and required subsidy levels for large-scale production of transport biofuels are calculated. The model also operates with different supplies of biomass: a local supply at a lower cost and an international supply of refined biomass at a slightly higher cost. The study shows that investments in BIGCC CHP are often cost-efficient in cases with low ambitions regarding transport biofuels. However, due to limitations in heat demand and in local, lower cost, supply of biomass, investment in biofuel production means less investment in BIGCC CHP and, thereby, a smaller electricity production.

  4. Biomass gasification in cost-optimized district heating systems. A regional modelling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Martin; Ahlgren, Erik O. [Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plants could, in combined heat and power (CHP) generation, increase the power-to-heat ratio compared to conventional biomass steam turbine plants. Furthermore, biomass gasification could also be used for the efficient production of biofuels for transport. In this study, different applications of biomass gasification in connection to district heating (DH) are analysed and contrasted to conventional technology options. An application of the cost-optimizing energy system model MARKAL with a detailed description of the DH sector in a southwestern region of Sweden was developed within the study and used in the analysis. Policy measures for CO{sub 2} reduction and for promotion of 'green' electricity are assumed, and required subsidy levels for large-scale production of transport biofuels are calculated. The model also operates with different supplies of biomass: a local supply at a lower cost and an international supply of refined biomass at a slightly higher cost. The study shows that investments in BIGCC CHP are often cost-efficient in cases with low ambitions regarding transport biofuels. However, due to limitations in heat demand and in local, lower cost, supply of biomass, investment in biofuel production means less investment in BIGCC CHP and, thereby, a smaller electricity production. (author)

  5. Combined hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic hydrothermal gasification system and process for conversion of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A combined hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system and process are described that convert various biomass-containing sources into separable bio-oils and aqueous effluents that contain residual organics. Bio-oils may be converted to useful bio-based fuels and other chemical feedstocks. Residual organics in HTL aqueous effluents may be gasified and converted into medium-BTU product gases and directly used for process heating or to provide energy.

  6. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  7. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  8. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  9. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  10. Health information technology to facilitate communication involving health care providers, caregivers, and pediatric patients: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles, Stephen James; Lokker, Cynthia; McKibbon, K Ann

    2010-06-18

    Pediatric patients with health conditions requiring follow-up typically depend on a caregiver to mediate at least part of the necessary two-way communication with health care providers on their behalf. Health information technology (HIT) and its subset, information communication technology (ICT), are increasingly being applied to facilitate communication between health care provider and caregiver in these situations. Awareness of the extent and nature of published research involving HIT interventions used in this way is currently lacking. This scoping review was designed to map the health literature about HIT used to facilitate communication involving health care providers and caregivers (who are usually family members) of pediatric patients with health conditions requiring follow-up. Terms relating to care delivery, information technology, and pediatrics were combined to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL for the years 1996 to 2008. Eligible studies were selected after three rounds of duplicate screening in which all authors participated. Data regarding patient, caregiver, health care provider, HIT intervention, outcomes studied, and study design were extracted and maintained in a Microsoft Access database. Stage of research was categorized using the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive summaries are presented. We included 104 eligible studies (112 articles) conducted in 17 different countries and representing 30 different health conditions. The most common conditions were asthma, type 1 diabetes, special needs, and psychiatric disorder. Most studies (88, 85%) included children 2 to 12 years of age, and 73 (71%) involved home care settings. Health care providers operated in hospital settings in 96 (92%) of the studies. Interventions featured 12 modes of communication (eg, Internet, intranets, telephone, video conferencing, email, short message service [SMS], and

  11. Experimental fact-finding in CFB biomass gasification for ECN's 500 kWth pilot-plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van der Drift