WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing formative feedback

  1. Can Turnitin Be Used to Provide Instant Formative Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Vivien

    2011-01-01

    New students face the challenge of making a smooth transition between school and university, and with regards to academic practice, there are often gaps between student expectations and university requirements. This study supports the use of the plagiarism detection service Turnitin to give students instant feedback on essays to help improve…

  2. A flexible postoperative debriefing process can effectively provide formative resident feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Mackenzie R; Watters, Jennifer M; Barton, Jeffrey S; Kamin, Carol; Brown, Sarah N; Deveney, Karen E; Kiraly, Laszlo N

    2015-05-01

    Providing residents with formative operative feedback is one of the ongoing challenges in modern surgical education. This is highlighted by the recent American Board of Surgery requirement for formal operative assessments. A flexible and adaptable procedure feedback process may allow attending surgeons to provide qualitative and quantitative feedback to residents while encouraging surgeons-in-training to critically reflect on their own performance. We designed and implemented a flexible feedback process in which residents initiated a postoperative feedback discussion and completed a Procedure Feedback Form (PFF) with their supervising attending surgeon. Comparisons were made between the quantitative and qualitative assessments of attending and resident surgeons. Free text statements describing strengths and weaknesses were analyzed using grounded theory with constant comparison. We identified 346 assessments of 48 surgery residents performing 38 different cases. There was good inter-rater reliability between resident and attending surgeons' quantitative assessment, Goodman and Kruskal gamma > 0.65. Key themes identified on qualitative analysis included flow, technique, synthesis/decision, outcomes, knowledge, and communication/attitudes. Subthematic analysis demonstrated that our novel debriefing procedure was easily adaptable to a wide variety of clinical settings and grew more individualized for senior learners. This procedure feedback process is easily adaptable to a wide variety of cases and supports resident self-reflection. The process grows in nuance and complexity with the learner and may serve as a guide for a flexible and widely applicable postoperative feedback process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  4. The Effectiveness of Instructor Personalized and Formative Feedback Provided by Instructor in an Online Setting: Some Unresolved Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planar, Dolors; Moya, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Formative feedback has great potential for teaching and learning in online undergraduate programmes. There is a large number of courses where the main source of feedback is provided by the instructor. This is particularly seen in subjects where assessments are designed based on specific activities which are the same for all students, and where the…

  5. A method of providing engaging formative feedback to large cohort first-year physiology and anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-Green, Katrina; Wallace, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates a critical role for effective, meaningful feedback to enhance student learning. Effective feedback can become part of the learning cycle that is not only a learning opportunity for the student but can also be used to inform the teacher and ongoing curriculum development. Feedback is considered particularly important during the first year of university and can even be viewed as a retention strategy that can help attenuate student performance anxieties and solidify perceptions of academic support. Unfortunately, the provision of individualized, timely feedback can be particularly challenging in first-year courses as they tend to be large and diverse cohort classes that pose challenges of time and logistics. Various forms of generic feedback can provide rapid and cost-effect feedback to large cohorts but may be of limited benefit to students other than signaling weaknesses in knowledge. The present study describes a method that was used to provide formative task-related feedback to a large cohort of first-year physiology and anatomy students. Based on student evaluations presented in this study, this method provided feedback in a manner that engaged students, uncovered underlying misconceptions, facilitated peer discussion, and provided opportunity for new instruction while allowing the lecturer to recognize common gaps in knowledge and inform ongoing curriculum development. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students - a preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostyn Alison

    2012-11-01

    individualised handsets and personalised formative feedback highly. The significant correlation between ART response scores and student exam scores suggests that formative feedback can provide students with a useful reference point in terms of their level of exam-readiness.

  7. Research and Teaching: Exploring the Use of an Online Quiz Game to Provide Formative Feedback in a Large-Enrollment, Introductory Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rachel; Parrish, Jonathan; Wright, Adrienne; Gnarpe, Judy; Keenan, Louanne

    2015-01-01

    In a large-enrollment, introductory biochemistry course for nonmajors, the authors provide students with formative feedback through practice questions in PDF format. Recently, they investigated possible benefits of providing the practice questions via an online game (Brainspan). Participants were randomly assigned to either the online game group…

  8. Using Audience Response Technology to provide formative feedback on pharmacology performance for non-medical prescribing students--a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostyn, Alison; Meade, Oonagh; Lymn, Joanne S

    2012-11-13

    . The significant correlation between ART response scores and student exam scores suggests that formative feedback can provide students with a useful reference point in terms of their level of exam-readiness.

  9. Designing Crowdcritique Systems for Formative Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Rees Lewis, Daniel; Gerber, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent tutors based on expert systems often struggle to provide formative feedback on complex, ill-defined problems where answers are unknown. Hybrid crowdsourcing systems that combine the intelligence of multiple novices in face-to-face settings might provide an alternate approach for providing intelligent formative feedback. The purpose of…

  10. Combining the formative with the summative: the development of a two-stage online test to encourage engagement and provide personal feedback in large classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Voelkel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more “time on task” and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests in a Year 2 lecture module in biological sciences. Initially voluntary online tests were offered to students and those who participated achieved higher exam marks than those who did not, but completion rate was low. Making the tests compulsory led to high completion rates, but class performance decreased, indicating that using the same assessment for formative and for summative purposes is not always beneficial for learning. Finally, these problems were resolved by introducing a two-stage approach: the first stage of each test was formative and provided prompt feedback. However, students had to achieve 80% to progress to the second summative stage of the test. The two-stage online tests led to significantly improved class performance. This novel test design ensures that students go through at least two attempts and therefore fully benefit from the learning opportunities presented by the formative stage. Two-stage online tests present the opportunity to provide regular feedback in large classes and to improve performance not only of good but also of “weak” students.

  11. Providing 360-degree multisource feedback to nurse educators in the country of Georgia: a formative evaluation of acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStephano, Christopher Carl; Crawford, Kimberley Anne; Jashi, Maia; Wold, Judith Lupo

    2014-06-01

    Due to insufficient nursing education standards in the country of Georgia, 15 health professionals participated in a USAID grant-funded nurse educator faculty development program. These educators then offered continuing education courses and taught more than 1,700 practicing Georgian nurses over 3 years. Using a 360-degree multisource feedback model (MSF), self, video, learner, peer, and program coordinator evaluations of teaching effectiveness were completed. After nurse educators reviewed their results and identified areas for improvement, a questionnaire about the perceived acceptability of teacher evaluations was completed. Of the 15 nurse educators, 93.3% indicated that nurse educators should receive feedback through self, learner, peer, and video evaluations, and 100% indicated that nurse educators should receive feedback from the program coordinator. The accuracy and usefulness of the program coordinator evaluation was rated the highest, whereas peer evaluation was rated the lowest. This study revealed that MSF was acceptable to Georgian nurse educators. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Development and implementation of an objective structured clinical examination to provide formative feedback on communication and interpersonal skills in geriatric training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Patricia; Chao, Serena; Russell, Matthew; Levine, Sharon; Fabiny, Anne

    2008-09-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication and interpersonal skills, one of the American Council for Graduate Medical Education-designated core competencies, is an important but difficult task in the training of physicians. Assessment of trainees offers an opportunity to provide explicit feedback on their skills and encourages learning. This article describes a pilot study in which clinician-educators affiliated with the geriatrics training programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Boston University Medical Center designed and piloted a novel Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the communication and interpersonal skills of medical, dental, and geriatric psychiatry fellows. The OSCE consisted of three stations where geriatricians and standardized patients evaluated candidates using specifically designed checklists and an abbreviated version of the Master Interview Rating Scale. Communication skills were assessed through performance of specific "real life" clinical tasks, such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills were assessed through the effect of the communication between doctor and standardized patient on fostering trust, relieving anxiety, and establishing a therapeutic relationship. This pilot study demonstrated that the OSCE format of assessment provides a valid means of evaluating the communication and interpersonal skills of interdisciplinary geriatric trainees and provides a valuable forum for formative assessment and feedback. Given that geriatricians and non geriatricians involved in elder care both need communication and interpersonal skills, this novel OSCE can be used for assessment of these skills in trainees in diverse healthcare subspecialties.

  13. Providing Feedback: Practical Skills and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkany, David; Deitte, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Feedback is an essential component of education. It is designed to influence, reinforce, and change behaviors, concepts, and attitudes in learners. Although providing constructive feedback can be challenging, it is a learnable skill. The negative consequences of destructive feedback or lack of feedback all together are far-reaching. This article summarizes the components of constructive feedback and provides readers with tangible skills to enhance their ability to give effective feedback to learners and peers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computer-based feedback in formative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment concerns any assessment that provides feedback that is intended to support learning and can be used by teachers and/or students. Computers could offer a solution to overcoming obstacles encountered in implementing formative assessment. For example, computer-based assessments

  15. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  16. Formation feedback control of UAV flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegall, Stephen

    This thesis is a study of formation control with autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles using the formation as feedback. There is also an investigation of formation methods presenting insight into different algorithms for formations. A rigid formation is achieved using a proportional-derivative virtual structure with a formation feedback controller. There is an emphasis on stick controlled aerodynamics. The rigid formation is verified by a simulation of a longitudinal model. Formation control ideas are presented for rigid formations.

  17. Exploring the value of usability feedback formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    presented using five feedback formats. Our usability findings comprise 35 problems and 5 positive comments. Data suggest that feedback serves multiple purposes. Initially, feedback must convince developers about the relevance of a problem and convey an understanding of this. Feedback must next be easy......The format used to present feedback from usability evaluations to developers affects whether problems are understood, accepted, and fixed. Yet, little research has investigated which formats are the most effective. We describe an explorative study where three developers assess 40 usability findings...... to use and finally serve as a reminder of the problem. Prior to working with the feedback, developers rated redesign proposals, multimedia reports, and annotated screen dumps as more valuable than lists of problems, all of which were rated as more valuable than scenarios. After having spent some time...

  18. Iterative Design and Classroom Evaluation of Automated Formative Feedback for Improving Peer Feedback Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy; Xiong, Wenting; Litman, Diane

    2017-01-01

    A peer-review system that automatically evaluates and provides formative feedback on free-text feedback comments of students was iteratively designed and evaluated in college and high-school classrooms. Classroom assignments required students to write paper drafts and submit them to a peer-review system. When student peers later submitted feedback…

  19. Combining the formative with the summative: the development of a twostage online test to encourage engagement and provide personal feedback in large classes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susanne Voelkel

    2013-01-01

      The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests...

  20. Combining the formative with the summative: the development of a two-stage online test to encourage engagement and provide personal feedback in large classes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voelkel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests...

  1. Providing Effective Feedback to EFL Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi; Al-Adawi, Hamed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Feedback on school practicum is of utmost importance for student teachers to help them to develop their pedagogical and teaching skills. This paper attempts to collect data from both student teachers and their mentors in an ELT teacher training programme in Oman to answer the questions which are raised by this study: 1) What kind of feedback do…

  2. Combining the Formative with the Summative: The Development of a Two-Stage Online Test to Encourage Engagement and Provide Personal Feedback in Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests in a Year 2 lecture module in biological sciences. Initially voluntary online tests were offered to students and those who participated…

  3. MEDICAL STUDENTS’ FEEDBACK ABOUT FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navajothi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pharmacology is the toughest subject in the II MBBS syllabus. Students have to memorise a lot about the drugs’ name and classification. We are conducting internal assessment exams after completion of each system. Number of failures will be more than 60% in the internal assessments conducted during first six months of II MBBS course. AIM To assess the formative assessment pattern followed in our institution with the students’ feedback and modify the pattern according to the students’ feedback. SETTINGS & DESIGN Prospective Observational Study conducted at Department of Pharmacology, Government Sivagangai Medical College, Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS Questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the 300 students of Government Sivagangai Medical College and feedback was collected. Data collected was analysed in Microsoft Excel 2007 version. RESULTS Received feedback from 274 students. Most (80% of the students wanted to attend the tests in all systems. Monthly assessment test was preferred by 47% of the students. Students who preferred to finish tests before holidays was 57%. Most (56% of the students preferred tests for 1 hour. Multiple choice question (MCQ type was preferred by 43%, which is not a routine question pattern. Only 7% preferred viva. Recall type of questions was preferred by 41% of the students. CONCLUSION In our institution, internal assessment is conducted as per the students’ mind setup. As the feedback has been the generally followed one, we will add MCQs in the forthcoming tests. Application type questions will be asked for more marks than Recall type of questions.

  4. Clinical Skills Verification, Formative Feedback, and Psychiatry Residency Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalack, Gregory W.; Jibson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the implementation of Clinical Skills Verification (CSV) in their program as an in-training assessment intended primarily to provide formative feedback to trainees, strengthen the supervisory experience, identify the need for remediation of interviewing skills, and secondarily to demonstrating resident competence…

  5. Feedback in Clinical Education, Part I: Characteristics of Feedback Provided by Approved Clinical Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara; Henning, Jolene

    2014-01-01

    Context Providing students with feedback is an important component of athletic training clinical education; however, little information is known about the feedback that Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs; now known as preceptors) currently provide to athletic training students (ATSs). Objective To characterize the feedback provided by ACIs to ATSs during clinical education experiences. Design Qualitative study. Setting One National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletic training facility and 1 outpatient rehabilitation clinic that were clinical sites for 1 entry-level master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants A total of 4 ACIs with various experience levels and 4 second-year ATSs. Data Collection and Analysis Extensive field observations were audio recorded, transcribed, and integrated with field notes for analysis. The constant comparative approach of open, axial, and selective coding was used to inductively analyze data and develop codes and categories. Member checking, triangulation, and peer debriefing were used to promote trustworthiness of the study. Results The ACIs gave 88 feedback statements in 45 hours and 10 minutes of observation. Characteristics of feedback categories included purpose, timing, specificity, content, form, and privacy. Conclusions Feedback that ACIs provided included several components that made each feedback exchange unique. The ACIs in our study provided feedback that is supported by the literature, suggesting that ACIs are using current recommendations for providing feedback. Feedback needs to be investigated across multiple athletic training education programs to gain more understanding of certain areas of feedback, including frequency, privacy, and form. PMID:24143902

  6. Using Turnitin to Provide Feedback on L2 Writers' Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Ilka; Maliborska, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) writing instructors have varying tools at their disposal for providing feedback on students' writing, including ones that enable them to provide written and audio feedback in electronic form. One tool that has been underexplored is Turnitin, a widely used software program that matches electronic text to a wide range of…

  7. Neural network output feedback control of robot formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a combined kinematic/torque output feedback control law is developed for leader-follower-based formation control using backstepping to accommodate the dynamics of the robots and the formation in contrast with kinematic-based formation controllers. A neural network (NN) is introduced to approximate the dynamics of the follower and its leader using online weight tuning. Furthermore, a novel NN observer is designed to estimate the linear and angular velocities of both the follower robot and its leader. It is shown, by using the Lyapunov theory, that the errors for the entire formation are uniformly ultimately bounded while relaxing the separation principle. In addition, the stability of the formation in the presence of obstacles, is examined using Lyapunov methods, and by treating other robots in the formation as obstacles, collisions within the formation are prevented. Numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical conjectures.

  8. Investigating the relationship between quality, format and delivery of feedback for written assignments in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopina, Liza Elizaveta; McNeill, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Feedback can have a great impact on student learning. However, in order for it to be effective, feedback needs to be of high quality. Electronic marking has been one of the latest adaptations of technology in teaching and offers a new format of delivering feedback. There is little research...... investigating the impact the format of feedback has on quality of feedback and subsequently on student learning. This study sets out to investigate the impact paper-based and electronic methods of assignment submission and return have on students’ and markers’ perceived quality of feedback. Students and markers...... on an undergraduate course were asked to complete an anonymous online survey investigating their perceptions of quality, format and timeliness of feedback delivered electronically and on paper. The results showed that marking and providing feedback electronically was an acceptable method for markers, reporting...

  9. Feedback providing improvement strategies and reflection on feedback use: Effects on students' writing motivation, process, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, H.; Prins, F.J.; Stokking, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students’ writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the

  10. Providing Rapid Feedback in Generated Modular Language Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; De Jonge, M.; Nilsson-Nyman, E.; Visser, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a pre-print of: Providing Rapid Feedback in Generated Modular Language Environments. Adding Error Recovery to Scannerless Generalized-LR Parsing. In: Gary T. Leavens, editor, Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programing, Systems, Languages, and

  11. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 68; Issue 4. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical position control of plasma in a tokamak. Nizami Gasilov. Research ... Nizami Gasilov1. Faculty of Engineering, Baskent University, Eskisehir Yolu 20. km, Baglica, 06530 Ankara, Turkey ...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.407 - Monitoring performance and providing feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... implementing directives and policies, supervisors must— (a) Monitor the performance of their employees and the organization; and (b) Provide timely periodic feedback to employees on their actual performance with respect to their performance expectations, including one or more interim performance reviews during each appraisal...

  13. Enhancing Healthcare Provider Feedback and Personal Health Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    In this protocol for a pilot study we seek to establish the feasibility of using a web-based survey to simultaneously supply healthcare organisations and agencies with feedback on a key aspect of the care experience they provide and increase the generic health decision literacy of the individuals...

  14. Neural network control of mobile robot formations using RISE feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, S

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, an asymptotically stable (AS) combined kinematic/torque control law is developed for leader-follower-based formation control using backstepping in order to accommodate the complete dynamics of the robots and the formation, and a neural network (NN) is introduced along with robust integral of the sign of the error feedback to approximate the dynamics of the follower as well as its leader using online weight tuning. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the errors for the entire formation are AS and that the NN weights are bounded as opposed to uniformly ultimately bounded stability which is typical with most NN controllers. Additionally, the stability of the formation in the presence of obstacles is examined using Lyapunov methods, and by treating other robots in the formation as obstacles, collisions within the formation do not occur. The asymptotic stability of the follower robots as well as the entire formation during an obstacle avoidance maneuver is demonstrated using Lyapunov methods, and numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical conjectures.

  15. The role of formative feedback in promoting higher order thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feedback plays an important role in the teaching and learning environment because it provides learners with information intended to help them improve their learning. For feedback to be successful in this role, the information from feedback must also highlight the type of thinking exhibited in performing any tasks. However ...

  16. Feedback Providing Improvement Strategies and Reflection on Feedback Use: Effects on Students' Writing Motivation, Process, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…

  17. A feedback system in residency to evaluate CanMEDS roles and provide high-quality feedback : Exploring its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, Nienke; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Van Der Wal, Martha A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Introduction: Residents benefit from regular, high quality feedback on all CanMEDS roles during their training. However, feedback mostly concerns Medical Expert, leaving the other roles behind. A feedback system was developed to guide supervisors in providing feedback on CanMEDS roles. We analyzed

  18. Group-Level Formative Feedback and Metadiscourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, Monica; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl; Chen, Bodong; Halewood, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the ability of grade 2 students to engage in productive discussion about the state of their knowledge building using group-level feedback tools to support their metadiscourse. Two aspects of knowledge work were common to the comparison and experimental classes: "Knowledge Building talk" (KB talk) involving…

  19. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers about Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…

  20. Enhancing Feedback in Higher Education: Students' Attitudes towards Online and In-Class Formative Assessment Feedback Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Josh

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the efficacy of formative assessment feedback models in higher education. Over 1 year and two courses, three feedback techniques were trialled: staff-to-student feedback in class, peer-to-peer feedback in class and peer-to-peer feedback online, via "the Café," an e-learning application hosted by…

  1. Feedback in formative OSCEs: comparison between direct observation and video-based formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noëlle Junod Perron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, have the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients during formative sessions in preparation for clerkships. These sessions are given in two formats: 1 direct observation of an encounter followed by verbal feedback (direct feedback and 2 subsequent review of the videotaped encounter by both student and supervisor (video-based feedback. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether content and process of feedback differed between both formats. Methods: In 2013, all second- and third-year medical students and clinical supervisors involved in formative sessions were asked to take part in the study. A sample of audiotaped feedback sessions involving supervisors who gave feedback in both formats were analyzed (content and process of the feedback using a 21-item feedback scale. Results: Forty-eight audiotaped feedback sessions involving 12 supervisors were analyzed (2 direct and 2 video-based sessions per supervisor. When adjusted for the length of feedback, there were significant differences in terms of content and process between both formats; the number of communication skills and clinical reasoning items addressed were higher in the video-based format (11.29 vs. 7.71, p=0.002 and 3.71 vs. 2.04, p=0.010, respectively. Supervisors engaged students more actively during the video-based sessions than during direct feedback sessions (self-assessment: 4.00 vs. 3.17, p=0.007; active problem-solving: 3.92 vs. 3.42, p=0.009. Students made similar observations and tended to consider that the video feedback was more useful for improving some clinical skills. Conclusion: Video-based feedback facilitates discussion of clinical reasoning, communication, and professionalism issues while at the same time actively engaging students. Different time and conceptual frameworks may explain observed differences. The choice of feedback format should depend on

  2. The Role of Formative Feedback in Promoting Higher Order ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Key Words: classroom environment, formative assessment, formative feedback, higher order, thinking. ... plays in promoting higher order thinking in classrooms, though the majority of the studies in the literature on ..... characteristics; novelty, complexity, and creativity, were identified and measured on a. 7-point scale in a ...

  3. Continuous curricular feedback: a formative evaluation approach to curricular improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Stanley; Morrison, Gail

    2014-02-01

    Curriculum evaluations are used to plan future revisions and other improvements in curriculum design. Most models are summative and occur at the end of a course, so improvements in instruction may be delayed. In this article, the authors describe the formative curriculum evaluation model adopted at the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. In their model, representative student feedback is gathered in real time and used to modify courses and improve instruction. The central features of their continuous feedback model include developing a small cadre of preclinical and clinical student evaluators who are trained to obtain classwide input regarding all aspects of the curriculum, including teacher effectiveness, and meet regularly (weekly or monthly) with relevant faculty and administrators. The authors show how this curriculum evaluation approach maximizes student involvement in course development and provides opportunities for rapid improvements in course content and instruction as well as for the identification of barriers to effective clinical and preclinical educational experiences.

  4. Focus on Formative Feedback communication and self-regulated learning – a study in compulsory schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students in compulsory schools with good quality formative feedback to enhance self-regulated learning in social interactions. Resent educational research indicates that social communicative interactions in the classroom, with a focus...... on formative feedback, hold the potential to enhance students learning. Self-regulated learning is highly pertinent and can be seen as one of the most import skills for the 21st century learner. We argue that formative feedbackcommunication in interactions is crucial for students to develop self......-regulating skills and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. We refer to this as formative Feedbackcommunication. As a basis for exploring identifying and discussing relevant aspects of formative Feedbackcommunication to enhance student self-regulating learning skills we analyze...

  5. The effect of formative feedback on students achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students achievement in graphical elements of economics curriculums has been a problem over the years, students have been performing poorly in SSCE (WAEC & NECO). This paper therefore sought to investigate if formative feedback can improve achievement of students in graphical elements of economics curriculum.

  6. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not difficult to see that ϕ (+∞)=+∞. Therefore, for the equation ϕ (γ)=0to have no positive root, the fulfillment of the following condition is necessary: ϕ (0) = (R−1w, a) − w0 ≥ 0. (12). We will call (12) as the necessary condition of vertical position control by active feedbacks. 5. Problem of selection of active feedback system.

  7. Teacher's Attitude into Different Approach to Providing Feedback to Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaqmaqchee, Zina Adil

    2015-01-01

    Feedback within higher education has an effective role in teaching staffs mode. The treatise on teachers' methods of feedback is represented to demonstrate how the novel feedback can help the academic staffs to provide an effective feedback for students in their assignments and written draft. The study investigates the academic staff's methods of…

  8. Senior medical student perceived ability and experience in giving peer feedback in formative long case examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette W; Roberts, Chris; Black, Kirsten I; Mellis, Craig

    2013-05-31

    Learning to provide feedback on a peer's performance in formative clinical assessments can be a valuable way of enriching the students' own learning experience. Students are often reluctant to provide honest, critical feedback to their peers. Nevertheless, it is an area of practice that is important to develop as students report feeling ill prepared in feedback techniques when entering the medical workforce. We sought to investigate students' perceptions of their ability to provide feedback to their peers using the positive critique method, and their perceived benefits and challenges during the experience. Over a two year period (2011 to 2012), senior medical students assessed and gave feedback to their peers alongside academic examiners during formative long case clinical examinations. Rating scales, open ended questions and focus group discussions were used to evaluate student perceptions. Of the 94 participants, 89/94 (95%) completed the questionnaire, and 39/94 (41%) participated in focus groups. Students found the positive critique method provided a useful framework. Some students raised concerns about the accuracy of their feedback, and felt that further training was required. A substantial number of respondents (42%) did not report feeling confident providing negative feedback to their peers, and qualitative analysis indicated concerns around potential impacts on social relationships. Despite these concerns, the majority (90%) of respondents found the exercise useful, identifying several benefits, including development in the understanding of knowledge content; development of professionalism skills, and increased responsibility. Students identified several challenging aspects to providing feedback to their peers. While the experience of giving feedback to peers was perceived by students to provide a valuable learning experience, further training in this area may help to improve the learning experience for students and better prepare them for their future

  9. Towards Understanding the Star Formation-Feedback Loop in Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Andrey

    We propose to carry out a comprehensive study of how star formation and feedback loop influences evolution of galaxies using a suite of ultra-high resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy formation using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) approach implemented in the Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code. The simulations will result in the numerical models of galaxy evolution of unprecedented resolution and sophistication of the processes included. Our code includes treatment of a wide spectrum of processes critical for realistic modeling of galaxy formation from the primordial chemistry of hydrogen and helium species, radiative transfer of ionizing radiation, to the metallicity- dependent cooling, chemistry of molecular hydrogen on dust and treatment of radiative transfer of dissociating far ultraviolet radiation. The latter allows us to tie star formation with dense, molecular regions capable of self-shielding from heating radiation and avoid adopting arbitrary density and temperature thresholds for star formation. Simulations will also employ a new model for momentum injection due to radiation pressure exerted by young massive stars onto surrounding dust and gas. This early, pre-supernova feedback is critical to prompt dispersal of natal molecular clouds and regulating star formation efficiency and increasing efficiency of energy release by supernovae. The simulations proposed in this project will therefore treat the most important process to understanding the efficiency of baryon conversion to stars - the star formation - in the way most closely resembling the actual star formation observed in galaxies and stellar feedback model that is firmly rooted in observational evidence on how feedback operates in real molecular clouds. The simulations we propose will provide models of galaxy evolution during three important epochs in the history of the universe: (1) early evolution prior to and during the reionization of the universe (the first billion years of

  10. The quality of feedback during formative OSCEs depends on the tutors’ profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle Junod Perron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During their pre-clinical years, medical students are given the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients. During these formative objective structured clinical encounters (OSCEs, tutors from various backgrounds give feedback on students’ history taking, physical exam, and communication skills. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the content and process of feedback varied according to the tutors’ profile. Methods During 2013, all 2nd and 3rd year medical students and tutors involved in three formative OSCEs were asked to fill in questionnaires, and their feedback sessions were audiotaped. Tutors were divided into two groups: 1 generalists: primary care, general internist and educationalist physicians 2 specialists involved in the OSCE related to their field of expertise. Outcome measures included the students’ perceptions of feedback quality and utility and objective assessment of feedback quality. Results Participants included 251 medical students and 38 tutors (22 generalists and 16 specialists. Students self-reported that feedback was useful to improve history taking, physical exam and communication skills. Objective assessment showed that feedback content essentially focused on history taking and physical exam skills, and that elaboration on clinical reasoning or communication/professionalism issues was uncommon. Multivariate analyses showed that generalist tutors used more learner-centered feedback skills than specialist tutors (stimulating student’s self-assessment (p < .001; making the student active in finding solutions, p < .001; checking student’s understanding, p < .001 and elaborated more on communication and professionalism issues (p < 0.001. Specialists reported less training in how to provide feedback than generalists. Conclusion These findings suggest that generalist tutors are more learner-centered and pay more attention to communication and

  11. Exploring the value of peer feedback in online learning for the provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijke Kral; Gino Camp; Esther van Popta; Robert Jan Simons; Rob L. Martens

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of peer feedback from the novel perspective of the providers of that feedback. The possible learning benefits of providing peer feedback in online learning have not been extensively studied. The goal of this study was therefore to explore the process of providing online

  12. Motivational beliefs, student effort, and feedback behaviour in computer-based formative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, C.F.; Braber-van den Broek, J.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine

    2013-01-01

    Feedback can only be effective when students seek feedback and process it. This study examines the relations between students' motivational beliefs, effort invested in a computer-based formative assessment, and feedback behaviour. Feedback behaviour is represented by whether a student seeks feedback

  13. Radiative Feedback in the Formation of the First Protogalaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Greif, T. H.; Bromm, V.

    2007-12-01

    The first galaxies form under the influence of radiative feedback from the first generations of stars. This feedback acts to heat and ionize the gas within the H II regions surrounding the first stars, as well as to photodissociate hydrogen molecules within the larger Lyman-Werner (LW) bubbles that surround these sources. Using a ray-tracing method in three-dimensional cosmological simulations, we self-consistently track the formation of, and radiative feedback from, individual stars in the formation of a protogalaxy. We compute in detail the H II regions of each of these sources, as well as the regions affected by their molecule-dissociating radiation. We follow the thermal, chemical, and dynamical evolution of the primordial gas as it becomes incorporated into the protogalaxy. While the IGM is, in general, optically thick to LW photons only over physical distances of > 30 kpc at redshifts zfactor renders even the local IGM optically thick to LW photons over physical distances of a few kiloparsecs. We find that Population III relic black holes may begin accreting efficiently after 60 Myr from the time of their formation, when the photo-heated relic H II region gas can cool and recollapse into the 106 Msolar minihalo which hosts the black hole. Metal-free Population II.5 stars, postulated to have masses of the order of 10 Msolar, can also likely form from this recollapsing relic H II region gas. Overall, we find that the local radiative feedback from Population III stars suppresses the star formation rate only slightly.

  14. Local Radiative Feedback in the Formation of the First Protogalaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Greif, Thomas H.; Bromm, Volker

    2007-08-01

    The first galaxies form under the influence of radiative feedback from the first generations of stars. This feedback acts to heat and ionize the gas within the H II regions surrounding the first stars, as well as to photodissociate hydrogen molecules within the larger Lyman-Werner (LW) bubbles that surround these sources. Using a ray-tracing method in three-dimensional cosmological simulations, we self-consistently track the formation of, and radiative feedback from, individual stars in the formation of a protogalaxy. We compute in detail the H II regions of each of these sources, as well as the regions affected by their molecule-dissociating radiation. We follow the thermal, chemical, and dynamical evolution of the primordial gas as it becomes incorporated into the protogalaxy. While the IGM is, in general, optically thick to LW photons only over physical distances of >~30 kpc at redshifts zfactor renders even the local IGM optically thick to LW photons over physical distances of a few kiloparsecs. We find that Population III relic black holes may begin accreting efficiently after ~60 Myr from the time of their formation, when the photo-heated relic H II region gas can cool and recollapse into the 106 Msolar minihalo which hosts the black hole. Population II.5 stars, postulated to have masses of the order of 10 Msolar, can also likely form from this recollapsing relic H II region gas. Overall, we find that the local radiative feedback from Population III stars suppresses the star formation rate only slightly.

  15. Auris System: Providing Vibrotactile Feedback for Hearing Impaired Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves Araujo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deafness, an issue that affects millions of people around the globe, is manifested in different intensities and related to many causes. This impairment negatively affects different aspects of the social life of the deaf people, and music-centered situations (concerts, religious events, etc. are obviously not inviting for them. The Auris System was conceived to provide the musical experimentation for people who have some type of hearing loss. This system is able to extract musical information from audio and create a representation for music pieces using different stimuli, a new media format to be interpreted by other senses than the hearing. In addition, the system defines a testing methodology based on a noninvasive brain activity recording using an electroencephalographic (EEG device. The results of the tests are being used to better understand the human musical cognition, in order to improve the accuracy of the Auris musical representation.

  16. Auris System: Providing Vibrotactile Feedback for Hearing Impaired Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Araujo, Felipe; Lima Brasil, Fabricio; Candido Lima Santos, Allison; de Sousa Batista Junior, Luzenildo; Pereira Fonseca Dutra, Savio; Eduardo Coelho Freire Batista, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Deafness, an issue that affects millions of people around the globe, is manifested in different intensities and related to many causes. This impairment negatively affects different aspects of the social life of the deaf people, and music-centered situations (concerts, religious events, etc.) are obviously not inviting for them. The Auris System was conceived to provide the musical experimentation for people who have some type of hearing loss. This system is able to extract musical information from audio and create a representation for music pieces using different stimuli, a new media format to be interpreted by other senses than the hearing. In addition, the system defines a testing methodology based on a noninvasive brain activity recording using an electroencephalographic (EEG) device. The results of the tests are being used to better understand the human musical cognition, in order to improve the accuracy of the Auris musical representation.

  17. Attention Paid to Feedback Provided by a Computer-Based Assessment for Learning on Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…

  18. Teaching and Learning Writing through Providing Teacher’s Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem Boubekeur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English as a foreign language refers to instructing English to learners who are non native speakers. Mastering the language very well does not mean neither that the teacher can instruct writing in a good way; nor the student can compose coherently. Writing is a fundamental skill in both learning and teaching processes; in which EFL students need to master. Yet; the latter is considered as a complex and difficult task in that learners have to explore their thoughts and ideas via communicating on a paper; but clearly. Thus; since learners are required to write extended essays appropriately; they need to be aware of their mistakes via receiving teachers’ feedback which could be an effective strategy that enhances the students’ writing capacities.

  19. A Surgical Robot Teleoperation Framework for Providing Haptic Feedback Incorporating Virtual Environment-Based Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Munawar, Adnan; Fischer, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In robot-assisted teleoperated laparoscopic surgeries, the patient side manipulators are controlled via the master manipulators, operated by the surgeon. The current generation of robots approved for laparoscopic surgery lack haptic feedback. In theory, haptic feedback could enhance the surgical procedures by providing a palpable sense of the environment as a function of surgeon’s hands movements. This research presents an overall control framework for haptic feedback on existing robot platfo...

  20. Volunteer Expert Readers: Drawing on the University Community to Provide Professional Feedback for Engineering Student Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Cary

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a 3-year study utilizing a novel approach to providing students in an introductory engineering course with feedback on drafts of course writing projects. In the Volunteer Expert Reader (VER) approach, students are matched with university alumni or employees who have the background to give feedback from the perspective of the…

  1. Interns reflect: the effect of formative assessment with feedback during pre-internship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan McKenzie,1 Annette Burgess,2 Craig Mellis1 1Central Clinical School, 2Education Office, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: It is widely known that the opportunity for medical students to be observed and to receive feedback on their procedural skills performance is variable in the senior years. To address this problem, we provided our Pre-Intern (PrInt students with “one-to-one” formative feedback on their ability to perform urethral catheterization (U/C and hypothesized that their future practice of U/C as interns would benefit. This study sought to evaluate the performance and practice of interns in U/C 4–5 months after having received feedback on their performance of U/C as PrInt students.Methods: Between 2013 and 2014, two cohorts of interns, (total n=66 who had received recent formative feedback on their U/C performance as PrInt students at Central Clinical School, were invited to complete an anonymous survey. The survey contained nine closed unvalidated questions and one open-ended question, designed to allow interns to report on their current practice of U/C.Results: Forty-one out of 66 interns (62% completed the survey. Thirty-five out of 41 respondents (85% reported that the assessment with feedback during their PrInt term was beneficial to their practice. Thirty of 41 (73% reported being confident to perform U/C independently. Eleven out of 41 respondents (27% reported that they had received additional training at intern orientation. Nine of the 11 interns (82% reported that they had a small, but a significant, increase in confidence to perform U/C when compared with the 30 of the 41 respondents (73% who had not (p=0.03.Conclusion: Our results substantiate our hypothesis that further education by assessment with feedback in U/C during PrInt was of benefit to interns’ performance. Additional educational reinforcement in U/C during intern orientation further improved intern

  2. Computer-Supported Feedback Message Tailoring for Healthcare Providers in Malawi: Proof-of-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Lewis, Zach; Douglas, Gerald P; Hochheiser, Harry; Kam, Matthew; Gadabu, Oliver; Bwanali, Mwatha; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    Although performance feedback has the potential to help clinicians improve the quality and safety of care, healthcare organizations generally lack knowledge about how this guidance is best provided. In low-resource settings, tools for theory-informed feedback tailoring may enhance limited clinical supervision resources. Our objectives were to establish proof-of-concept for computer-supported feedback message tailoring in Malawi, Africa. We conducted this research in five stages: clinical performance measurement, modeling the influence of feedback on antiretroviral therapy (ART) performance, creating a rule-based message tailoring process, generating tailored messages for recipients, and finally analysis of performance and message tailoring data. We retrospectively generated tailored messages for 7,448 monthly performance reports from 11 ART clinics. We found that tailored feedback could be routinely generated for four guideline-based performance indicators, with 35% of reports having messages prioritized to optimize the effect of feedback. This research establishes proof-of-concept for a novel approach to improving the use of clinical performance feedback in low-resource settings and suggests possible directions for prospective evaluations comparing alternative designs of feedback messages. PMID:26958217

  3. Feed-forward and feedback projections of midbrain reticular formation neurons in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Eddie; May, Paul J; Warren, Susan

    2014-01-10

    Gaze changes involving the eyes and head are orchestrated by brainstem gaze centers found within the superior colliculus (SC), paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF), and medullary reticular formation (MdRF). The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) also plays a role in gaze. It receives a major input from the ipsilateral SC and contains cells that fire in relation to gaze changes. Moreover, it provides a feedback projection to the SC and feed-forward projections to the PPRF and MdRF. We sought to determine whether these MRF feedback and feed-forward projections originate from the same or different neuronal populations by utilizing paired fluorescent retrograde tracers in cats. Specifically, we tested: 1. whether MRF neurons that control eye movements form a single population by injecting the SC and PPRF with different tracers, and 2. whether MRF neurons that control head movements form a single population by injecting the SC and MdRF with different tracers. In neither case were double labeled neurons observed, indicating that feedback and feed-forward projections originate from separate MRF populations. In both cases, the labeled reticulotectal and reticuloreticular neurons were distributed bilaterally in the MRF. However, neurons projecting to the MdRF were generally constrained to the medial half of the MRF, while those projecting to the PPRF, like MRF reticulotectal neurons, were spread throughout the mediolateral axis. Thus, the medial MRF may be specialized for control of head movements, with control of eye movements being more widespread in this structure.

  4. Can the removal of molecular cloud envelopes by external feedback affect the efficiency of star formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William E.; Bonnell, Ian A.; Forgan, Duncan H.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate how star formation efficiency (SFE) can be significantly decreased by the removal of a molecular cloud's envelope by feedback from an external source. Feedback from star formation has difficulties halting the process in dense gas but can easily remove the less dense and warmer envelopes where star formation does not occur. However, the envelopes can play an important role keeping their host clouds bound by deepening the gravitational potential and providing a constraining pressure boundary. We use numerical simulations to show that removal of the cloud envelopes results in all cases in a fall in the SFE. At 1.38 free-fall times, our 4 pc cloud simulation experienced a drop in the SFE from 16 to 6 per cent, while our 5 pc cloud fell from 27 to 16 per cent. At the same time, our 3 pc cloud (the least bound) fell from an SFE of 5.67 per cent to zero when the envelope was lost. The SFE per free-fall time varied from zero to ≈0.25 according to α, defined to be the ratio of the kinetic plus thermal to gravitational energy, and irrespective of the absolute star-forming mass available. Furthermore, the fall in SFE associated with the loss of the envelope is found to even occur at later times. We conclude that the SFE will always fall should a star-forming cloud lose its envelope due to stellar feedback, with less bound clouds suffering the greatest decrease.

  5. A qualitative study on feedback provided by students in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Stanley, David John; Meadus, Robert J; Chien, Wai Tong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to help nurse educators/academics understand the perspectives and expectations of students providing their feedback to educators about teaching performance and subject quality. The aim of this study is to reveal students' voices regarding their feedback in nurse education in order to shed light on how the current student feedback practice may be modified. A qualitative study using focus group inquiry. Convenience sampling was adopted and participants recruited from one school of nursing in Hong Kong. A total of 66 nursing students from two pre-registration programs were recruited for seven focus group interviews: one group of Year 1 students (n=21), two groups of Year 3 students (n=27), and four groups of Final Year students (n=18). The interviews were guided by a semi-structured interview guideline and the interview narratives were processed through content analysis. The trustworthiness of this study was guaranteed through peer checking, research meetings, and an audit trail. The participants' privacy was protected throughout the study. Four core themes were discerned based on the narratives of the focus group interviews: (1) "timing of collecting feedback at more than one time point"; (2) "modify the questions being asked in collecting student feedback"; (3) "are electronic means of collecting feedback good enough?; and (4) "what will be next for student feedback?". This study is significant in the following three domains: 1) it contributed to student feedback because it examined the issue from a student's perspective; 2) it explored the timing and channels for collecting feedback from the students' point of view; and 3) it showed the preferred uses of student feedback. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Competency-based achievement system: using formative feedback to teach and assess family medicine residents' skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-09-01

    Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents' competence in "soft" skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. To develop a method to assess residents' competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents' knowledge of and competence in important skills. By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence.

  7. Achievement and motivation in the middle school science classroom: The effects of formative assessment feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Evera, William C.

    2004-11-01

    Formative assessment feedback is increasingly viewed as essential to learning. Yet, existing studies on feedback have focused heavily on knowledge of results (KR) feedback rather than information-rich formative assessment feedback that is more commonly used to encourage and guide learning. This study was designed to investigate the effects of information-rich formative assessment feedback on performance and motivation of middle school science students. Using a within subjects crossover design, treatment students received written formative assessment feedback on all homework and class-work assignments. Control students received completion scores for their work but no feedback. Dependent measures included two multiple-choice unit tests and a multipart motivation survey which assessed self-efficacy, goal orientation, affective responses, and preferences regarding feedback. Results indicated effects sizes of .7 for low achievers and .4 for middle level achievers on the performance measure as a result of the feedback intervention. These students also experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy. High achievers experienced reduced performance following the feedback intervention with an effect size of -.7. Survey analysis revealed no improvement in motivation-related variables for high achievers.

  8. Interns reflect: the effect of formative assessment with feedback during pre-internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Susan; Burgess, Annette; Mellis, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Background It is widely known that the opportunity for medical students to be observed and to receive feedback on their procedural skills performance is variable in the senior years. To address this problem, we provided our Pre-Intern (PrInt) students with “one-to-one” formative feedback on their ability to perform urethral catheterization (U/C) and hypothesized that their future practice of U/C as interns would benefit. This study sought to evaluate the performance and practice of interns in U/C 4–5 months after having received feedback on their performance of U/C as PrInt students. Methods Between 2013 and 2014, two cohorts of interns, (total n=66) who had received recent formative feedback on their U/C performance as PrInt students at Central Clinical School, were invited to complete an anonymous survey. The survey contained nine closed unvalidated questions and one open-ended question, designed to allow interns to report on their current practice of U/C. Results Forty-one out of 66 interns (62%) completed the survey. Thirty-five out of 41 respondents (85%) reported that the assessment with feedback during their PrInt term was beneficial to their practice. Thirty of 41 (73%) reported being confident to perform U/C independently. Eleven out of 41 respondents (27%) reported that they had received additional training at intern orientation. Nine of the 11 interns (82%) reported that they had a small, but a significant, increase in confidence to perform U/C when compared with the 30 of the 41 respondents (73%) who had not (p=0.03). Conclusion Our results substantiate our hypothesis that further education by assessment with feedback in U/C during PrInt was of benefit to interns’ performance. Additional educational reinforcement in U/C during intern orientation further improved intern confidence. Our results indicate that extra pre- and post-graduation procedural skills training, with feedback, should be universal. PMID:28138270

  9. Follower-Centered Perspective on Feedback: Effects of Feedback Seeking on Identification and Feedback Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Zhenxing; Li, Miaomiao; Qi, Yaoyuan; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    In the formation mechanism of the feedback environment, the existing research pays attention to external feedback sources and regards individuals as objects passively accepting feedback. Thus, the external source fails to realize the individuals’ need for feedback, and the feedback environment cannot provide them with useful information, leading to a feedback vacuum. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of feedback-seeking by different strategies on the supervisor-feedback environme...

  10. Providing Behavioral Feedback to Students in an Alternative High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Hefter, Sheera; Barker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This column provides an example method for improving the consistency and quality of daily behavioral feedback provided to students in an alternative high school setting. Often, homeroom or advisory periods are prime points in the day for students to review their behavior from the previous day and set goals for a successful day to come. The method…

  11. Dual Delayed Feedback Provides Sensitivity and Robustness to the NF-κB Signaling Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Jeffrey D.; Hasty, Jeff; Hoffmann, Alexander; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2013-01-01

    Many cellular stress-responsive signaling systems exhibit highly dynamic behavior with oscillatory features mediated by delayed negative feedback loops. What remains unclear is whether oscillatory behavior is the basis for a signaling code based on frequency modulation (FM) or whether the negative feedback control modules have evolved to fulfill other functional requirements. Here, we use experimentally calibrated computational models to interrogate the negative feedback loops that regulate the dynamic activity of the transcription factor NF-B. Linear stability analysis of the model shows that oscillatory frequency is a hard-wired feature of the primary negative feedback loop and not a function of the stimulus, thus arguing against an FM signaling code. Instead, our modeling studies suggest that the two feedback loops may be tuned to provide for rapid activation and inactivation capabilities for transient input signals of a wide range of durations; by minimizing late phase oscillations response durations may be fine-tuned in a graded rather than quantized manner. Further, in the presence of molecular noise the dual delayed negative feedback system minimizes stochastic excursions of the output to produce a robust NF-B response. PMID:23825938

  12. Providing physicians with feedback on how they supervise students during patient contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, D H J M; Wolfhagen, H A P; Gerver, W J; De Grave, W; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2004-08-01

    In this descriptive study an instrument is presented that has been developed to provide physicians with feedback about their strengths and weaknesses in facilitating student learning during patient contacts. The instrument is strongly theory based, i.e. it is based on current general theories of context-bound learning environments, and forms of facilitation promoting transfer of knowledge to actual professional practice. In addition, it has been developed in cooperation with physicians supervising students during patient contacts. The authors have shown how physicians can be provided with individualized feedback on their performance in supervising students during patient contacts.

  13. TOWARD A COMPLETE ACCOUNTING OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM FROM STELLAR FEEDBACK IN GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agertz, Oscar; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Leitner, Samuel N.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2013-05-21

    We investigate the momentum and energy budget of stellar feedback during different stages of stellar evolution, and study its impact on the interstellar medium (ISM) using simulations of local star-forming regions and galactic disks at the resolution affordable in modern cosmological zoom-in simulations. In particular, we present a novel subgrid model for the momentum injection due to radiation pressure and stellar winds from massive stars during early, pre-supernova (pre-SN) evolutionary stages of young star clusters. Early injection of momentum acts to clear out dense gas in star-forming regions, hence limiting star formation. The reduced gas density mitigates radiative losses of thermal feedback energy from subsequent SN explosions. The detailed impact of stellar feedback depends sensitively on the implementation and choice of parameters. Somewhat encouragingly, we find that implementations in which feedback is efficient lead to approximate self-regulation of the global star formation efficiency. We compare simulation results using our feedback implementation to other phenomenological feedback methods, where thermal feedback energy is allowed to dissipate over timescales longer than the formal gas cooling time. We find that simulations with maximal momentum injection suppress star formation to a similar degree as is found in simulations adopting adiabatic thermal feedback. However, different feedback schemes are found to produce significant differences in the density and thermodynamic structure of the ISM, and are hence expected to have a qualitatively different impact on galaxy evolution.

  14. Supporting students in self-regulation: use of formative feedback and portfolios in a problem-based learning setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannefer, Elaine F; Prayson, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    The widely recognized need for students to self-regulate their behavior and learning extends to the multiple dimensions of professionalism. This study examines the extent to which students self-regulate professionalism behaviors related to work habits and interpersonal skills in a PBL setting. Formative feedback on works habits and interpersonal skills provided by peers and tutors to a Year 1 cohort (n = 32) over the course of a year-long PBL experience (5 blocks) was examined for comments on targeted areas for improvement (TAFIs) and observed improvements. We examined congruence between PBL feedback and students' self-reported TAFIs and behavioral improvements in their assessment portfolios. Both PBL peer and faculty feedback and portfolio self-assessments targeted Interpersonal Skills TAFIs more frequently than Work Habit-related issues. TAFIs were more frequently identified midway in PBL blocks versus the end. Students reported TAFIs in their portfolio essays, citing feedback from both peers and tutors, and provided evidence of improved performance over time. Students utilized external formative feedback to document their portfolio self-assessment in a system designed to support self-regulation of PBL professionalism-related behaviors. A decrease in TAFIs identified at the end of PBL blocks suggests students made use of mid-block feedback to self-regulate behaviors.

  15. Student Peer Review: Enhancing Formative Feedback with a Rebuttal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Tony; Wald, Navé; Randhawa, Haseeb

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the use of peer review in an undergraduate ecology programme, in which students write a research proposal as a grant application, prior to carrying out the research project. Using a theoretical feedback model, we compared teacher and student peer reviews in a double blind exercise, and show how students responded to feedback…

  16. The Effect of Performance Feedback Provided to Student-Teachers Working with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Pinar; Yilmaz, Hatice Cansu; Demiryurek, Pinar; Dogus, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of performance feedback (PF) provided to student teachers working with students with multiple disabilities and visual impairment (MDVI) on their teaching skills. The study group of the research was composed of 11 student teachers attending to the final year of the Teaching Students with Visual…

  17. Making learning fun to increase nursing students’ success: Formative feedback in communication learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ismaile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Communication skills are taught in most Bachelor of Nursing programs; however, student performance is often not monitored or tested until the final exam. Audience Response System (ARS technology enables the collection of feedback from students during lectures to improve their quality of learning. Aims We assessed the efficacy of ARS technology in promoting the understanding of communication skills among nursing students. Methods Questions were integrated into 14 lectures using the ARS platform Learning Catalytics (LC; Pearson UK, London, UK. Students answered the questions using their own web-enabled mobile devices. One hundred and twenty second-year nursing students participated in this study. Their answers were pooled and prompt formative feedback was provided in the classroom. A questionnaire was distributed to evaluate their perceptions of ARS use. Results All students reported that they enjoyed ARS use: 92 per cent stated that it helped to identify their learning needs and 87 per cent agreed that it promoted the integration of key concepts. The most common theme within the feedback was that of identifying their own learning needs. Repeated questioning produced a significant increase (p < 0.05 in students’ knowledge of specific concepts. Conclusion The use of ARS technology to provide prompt feedback promoted teaching and learning among undergraduate nursing students. ARS use enabled the identification of individual learning needs and aided revision before summative exams. It also improved students’ confidence and understanding of key concepts. Moreover, students of different educational levels and learning styles were identified, tracked and given support through the use of ARS technology.

  18. Patterns in the form of formative feedback and student response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Damsgaard, Linn; Bruun, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Formativ feedback modtager i øjeblikket opmærksomhed som et effektivt middel til at øge studerendes læring. Men hvordan man sætter rammerne for at opnå den bedste effekt er løbende til debat. I denne undersøgelse analyserer vi et skriftligt datasæt med 174 segmenter af lærerfeedback og studerende...

  19. Teachers' Accounts of Their Perceptions and Practices of Providing Written Feedback to Nursing Students on Their Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Gul, Raisa; Lakhani, Arusa; Rizvi, Nusrat Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Written feedback can facilitate students' learning in several ways. However, the teachers' practices of written feedback may be affected by various factors. This study aimed to explore the nurse teachers' accounts of their perceptions and practices of providing written feedback. A descriptive exploratory design was employed in the study. A…

  20. The impact of star formation feedback on the circumgalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Drummond; Quataert, Eliot; McCourt, Michael; Thompson, Todd A.

    2017-04-01

    We use idealized 3D hydrodynamic simulations to study the dynamics and thermal structure of the circumgalactic medium (CGM). Our simulations quantify the role of cooling, stellar feedback driven galactic winds and cosmological gas accretion in setting the properties of the CGM in dark matter haloes ranging from 1011 to 1012 M⊙. Our simulations support a conceptual picture in which the properties of the CGM, and the key physics governing it, change markedly near a critical halo mass of Mcrit ≈ 1011.5 M⊙. As in calculations without stellar feedback, above Mcrit halo gas is supported by thermal pressure created in the virial shock. The thermal properties at small radii are regulated by feedback triggered when tcool/tff ≲ 10 in the hot gas. Below Mcrit, however, there is no thermally supported halo and self-regulation at tcool/tff ˜ 10 does not apply. Instead, the gas is out of hydrostatic equilibrium and largely supported against gravity by bulk flows (turbulence and coherent inflow/outflow) arising from the interaction between cosmological gas inflow and outflowing galactic winds. In these lower mass haloes, the phase structure depends sensitively on the outflows' energy per unit mass and mass-loading, which may allow measurements of the CGM thermal state to constrain the nature of galactic winds. Our simulations account for some of the properties of the multiphase halo gas inferred from quasar absorption line observations, including the presence of significant mass at a wide range of temperatures, and the characteristic O VI and C IV column densities and kinematics. However, we underpredict the neutral hydrogen content of the z ˜ 0 CGM.

  1. Kiloparsec-scale Simulations of Star Formation in Disk Galaxies. IV. Regulation of Galactic Star Formation Rates by Stellar Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Michael J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Teyssier, Romain; Nickerson, Sarah [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, 8049 Zurich (Switzerland); Rosdahl, Joakim [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Loo, Sven [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Star formation from the interstellar medium of galactic disks is a basic process controlling the evolution of galaxies. Understanding the star formation rate (SFR) in a local patch of a disk with a given gas mass is thus an important challenge for theoretical models. Here we simulate a kiloparsec region of a disk, following the evolution of self-gravitating molecular clouds down to subparsec scales, as they form stars that then inject feedback energy by dissociating and ionizing UV photons and supernova explosions. We assess the relative importance of each feedback mechanism. We find that H{sub 2}-dissociating feedback results in the largest absolute reduction in star formation compared to the run with no feedback. Subsequently adding photoionization feedback produces a more modest reduction. Our fiducial models that combine all three feedback mechanisms yield, without fine-tuning, SFRs that are in excellent agreement with observations, with H{sub 2}-dissociating photons playing a crucial role. Models that only include supernova feedback—a common method in galaxy evolution simulations—settle to similar SFRs, but with very different temperatures and chemical states of the gas, and with very different spatial distributions of young stars.

  2. Design of a clinical competency committee to maximize formative feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Donato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the next phase in the roll-out of Next Accreditation System, US residency programs are to develop Clinical Competency Committees (CCCs to formally implement outcome-based medical education objectives in the resident assessment process. However, any changes to an assessment system must consider balancing formative and summative tensions, flexibility and standardization tensions, fairness and transparency to learners, and administrative burden for faculty. Objectives/Methods: In this article, one program discusses the approach one internal medicine residency took to create a developmental model CCC. In this model, a learner's mentor presents the argument for competence to the CCC, while a second reviewer presents challenges to that argument to the rest of the committee members. The CCC members provide other insights and make recommendations. The mentor presents the final committee recommendations to that resident, who then works with the mentor to develop a plan for future action. Results: CCC second reviewers spent an average of 30.4 min (SD: 11.4 preparing for each resident's discussion, a duty performed 5–7 times every 6 months. Faculty development was associated with an increase in the number of action-oriented comments in the meeting minutes (3.2–4.1 comments per resident, p=0.001. CCC members and mentors gave higher Likert-type ratings than residents for fairness (4.8 vs. 4.0 and learning prioritization (4.7 vs. 4.2, but similar ratings for transparency (4.0 vs. 4.2. Conclusion: Developmental model CCCs may be feasible for residency programs, but faculty development may be necessary.

  3. Effect of providing feedback and prescribing education on prescription writing: An intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemigbitse, Adetutu A; Omole, Moses Kayode; Erhun, Wilson O

    2016-01-01

    Accurate medication prescribing important to avoid errors and ensure best possible outcomes. This is a report of assessment of the impact of providing feedback and educational intervention on prescribing error types and rates in routine practice. Doctors' prescriptions from selected wards in two tertiary hospitals in central Nigeria were prospectively reviewed for a 6-month period and assessed for errors; grouped into six categories. Intervention was by providing feedback and educational outreach on the specialty/departmental level at one hospital while the other acted as the control. Chi-squared statistics was used to compare prescribing characteristics pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, error rate was higher at the control site. At the intervention site, statistically significant reductions were obtained for errors involving omission of route of administration (P error rate post intervention (P = 0.984). Though House Officers and Registrars wrote most prescriptions, highest reduction in prescribing error rates post intervention was by the registrars (0.93% to 0.29%, P prescriptions that lacked essential details was common. Intervention resulted in modest changes. Routinely providing feedback and continuing prescriber education will likely sustain error reduction.

  4. Analyzing effects of providing performance feedback at ward rounds on guideline adherence - the importance of feedback usage analysis and statistical control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid; Schultz, Marcus J; de Jonge, Evert; de Keizer, Nicolette F

    2010-01-01

    Feedback to clinicians on their past performance is often aimed at increasing adherence to guidelines. We investigate how various analytical approaches influence the interpretation of adherence data. The analytical approaches vary in considering the actual or the intended use of the feedback, and whether outcomes are inspected over time. At base line, a computerized decision support system was employed at the ICU bedside to increase adherence to a mechanical ventilation strategy. We intervened by providing feedback about adherence to the guideline at the daily ward rounds. The outcome measure was the percentage of ventilation time (VT) in excess of the guideline's recommendation. Actual usage of the feedback was logged and data analysis was carried out using two approaches: classical statistics, and statistical process control (SPC) that inspect progress of an outcome over time. Prospective, before/after study. The classical analysis stated that the percentage of ventilation time in excess of the guideline's recommendation decreased significantly due to the feedback (5% reduction, p analysis of the outcome was applied, the effect was deemed not significant. When the actual delivery of feedback over time was also included it showed that the experiment does not allow for conclusive results. The concluded effect of providing feedback on adherence to a guideline depends on whether the actual usage pattern of the feedback and the inspection of the outcome over time are considered. Future evaluative studies should report on usage patterns and progression of outcomes over time.

  5. The quality of feedback during formative OSCEs depends on the tutors' profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfarrwaller, Eva; Sommer, Johanna; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2016-11-15

    During their pre-clinical years, medical students are given the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients. During these formative objective structured clinical encounters (OSCEs), tutors from various backgrounds give feedback on students' history taking, physical exam, and communication skills. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the content and process of feedback varied according to the tutors' profile. During 2013, all 2nd and 3rd year medical students and tutors involved in three formative OSCEs were asked to fill in questionnaires, and their feedback sessions were audiotaped. Tutors were divided into two groups: 1) generalists: primary care, general internist and educationalist physicians 2) specialists involved in the OSCE related to their field of expertise. Outcome measures included the students' perceptions of feedback quality and utility and objective assessment of feedback quality. Participants included 251 medical students and 38 tutors (22 generalists and 16 specialists). Students self-reported that feedback was useful to improve history taking, physical exam and communication skills. Objective assessment showed that feedback content essentially focused on history taking and physical exam skills, and that elaboration on clinical reasoning or communication/professionalism issues was uncommon. Multivariate analyses showed that generalist tutors used more learner-centered feedback skills than specialist tutors (stimulating student's self-assessment (p tutors are more learner-centered and pay more attention to communication and professionalism during feedback than specialist tutors. Such differences may be explained by differences in feedback training but also by differences in practice styles and frames of references that should be further explored.

  6. Mobile in vivo camera robots provide sole visual feedback for abdominal exploration and cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentschler, M E; Dumpert, J; Platt, S R; Ahmed, S I; Farritor, S M; Oleynikov, D

    2006-01-01

    The use of small incisions in laparoscopy reduces patient trauma, but also limits the surgeon's ability to view and touch the surgical environment directly. These limitations generally restrict the application of laparoscopy to procedures less complex than those performed during open surgery. Although current robot-assisted laparoscopy improves the surgeon's ability to manipulate and visualize the target organs, the instruments and cameras remain fundamentally constrained by the entry incisions. This limits tool tip orientation and optimal camera placement. The current work focuses on developing a new miniature mobile in vivo adjustable-focus camera robot to provide sole visual feedback to surgeons during laparoscopic surgery. A miniature mobile camera robot was inserted through a trocar into the insufflated abdominal cavity of an anesthetized pig. The mobile robot allowed the surgeon to explore the abdominal cavity remotely and view trocar and tool insertion and placement without entry incision constraints. The surgeon then performed a cholecystectomy using the robot camera alone for visual feedback. This successful trial has demonstrated that miniature in vivo mobile robots can provide surgeons with sufficient visual feedback to perform common procedures while reducing patient trauma.

  7. Star cluster formation in a turbulent molecular cloud self-regulated by photoionization feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagnin, Elena; Bleuler, Andreas; Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain

    2017-12-01

    Most stars in the Galaxy are believed to be formed within star clusters from collapsing molecular clouds. However, the complete process of star formation, from the parent cloud to a gas-free star cluster, is still poorly understood. We perform radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud using the RAMSES-RT code. Stars are modelled using sink particles, from which we self-consistently follow the propagation of the ionizing radiation. We study how different feedback models affect the gas expulsion from the cloud and how they shape the final properties of the emerging star cluster. We find that the star formation efficiency is lower for stronger feedback models. Feedback also changes the high-mass end of the stellar mass function. Stronger feedback also allows the establishment of a lower density star cluster, which can maintain a virial or sub-virial state. In the absence of feedback, the star formation efficiency is very high, as well as the final stellar density. As a result, high-energy close encounters make the cluster evaporate quickly. Other indicators, such as mass segregation, statistics of multiple systems and escaping stars confirm this picture. Observations of young star clusters are in best agreement with our strong feedback simulation.

  8. Negative plant soil feedback explaining ring formation in clonal plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carteni, F.; Marasco, A.; Bonanomi, G.; Mazzoleni, S.; Rietkerk, M.G.; Giannino, F.

    2012-01-01

    Ring shaped patches of clonal plants have been reported in different environments, but the mechanisms underlying such pattern formation are still poorly explained. Water depletion in the inner tussocks zone has been proposed as a possible cause, although ring patterns have been also observed in

  9. Evaluating a Formative Feedback Intervention for International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Caroline; Foo, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Assessment is too often concerned with measurement, rather than learning; however, there is a growing interest in research into formative assessment, which appears justified by studies into its effects on learning. Changes in higher education have led to increased numbers of students, many of whom are from non-traditional backgrounds. This has…

  10. Training residential supervisors to provide feedback for maintaining staff teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, M B; Reid, D H

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated procedures for training supervisors in a residential setting to provide feedback for maintaining direct-service staff members ' teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities. Using classroom-based instruction and on-the-job observation and feedback, 10 supervisors were initially trained to implement teaching programs themselves. The training improved supervisors' teaching skills but was insufficient to improve the quality of feedback they provided to direct-service sta...

  11. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  12. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Using Press Ganey Provider Feedback to Improve Patient Satisfaction: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgard, Craig D; Fu, Rongwei; Heilman, James; Tanski, Mary; John Ma, O; Lines, Alan; Keith French, L

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility, logistics, and potential effect of monthly provider funnel plot feedback reports from Press Ganey data and semiannual face-to-face coaching sessions to improve patient satisfaction scores. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial of 25 emergency medicine faculty providers in one urban academic emergency department. We enrolled full-time clinical faculty with at least 12 months of baseline Press Ganey data, who anticipated working in the ED for at least 12 additional months. Providers were randomized into intervention or control groups in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group had an initial 20-minute meeting to introduce the funnel plot feedback tool and standardized feedback based on their baseline Press Ganey scores and then received a monthly e-mail with their individualized funnel plot depicting cumulative Press Ganey scores (compared to their baseline score and the mean score of all providers) for 12 months. The primary outcome was the difference in Press Ganey "doctor-overall" scores between treatment groups at 12 months. We used a weighted analysis of covariance model to analyze the study groups, accounting for variation in the number of surveys by provider and baseline scores. Of 36 eligible faculty, we enrolled 25 providers, 13 of whom were randomized to the intervention group and 12 to the control group. During the study period, there were 815 Press Ganey surveys returned, ranging from four to 71 surveys per provider. For the standardized overall doctor score over 12 months (primary outcome), there was no difference between the intervention and control groups (difference = 1.3 points, 95% confidence interval = -2.4 to 5.9, p = 0.47). Similarly, there was no difference between groups when evaluating the four categories of doctor-specific patient satisfaction scores from the Press Ganey survey (all p > 0.05). In this pilot trial of monthly provider funnel plot

  14. The Rightful Demise of the Sh*t Sandwich: Providing Effective Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ian Andrew

    2015-11-01

    As a trainee cognitive therapist in the early 1990s, I was taught the Sh*t Sandwich by my supervisor. I continued to use this technique for many years without seeing the need to extend my repertoire of feedback strategies. This article describes a number of other feedback techniques, raising awareness of the processes underpinning feedback, and facilitating reflection on feedback methods. This review examines feedback and the methods of feedback used to improve clinical competence. Evidence informs us that the use of good feedback has a significant effect on learners' outcomes (Milne, 2009). However, despite recognition of its importance, many supervisors fail to give adequate feedback and utilize methods that are sub-optimal. One such problematic method is the notorious "Sh*t Sandwich" (SS), which attempts to hide criticism within a cushion of two positive statements. This paper looks at various models of giving negative and positive feedback, suggesting that our repertoire of feedback methods may require expanding. The review suggests that feedback is a complex process and methods that place an emphasis on the learner as an active participant in the learning process (i.e. interactive approaches) should be encouraged. The paper suggests that negative feedback should generally be avoided in favour of constructive support, accompanied by specific, descriptive, balanced feedback, with new learning being consolidated by role play. Generally, feedback should be given about the task rather than the person, but when it is personalized it should relate to effort rather than ability.

  15. Automating Individualized Formative Feedback in Large Classes Based on a Directed Concept Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Henry E; Young, Karen R; Ligon, Emily W; Chapman, Diane D

    2017-01-01

    Student learning outcomes within courses form the basis for course completion and time-to-graduation statistics, which are of great importance in education, particularly higher education. Budget pressures have led to large classes in which student-to-instructor interaction is very limited. Most of the current efforts to improve student progress in large classes, such as "learning analytics," (LA) focus on the aspects of student behavior that are found in the logs of Learning Management Systems (LMS), for example, frequency of signing in, time spent on each page, and grades. These are important, but are distant from providing help to the student making insufficient progress in a course. We describe a computer analytical methodology which includes a dissection of the concepts in the course, expressed as a directed graph, that are applied to test questions, and uses performance on these questions to provide formative feedback to each student in any course format: face-to-face, blended, flipped, or online. Each student receives individualized assistance in a scalable and affordable manner. It works with any class delivery technology, textbook, and learning management system.

  16. CLUMPY DISKS AS A TESTBED FOR FEEDBACK-REGULATED GALAXY FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Lucio; Tamburello, Valentina [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Lupi, Alessandro; Madau, Piero [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6 et CNRS, UMR 7095, 98 bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Keller, Ben; Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-10-10

    We study the dependence of fragmentation in massive gas-rich galaxy disks at z >1 on stellar feedback schemes and hydrodynamical solvers, employing the GASOLINE2 SPH code and the lagrangian mesh-less code GIZMO in finite mass mode. Non-cosmological galaxy disk runs with the standard delayed-cooling blastwave feedback are compared with runs adopting a new superbubble feedback, which produces winds by modeling the detailed physics of supernova-driven bubbles and leads to efficient self-regulation of star formation. We find that, with blastwave feedback, massive star-forming clumps form in comparable number and with very similar masses in GASOLINE2 and GIZMO. Typical clump masses are in the range 10{sup 7}–10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}, lower than in most previous works, while giant clumps with masses above 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙} are exceedingly rare. By contrast, superbubble feedback does not produce massive star-forming bound clumps as galaxies never undergo a phase of violent disk instability. In this scheme, only sporadic, unbound star-forming overdensities lasting a few tens of Myr can arise, triggered by non-linear perturbations from massive satellite companions. We conclude that there is severe tension between explaining massive star-forming clumps observed at z >1 primarily as the result of disk fragmentation driven by gravitational instability and the prevailing view of feedback-regulated galaxy formation. The link between disk stability and star formation efficiency should thus be regarded as a key testing ground for galaxy formation theory.

  17. Automated numerical simulation of biological pattern formation based on visual feedback simulation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhu; Xu, Hui; Zeng, Xingjuan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    There are various fantastic biological phenomena in biological pattern formation. Mathematical modeling using reaction-diffusion partial differential equation systems is employed to study the mechanism of pattern formation. However, model parameter selection is both difficult and time consuming. In this paper, a visual feedback simulation framework is proposed to calculate the parameters of a mathematical model automatically based on the basic principle of feedback control. In the simulation framework, the simulation results are visualized, and the image features are extracted as the system feedback. Then, the unknown model parameters are obtained by comparing the image features of the simulation image and the target biological pattern. Considering two typical applications, the visual feedback simulation framework is applied to fulfill pattern formation simulations for vascular mesenchymal cells and lung development. In the simulation framework, the spot, stripe, labyrinthine patterns of vascular mesenchymal cells, the normal branching pattern and the branching pattern lacking side branching for lung branching are obtained in a finite number of iterations. The simulation results indicate that it is easy to achieve the simulation targets, especially when the simulation patterns are sensitive to the model parameters. Moreover, this simulation framework can expand to other types of biological pattern formation. PMID:28225811

  18. A Dataset of Three Educational Technology Experiments on Differentiation, Formative Testing and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haelermans, Carla; Ghysels, Joris; Prince, Fernao

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a dataset with data from three individually randomized educational technology experiments on differentiation, formative testing and feedback during one school year for a group of 8th grade students in the Netherlands, using administrative data and the online motivation questionnaire of Boekaerts. The dataset consists of pre-…

  19. Formative assessment based on an audit and feedback improves nuchal translucency ultrasound image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Gihad E; Salomon, Laurent J; Fontanges, Marianne; Althuser, Marc; Haddad, Georges; Scemama, Olivier; Chabot, Jean-Michel; Duyme, Michel; Fries, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the impact of an audit and feedback on the quality of routine first-trimester nuchal transparency ultrasound images. Eighty-eight sonographers were each sent 2 different series of 30 consecutive nuchal translucency images at a mean interval of 3 months to a dedicated, protected server for remote double-blind independent analysis based on the new Collège Français d'Echographie Foetale/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique image-scoring method (https://www.cfef.org/evaluation/ISMCFEFCNRS.pdf). The sonographers were classified as low (score below the median) or high (score above the median) scorers for each series. Before their second evaluation, 73 of the 88 sonographers received a feedback report on their first series of images, whereas the other 15 participants received no feedback. The baseline characteristics of the participants who did and did not receive feedback were comparable. Participants who received feedback increased their average score significantly, from a mean ± SD of 11.1 ± 1.3 to 13.4 ± 1.4 among low scorers (P < .00001) and from 15.1 ± 1.2 to 16.0 ± 1.4 among high scorers (P < .001), whereas no significant change was seen among participants who received no feedback (low scorers, 10.9 ± 1.5 to 12.1 ± 2.0; P = .11; high scorers, 14.7 ± 1.3 to 14.6 ± 1.3; P = .99). The proportion of satisfactory images increased by 48% among low scorers who received feedback. Formative assessment based on a moderately intensive audit and feedback is feasible and effective for improving the quality of routine first-trimester nuchal transparency ultrasound images.

  20. What Are Our International Students Telling Us? Further Explorations of a Formative Feedback Intervention, to Support Academic Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Caroline; Foo, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on a further iteration of an action research cycle, discussed in Burns and Foo (2012, 2013). It explores how formative feedback on academic literacy was used and acted upon, and if a Formative Feedback Intervention (FFI) increased the students' confidence in future assignments. It also considers whether the assignment of a grade…

  1. The Effects of Magnetic Fields and Protostellar Feedback on Low-mass Cluster Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2018-01-01

    We present a large suite of simulations of the formation of low-mass star clusters. Our simulations include an extensive set of physical processes - magnetohydrodynamics, radiative transfer, and protostellar outflows - and span a wide range of virial parameters and magnetic field strengths. Comparing the outcomes of our simulations to observations, we find that simulations remaining close to virial balance throughout their history produce star formation efficiencies and initial mass function (IMF) peaks that are stable in time and in reasonable agreement with observations. Our results indicate that small-scale dissipation effects near the protostellar surface provide a feedback loop for stabilizing the star formation efficiency. This is true regardless of whether the balance is maintained by input of energy from large scale forcing or by strong magnetic fields that inhibit collapse. In contrast, simulations that leave virial balance and undergo runaway collapse form stars too efficiently and produce an IMF that becomes increasingly top-heavy with time. In all cases we find that the competition between magnetic flux advection toward the protostar and outward advection due to magnetic interchange instabilities, and the competition between turbulent amplification and reconnection close to newly-formed protostars renders the local magnetic field structure insensitive to the strength of the large-scale field, ensuring that radiation is always more important than magnetic support in setting the fragmentation scale and thus the IMF peak mass. The statistics of multiple stellar systems are similarly insensitive to variations in the initial conditions and generally agree with observations within the range of statistical uncertainty.

  2. Providing rapid feedback to residents on their teaching skills: an educational strategy for contemporary trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Sidlow, Rachel J; Baer, Tamar G; Gershel, Jeffrey C

    2016-03-20

    The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of contemporary residents toward receiving rapid feedback on their teaching skills from their medical student learners. Participants consisted of 20 residents in their second post-graduate training year. These residents facilitated 44 teaching sessions with medical students within our Resident-as-Teacher program. Structured, written feedback from students was returned to the resident within 3 days following each session. Residents completed a short survey about the utility of the feedback, whether they would make a change to future teaching sessions based on the feedback, and what specifically they might change. The survey utilized a 4-point scale ("Not helpful/likely=1" to "Very helpful/likely=4"), and allowed for one free-text response. Free-text responses were hand-coded and underwent qualitative analysis to identify themes. There were 182 student feedback encounters resulting from 44 teaching sessions. The survey response rate was 73% (32/44). Ninety-four percent of residents rated the rapid feedback as "very helpful," and 91% would "very likely" make a change to subsequent sessions based on student feedback. Residents' proposed changes included modifications to session content and/or their personal teaching style. Residents found that rapid feedback received from medical student learners was highly valuable to them in their roles as teachers. A rapid feedback strategy may facilitate an optimal educational environment for contemporary trainees.

  3. The Feedback of Star Formation Based on Large-scale Spectroscopic Mapping Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. X.

    2017-05-01

    Star Formation is a fundamental topic in astrophysics. Although there is a popular model of low-mass star formation, every step of the process is full of physical and chemical complexity. One of the key questions is the dynamical feedback during the process of star formation. The answer of this question will help us to understand the star formation and the evolution of molecular clouds. We have identified outflows and bubbles in the Taurus molecular cloud based on the ˜ 100 deg2 Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) maps and the Spitzer young stellar object (YSO) catalog. In the main 44 deg2 area of Taurus, we found 55 outflows, of which 31 were previously unknown. We also found 37 bubbles in the entire 100 deg2 area of Taurus, all of which had not been identified before. After visual inspection, we developed an interactive IDL pipeline to confirm the outflows and bubbles. This sample covers a contiguous region with a linear spatial dynamic range of ˜ 1000. Among the 55 outflows, we found that bipolar, monopolar redshifted, and monopolar blueshifted outflows account for 45%, 44%, and 11%, respectively. There are more red lobes than blue ones. The occurrence of more red lobes may result from the fact that Taurus is thin. Red lobes tend to be smaller and younger. The total mass and energy of red lobes are similar to blue lobes on average. There are 3 expanding bubbles and 34 broken bubbles among all the bubbles in Taurus. There are more outflow-driving YSOs in Class I, Flat, and Class II while few outflow-driving YSOs in Class III, which indicates that outflows more likely appear in the earlier stage (Class I) than in the later phase (Class III) of star formation. There are more bubble-driving YSOs of Class II and Class III while there are few bubble-driving YSOs of Class I and Flat, implying that the bubble structures are more likely to occur in the later stage of star formation. The total kinetic energy of the identified outflows is

  4. When Feedback Fails: The Scaling and Saturation of Star Formation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman W.; Keres, Dusan

    2017-06-01

    We present a suite of 3D multi-physics MHD simulations following star formation in isolated turbulent molecular gas disks ranging from 5 to 500 parsecs in radius. These simulations are designed to survey the range of surface densities between those typical of Milky Way GMCs (˜100 M⊙pc-2) and extreme ULIRG environments (˜104M⊙pc-2) so as to map out the scaling of star formation efficiency (SFE) between these two regimes. The simulations include prescriptions for supernova, stellar wind, and radiative feedback, which we find to be essential in determining both the instantaneous (ɛff) and integrated (ɛint) star formation efficiencies. In all simulations, the gas disks form stars until a critical stellar mass has been reached and the remaining gas is blown out by stellar feedback. We find that surface density is the best predictor of ɛint of all of the gas cloud's global properties, as suggested by analytic force balance arguments from previous works. Furthermore, SFE eventually saturates to ˜1 at high surface density, with very good agreement across different spatial scales. We also find a roughly proportional relationship between ɛff and ɛint. These results have implications for star formation in galactic disks, the nature and fate of nuclear starbursts, and the formation of bound star clusters. The scaling of ɛff also contradicts star formation models in which ɛff˜1% universally, including popular subgrid models for galaxy simulations.

  5. Using Track Changes and Word Processor to Provide Corrective Feedback to Learners in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuSeileek, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of computer-mediated corrective feedback types in an English as a foreign language (EFL) intact class over time. The participants were 64 English majors who were assigned randomly into three treatment conditions that gave and received computer-mediated corrective feedback while writing (track changes, word…

  6. Effectiveness of a training program in supervisors' ability to provide feedback on residents' communication skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junod Perron, N.; Nendaz, M.; Louis-Simonet, M.; Sommer, J.; Gut, A.; Baroffio, A.; Dolmans, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are

  7. Collaborative Language Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds: Competence-based Formative Feedback and Open Learner Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of information and communication technologies in the classrooms is a key trend over the past years and decades. Teachers are using Moodle courses, e-Portfolios, Google Docs, perhaps learning games or virtual worlds such as OpenSim for educational purposes. A second trend pushes towards a formatively inspired assessment and feedback, often combined with attempts of educational data mining and learning analytics. In this paper we present a role model for teaching English as a second language using OpenSim and a tool that enables teachers to perform real-time learning analytics and direct formative feedback and interventions in the virtual learning session. Also we present an approach to aggregate and store the learning information into open learner models.

  8. When Feedback Fails: The Scaling and Saturation of Star Formation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudić, Michael Y.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguére, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman; Kereš, Dušan

    2018-01-01

    We present a suite of 3D multi-physics MHD simulations following star formation in isolated turbulent molecular gas disks ranging from 5 to 500 parsecs in radius. These simulations are designed to survey the range of surface densities between those typical of Milky Way GMCs (˜102 M⊙pc-2) and extreme ULIRG environments (˜104 M⊙pc-2) so as to map out the scaling of the cloud-scale star formation efficiency (SFE) between these two regimes. The simulations include prescriptions for supernova, stellar wind, and radiative feedback, which we find to be essential in determining both the instantaneous per-freefall (ɛff) and integrated (ɛint) star formation efficiencies. In all simulations, the gas disks form stars until a critical stellar surface density has been reached and the remaining gas is blown out by stellar feedback. We find that surface density is a good predictor of ɛint, as suggested by analytic force balance arguments from previous works. SFE eventually saturates to ˜1 at high surface density. We also find a proportional relationship between ɛff and ɛint, implying that star formation is feedback-moderated even over very short time-scales in isolated clouds. These results have implications for star formation in galactic disks, the nature and fate of nuclear starbursts, and the formation of bound star clusters. The scaling of ɛff with surface density is not consistent with the notion that ɛff is always ˜1% on the scale of GMCs, but our predictions recover the ˜1% value for GMC parameters similar to those found in sprial galaxies, including our own.

  9. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  10. Using formative feedback to identify and support first-year chemistry students with missing or misconceptions. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen Lawrie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Students entering tertiary studies possess a diverse range of prior experiences in their academic preparation for tertiary chemistry so academics need tools to enable them to respond to issues in diversity in conceptual models possessed by entering students. Concept inventories can be used to provide formative feedback to help students identify concepts that they need to address to improve construction of subsequent understanding enabling their learning.Modular, formative learning activities that can be administered inside or outside of class in first year chemistry courses have been developed. These activities address key missing and mis-conceptions possessed by incoming student. Engagement in these learning activities by students and academics will help shift the culture of diagnostic and formative assessment within the tertiary context and address issues around the secondary/tertiary transition. This diagnostic/intervention framework is currently being trialed across five Australian tertiary institutions encompassing a large heterogeneous sample of students.

  11. Climate Feedback: Bringing the Scientific Community to Provide Direct Feedback on the Credibility of Climate Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    While most scientists recognize climate change as a major societal and environmental issue, social and political will to tackle the problem is still lacking. One of the biggest obstacles is inaccurate reporting or even outright misinformation in climate change coverage that result in the confusion of the general public on the issue.In today's era of instant access to information, what we read online usually falls outside our field of expertise and it is a real challenge to evaluate what is credible. The emerging technology of web annotation could be a game changer as it allows knowledgeable individuals to attach notes to any piece of text of a webpage and to share them with readers who will be able to see the annotations in-context -like comments on a pdf.Here we present the Climate Feedback initiative that is bringing together a community of climate scientists who collectively evaluate the scientific accuracy of influential climate change media coverage. Scientists annotate articles sentence by sentence and assess whether they are consistent with scientific knowledge allowing readers to see where and why the coverage is -or is not- based on science. Scientists also summarize the essence of their critical commentary in the form of a simple article-level overall credibility rating that quickly informs readers about the credibility of the entire piece.Web-annotation allows readers to 'hear' directly from the experts and to sense the consensus in a personal way as one can literaly see how many scientists agree with a given statement. It also allows a broad population of scientists to interact with the media, notably early career scientists.In this talk, we will present results on the impacts annotations have on readers -regarding their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information they read- and on journalists -regarding their reception of scientists comments.Several dozen scientists have contributed to this effort to date and the system offers potential to

  12. Strategies to improve effectiveness of physical activity coaching systems: Development of personas for providing tailored feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterkamp, Reinoud; Dekker-Van Weering, Marit Gh; Evering, Richard Mh; Tabak, Monique; Timmerman, Josien G; Hermens, Hermie J; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Mr

    2016-06-27

    Mobile physical activity interventions can be improved by incorporating behavioural change theories. Relations between self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity are investigated, enabling development of feedback strategies that can be used to improve their effectiveness. A total of 325 healthy control participants and 82 patients wore an activity monitor. Participants completed a self-efficacy or stage of change questionnaire. Results show that higher self-efficacy is related to higher activity levels. Patients are less active than healthy controls and show a larger drop in physical activity over the day. Patients in the maintenance stage of change are more active than patients in lower stages of change, but show an equally large drop in level of physical activity. Findings suggest that coaching should at least be tailored to level of self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity pattern. Tailored coaching strategies are developed, which suggest that increasing self-efficacy of users is most important. Guidelines are provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. EFFECT OF FEEDBACK IN FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN THE STUDENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES ON CHEMICAL COURSE TO THE FORMATION OF HABITS OF MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahadi -

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the impact of feedback in formative assessment in the learning process activity and students learning outcomes on learning chemistry. The method used on this study was quasi experiment research with non-equivalent control group design. The result showed that the application of feedback in formative assessment has a positive impact toward students learning process activity. Students become more enthusiastic, motivated, and more active on the learning process. Thus in this study can be conclude that feedback in formative assessment have a positive impact toward the learning process activity to form a habits of mind.

  14. Effectiveness of a training program in supervisors' ability to provide feedback on residents' communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Baroffio, Anne; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-12-01

    Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are scarce as well as studies that go beyond self-reported data. The aim of the study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of a training program for clinical supervisors on how to give feedback on residents' CS in clinical practice. The authors designed a pretest-posttest controlled study in which clinical supervisors working in two different medical services were invited to attend a sequenced and multifaceted program in teaching CS over a period of 6-9 months. Outcome measures were self-perceived and observed feedback skills collected during questionnaires and three videotaped objective structured teaching encounters. The videotaped feedbacks made by the supervisors were analysed using a 20-item feedback rating instrument. Forty-eight clinical supervisors participated (28 in the intervention, 20 in the control group). After training, a higher percentage of trained participants self-reported and demonstrated statistically significant improvement in making residents more active by exploring residents' needs, stimulating self-assessment, and using role playing to test strategies and checking understanding, with effect sizes ranging from 0.93 to 4.94. A training program on how to give feedback on residents' communication skills was successful in improving clinical supervisors' feedback skills and in helping them operate a shift from a teacher-centered to a more learner-centered approach.

  15. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-11-15

    AWe investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 1011 M , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲ 75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  16. Online Formative Assessments in a Digital Signal Processing Course: Effects of Feedback Type and Content Difficulty on Students Learning Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, J.; Pale, P.; Jeren, B.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of using online formative assessments on students' learning achievements. Using a quasi-experimental study design with one control group (no formative assessments available), and two experimental groups receiving feedback in available online formative assessments (knowledge of the correct response--KCR,…

  17. Grading by Category: A simple method for providing students with meaningful feedback on exams in large courses

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Cassandra; Weiss, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Many instructors choose to assess their students using open-ended written exam items that require students to show their understanding of physics by solving a problem and/or explaining a concept. Grading these items is fairly time consuming, and in large courses time constraints prohibit providing significant individualized feedback on students' exams. Instructors typically cross out areas of the response that are incorrect and write the total points awarded or subtracted. Sometimes, instructors will also write a word or two to indicate the error. This paper describes a grading method that provides greater individualized feedback, clearly communicates to students expected performance levels, takes no more time than traditional grading methods for open-ended responses, and seems to encourage more students to take advantage of the feedback provided.

  18. Growth of First Galaxies: Impacts of Star Formation and Stellar Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Nagamine, Kentaro; Zhu, Qirong; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Recent observations have detected galaxies at high-redshift z˜ 6{--}11, and revealed the diversity of their physical properties, from normal star-forming galaxies to starburst galaxies. To understand the properties of these observed galaxies, it is crucial to understand the star formation (SF) history of high-redshift galaxies under the influence of stellar feedback. In this work, we present the results of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with zoom-in initial conditions, and investigate the formation of the first galaxies and their evolution toward observable galaxies at z˜ 6. We focus on three different galaxies that end up in halos with masses {M}{{h}}=2.4× {10}10 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-10), 1.6× {10}11 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-11), and 0.7× {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-12) at z = 6. Our simulations also probe the impacts of different subgrid assumptions, I.e., SF efficiency and cosmic reionization, on SF histories in the first galaxies. We find that SF occurs intermittently due to supernova (SN) feedback at z≳ 10, and then it proceeds more smoothly as the halo mass grows at lower redshifts. Galactic disks are destroyed due to SN feedback, while galaxies in simulations with no feedback or lower SF efficiency models can sustain a galactic disk for long periods ≳ 10 {Myr}. The expulsion of gas at the galactic center also affects the inner dark matter density profile for a short period. Our simulated galaxies in Halo-11 and Halo-12 reproduce the SF rates and stellar masses of observed Lyα emitters at z˜ 7{--}8 fairly well given the observational uncertainties.

  19. A Surgical Robot Teleoperation Framework for Providing Haptic Feedback Incorporating Virtual Envrioment-Based Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Munawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In robot-assisted tele-operated laparoscopic surgeries, the patient side manipulators are controlled via the master manipulators that are controlled by the surgeon. The current generation of robots approved for laparoscopic surgery lack haptic feedback. In theory, haptic feedback would enhance the surgical procedures by enabling better coordination between the hand movements that are improved by the tactile sense of the operating environment. This research presents an overall control framework for a haptic feedback on existing robot platforms, and demonstrated on the daVinci Research Kit (dVRK system. The paper discusses the implementation of a flexible framework that incorporates a stiffness control with gravity compensation for the surgeons manipulator and a sensing and collision detection algorithm for calculating the interaction between the patients manipulators and the surgical area.

  20. A tale of two feedbacks: Star formation in the host galaxies of radio AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Ji Hoon [CEOU-Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Trichas, Markos [Airbus Defence and Space, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom); Goto, Tomo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Malkan, Matt [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3-714 UCLA, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ruiz, Angel [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, 411 007 Pune (India); Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Seong Jin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Murata, K.; Wada, Takehiko; Wada, Kensuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Yoshino-dai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Shim, Hyunjin [Department of Earth Science Education, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hanami, Hitoshi [Physics Section, Faculty of Humanities, Iwate University, Ueda 3 chome, 18-34 Morioka, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550 (Japan); Serjeant, Stephen; White, Glenn J., E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-04-01

    Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star formation activity in these galaxies. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to interact with their host galaxies and affect star formation. We use a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of this putative link, by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We employ the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope and the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio sources (formation in the host galaxy, independent of the radio luminosity. In contrast, for narrow redshift and AGN luminosity ranges, we find that increasing radio luminosity leads to a decrease in the specific star formation rate. The most radio-loud AGNs are found to lie on the main sequence of star formation for their respective redshifts. For the first time, we potentially see such a two-sided feedback process in the same sample. We discuss the possible suppression of star formation, but not total quenching, in systems with strong radio jets, that supports the maintenance nature of feedback from radio AGN jets.

  1. Spontaneous Formation of Vector Vortex Beams in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Garcia, Jesus; Rodriguez, Pedro; Guillet, T.; Ackemann, T.

    2017-09-01

    The spontaneous emergence of vector vortex beams with nonuniform polarization distribution is reported in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with frequency-selective feedback. Antivortices with a hyperbolic polarization structure and radially polarized vortices are demonstrated. They exist close to and partially coexist with vortices with uniform and nonuniform polarization distributions characterized by four domains of pairwise orthogonal polarization. The spontaneous formation of these nontrivial structures in a simple, nearly isotropic VCSEL system is remarkable and the vector vortices are argued to have solitonlike properties.

  2. Providing Graduated Corrective Feedback in an Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Haiyang

    2017-01-01

    Corrective feedback (CF), a response to linguistic errors made by second language (L2) learners, has received extensive scholarly attention in second language acquisition. While much of the previous research in the field has focused on whether CF facilitates or impedes L2 development, few studies have examined the efficacy of gradually modifying…

  3. Strategies to improve effectiveness of physical activity coaching systems: Development of personas for providing tailored feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, Reinoud; van Weering, Marit; Evering, R.M.H.; Tabak, Monique; Timmerman, Josien; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2017-01-01

    Mobile physical activity interventions can be improved by incorporating behavioural change theories. Relations between self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity are investigated, enabling development of feedback strategies that can be used to improve their effectiveness. A total of 325

  4. Providing Feedback on Computer-Based Algebra Homework in Middle-School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Homework is transforming at a rapid rate with continuous advances in educational technology. Computer-based homework, in particular, is gaining popularity across a range of schools, with little empirical evidence on how to optimize student learning. The current aim was to test the effects of different types of feedback on computer-based homework.…

  5. Effects of Combined Stellar Feedback on Star Formation in Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Joshua Edward; McMillan, Stephen; Pellegrino, Andrew; Mac Low, Mordecai; Klessen, Ralf; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2018-01-01

    We present results of hybrid MHD+N-body simulations of star cluster formation and evolution including self consistent feedback from the stars in the form of radiation, winds, and supernovae from all stars more massive than 7 solar masses. The MHD is modeled with the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH, while the N-body computations are done with a direct algorithm. Radiation is modeled using ray tracing along long characteristics in directions distributed using the HEALPIX algorithm, and causes ionization and momentum deposition, while winds and supernova conserve momentum and energy during injection. Stellar evolution is followed using power-law fits to evolution models in SeBa. We use a gravity bridge within the AMUSE framework to couple the N-body dynamics of the stars to the gas dynamics in FLASH. Feedback from the massive stars alters the structure of young clusters as gas ejection occurs. We diagnose this behavior by distinguishing between fractal distribution and central clustering using a Q parameter computed from the minimum spanning tree of each model cluster. Global effects of feedback in our simulations will also be discussed.

  6. Perception of CPR quality: Influence of CPR feedback, Just-in-Time CPR training and provider role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pPerception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-04

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10{sup 11} M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 10{sup 5} {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10{sup 6} K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  8. Can providing feedback on driving behavior and training on parental vigilant care affect male teen drivers and their parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents

  9. Suppression of globular cluster formation in metal-poor gas clouds by Lyman-alpha radiation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makito; Yajima, Hidenobu

    2018-02-01

    We study the impact of {Ly} α radiation feedback on globular cluster (GC) formation. In this Letter, we analytically derive the relation between star formation efficiency (SFE) and metallicity in spherical clouds with the {Ly} α radiation feedback. Our models show that the SFE becomes small as the metallicity decreases. In metal-poor gas clouds, {Ly} α photons are trapped for a long time and exert strong radiation force to the gas, resulting in the suppression of star formation. We find that bound star-clusters (SFE ≳ 0.5) form only for the metallicity higher than ˜10-2.5 Z⊙ in the case with the initial cloud mass 105 M⊙ and the radius 5 pc. Our models successfully reproduce the lower bound of observed metallicity of GCs. Thus, we suggest that the {Ly} α radiation feedback can be essential in understanding the formation of GCs.

  10. Feedback first: the surprisingly weak effects of magnetic fields, viscosity, conduction and metal diffusion on sub-L* galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kung-Yi; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Ma, Xiangcheng; Robles, Victor H.

    2017-10-01

    Using high-resolution simulations with explicit treatment of stellar feedback physics based on the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project, we study how galaxy formation and the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by magnetic fields, anisotropic Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, and sub-grid metal diffusion from unresolved turbulence. We consider controlled simulations of isolated (non-cosmological) galaxies but also a limited set of cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. Although simulations have shown significant effects from these physics with weak or absent stellar feedback, the effects are much weaker than those of stellar feedback when the latter is modelled explicitly. The additional physics have no systematic effect on galactic star formation rates (SFRs). In contrast, removing stellar feedback leads to SFRs being overpredicted by factors of ∼10-100. Without feedback, neither galactic winds nor volume-filling hot-phase gas exist, and discs tend to runaway collapse to ultra-thin scaleheights with unphysically dense clumps congregating at the galactic centre. With stellar feedback, a multi-phase, turbulent medium with galactic fountains and winds is established. At currently achievable resolutions and for the investigated halo mass range 1010-1013 M⊙, the additional physics investigated here (magnetohydrodynamic, conduction, viscosity, metal diffusion) have only weak (∼10 per cent-level) effects on regulating SFR and altering the balance of phases, outflows or the energy in ISM turbulence, consistent with simple equipartition arguments. We conclude that galactic star formation and the ISM are primarily governed by a combination of turbulence, gravitational instabilities and feedback. We add the caveat that active galactic nucleus feedback is not included in the present work.

  11. Provider Specific Data for Public Use in SAS Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Fiscal Intermediary maintains the Provider Specific File (PSF). The file contains information about the facts specific to the provider that affects computations...

  12. Internet-based tools to assess diet and provide feedback in chronic kidney disease stage IV: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Sameer; Arab, Lenore; Vargas, Roberto; Rastogi, Anjay; Ang, Alfonso; Shetty, Nidhi

    2013-03-01

    Successfully changing patients' dietary behavior is a challenging problem in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based, self-administered, dietary assessment tool equipped with instructional feedback, aimed at facilitating dietary adherence to disease-specific nutritional guidelines among CKD stage IV patients while reducing resource burdens on providers. Focus groups were used to develop a user-friendly dietary reporting format. The report was then calibrated to the dietary guidelines outlined by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and incorporated into the assessment tool. Elements of the report were developed based on the "transtheoretical model of behavior change" theory, aimed at facilitating patients to enter the action stage of change. The tool was later deployed in a nephrology care site at an academic medical center, where 12 patients diagnosed with stage IV CKD (late-stage, predialysis) completed a dietary assessment before their provider encounter as well as questionnaires gauging their computer literacy, nutritional education history, nutritional knowledge and awareness, and acceptability of the tool. The report was made available to the provider during the clinical encounter, and both patient and physician perception of the report's utility was assessed after the encounter. Approximately 25% to 30% of the patients were severely noncompliant to the K/DOQI guidelines for each nutrient. Awareness about the role of diet in CKD management was widely variable, ranging from 0% to 58% of the patients over different nutrients. All of the patients successfully completed the Web-based dietary assessment. Eighty-four percent of the patients positively rated the tool on its ability to record the patients' dietary data, 58% noted the tool was always able to satisfactorily estimate portion sizes, and 50% thought the navigation was easy or very easy. Eleven

  13. Peer feedback: Using diciplinary-specific teaching formats as "bridges" to enable student engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Dankl, Kathrina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Peer feedback has been proven to significantly strengthen students’ academic writing skills as well as foster meta-cognitive awareness on learning processes (Gibbs et al. 2004, Nicol et. al 2006). In order to unleash this potential, a collaborative and trusting ethos is required...... (Topping, 1998). Creating such a learning environment can present a challenge in disciplines where academic writing is not a part of the established curriculum, and where the genre and activity therefore can be alienating to some students. To overcome this problem, we propose the method of adapting...... participated, six developed their own evaluation schemes for the course) the format succeeded in supporting their writing process on several levels. From a teacher perspective, the notion of Writer’s Studio served as a way to create a “bridge” between the familiar and unfamiliar, enabling students’ active...

  14. Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain heating feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, John C; Krumholz, Mark R; Goldbaum, Nathan J; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-07-28

    Photoelectric heating--heating of dust grains by far-ultraviolet photons--has long been recognized as the primary source of heating for the neutral interstellar medium. Simulations of spiral galaxies have shown some indication that photoelectric heating could suppress star formation; however, simulations that include photoelectric heating have typically shown that it has little effect on the rate of star formation in either spiral galaxies or dwarf galaxies, which suggests that supernovae are responsible for setting the gas depletion time in galaxies. This result is in contrast with recent work indicating that a star formation law that depends on galaxy metallicity--as is expected with photoelectric heating,but not with supernovae--reproduces the present-day galaxy population better than does a metallicity-independent one. Here we report a series of simulations of dwarf galaxies, the class of galaxy in which the effects of both photoelectric heating and supernovae are expected to be strongest. We simultaneously include space and time-dependent photoelectric heating in our simulations, and we resolve the energy-conserving phase of every supernova blast wave, which allows us to directly measure the relative importance of feedback by supernovae and photoelectric heating in suppressing star formation. We find that supernovae are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times in dwarf galaxies. Instead, photoelectric heating is the dominant means by which dwarf galaxies regulate their star formation rate at any given time,suppressing the rate by more than an order of magnitude relative to simulations with only supernovae.

  15. Star-formation and stellar feedback recipes in galaxy evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Gerhard; Recchi, Simone; Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Kuehtreiber, Matthias; Steyrleithner, Patrick; Liu, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Modeling galaxy formation and evolution is critically depending on star formation (SF). Since cosmological and galaxy-scale simulations cannot resolve the spatial and density scales on which SF acts, a large variety of methods are developed and applied over the last decades. Nonetheless, we are still in the test phase how the choice of parameters affects the models and how they agree with observations.As a simple ansatz, recipes are based on power-law SF dependences on gas density as justified by gas cooling and collapse timescales. In order to prevent SF spread throughout the gas, temperature and density thresholds are also used, although gas dynamical effects, like e.g. gas infall, seem to trigger SF significantly.The formed stars influence their environment immediately by energetic and materialistic feedback. It has been experienced in numerical models that supernova typeII explosions act with a too long time delay to regulate the SF, but that winds and ionizing radiation by massive stars must be included. The implementation of feedback processes, their efficiencies and timescales, is still in an experimental state, because they depend also on the physical state of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM).Combining a SF-gas density relation with stellar heating vs. gas cooling and taking the temperature dependence into account, we have derived an analytical expression of self-regulated SF which is free of arbitrary parameters. We have performed numerical models to study this recipe and different widely used SF criteria in both, particle and grid codes. Moreover, we compare the SF behavior between single-gas phase and multi-phase treatments of the ISM.Since dwarf galaxies (DGs) are most sensitive to environmental influences and contain only low SF rates, we explore two main affects on their models: 1. For external effects we compare SF rates of isolated and ram-pressure suffering DGs. Moreover, we find a SF enhancement in tidal-tail DGs by the compressive tidal

  16. Reflection as a component of formative assessment appears to be instrumental in promoting the use of feedback; an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelgrim, E A M; Kramer, A W M; Mokkink, H G A; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2013-09-01

    Although the literature suggests that reflection has a positive impact on learning, there is a paucity of evidence to support this notion. We investigated feedback and reflection in relation to the likelihood that feedback will be used to inform action plans. We hypothesised that feedback and reflection present a cumulative sequence (i.e. trainers only pay attention to trainees' reflections when they provided specific feedback) and we hypothesised a supplementary effect of reflection. We analysed copies of assessment forms containing trainees' reflections and trainers' feedback on observed clinical performance. We determined whether the response patterns revealed cumulative sequences in line with the Guttman scale. We further examined the relationship between reflection, feedback and the mean number of specific comments related to an action plan (ANOVA) and we calculated two effect sizes. Both hypotheses were confirmed by the results. The response pattern found showed an almost perfect fit with the Guttman scale (0.99) and reflection seems to have supplementary effect on the variable action plan. Reflection only occurs when a trainer has provided specific feedback; trainees who reflect on their performance are more likely to make use of feedback. These results confirm findings and suggestions reported in the literature.

  17. Participation of hippocampal formation in negative feedback inhibition of penile erection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A Y; Chan, J Y; Chan, S H

    1998-03-30

    Detailed information on how the central nervous system regulates penile erection, particularly the inhibitory aspect, is sparse. We observed in Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized and maintained with chloral hydrate that administration of papaverine (400 microg) directly into the corpora cavernosum of the penis produced an increase in intracavernous pressure (ICP). This elicited experimental index for penile erection was accompanied by a transient increase in the root mean square values, concurrent with a shift in the contribution of Theta (increase) and delta (decrease) power to the hippocampal electroencephalographic (hEEG) activity. Reversal blockade of these hEEG responses with xylocaine, given either intrathecally at the L6-S1 spinal levels or unilaterally to the hippocampal formation, significantly heightened and prolonged the ICP response. Pretreatment with xylocaine by itself, however, did not alter appreciably the baseline ICP or hEEG activity. These results suggest the presence of a novel negative feedback inhibitory mechanism in the hippocampal formation, which is triggered by ascending sensory inputs initiated by tumescence of the penis during normal erectile processes. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Joan Vermeulen,1 Jacques CL Neyens,1 Marieke D Spreeuwenberg,1 Erik van Rossum,1,2 Walther Sipers,3 Herbert Habets,3 David J Hewson,4 Luc P de Witte1,2 1School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Research Center for Technology in Care, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands; 3Expertise Center for Elderly Care, Orbis Medical Center, Sittard, The Netherlands; 4Institute Charles Delaunay, Université de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes, France Purpose: To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants: The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1 selection of user representatives; (2 analysis of users and their context; (3 identification of user requirements; (4 development of the interface; and (5 evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ; higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results: The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5

  19. Training Sessional Academic Staff to Provide Quality Feedback on University Students' Assessment: Lessons from a Faculty of Law Learning and Teaching Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kelly; Bell, Tamara; Dwyer, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The quality of feedback provided to university students has long been recognised as the most important predictor of student learning and satisfaction. However, providing quality feedback to students is challenging in the current context, in which universities increasingly rely on casualised and inexperienced academic staff to assess undergraduate…

  20. Utilizing Provider Feedback to Develop Opioid Risk Mitigation Tools for the Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-27

    complex environment of care, treating patients who are often mobile and whose prior prescription history may be difficult to access. Clinical Decision...Support (CDS) tools provide healthcare providers with knowledge and detailed information to enhance decision-making in the clinical workflow and

  1. Providing Written Feedback on Students' Mathematical Arguments: Proof Validations of Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiler, Sarah K.; Thompson, Denisse R.; Krajcevski, Milé

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics teachers play a unique role as experts who provide opportunities for students to engage in the practices of the mathematics community. Proof is a tool essential to the practice of mathematics, and therefore, if teachers are to provide adequate opportunities for students to engage with this tool, they must be able to validate student…

  2. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  3. Design Considerations for Smoking Cessation Apps: Feedback From Nicotine Dependence Treatment Providers and Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Hartzler, Andrea L; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-02-12

    Hundreds of smoking cessation apps are commercially available, but most are not theory-based or designed to take advantage of mobile technology in ways that could make them more engaging and possibly more effective. Considering input from both clinical experts (who understand best practice nicotine dependence treatment requirements) to inform appropriate content and from smokers (the end users) to express their preferences is important in designing these programs in the future. To assess and compare the opinions of nicotine dependence treatment providers and smokers regarding the design of future smoking cessation apps. We surveyed providers (n=264) and smokers who own smartphones (n=40) to assess their opinions on the importance of 21 app design features. Features represented 5 domains: cost, reputation, privacy and security, content and user experience, and communication. Domains were chosen to reflect best practice treatment, leverage mobile technology to support smoking cessation, and elicit important user preferences. Data were collected between June and July 2015. Most providers agreed that mHealth apps hold promise for helping people quit smoking (203/264, 76.9%) and would recommend them to their clients/patients (201/264, 76.1%), especially if the app were empirically validated (236/264, 89.4%). Few providers believe effective cessation apps currently exist (112/264, 42.4%). Few smokers (5/40, 13%) had ever downloaded a smoking cessation app; of the ones who had not, most said they would consider doing so (29/35, 83%). Both respondent groups indicated the following features were very to extremely important to include in cessation apps: free or low cost, keeps information private, matches individual needs and interests, adapts as one's needs and interests change, helps to manage nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side effects, and allows users to track their progress. Providers and smokers also indicated gaming and social media connectivity were

  4. Developing a Teacher Evaluation Instrument to Provide Formative Feedback Using Student Ratings of Teaching Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, Rikkert M.; van de Grift, Wim J.C.M.; van Veen, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a teacher evaluation instrument, based on students’ observations, which exhibits cumulative ordering in terms of the complexity of teaching acts. The study integrates theory on teacher development with theory on teacher effectiveness and applies a

  5. The results of a survey highlighting issues with feedback on medical training in the United Kingdom and how a Smartphone App could provide a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Thomas G; Hood, Gill; Farrell, Tom

    2015-11-06

    Feedback drives learning in medical education. Healthcare Supervision Logbook (HSL) is a Smartphone App developed at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals for providing feedback on medical training, from both a trainee's and a supervisor's perspective. In order to establish a mandate for the role of HSL in clinical practice, a large survey was carried out. Two surveys (one for doctors undertaking specialty training and a second for consultants supervising their training) were designed. The survey for doctors-in-training was distributed to all specialty trainees in the South and West localities of the Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber UK region. The survey for supervisors was distributed to all consultants involved in educational and clinical supervision of specialty trainees at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals. The results confirm that specialty trainees provide feedback on their training infrequently-66 % do so only annually. 96 % of the specialty trainees owned a Smartphone and 45 % said that they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide daily feedback on the clinical and educational supervision they receive. Consultant supervisors do not receive regular feedback on the educational and clinical supervision they provide to trainees-56 % said they never received such feedback and 33 % said it was only on an annual basis. 86 % of consultants surveyed owned a Smartphone and 41 % said they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide feedback on the performance of trainees they were supervising. Feedback on medical training is recorded by specialty trainees infrequently and consultants providing educational and clinical supervision often do not receive any feedback on their performance in this area. HSL is a simple, quick and efficient way to collect and collate feedback on medical training to improve this situation. Good support and education needs to be provided when implementing this new technology.

  6. Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for providing lateral trunk lean feedback during gait retraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bryant, Adam L; Hunt, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Gait retraining programs are prescribed to assist in the rehabilitation process of many clinical conditions. Using lateral trunk lean modification as the model, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of kinematic data recorded using a marker-based 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and a low-cost alternative, the Microsoft Kinect™ (Kinect), during a gait retraining session. Twenty healthy adults were trained to modify their gait to obtain a lateral trunk lean angle of 10°. Real-time biofeedback of the lateral trunk lean angle was provided on a computer screen in front of the subject using data extracted from the Kinect skeletal tracking algorithm. Marker coordinate data were concurrently recorded using the 3DMA system, and the similarity and equivalency of the trunk lean angle data from each system were compared. The lateral trunk lean angle data obtained from the Kinect system without any form of calibration resulted in errors of a high (>2°) magnitude (mean error=3.2±2.2°). Performing global and individualized calibration significantly (PKinect can be used to create a real-time biofeedback system for gait retraining. Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to laboratory-based gait retraining systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between subjective test feedback provided by high-school athletes during computer-based assessment of baseline cognitive functioning and self-reported symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Neidzwski, Katherine; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Karpf, Robin

    2010-06-01

    Subjective feedback about distractions or problems encountered during computerized assessment was provided by 538 out of a pool of 1659 high-school athletes who completed baseline testing using ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Three types of feedback were included: (a) environmental, (b) computer-based (mechanical), and (c) instruction-based (associated with difficulty understanding test instructions). One-way analyses of variance were conducted and revealed relationships between greater symptom reporting and any type of feedback, environmental feedback, and instruction-based feedback. Increased symptom reporting was noted for female students. Additional relationships were noted between providing computer-based feedback and faster reaction time; and between history of concussion and providing instruction-based feedback. Athletes endorsing more symptoms at baseline scored significantly worse on ImPACT, as reflected in decreased visual memory performance. Results suggest that feedback provided during computerized assessment may yield information about symptom reporting and test-taking style, which may also be of particular interpretive utility when athletes minimize their symptoms.

  8. Localized adenosine signaling provides fine-tuned negative feedback over a wide dynamic range of neocortical network activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the patterns of activity produced by neocortical networks are now better understood, how these states are activated, sustained, and terminated still remains unclear. Negative feedback by the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine may potentially play an important role, as it can be released by activity and there is dense A1 receptor expression in the neocortex. Using electrophysiology, biosensors, and modeling, we have investigated the properties of adenosine signaling during physiological and pathological network activity in rat neocortical slices. Both low- and high-rate network activities were reduced by A1 receptor activation and enhanced by block of A1 receptors, consistent with activity-dependent adenosine release. Since the A1 receptors were neither saturated nor completely unoccupied during either low- or high-rate activity, adenosine signaling provides a negative-feedback mechanism with a wide dynamic range. Modeling and biosensor experiments show that during high-rate activity increases in extracellular adenosine concentration are highly localized and are uncorrelated over short distances that are certainly adenosine release during low-rate activity, although it is present, is probably a consequence of small localized increases in adenosine concentration that are rapidly diminished by diffusion and active removal mechanisms. Saturation of such removal mechanisms when higher concentrations of adenosine are released results in the accumulation of inosine, explaining the strong purine signal during high-rate activity. PMID:25392170

  9. Analyzing effects of providing performance feedback at ward rounds on guideline adherence - The importance of feedback usage analysis and statistical control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid; Schultz, Marcus J.; de Jonge, Evert; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Feedback to clinicians on their past performance is often aimed at increasing adherence to guidelines. We investigate how various analytical approaches influence the interpretation of adherence data. The analytical approaches vary in considering the actual or the intended use of the

  10. Differential contributions of nitric oxide synthase isoforms at hippocampal formation to negative feedback regulation of penile erection in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Julie Y H; Chan, Samuel H H

    2002-01-01

    We established previously that a novel negative feedback mechanism for the regulation of penile erection, which is triggered by ascending sensory inputs initiated by tumescence of the penis, exists in the hippocampal formation (HF). This study further evaluated the participation of nitric oxide (NO) and the contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms at the HF in this process.Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats that were anaesthetized and maintained with chloral hydrate were used, and in...

  11. The effects of providing visual feedback and auditory stimulation using a robotic device on balance and gait abilities in persons with stroke: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jae Ho Park; ; Yijung Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of providing visual feedback and auditory stimulation using a robotic device on balance and gait abilities in stroke patients. Design...

  12. Feedback-regulated star formation and escape of LyC photons from mini-haloes during reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Katz, Harley; Haehnelt, Martin; Rosdahl, Joakim; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne

    2017-04-01

    Reionization in the early Universe is likely driven by dwarf galaxies. Using cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we study star formation and the escape of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons from mini-haloes with {M_halo}≲ 10^8 {M_{⊙}}. Our simulations include a new thermo-turbulent star formation model, non-equilibrium chemistry and relevant stellar feedback processes (photoionization by young massive stars, radiation pressure and mechanical supernova explosions). We find that feedback reduces star formation very efficiently in mini-haloes, resulting in the stellar mass consistent with the slope and normalization reported in Kimm & Cen and the empirical stellar mass-to-halo mass relation derived in the local Universe. Because star formation is stochastic and dominated by a few gas clumps, the escape fraction in mini-haloes is generally determined by radiation feedback (heating due to photoionization), rather than supernova explosions. We also find that the photon number-weighted mean escape fraction in mini-haloes is higher (˜20-40 per cent) than that in atomic-cooling haloes, although the instantaneous fraction in individual haloes varies significantly. The escape fraction from Pop III stars is found to be significant ( ≳ 10 per cent) only when the mass is greater than ˜100 M⊙. Based on simple analytic calculations, we show that LyC photons from mini-haloes are, despite their high escape fractions, of minor importance for reionization due to inefficient star formation. We confirm previous claims that stars in atomic-cooling haloes with masses 10^8 {M_{⊙}}≲ {M_halo}≲ 10^{11} {M_{⊙}} are likely to be the most important source of reionization.

  13. Effectiveness of a Training Program in Supervisors' Ability to Provide Feedback on Residents' Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Baroffio, Anne; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are scarce as well as studies that go beyond…

  14. Outflows and Bubbles in Taurus: Star-formation Feedback Sufficient to Maintain Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Li, Di; Qian, Lei; Xu, Duo; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Wu, Yuefang; Song, Yuzhe; Nan, Rendong

    2015-08-01

    We have identified outflows and bubbles in the Taurus molecular cloud based on the ˜100 deg2 Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) maps and the Spitzer young stellar object catalogs. In the main 44 deg2 area of Taurus, we found 55 outflows, of which 31 were previously unknown. We also found 37 bubbles in the entire 100 deg2 area of Taurus, none of which had been found previously. The total kinetic energy of the identified outflows is estimated to be ˜ 3.9× {10}45 erg, which is 1% of the cloud turbulent energy. The total kinetic energy of the detected bubbles is estimated to be ˜ 9.2× {10}46 erg, which is 29% of the turbulent energy of Taurus. The energy injection rate from the outflows is ˜ 1.3× {10}33 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, which is 0.4-2 times the dissipation rate of the cloud turbulence. The energy injection rate from bubbles is ˜ 6.4× {10}33 erg s-1, which is 2-10 times the turbulent dissipation rate of the cloud. The gravitational binding energy of the cloud is ˜ 1.5× {10}48 erg, that is, 385 and 16 times the energy of outflows and bubbles, respectively. We conclude that neither outflows nor bubbles can provide sufficient energy to balance the overall gravitational binding energy and the turbulent energy of Taurus. However, in the current epoch, stellar feedback is sufficient to maintain the observed turbulence in Taurus.

  15. New approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for effective improvement of evaluated nuclear data files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Hursin, Mathieu; Kodeli, Ivo; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Hummel, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    A critical examination of the role of uncertainty assessment, target accuracies, role of integral experiment for validation and, consequently, of data adjustments methods is underway since several years at OECD-NEA, the objective being to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and experimentalists in order to improve without ambiguities the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications and to meet new requirements and constraints for innovative reactor and fuel cycle system design. An approach will be described that expands as much as possible the use in the adjustment procedure of selected integral experiments that provide information on “elementary” phenomena, on separated individual physics effects related to specific isotopes or on specific energy ranges. An application to a large experimental data base has been performed and the results are discussed in the perspective of new evaluation projects like the CIELO initiative.

  16. New approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for effective improvement of evaluated nuclear data files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Hursin, Mathieu; Kodeli, Ivo; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Hummel, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    A critical examination of the role of uncertainty assessment, target accuracies, role of integral experiment for validation and, consequently, of data adjustments methods is underway since several years at OECD-NEA, the objective being to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and experimentalists in order to improve without ambiguities the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications and to meet new requirements and constraints for innovative reactor and fuel cycle system design. An approach will be described that expands as much as possible the use in the adjustment procedure of selected integral experiments that provide information on "elementary" phenomena, on separated individual physics effects related to specific isotopes or on specific energy ranges. An application to a large experimental data base has been performed and the results are discussed in the perspective of new evaluation projects like the CIELO initiative.

  17. Strategies for providing upper extremity amputees with tactile and hand position feedback--moving closer to the bionic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, R R

    1999-01-01

    A continuing challenge for prostheses developers is to replace the sensory function of the hand. This includes tactile sensitivity such as finger contact, grip force, object slippage, surface texture and temperature, as well as proprioceptive sense. One approach is sensory substitution whereby an intact sensory system such as vision, hearing or cutaneous sensation elsewhere on the body is used as an input channel for information related to the prosthesis. A second technique involves using electrical stimulation to deliver sensor derived information directly to the peripheral afferent nerves within the residual limb. Stimulation of the relevant afferent nerves can ultimately come closest to restoring the original sensory perceptions of the hand, and to this end, researchers have already demonstrated some degree of functionality of the transected sensory nerves in studies with amputee subjects. This paper provides an overview of different types of nerve interface components and the advantages and disadvantages of employing each of them in sensory feedback systems. Issues of sensory perception, neurophysiology and anatomy relevant to hand sensation and function are discussed with respect to the selection of the different types of nerve interfaces. The goal of this paper is to outline what can be accomplished for implementing sensation into artificial arms in the near term by applying what is present or presently attainable technology.

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions providing personalized feedback for weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrington, A; Newham, J J; Bell, R; Adamson, A; McColl, E; Araujo-Soares, V

    2016-06-01

    Obesity levels continue to rise annually. Face-to-face weight loss consultations have previously identified mixed effectiveness and face high demand with limited resources. Therefore, alternative interventions, such as internet-delivered interventions, warrant further investigation. The aim was to assess whether internet-delivered weight loss interventions providing personalized feedback were more effective for weight loss in overweight and obese adults in comparison with control groups receiving no personalized feedback. Nine databases were searched, and 12 studies were identified that met all inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis, identified participants receiving personalized feedback via internet-delivered interventions, had 2.13 kg mean difference (SMD) greater weight loss (and BMI change, waist circumference change and 5% weight loss) in comparison with control groups providing no personalized feedback. This was also true for results at 3 and 6-month time points but not for studies where interventions lasted ≥12 months. This suggests that personalized feedback may be an important behaviour change technique (BCT) to incorporate within internet-delivered weight loss interventions. However, meta-analysis results revealed no differences between internet-delivered weight loss interventions with personalized feedback and control interventions ≥12 months. Further investigation into longer term internet-delivered interventions is required to examine how weight loss could be maintained. Future research examining which BCTs are most effective for internet-delivered weight loss interventions is suggested. © 2016 World Obesity.

  19. The Co-Evolution of Star Formation and Powerful Radio Activity in Galaxies During Radio-Mode Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Feedback from radio sources is thought to be a key ingredient in determining the shape of the galaxy luminosity function. Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources are galactic scale (1-20 kpc) and so probe radio source feedback to the host galaxy. We propose to carry out WFC3 UV imaging of the line-free continuum between [CIII] 1909 and MgII 2798, as well as WFC3 line-free optical continuum imaging, in nine CSS radio sources. Following our pilot study that detected spatially extended UV radiation in 3/3 CSS sources, we propose observations which will increase our total sample size by a factor of 4. Imaging the UV continuum from hot massive stars is the best way to study recently triggered and ongoing star formation. We will map in detail the star formation regions in relation to the radio structures and multiwavelength properties of the sources. The high spatial resolution will allow us to separate morphologically and characterize the generic star formation which is due to gas infall, and that which is due to triggering by the radio source.

  20. Involvement of noradrenergic innervation from locus coeruleus to hippocampal formation in negative feedback regulation of penile erection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A Y; Huang, C M; Chan, J Y; Chan, S H

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that a novel negative feed back mechanism for the regulation of penile erection, which is triggered by ascending sensory inputs initiated by tumescence of the penis, exists in the hippocampal formation (HF). This study further elucidated the role of the locus coeruleus (LC), which is the largest aggregate of norepinephrine-containing neurons in the brain and provides the major noradrenergic innervation to the HF, in this process. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were anesthetized and maintained with chloral hydrate were used. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) recorded from the corpus cavernosum of the penis was used as the experimental index for penile erection. Electrical activation of the LC elicited a significant reduction in baseline ICP. Similar observations were obtained on microinjection bilaterally into the hippocampal CA1 or CA3 subfield or dentate gyrus of equimolar doses (5 nmol) of norepinephrine (alpha1-, alpha2-agonist), phenylephrine (alpha1-agonist), or BHT 933 (alpha2-agonist). Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the LC discernibly enhanced the magnitude and/or duration of the elevation in ICP induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine (400 microgram). A potentiation of the papaverine-evoked ICP increase was also observed following pretreatment with bilateral hippocampal application of equimolar doses (250 pmol) of either prazosin (alpha1-, alpha2B-, alpha2C-antagonist), naftopidil (alpha1A/D-antagonist), yohimbine (alpha2-antagonst), or rauwolscine (alpha2B-, alpha2C-antagonist). None of these antagonists, however, affected baseline ICP. These results suggest that noradrenergic innervation of the HF that originates from the LC may play an active role in negative feedback regulation of penile erection, engaging at least alpha1A/D-, alpha2B-, and alpha2C-adrenoceptors in the HF.

  1. Providing web-based feedback and social norms information to reduce student alcohol intake: a multisite investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Bridgette M; West, Robert; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Mulhern, Brendan; Barkham, Michael; Hill, Andrew J

    2010-12-19

    Unhealthy alcohol use among university students is cause for concern, yet the level of help seeking behavior for alcohol use is low within the student population. Electronic brief interventions delivered via the Internet present an alternative to traditional treatments and could enable the delivery of interventions on a population basis. Further evidence is needed of the effectiveness of Internet-delivered interventions and of their generalizability across educational institutions. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness across 4 UK universities of a Web-based intervention for student alcohol use. In total, 1112 participants took part. Participants were stratified by educational institution, gender, age group, year of study, and self-reported weekly consumption of alcohol and randomly assigned to either the control arm or to the immediate or delayed intervention arms. Intervention participants gained access to the intervention between weeks 1 to 7 or weeks 8 to 15, respectively. The intervention provided electronic personalized feedback and social norms information on drinking behavior accessed by logging on to a website. Participants registered interest by completing a brief screening questionnaire and were then asked to complete 4 further assessments across the 24 weeks of the study. Assessments included a retrospective weekly drinking diary, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a readiness-to-change algorithm. The outcome variable was the number of units of alcohol consumed in the last week. The effect of treatment arm and time on units consumed last week and average units consumed per drinking occasion were investigated using repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, the data were modeled using a longitudinal regression with time points clustered within students. MANCOVA revealed a main effect of time on units of alcohol consumed over the last week. A longitudinal regression model showed an

  2. The Pairing of Accreting Massive Black Holes in Multiphase Circumnuclear Disks: the Interplay Between Radiative Cooling, Star Formation, and Feedback Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Lima, Rafael; Mayer, Lucio; Capelo, Pedro R.; Bellovary, Jillian M.

    2017-03-01

    We study the orbital decay of a pair of massive black holes (BHs) with masses 5× {10}5 and 107 {M}⊙ , using hydrodynamical simulations of circumnuclear disks (CNDs) with the alternating presence of sub-grid physics, such as radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, BH accretion, and BH feedback. In the absence of such processes, the orbit of the secondary BH decays over timescales of ˜ 10 {Myr} to the center of the CND, where the primary BH resides. When strong dissipation operates in CNDs, fragmentation into massive objects the size of giant molecular clouds with densities in the range 104-107 amu cm-3 occurs, causing stochastic torques and hits that can eject the secondary BH from the midplane. Outside the plane, the low-density medium provides only weak drag, and the BH return is governed by inefficient dynamical friction. In rare cases, clump-BH interactions can lead to a faster decay. Feedback processes lead to outflows, but do not significantly change the overall density of the CND midplane. However, with a spherically distributed BH feedback, a hot bubble is generated behind the secondary, which almost shuts off dynamical friction. We dub this phenomenon “wake evacuation.” It leads to delays in the decay, possibly of ˜ 0.3 {Gyr}. We discuss the non-trivial implications on the discovery space of the eLISA telescope. Our results suggest that the largest uncertainty in predicting BH merger rates lies in the potentially wide variety of galaxy host systems, with different degrees of gas dissipation and heating, yielding decay timescales from ˜ 10 to ˜ 300 {Myr}.

  3. Impact of the feedback provided by a gastric electrical stimulation system on eating behavior and physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetto, Luca; Torres, Antonio J; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Alarcón Del Agua, Isaias; Moretto, Carlo; Fierabracci, Paola; Rovera, Giuseppe; Segato, Gianni; Rubio, Miguel A; Favretti, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The closed-loop gastric electrical stimulation (CLGES) abiliti(®) system provides tailored gastric electrical stimulation activated by food entry into the stomach and sensor-based data to medical professionals. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior changes using sensor-based food intake and activity data in participants treated with the CLGES system. Food intake and activity data (3D accelerometer) were downloaded at baseline and monthly/bimonthly for 12 months in a subset of patients with obesity (N = 45) participating in a multicenter trial with CLGES. Measured food intake parameters included the number of intakes during allowed and disallowed periods, nighttime intakes, and between-meal snacks (average/d). Activity parameters included time in different levels of physical activity (min/d), sleep/sedentary (h/d), and estimated energy expenditure (EE). Weight loss at 12 months averaged 15.7 ± 7.7% of the baseline body weight. Stable reduction in the number of disallowed meals and between-meal snacks (P < 0.05), an increase in all levels of physical activity (P < 0.001), and an increase in activity-based EE (303 ± 53 kcal/d on average, P < 0.001) were seen. Significant improvement in eating and activity was seen in participants. It is hypothesized that feedback of the sensor-based data induced behavioral changes and contributed to weight loss in patients treated with CLGES. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. Effects of providing personalized feedback of child's obesity risk on mothers' food choices using a virtual reality buffet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, C M; Persky, S; Wagner, L K; Faith, M S; Ward, D S

    2013-10-01

    Providing personalized genetic-risk feedback of a child's susceptibility to adult-onset health conditions is a topic of considerable debate. Family health history (FHH), specifically parental overweight/obesity status, is a useful assessment for evaluating a child's genetic and environmental risk of becoming obese. It is unclear whether such risk information may influence parents' efforts to reduce their child's risk of obesity. To evaluate whether telling mothers the magnitude of their child's risk of becoming obese based on personal FHH influenced food choices for their young child from a virtual reality-based buffet restaurant. Overweight/obese mothers of a child aged 4-5 years who met eligibility criteria (N=221) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental arms, which emphasized different health information: arm 1, food safety control (Control); arm 2, behavioral-risk information (BRI) alone or arm 3, behavioral-risk information plus personal FHH-based risk assessment (BRI+FHH). Mothers donned a head-mounted display to be immersed in a virtual restaurant buffet, where they selected virtual food and beverages as a lunch for their child. Mothers who were randomized to BRI+FHH filled the index child's plate with an average of 45 fewer calories than those in the Control arm (Pparent). The influence of communicating a child's inherited risk of obesity on mothers' feeding practices may vary by the risk level conveyed. High-risk messages may best be coupled with strategies to increase mother's perceptions that efforts can be undertaken to reduce risk and build requisite behavioral skills to reduce risk.

  5. Deliberate Practice with Standardized Patient Actors and the Development of Formative Feedback for Advance Care Planning Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, William F; Gonzalez, Hanna C; Funk, Amy M; Fehr, Linda S; McGarvey, Jeremy S; Svendsen, Jessica D; Sawicki, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Multimodal curricular assessment after adding standardized patient (SP) actor-based simulation to an advance care planning (ACP) facilitator training course and development of a formative feedback tool. ACP represents a highly valued service requiring more and better trained facilitators. Participants were primarily nurses and social workers in a large multisite health system. The course included a precourse video demonstration of ACP, traditional lectures, and four 30-minute simulations with SPs. Knowledge was tested with a multiple choice question (MCQ) test. In addition to standard postcourse/postsimulation evaluations, learners were surveyed pre/post/30-90 days delayed for self-perceived confidence. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze changes over time. Trained faculty rated performance in simulations with an observational mini-clinical examination (mini-CEX)-type rating form with a checklist, global competency, and global communication rating. Inter-rater reliability (IRR) was calculated on randomly selected paired ratings. Sixty-seven individuals consented to participate. MCQ scores improved from 83% ± 10% to 92% ± 8% (p actor-based simulation contributed to improved confidence in conducting ACP. The mini-CEX observation form is adequate for formative feedback, with further testing needed to make judgments of competence.

  6. Adaptation effects in static postural control by providing simultaneous visual feedback of center of pressure and center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kenta; Mani, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Naoya; Sato, Yuki; Tanaka, Shintaro; Maejima, Hiroshi; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2017-07-19

    The benefit of visual feedback of the center of pressure (COP) on quiet standing is still debatable. This study aimed to investigate the adaptation effects of visual feedback training using both the COP and center of gravity (COG) during quiet standing. Thirty-four healthy young adults were divided into three groups randomly (COP + COG, COP, and control groups). A force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the COP in the anteroposterior (COPAP) and mediolateral (COPML) directions. A motion analysis system was used to calculate the coordinates of the center of mass (COM) in both directions (COMAP and COMML). The coordinates of the COG in the AP direction (COGAP) were obtained from the force plate signals. Augmented visual feedback was presented on a screen in the form of fluctuation circles in the vertical direction that moved upward as the COPAP and/or COGAP moved forward and vice versa. The COP + COG group received the real-time COPAP and COGAP feedback simultaneously, whereas the COP group received the real-time COPAP feedback only. The control group received no visual feedback. In the training session, the COP + COG group was required to maintain an even distance between the COPAP and COGAP and reduce the COGAP fluctuation, whereas the COP group was required to reduce the COPAP fluctuation while standing on a foam pad. In test sessions, participants were instructed to keep their standing posture as quiet as possible on the foam pad before (pre-session) and after (post-session) the training sessions. In the post-session, the velocity and root mean square of COMAP in the COP + COG group were lower than those in the control group. In addition, the absolute value of the sum of the COP - COM distances in the COP + COG group was lower than that in the COP group. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between the COMAP velocity and COP - COM parameters. The results suggest that the novel visual feedback training that

  7. Providing feedback following Leadership WalkRounds is associated with better patient safety culture, higher employee engagement and lower burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Adair, Kathryn C; Leonard, Michael W; Frankel, Terri Christensen; Proulx, Joshua; Watson, Sam R; Magnus, Brooke; Bogan, Brittany; Jamal, Maleek; Schwendimann, Rene; Frankel, Allan S

    2017-10-09

    There is a poorly understood relationship between Leadership WalkRounds (WR) and domains such as safety culture, employee engagement, burnout and work-life balance. This cross-sectional survey study evaluated associations between receiving feedback about actions taken as a result of WR and healthcare worker assessments of patient safety culture, employee engagement, burnout and work-life balance, across 829 work settings. 16 797 of 23 853 administered surveys were returned (70.4%). 5497 (32.7% of total) reported that they had participated in WR, and 4074 (24.3%) reported that they participated in WR with feedback. Work settings reporting more WR with feedback had substantially higher safety culture domain scores (first vs fourth quartile Cohen's d range: 0.34-0.84; % increase range: 15-27) and significantly higher engagement scores for four of its six domains (first vs fourth quartile Cohen's d range: 0.02-0.76; % increase range: 0.48-0.70). This WR study of patient safety and organisational outcomes tested relationships with a comprehensive set of safety culture and engagement metrics in the largest sample of hospitals and respondents to date. Beyond measuring simply whether WRs occur, we examine WR with feedback, as WR being done well. We suggest that when WRs are conducted, acted on, and the results are fed back to those involved, the work setting is a better place to deliver and receive care as assessed across a broad range of metrics, including teamwork, safety, leadership, growth opportunities, participation in decision-making and the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. Whether WR with feedback is a manifestation of better norms, or a cause of these norms, is unknown, but the link is demonstrably potent. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Feedback: Breakfast of Champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Jeffrey J.

    Feedback is an important skill that people need to learn in life. Feedback is crucial in a public speaking class to improve speaking skills. Providing and receiving feedback is what champions feed on to be successful, thus feedback is called the "Breakfast of Champions." Feedback builds speakers' confidence. Providing in-depth feedback…

  9. Investigating the Practice of Providing Written Corrective Feedback Types by ESL Teachers at the Upper Secondary Level in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Norasyikin

    2016-01-01

    The past few decades has seen the rapid development of WCF (written corrective feedback) study. The present study examined the practice of providing WCF by teachers. The aim of this study was to determine the types of WCF used by English teachers. The study is an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design using open-ended and close-ended survey…

  10. Providing time-discrete gait information by wearable feedback apparatus for lower-limb amputees: usability and functional validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Simona; Cipriani, Christian; Donati, Marco; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Vitiello, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Here we describe a novel wearable feedback apparatus for lower-limb amputees. The system is based on three modules: a pressure-sensitive insole for the measurement of the plantar pressure distribution under the prosthetic foot during gait, a computing unit for data processing and gait segmentation, and a set of vibrating elements placed on the thigh skin. The feedback strategy relies on the detection of specific gait-phase transitions of the amputated leg. Vibrating elements are activated in a time-discrete manner, simultaneously with the occurrence of the detected gait-phase transitions. Usability and effectiveness of the apparatus were successfully assessed through an experimental validation involving ten healthy volunteers.

  11. Planck's dusty GEMS. IV. Star formation and feedback in a maximum starburst at z = 3 seen at 60-pc resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañameras, R.; Nesvadba, N.; Kneissl, R.; Frye, B.; Gavazzi, R.; Koenig, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Limousin, M.; Oteo, I.; Scott, D.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution ALMA interferometry of CO(4-3) line emission and dust continuum in the "Ruby" (PLCK_G244.8+54.9), a bright, gravitationally lensed galaxy at z = 3.0 discovered with the Planck all-sky survey. The Ruby is the brightest of Planck's dusty GEMS, a sample of 11 of the brightest gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies on the extragalactic sub-mm sky. We resolve the high-surface-brightness continuum and CO line emission of the Ruby in several extended clumps along a partial, nearly circular Einstein ring with 1.4'' diameter around a massive galaxy at z = 1.5. Local star-formation intensities are up to 2000 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, amongst the highest observed at high redshift, and clearly in the range of maximal starbursts. Gas-mass surface densities are a few × 104M⊙ pc-2. The Ruby lies at, and in part even above, the starburst sequence in the Schmidt-Kennicutt diagram, and at the limit expected for star formation that is self-regulated through the kinetic energy injection from radiation pressure, stellar winds, and supernovae. We show that these processes can also inject sufficient kinetic energy and momentum into the gas to explain the turbulent line widths, which are consistent with marginally gravitationally bound molecular clouds embedded in a critically Toomre-stable disk. The star-formation efficiency is in the range 1-10% per free-fall time, consistent with the notion that the pressure balance that sets the local star-formation law in the Milky Way may well be universal out to the highest star-formation intensities. AGN feedback is not necessary to regulate the star formation in the Ruby, in agreement with the absence of a bright AGN component in the infrared and radio regimes. Based on ALMA data obtained with program 2015.1.01518.S.

  12. The temporal dynamics of global-to-local feedback in the formation of hierarchical motion patterns: psychophysics and computational simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Schöner, Gregor; Brownlow, Stacey; Taler, Dana

    2011-05-01

    Four motion quartets, each ambiguous with respect to the perception of parallel-path horizontal or vertical motion, were arranged in a diamond configuration. Both global parallel-path motion (the same motion axis for all the quartets), which is typical for multiquartet stimuli, and global rotational rocking are perceived. Experiment 1 indicated that rotational rocking is established at different levels of processing. Globally, larger displacements of each quartet's elements increase the angle of rotation and, thereby, the perception of rotational rocking. Locally, larger displacements have the opposite effect, weakening motion percepts. Experiment 2 showed that global-to-local feedback affects the local perception of rotation-consistent versus rotation-inconsistent motion directions. Experiment 3 provided evidence for hysteresis effects indicative of competition between global rotational rocking and parallel-path motion. The experimental results were simulated by a two-level dynamical model incorporating global-to-local feedback, with recurrent feedforward/feedback loops creating detection instabilities that amplify activation at both global and local levels of the rotational-rocking pattern.

  13. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M., E-mail: orianne.roos@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  14. Feedback Codes and Action Plans: Building the Capacity of First-Year Students to Apply Feedback to a Scientific Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Fiona L.; Yucel, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Effective feedback can build self-assessment skills in students so that they become more competent and confident to identify and self-correct weaknesses in their work. In this study, we trialled a feedback code as part of an integrated programme of formative and summative assessment tasks, which provided feedback to first-year students on their…

  15. Positive-feedback regulation of subchondral H-type vessel formation by chondrocyte promotes osteoarthritis development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiansen; Zhang, Haiyan; Cai, Daozhang; Zeng, Chun; Lai, Pinglin; Shao, Yan; Fang, Hang; Li, Delong; Ouyang, Jiayao; Zhao, Chang; Xie, Denghui; Huang, Bin; Yang, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Bai, Xiaochun

    2018-01-12

    Vascular-invasion-mediated interactions between activated articular chondrocytes and subchondral bone are essential for osteoarthritis (OA) development. Here, we determined the role of nutrient sensing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the crosstalk across the bone cartilage interface and its regulatory mechanisms. Then mice with chondrocyte-specific mTORC1 activation (Tsc1 CKO and Tsc1 CKOER ) or inhibition (Raptor CKOER ) and their littermate controls were subjected to OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or not. DMM or Tsc1 CKO mice were treated with bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A antibody that blocks angiogenesis. Articular cartilage degeneration was evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score. Immunostaining and western blotting were conducted to detect H-type vessels and protein levels in mice. Primary chondrocytes from mutant mice and ADTC5 cells were treated with interleukin-1β to investigate the role of chondrocyte mTORC1 in VEGF-A secretion and in vitro vascular formation. Clearly, H-type vessels were increased in subchondral bone in DMM-induced OA and aged mice. Cartilage mTORC1 activation stimulated VEGF-A production in articular chondrocyte and H-type vessel formation in subchondral bone. Chondrocyte mTORC1 promoted OA partially through formation of VEGF-A-stimulated subchondral H-type vessels. In particular, vascular-derived nutrients activated chondrocyte mTORC1, and stimulated chondrocyte activation and production of VEGF, resulting in further angiogenesis in subchondral bone. Thus a positive-feedback regulation of H-type vessel formation in subchondral bone by articular chondrocyte nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signaling is essential for the pathogenesis and progression of OA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. CONSTRAINTS ON FEEDBACK PROCESSES DURING THE FORMATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo/IAG, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De La Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); De Carvalho, R. R., E-mail: trevisan@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil)

    2012-06-20

    Galaxies are found to obey scaling relations between a number of observables. These relations follow different trends at the low- and high-mass ends. The processes driving the curvature of scaling relations remain uncertain. In this Letter, we focus on the specific family of early-type galaxies, deriving the star formation histories of a complete sample of visually classified galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.025, covering a stellar mass interval from 10{sup 9} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Our sample features the characteristic 'knee' in the surface brightness versus mass distribution at M{sub *} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} . We find a clear difference between the age and metallicity distributions of the stellar populations above and beyond this knee, which suggests a sudden transition from a constant, highly efficient mode of star formation in high-mass galaxies, gradually decreasing toward the low-mass end of the sample. At fixed mass, our early-type sample is more efficient in building up the stellar content at early times in comparison to the general population of galaxies, with half of the stars already in place by redshift z {approx} 2 for all masses. The metallicity-age trend in low-mass galaxies is not compatible with infall of metal-poor gas, suggesting instead an outflow-driven relation.

  17. Differential contributions of nitric oxide synthase isoforms at hippocampal formation to negative feedback regulation of penile erection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Julie Y H; Chan, Samuel H H

    2002-05-01

    We established previously that a novel negative feedback mechanism for the regulation of penile erection, which is triggered by ascending sensory inputs initiated by tumescence of the penis, exists in the hippocampal formation (HF). This study further evaluated the participation of nitric oxide (NO) and the contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms at the HF in this process. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats that were anaesthetized and maintained with chloral hydrate were used, and intracavernous pressure (ICP) recorded from the corpus cavernosum of the penis was employed as our experimental index for penile erection. Microinjection bilaterally of a NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (0.25 or 1 nmoles), or the NO precursor, L-arginine (1 or 5 nmoles), into the hippocampal CA1 or CA3 subfield or dentate gyrus elicited a significant reduction in baseline ICP. Bilateral hippocampal application of a NO trapping agent, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (10 nmoles), significantly potentiated the elevation in ICP induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine (400 microg). Microinjection bilaterally into the HF of equimolar doses (0.5 or 2.5 pmoles) of two selective neuronal NOS inhibitors, 7-nitroindazole or N(omega)-propyl-L-arginine; or equimolar doses (50 or 250 pmoles) of two selective inducible NOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or S-methylisothiourea, significantly enhanced the magnitude and/or duration of the papaverine-induced elevation in ICP. In contrast, hippocampal application of a potent endothelial NOS inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (18 or 92 nmoles), was ineffective. Neither of these inhibitors, furthermore, affected baseline ICP. These results suggest that NO generated via both neuronal and inducible NOS at the HF may participate in negative feedback regulation of penile erection.

  18. Differential contributions of nitric oxide synthase isoforms at hippocampal formation to negative feedback regulation of penile erection in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Julie Y H; Chan, Samuel H H

    2002-01-01

    We established previously that a novel negative feedback mechanism for the regulation of penile erection, which is triggered by ascending sensory inputs initiated by tumescence of the penis, exists in the hippocampal formation (HF). This study further evaluated the participation of nitric oxide (NO) and the contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms at the HF in this process.Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats that were anaesthetized and maintained with chloral hydrate were used, and intracavernous pressure (ICP) recorded from the corpus cavernosum of the penis was employed as our experimental index for penile erection.Microinjection bilaterally of a NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (0.25 or 1 nmoles), or the NO precursor, L-arginine (1 or 5 nmoles), into the hippocampal CA1 or CA3 subfield or dentate gyrus elicited a significant reduction in baseline ICP.Bilateral hippocampal application of a NO trapping agent, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (10 nmoles), significantly potentiated the elevation in ICP induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine (400 μg).Microinjection bilaterally into the HF of equimolar doses (0.5 or 2.5 pmoles) of two selective neuronal NOS inhibitors, 7-nitroindazole or Nω-propyl-L-arginine; or equimolar doses (50 or 250 pmoles) of two selective inducible NOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or S-methylisothiourea, significantly enhanced the magnitude and/or duration of the papaverine-induced elevation in ICP. In contrast, hippocampal application of a potent endothelial NOS inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (18 or 92 nmoles), was ineffective. Neither of these inhibitors, furthermore, affected baseline ICP.These results suggest that NO generated via both neuronal and inducible NOS at the HF may participate in negative feedback regulation of penile erection. PMID:11976262

  19. The Formation of the First Stars. II. Radiative Feedback Processes and Implications for the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2008-07-01

    We consider the radiative feedback processes that operate during the formation of the first stars. (1) Photodissociation of H2 in the local dark matter minihalo occurs early in the growth of the protostar but does not affect subsequent accretion. (2) Lyα radiation pressure acting at the boundary of the H II region that the protostar creates in the accreting envelope reverses infall in the polar directions when the star reaches ~20-30 M⊙ but cannot prevent infall from other directions. (3) Expansion of the H II region beyond the gravitational escape radius for ionized gas occurs at masses ~50-100 M⊙. However, accretion from the equatorial regions can continue since the neutral accretion disk shields a substantial fraction of the accretion envelope from direct ionizing flux. (4) At higher stellar masses, ~140 M⊙ in the fiducial case, photoevaporation-driven mass loss from the disk, together with declining accretion rates, halts the increase in the protostellar mass. We identify this process as the mechanism that determines the mass of Population III.1 stars (i.e., stars with primordial composition that have not been affected by prior star formation). The initial mass function of these stars is set by the distribution of entropy and angular momentum. The Appendix gives approximate solutions to a number of problems relevant to the formation of the first stars: the effect of Rayleigh scattering on line profiles in media of very large optical depth, the intensity of Lyα radiation in very opaque media, radiative acceleration in terms of the gradient of a modified radiation pressure, the flux of radiation in a shell with an arbitrary distribution of opacity, and the vertical structure of an accretion disk supported by gas pressure with constant opacity.

  20. A Chandra X-Ray Analysis of Abell 1664: Cooling, Feedback, and Star Formation in the Central Cluster Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.; Rafferty, D. A.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Bîrzan, L.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Wise, M. W.; Gitti, M.; Cavagnolo, K. W.

    2009-05-01

    The brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the Abell 1664 cluster is unusually blue and is forming stars at a rate of ~ 23 M sun yr-1. The BCG is located within 5 kpc of the X-ray peak, where the cooling time of 3.5 × 108 yr and entropy of 10.4 keV cm2 are consistent with other star-forming BCGs in cooling flow clusters. The center of A1664 has an elongated, "barlike" X-ray structure whose mass is comparable to the mass of molecular hydrogen, ~1010 M sun in the BCG. We show that this gas is unlikely to have been stripped from interloping galaxies. The cooling rate in this region is roughly consistent with the star formation rate, suggesting that the hot gas is condensing onto the BCG. We use the scaling relations of Bîrzan et al. to show that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is underpowered compared to the central X-ray cooling luminosity by roughly a factor of three. We suggest that A1664 is experiencing rapid cooling and star formation during a low state of an AGN feedback cycle that regulates the rates of cooling and star formation. Modeling the emission as a single-temperature plasma, we find that the metallicity peaks 100 kpc from the X-ray center, resulting in a central metallicity dip. However, a multi-temperature cooling flow model improves the fit to the X-ray emission and is able to recover the expected, centrally peaked metallicity profile.

  1. The Role of Possible Feedback Mechanisms in the Effects of Altered Gravity on Formation and Function of Gravireceptors of Mollusks and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachuk, Alexander V.; Boyle, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of the effects of altered gravity (AG) on development and function of gravireceptors cannot be explained by simple feedback mechanism that correlates gravity level and weight of test mass. The reaction of organisms to the change of gravity depends on the phase of their development. To predict this reaction we need to know the details of the mechanisms of gravireceptor formation

  2. How to improve prescription of inhaled salbutamol by providing standardised feedback on administration: a controlled intervention pilot study with follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Martina P; Kaune, Almuth; Bertsche, Astrid; Rink, Jessica; Musiol, Juliane; Frontini, Roberto; Prenzel, Freerk; Kiess, Wieland; Bertsche, Thilo

    2015-01-28

    The effectiveness of inhaled salbutamol in routine care depends particularly on prescribed dosage and applied inhalation technique. To achieve maximum effectiveness and to prevent drug-related problems, prescription and administration need to work in concert. We performed a controlled intervention pilot study with 4 consecutive groups in a general paediatric unit and assessed problems in salbutamol prescribing and administration. Control group [i]: Routine care without additional support. First intervention group [ii]: We carried out a teaching session for nurses aimed at preventing problems in inhalation technique. Independently from this, a pharmacist counselled physicians on problems in salbutamol prescribing. Second intervention group [iii]: Additionally to the first intervention, physicians received standardised feedback on the inhalation technique. Follow-up group [iv]: Subsequently, without any delay after the second intervention group had been completed, sustainability of the measures was assessed. We performed the chi-square test to calculate the level of significance with p ≤ 0.05 to indicate a statistically significant difference for the primary outcome. As we performed multiple testing, an adjusted p ≤ 0.01 according to Bonferroni correction was considered as significant. We included a total of 225 patients. By counselling the physicians, we reduced the number of patients with problems from 55% to 43% (control [i] vs. first intervention [ii], n.s.). With additional feedback to physicians, this number was further reduced to 25% ([i] vs. [iii], p < 0.001). In the follow-up [iv], the number rose again to 48% (p < 0.01 compared to feedback group). Teaching nurses, counselling physicians, and providing feedback on the quality of inhalation technique effectively reduced problems in salbutamol treatment. However, for success to be sustained, continuous support needs to be provided. German Clinical Trials register: DRKS00006792 .

  3. Integral field observations of the blue compact galaxy Haro14. Star formation and feedback in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairós, L. M.; González-Pérez, J. N.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Low-luminosity, gas-rich blue compact galaxies (BCG) are ideal laboratories to investigate the triggering and propagation of star formation in galaxies, the effects of massive stellar feedback within a shallow gravitational potential, and the enrichment of the interstellar medium. Aims: We aim to probe the morphology, stellar content, and kinematics, along with the nebular excitation and ionization mechanism, in the BCG Haro 14 by means of integral field observations. Methods: We observed Haro 14 at the Very Large Telescope, working with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph. From these data we build maps in continuum and in the brighter emission lines, produce line-ratio maps (interstellar extinction, density, and diagnostic-line ratios), and obtain the velocity and velocity dispersion fields. We also generate the integrated spectrum of the major H II regions and young stellar clusters identified in the maps to determine reliable physical parameters and oxygen abundances. Results: We find as follows: I) the current star formation in Haro 14 is spatially extended with the major H II regions placed along a linear (chain-like) structure, elongated in the north-south direction, and in a horseshoe-like curvilinear feature that extends about 760 pc eastward; the continuum emission is more concentrated and peaks close to the galaxy center; II) two different episodes of star formation are present in the central galaxy regions: the recent starburst, with ages ≤6 Myr and the intermediate-age clusters, with ages between 10 and 30 Myr; these stellar components rest on a several Gyr old underlying host galaxy; III) the Hα/Hβ pattern is inhomogeneous, with excess color values varying from E(B-V) = 0.04 up to E(B-V) = 1.09; iv) shocks play a significant role in the galaxy; and v) the velocity field displays a complicated pattern with regions of material moving toward us in the east and north galaxy areas. Conclusions: The morphology of Haro 14, its irregular

  4. Healthcare Providers' Formative Experiences with Race and Black Male Patients in Urban Hospital Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisime, Marie V; Malebranche, David J; Davis, Andrea L; Taylor, Jennifer A

    2017-12-01

    We explored health providers' formative personal and professional experiences with race and Black men as a way to assess their potential influence on interactions with Black male patients. Utilizing convenience sampling with snowballing techniques, we identified healthcare providers in two urban university hospitals. We compared Black and White providers' experiences based on race and level of training. We used the Gardener's Tale to conceptualize how racism may lead to racial health disparities. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct in-person interviews (n = 16). Using the grounded theory approach, we conducted three types of coding to examine data patterns. We found two themes reflective of personally mediated racism: (1) perception of Black males accompanied by two subthemes (a) biased care and (b) fear and discomfort and (2) cognitive dissonance. While this latter theme is more reflective of Jones's internalized racism level, we present its results because its novelty is compelling. Perception of Black males and cognitive dissonance appear to influence providers' approaches with Black male patients. This study suggests the need to develop initiatives and curricula in health professional schools that address provider racial bias. Understanding the dynamics operating in the patient-provider encounter enhances the ability to address and reduce health disparities.

  5. Star formation of far-IR AGN and non-AGN galaxies in the green valley: possible implication of AGN positive feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoro, Antoine; Pović, Mirjana; Nkundabakura, Pheneas

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present the star formation properties of Isubaru ≤ 23 X-ray detected active galactic nucleus (AGN) and non-AGN galaxies in the green valley with far-infrared (FIR) emission, using data from the COSMOS field. We measured star formation rates (SFR) using FIR Herschel/PACS data and we observed the location of AGN and non-AGN galaxies on the main-sequence of star formation. We went a step further in analysing the importance of AGN in quenching star formation in the green valley, the region proposed to be the transitional phase in galaxy evolution where galaxies are moving from later- to earlier-types. We found that most of our green valley X-ray detected AGNs with FIR emission have SFRs higher than the ones of inactive galaxies at fixed stellar mass ranges, the result that is different when considering optical data. These FIR AGNs have still very active star formation, being located either on or above the main sequence of star formation (in total 82 per cent of our sample). Therefore, they do not show signs of star formation quenching, but rather its enhancement. Our results may suggest that for X-ray detected AGNs with FIR emission if there is an influence of AGN feedback on the star formation in the green valley the scenario of AGN positive feedback seem to take place, rather than the negative one.

  6. Formative Feedback - Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech

    Posterpræsentation af ph.d. projekt d. 9/9. Konference I U.S.A “School of Education Day”. State University of New York (SUNY), Albany. Afdeling for Educational Psychology and Methodology.......Posterpræsentation af ph.d. projekt d. 9/9. Konference I U.S.A “School of Education Day”. State University of New York (SUNY), Albany. Afdeling for Educational Psychology and Methodology....

  7. Nursing students' evaluation of a new feedback and reflection tool for use in high-fidelity simulation - Formative assessment of clinical skills. A descriptive quantitative research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Elisabeth; Plathe, Hilde Syvertsen; Eide, Hilde

    2017-11-01

    Clinical skills training is an important part of nurses' education programmes. Clinical skills are complex. A common understanding of what characterizes clinical skills and learning outcomes needs to be established. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a new reflection and feedback tool for formative assessment. The study has a descriptive quantitative design. 129 students participated who were at the end of the first year of a Bachelor degree in nursing. After highfidelity simulation, data were collected using a questionnaire with 19 closed-ended and 2 open-ended questions. The tool stimulated peer assessment, and enabled students to be more thorough in what to assess as an observer in clinical skills. The tool provided a structure for selfassessment and made visible items that are important to be aware of in clinical skills. This article adds to simulation literature and provides a tool that is useful in enhancing peer learning, which is essential for nurses in practice. The tool has potential for enabling students to learn about reflection and developing skills for guiding others in practice after they have graduated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detecting the permafrost carbon feedback: talik formation and increased cold-season respiration as precursors to sink-to-source transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Parazoo

    2018-01-01

    remaining C source region in cold northern Arctic permafrost, which shifts to a net source early (late 21st century, emits 5 times more C (95 Pg C by 2300, and prior to talik formation due to the high decomposition rates of shallow, young C in organic-rich soils coupled with low productivity. Our results provide important clues signaling imminent talik onset and C source transition, including (1 late cold-season (January–February soil warming at depth ( ∼  2 m, (2 increasing cold-season emissions (November–April, and (3 enhanced respiration of deep, old C in warm permafrost and young, shallow C in organic-rich cold permafrost soils. Our results suggest a mosaic of processes that govern carbon source-to-sink transitions at high latitudes and emphasize the urgency of monitoring soil thermal profiles, organic C age and content, cold-season CO2 emissions, and atmospheric 14CO2 as key indicators of the permafrost C feedback.

  9. Detecting the permafrost carbon feedback: talik formation and increased cold-season respiration as precursors to sink-to-source transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Miller, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    source early (late 21st century), emits 5 times more C (95 Pg C) by 2300, and prior to talik formation due to the high decomposition rates of shallow, young C in organic-rich soils coupled with low productivity. Our results provide important clues signaling imminent talik onset and C source transition, including (1) late cold-season (January-February) soil warming at depth ( ˜ 2 m), (2) increasing cold-season emissions (November-April), and (3) enhanced respiration of deep, old C in warm permafrost and young, shallow C in organic-rich cold permafrost soils. Our results suggest a mosaic of processes that govern carbon source-to-sink transitions at high latitudes and emphasize the urgency of monitoring soil thermal profiles, organic C age and content, cold-season CO2 emissions, and atmospheric 14CO2 as key indicators of the permafrost C feedback.

  10. Supporting Early Childhood Educators' Use of Embedded Communication Strategies by Providing Feedback via Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…

  11. Providing Feedback, Orientation and Opportunities for Reflection as Key Elements for Successful Mentoring Programs: Reviewing a Program for Future Business Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Riebenbauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to teaching is critical for novice teachers. Near the end of their master’s program, students of Business Education and Development in Austria spend one semester at an assigned school. They are introduced to teaching, while being assisted by peer students, mentoring teachers, and a companion course. Mentors receive special training and preparation in advance, thus contributing to a high quality mentoring program. The program is organized threefold: (1 providing feedback, (2 opportunities for reflection and (3 career orientation. The purpose of this paper is to assess key elements of successful mentoring programs and to question which competences of mentors contribute most to the success of those programs. Between 2012 and 2015, 188 persons (student teachers and their mentors responded to an online survey at the end of their mentoring program. Additionally, data from a study (1,245 questionnaires regarding the student teachers’ perception of their own competence was utilized, allowing for a comparison of student teacher confidence in their abilities before and after the mentoring program. The present results provide insight into the key elements of successful mentoring programs; both from a student teacher’s and mentor’s perspective. During the semester, students showed an increase regarding their self-perception of their professional competences. It was found that students and mentoring teachers valued feedback after each lesson more than feedback in regular meetings. Opportunities for reflection (e.g. exchange with peer students, learning diaries were considered helpful. The mentoring program helped students to decide whether to become a teacher or not.

  12. Genomic and proteomic analyses of the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora provide insights into nematode-trap formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkui Yang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nematode-trapping fungi are "carnivorous" and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927 was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb assembled sequence with 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analysis showed that A. oligospora shared many more genes with pathogenic fungi than with non-pathogenic fungi. Specifically, compared to several sequenced ascomycete fungi, the A. oligospora genome has a larger number of pathogenicity-related genes in the subtilisin, cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and pectinesterase gene families. Searching against the pathogen-host interaction gene database identified 398 homologous genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The analysis of repetitive sequences provided evidence for repeat-induced point mutations in A. oligospora. Proteomic and quantitative PCR (qPCR analyses revealed that 90 genes were significantly up-regulated at the early stage of trap-formation by nematode extracts and most of these genes were involved in translation, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Based on the combined genomic, proteomic and qPCR data, a model for the formation of nematode trapping device in this fungus was proposed. In this model, multiple fungal signal transduction pathways are activated by its nematode prey to further regulate downstream genes associated with diverse cellular processes such as energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell wall and adhesive proteins, cell division, glycerol accumulation and peroxisome biogenesis. This study will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes and provide a broad foundation for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying fungi-nematodes interactions.

  13. Digital gene expression tag profiling of bat digits provides robust candidates contributing to wing formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rebecca L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the only truly flying mammals, bats use their unique wing - consisting of four elongated digits (digits II-V connected by membranes - to power their flight. In addition to the elongated digits II-V, the forelimb contains one shorter digit (digit I that is morphologically similar to the hindlimb digits. Here, we capitalized on the morphological variation among the bat forelimb digits to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying digit elongation and wing formation. Using next generation sequencing technology, we performed digital gene expression tag profiling (DGE-tag profiling of developing digits in a pooled sample of two Myotis ricketti and validated our sequencing results using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR of gene expression in the developing digits of two Hipposideros armiger. Results Among hundreds of genes exhibiting significant differences in expression between the short and long digits, we highlight 14 genes most related to digit elongation. These genes include two Tbx genes (Tbx3 and Tbx15, five BMP pathway genes (Bmp3, RGMB, Smad1, Smad4 and Nog, four Homeobox genes (Hoxd8, Hoxd9, Hoxa1 and Satb1, and three other genes (Twist1, Tmeff2 and Enpp2 related to digit malformations or cell proliferation. In addition, our results suggest that Tbx4 and Pitx2 contribute to the morphological similarity and five genes (Acta1, Tnnc2, Atp2a1, Hrc and Myoz1 contribute to the functional similarity between the thumb and hindlimb digits. Conclusions Results of this study not only implicate many developmental genes as robust candidates underlying digit elongation and wing formation in bats, but also provide a better understanding of the genes involved in autopodial development in general.

  14. Providing access to risk prediction tools via the HL7 XML-formatted risk web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Jonathan; Drohan, Brian; Blackford, Amanda; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Hughes, Kevin; Bosinoff, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Cancer risk prediction tools provide valuable information to clinicians but remain computationally challenging. Many clinics find that CaGene or HughesRiskApps fit their needs for easy- and ready-to-use software to obtain cancer risks; however, these resources may not fit all clinics' needs. The HughesRiskApps Group and BayesMendel Lab therefore developed a web service, called "Risk Service", which may be integrated into any client software to quickly obtain standardized and up-to-date risk predictions for BayesMendel tools (BRCAPRO, MMRpro, PancPRO, and MelaPRO), the Tyrer-Cuzick IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, and the Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. Software clients that can convert their local structured data into the HL7 XML-formatted family and clinical patient history (Pedigree model) may integrate with the Risk Service. The Risk Service uses Apache Tomcat and Apache Axis2 technologies to provide an all Java web service. The software client sends HL7 XML information containing anonymized family and clinical history to a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) server, where it is parsed, interpreted, and processed by multiple risk tools. The Risk Service then formats the results into an HL7 style message and returns the risk predictions to the originating software client. Upon consent, users may allow DFCI to maintain the data for future research. The Risk Service implementation is exemplified through HughesRiskApps. The Risk Service broadens the availability of valuable, up-to-date cancer risk tools and allows clinics and researchers to integrate risk prediction tools into their own software interface designed for their needs. Each software package can collect risk data using its own interface, and display the results using its own interface, while using a central, up-to-date risk calculator. This allows users to choose from multiple interfaces while always getting the latest risk calculations. Consenting users contribute their data for future

  15. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  16. On being a supervisor: the importance of feedback and how to give it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, Anna; McLean, Steven

    2006-03-01

    We outline some of the dominant opinions regarding the provision of formative feedback, as expressed by both trainees and their supervisors. Trainee psychiatrists and their supervisors were interviewed and asked to identify 'good' as opposed to 'poor' supervision. A recurrent theme in interview data was that of formative feedback. Trainees expressed a desire to receive it, but some supervisors discussed misgivings and a lack of skill in providing such feedback. Formative feedback is an essential part of the supervisor's role. We describe the principles of how to best deliver feedback, in order to increase supervisors' confidence and ability in utilizing this learning and teaching skill.

  17. The Consequences and Implications of Providing Management Learning in a Blended Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette

    Many universities are in the process of experimenting with online teaching and are moving knowledge transmission online in a format where short, concise videos are presented followed by different activities including quizzes, dialogue fora etc. Research into learning outcome shows...

  18. Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Annette Burgess, Craig Mellis Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: During clinical placements, the provision of feedback forms an integral part of the learning process and enriches students' learning experiences. The purpose of feedback is to improve the learner's knowledge, skills, or behavior. Receipt of accurate feedback can help to narrow the gap between actual and desired performance. Effective and regular feedback has the potential to reinforce good practice and motivate the learner toward the desired outcome. Despite the obvious role of feedback in effective teaching and learning, a common complaint from students is that they do not receive adequate feedback. Unfortunately, skills in giving and receiving feedback are rarely taught to students or clinicians. This study aims to provide an understanding of the role of feedback within the learning process, consider consequences of inadequate or poorly given feedback, consider the barriers to the feedback process, provide practical guidelines for providing feedback, and consider the need for student and faculty development in feedback skills. Keywords: medical students, formative, summative, assessment

  19. Probing star formation and feedback in dwarf galaxies. Integral field view of the blue compact galaxy Tololo 1937-423

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairós, L. M.; González-Pérez, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Blue compact galaxies (BCG) are gas-rich, low-mass, small systems that form stars at unusually high rates. This makes them excellent laboratories for investigating the process of star-formation (SF) at galactic scales and the effects of massive stellar feedback on the interstellar (and intergalactic) medium. Aims: We analyzed the BCG Tololo 1937-423 using optical integral field spectroscopy to probe its morphology, stellar content, nebular excitation and ionization properties, and the kinematics of its warm ionized gas. Methods: Tololo 1937-423 was observed with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We took data in the wavelength range 4150-7400 Å, covering a field of view of 27″× 27″ on the sky with a spatial sampling of 0.̋67. From these data we built maps in the continuum and brighter emission lines, diagnostic line ratio maps, and velocity dispersion fields. We also generated the integrated spectrum of the main H II regions and young stellar clusters to determine reliable physical parameters and oxygen abundances. Results: We found that Tololo 1937-423 is currently undergoing an extended starburst. In the Hα maps we identified nine major clumps, aligned mostly northeast-southwest, and stretching to galactocentric distances ≥2 kpc. The galaxy presents a single continuum peak that is not cospatial with any knot in emission lines, indicating at least two relatively recent episodes of SF. The inhomogeneous dust distribution reachs its maximum (E(B-V) 0.97) roughly at the position of the continuum peak. We found shocked regions in the galaxy outer regions and at the edges of the SF knots. The oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H) 8.20 ± 0.1, is similar in all the SF regions, suggesting a chemically homogeneous ionized interstellar medium over spatial scales of several kpc. The ionized gas kinematics displays an overall regular rotation around a northwest-southeast axis, with a maximum velocity of 70 ± 7 km s-1. Conclusions

  20. Massive star formation and feedback in W49A: the source of our Galaxy's most luminous water maser outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Whitney, Barbara A.; Conti, Peter S.; de Pree, Chris G.; Jackson, James M.

    2009-10-01

    We present high spatial resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR) images of the ring of ultracompact H II regions in W49A obtained at Gemini North, allowing us to identify the driving source of its powerful H2O maser outflow. These data also confirm our previous report that several radio sources in the ring are undetected in the mid-IR because they are embedded deep inside the cloud core. We locate the source of the water maser outflow at the position of the compact mid-IR peak of source G (source G:IRS1) to within 0.07 arcsec. This IR source is not coincident with any identified compact radio continuum source, but is coincident with a hot molecular core, so we propose that G:IRS1 is a hot core driving an outflow analogous to the wide-angle bipolar outflow in OMC-1. G:IRS1 is at the origin of a larger bipolar cavity and CO outflow. The water maser outflow is orthogonal to the bipolar CO cavity, so the masers probably reside near its waist in the thin cavity walls. Models of the IR emission require a massive protostar with M* ~= 45Msolar, L* ~= 3 × 105Lsolar and an effective envelope accretion rate of ~10-3Msolaryr-1. Feedback from the central star could potentially drive the small-scale H2O maser outflow, but it has insufficient radiative momentum to have driven the large-scale bipolar CO outflow, requiring that this massive star had an active accretion disc over the past 104 yr. Combined with the spatially resolved morphology in IR images, G:IRS1 in W49 provides compelling evidence for a massive protostar that formed by accreting from a disc, accompanied by a bipolar outflow. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the

  1. The Other partner: The changing role of good provider for men's union formation in industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldscheider, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMost studies of union formation behaviors have focused on women and children,with less emphasis on men. Using comparable retrospective survey data, this study looks at the waysCanadian, Italian and Swedish men begin conjugal life (distinguishing between marriage andcohabitation and at how the effects of their good provider status qualifications have changed in thelast 30 years. Results for Canadian men have shown that the simple patterns that have been assumed toshape separate and symmetrical roles for men and women are taking new shapes with the growth incohabitation and changes in women's economic roles. Our study will extend these results to examine twocountries at very different levels of cohabitation prevalence: Italy, where the growth in cohabitationhas just begun, and Sweden, where it has been underway much longer than in Canada. Our results showstrongly parallel changes underway in each country, indicating that it is important to continue tocompare, both between countries and over time, if we are to understand the situations fostering (ornot changing gender roles for men as good providers.FrenchLa plupart des études sur les comportements durant le passage à la vie de coupleont porté sur les femmes et les enfants, avec moins d’emphase sur le comportement des hommes. En se servant de données comparables d’enquêtesrétrospectives, cet article examine les différentes façons dont les Canadiens, lesItaliens et les Suédois commencent leur vie conjugale (en distinguant entre lemarriage et la cohabitation ainsi que les effets causés par les changements destrente dernières années dans leur statut de pourvoyeur. Chez les Canadiens, lesrésultats démontrent que les habitudes de vie qui avaient été prises pour modelerdes rôles masculins et féminins séparés et symétriques sont en train de prendrede nouvelles formes, avec une croissance dans les taux de cohabitation et deschangements dans les rôles économiques des femmes

  2. Investigating the Sedimentary Response and its Role in Climate Feedbacks Associated with the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum in a Continental Shelf Setting: Lodo Gulch, Lodo Formation, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmanowski, R. D.; Mushegan, A.; Brady, M. E.; Pluhar, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Lodo Formation (central CA), records the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a continental margin setting, where increased sedimentation rates - attributed to an enhanced hydrological cycle - provide a means for significant carbon drawdown after the peak of this hyperthermal event (John et al. 2008). This study investigates variations in grain size associated with the recovery from peak CIE values to better constrain the potential mechanism of the apparent increase in sedimentation rates, which can shed light on climate dynamics and feedbacks associated with other warming events.We collected bulk samples at ~10 cm increments over a stratigraphic interval that encompasses the previously documented CIE onset, peak, and recovery phases. We used a laser diffraction particle size analyzer on disaggregated samples to permit detection of variation within clay and silt sediment size fractions (2-63 microns) in addition to sand-size grains. Results show that, while the onset and peak CIE is associated with abundant clays, the recovery interval preserves a marked shift in median grain size to coarse silt and very fine sand. Ongoing work indicates that the grain size increase is not associated with an increase in foraminiferal abundance. Enhanced terrigenous sediment delivery during the CIE recovery could explain both the increase in grain size (this study) and sedimentation rates (previous work). This increased sediment supply could be attributed to (1) increased seasonality and storm intensity during the hyperthermal, (2) marine regression (i.e. basinward shift in shoreline) associated with decreasing rates of sea level rise during sea level highstand, or some combination of these factors. Future work to document compositional and preservational changes in sediments and foraminifera over this time interval will aid in teasing apart the relative influence of potential drivers of change associated with this event.

  3. Sourceless formation evaluation. An LWD solution providing density and neutron measurements without the use of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, R.; Reichel, N. [Schlumberger, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2013-08-01

    For many years the industry has been searching for a way to eliminate the logistical difficulties and risk associated with deployment of radioisotopes for formation evaluation. The traditional gamma-gamma density (GGD) measurement uses the scattering of 662-keV gamma rays from a 137Cs radioisotopic source, with a 30.17-year half-life, to determine formation density. The traditional neutron measurement uses an Am-Be source emitting neutrons with an energy around 4 MeV, with a half-life of 432 years. Both these radioisotopic sources pose health, security, and environmental risks. Pulsed-neutron generators have been used in the industry for several decades in wireline tools and more recently in logging-while-drilling tools. These generators produce 14-MeV neutrons, many of which interact with the nuclei in the formation. Elastic collisions allow a neutron porosity measurement to be derived, which has been available to the industry since 2005. Inelastic interactions are typically followed by the emission of a variety of high-energy gamma rays. Similar to the case of the GGD measurement, the transport and attenuation of these gamma rays is a strong function of the formation density. However, the gamma-ray source is now distributed over a volume within the formation, where gamma rays have been induced by neutron interactions and the source can no longer be considered to be a point as in the case of a radioisotopic source. In addition, the extent of the induced source region depends on the transport of the fast neutrons from the source to the point of gamma-ray production. Even though the physics is more complex, it is possible to measure the formation density if the fast neutron transport is taken into account when deriving the density answer. This paper briefly reviews the physics underlying the sourceless neutron porosity and recently introduced neutron-gamma density (SNGD) measurement, demonstrates how they can be used in traditional workflows and illustrates their

  4. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they wer...

  5. PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION OF UNIFIED STATE SYSTEM OF INFORMATIVE PROVIDING OF HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Mintser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the new unified informative system of health care (UISHC are considered. In the system unlike existent analogues the complex reflection of all factors influencing on the state of health, including environment, pharmaceutical factors etc are under discussion. Principles of formation of UISHC among which the most important is realization of duality (availability of stationary and mobile - medical electronic passport of a citizen are also defined.

  6. Written Teacher Feedback: Aspects of Quality, Benefits and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmeier, Monika; Grob, Regula; Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Written feedback provided by the teacher to his or her students is an important aspect of formative assessment. After a theoretical introduction to teacher prerequisites for giving feedback and to the quality of written feedback in general, results from an implementation of feedback methods......, it will be discussed which means of support for teachers seem necessary in order to foster the implementation of written teacher feedback as part of formative assessment in inquiry-based science education....... in classrooms will be described for the cases of Germany, Switzerland and Denmark. The focus will be on the inquiry method ‘investigation in science’ that requires from students such competences as planning and/or conducting experiments. This study examines the quality of written teacher feedback which...

  7. Formative evaluation of the feedback component of Children's and Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment and Advice on the Web (CANAA-W) among parents of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Covents, Marc; Maes, Lea; Moyson, Tinneke

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the formative evaluation of the feedback component of an online nutrition tailoring instrument, the Children's and Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment and Advice on the Web (CANAA-W), among parents of schoolchildren. Parents of pre-primary and primary-school children recorded their child's food intake over 3 d with CANAA-W and completed the evaluation questionnaire online. A subsample participated in focus group discussions. Parents completed CANAA-W at home. Forty-six parents completed the evaluation questionnaire. Seventeen parents participated in three focus group discussions. Parents were enthusiastic: the majority (81 % or more) found the advice comprehensible, interesting, logical, useful, believable, well formulated, correct, personal, relevant, complete, attractive, containing enough and not too much information; they indicated that it is helpful to improve their children's eating habits and that they intend to use it. The qualitative analyses revealed that the respondents appreciated the confrontation with their child's diet and the visualization (i.e. traffic light colours, pictograms, food models, diagrams). The length of the feedback was rather a drawback, but it was useful nevertheless. CANAA-W was well received by the parents; the scores on the feasibility questionnaire were high and the qualitative analyses showed that the confrontation with their child's diet, and attractive visualization of the most relevant feedback linked to more elaborated optional feedback, were well appreciated. The major challenge will be to convince parents who are less interested in food habits and less computer-literate to participate in this type of study.

  8. Trainees' Perceptions of Feedback: Validity Evidence for Two FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-You, Robert; Ramesh, Saradha; Hayes, Victoria; Varaklis, Kalli; Ward, Denham; Blanco, Maria

    2017-12-14

    Construct: Medical educators consider feedback a core component of the educational process. Effective feedback allows learners to acquire new skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Learners' perceptions of feedback are an important aspect to assess with valid methods in order to improve the feedback skills of educators and the feedback culture. Although guidelines for delivering effective feedback have existed for several decades, medical students and residents often indicate that they receive little feedback. A recent scoping review on feedback in medical education did not reveal any validity evidence on instruments to assess learner's perceptions of feedback. The purpose of our study was to gather validity evidence on two novel FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) instruments to assess medical students' and residents' perceptions of the feedback that they receive. After the authors developed an initial instrument with 54 items, cognitive interviews with medical students and residents suggested that 2 separate instruments were needed, one focused on the feedback culture (FEEDME-Culture) and the other on the provider of feedback (FEEDME-Provider). A Delphi study with 17 medical education experts and faculty members assessed content validity. The response process was explored involving 31 medical students and residents at 2 academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were performed on completed instruments. Two Delphi consultation rounds refined the wording of items and eliminated several items. Learners found both instruments easy and quick to answer; it took them less than 5 minutes to complete. Learners preferred an electronic format of the instruments over paper. Factor analysis revealed a two- and three-factor solution for the FEEDME-Culture and FEEDME-Provider instruments, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.80 for all factors. Items on both instruments were moderately to highly correlated (range, r = .3-.7). Our

  9. Method and device for intraoperative imaging of lumpectomy specimens to provide feedback to breast surgeon for prompt re-excision during the same procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Andrzej; Hemingway, Susan; Kort, Kara; de la Rosa, Gustavo; Adhikary, Ravi; Masrani, Deepa; Feiglin, David; O'Connell, Avice; Nagarajan, Mahesh; Yang, Chien-Chun; Wismüller, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) of breast cancer is now widely accepted due to improved cosmetic outcome and improved patients' quality of life. One of the critical issues in performing breast-conserving surgery is trying to achieve microscopically clear surgical margins while maintaining excellent cosmesis. Unfortunately, unacceptably close or positive surgical margins occur in at least 20-25% of all patients undergoing BCT requiring repeat surgical excision days or weeks later, as permanent histopathology routinely takes days to complete. Our aim is to develop a better method for intraoperative imaging of non-palpable breast malignancies excised by wire or needle localization. Providing non-deformed three dimensional imaging of the excised breast tissue should allow more accurate assessment of tumor margins and consequently allow further excision at the time of initial surgery thus limiting the enormous financial and emotional burden of additional surgery. We have designed and constructed a device that allows preservation of the excised breast tissue in its natural anatomic position relative to the breast as it is imaged to assess adequate excision. We performed initial tests with needle-guided lumpectomy specimens using micro-CT and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Our device consists of a plastic sphere inside a cylindrical holder. The surgeon inserts a freshly excised piece of breast tissue into the sphere and matches its anatomic orientation with the fiducial markers on the sphere. A custom-shaped foam is placed inside the sphere to prevent specimen deformation due to gravity. DBT followed by micro-CT images of the specimen were obtained. We confirmed that our device preserved spatial orientation of the excised breast tissue and that the location error was lower than 10mm and 10 degrees. The initial obtained results indicate that breast lesions containing microcalcifications allow a good 3D imaging of margins providing immediate intraoperative feedback for

  10. Strategies for effective feedback

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kritek, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education...

  11. Providing Cryptographic security and evidentiary Chain-of-Custody with the advanced forensic format, library, and tools

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, Simson L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents improvements in the Advanced Forensics Format Library version 3 that provide for digital signatures and other cryptographic protections for digital evidence, allowing an investigator to establish a reliable chain-of-custody for electronic evidence from the crime scene to the court room. No other system for handling and storing electronic evidence currently provides such capabilities. This paper discusses implementation details, user level commands, and the AFFLIB progra...

  12. 78 FR 310 - Draft Revision of Guidance for Industry on Providing Regulatory Submissions in Electronic Format...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... Doc No: 2012-31577] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1256] Draft Revision of Guidance for Industry on Providing Regulatory Submissions in... Electronic Common Technical Document Specifications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  13. AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman

    2018-02-01

    Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.

  14. Contribution of cGMP but not peroxynitrite to negative feedback regulation of penile erection elicited by nitric oxide in the hippocampal formation of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J Y H; Chan, S H H; Chang, A Y W

    2004-01-01

    We established previously that nitric oxide (NO) in the hippocampal formation (HF) participates actively in negative feedback regulation of penile erection. This study further evaluated whether this process engaged soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP cascade or peroxynitrite in the HF. Intracavernous pressure (ICP) recorded from the penis in adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate was employed as our experimental index for penile erection. Microinjection bilaterally of a NO-independent sGC activator, YC-1 (0.1 or 1 nmol) or a cGMP analog, 8-Bromo-cGMP (0.1 or 1 nmol), into the HF elicited a significant reduction in baseline ICP. Bilateral application into the HF of equimolar doses (0.5 or 1 nmol) of a sGC inhibitor, LY83583 or a NO-sensitive sGC inhibitor, ODQ significantly antagonized the decrease in baseline ICP induced by co-administration of the NO precursor, L-arginine (5 nmol), along with significant enhancement of the magnitude of papaverine-induced elevation in ICP. In contrast, a peroxynitrite scavenger, L-cysteine (50 or 100 pmol), or an active peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4'-pyridyl)-porphyrinato iron (III) (10 or 50 pmol), was ineffective in both events. These results suggest that NO may participate in negative feedback regulation of penile erection by activating the sGC/cGMP cascade in the HF selectively.

  15. Difficulty giving feedback on underperformance undermines the educational value of multi-source feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, John R; Anderson, Elizabeth J; Pugsley, Lesley

    2013-10-01

    Multi-source feedback (MSF) was intended to provide both a summative and formative assessment of doctors' attitudes and behaviours. To explore the influences of feedback quality and trainees' acceptance of the assessment on formative educational gains from MSF. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of eight dermatology trainees, from an insider researcher position, following two pilot interviews. Interviews were manually transcribed and coded to permit template analysis, a subtype of thematic analysis. The interview data indicated that MSF provides relatively little formative educational gains largely because of a paucity of constructive feedback on sub-optimal performance. This was due to difficulties encountered by raters giving developmental feedback, in particular, potential loss of anonymity, and by trainees selecting raters expected to give favourable comments. Dual use of MSF as a summative assessment in annual appraisals also inhibited educational gains by promotion of a 'tick box' mentality in which trainees' need to pass their assessment superseded their desire for self-improvement. A relative lack of developmental feedback limits the formative educational gains from MSF and could provide false reassurance that might reinforce negative behaviours.

  16. Becoming a health literate organization: Formative research results from healthcare organizations providing care for undeserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsul, Prajakta; Wray, Ricardo; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri; Weaver, Nancy; Wilson, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Background Integrating health literacy into primary care institutional policy and practice is critical to effective, patient centered health care. While attributes of health literate organizations have been proposed, approaches for strengthening them in healthcare systems with limited resources have not been fully detailed. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with individuals from 11 low resourced health care organizations serving uninsured, underinsured, and government-insured patients across Missouri. The qualitative inquiry explored concepts of impetus to transform, leadership commitment, engaging staff, alignment to organization wide goals, and integration of health literacy with current practices. Findings Several health care organizations reported carrying out health literacy related activities including implementing patient portals, selecting easy to read patient materials, offering community education and outreach programs, and improving discharge and medication distribution processes. The need for change presented itself through data or anecdotal staff experience. For any change to be undertaken, administrators and medical directors had to be supportive; most often a champion facilitated these changes in the organization. Staff and providers were often resistant to change and worried they would be saddled with additional work. Lack of time and funding were the most common barriers reported for integration and sustainability. To overcome these barriers, managers supported changes by working one on one with staff, seeking external funding, utilizing existing resources, planning for stepwise implementation, including members from all staff levels and clear communication. Conclusion Even though barriers exist, resource scarce clinical settings can successfully plan, implement, and sustain organizational changes to support health literacy.

  17. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  18. Encouraging residents to seek feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Dianne; Sargeant, Joan; Miller, Stephen; Holland, Joanna; Alexiadis Brown, Peggy; Leblanc, Constance; Lightfoot, Kathryn; Mann, Karen

    2013-12-01

    To explore resident and faculty perceptions of the feedback process, especially residents' feedback-seeking activities. We conducted focus groups of faculty and residents exploring experiences in giving and receiving feedback, feedback-seeking, and suggestions to support feedback-seeking. Using qualitative methods and an iterative process, all authors analyzed the transcribed audiotapes to identify and confirm themes. Emerging themes fit a framework situating resident feedback-seeking as dependent on four central factors: (1) learning/workplace culture, (2) relationships, (3) purpose/quality of feedback, (4) emotional responses to feedback. Residents and faculty agreed on many supports and barriers to feedback-seeking. Strengthening the workplace/learning culture through longitudinal experiences, use of feedback forms and explicit expectations for residents to seek feedback, coupled with providing a sense of safety and adequate time for observation and providing feedback were suggested. Tensions between faculty and resident perceptions regarding feedback-seeking related to fear of being found deficient, the emotional costs related to corrective feedback and perceptions that completing clinical work is more valued than learning. Resident feedback-seeking is influenced by multiple factors requiring attention to both faculty and learner roles. Further study of specific influences and strategies to mitigate the tensions will inform how best to support residents in seeking feedback.

  19. Physician performance feedback in a Canadian academic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Dennis; Worthington, James; McGuire, Shaun; Burgetz, Stephanie; Forster, Alan J; Patey, Andrea; Gerin-Lajoie, Caroline; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Roth, Virginia

    2017-10-02

    Purpose This paper aims at the implementation and early evaluation of a comprehensive, formative annual physician performance feedback process in a large academic health-care organization. Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods approach was used to introduce a formative feedback process to provide physicians with comprehensive feedback on performance and to support professional development. This initiative responded to organization-wide engagement surveys through which physicians identified effective performance feedback as a priority. In 2013, physicians primarily affiliated with the organization participated in a performance feedback process, and physician satisfaction and participant perceptions were explored through participant survey responses and physician leader focus groups. Training was required for physician leaders prior to conducting performance feedback discussions. Findings This process was completed by 98 per cent of eligible physicians, and 30 per cent completed an evaluation survey. While physicians endorsed the concept of a formative feedback process, process improvement opportunities were identified. Qualitative analysis revealed the following process improvement themes: simplify the tool, ensure leaders follow process, eliminate redundancies in data collection (through academic or licensing requirements) and provide objective quality metrics. Following physician leader training on performance feedback, 98 per cent of leaders who completed an evaluation questionnaire agreed or strongly agreed that the performance feedback process was useful and that training objectives were met. Originality/value This paper introduces a physician performance feedback model, leadership training approach and first-year implementation outcomes. The results of this study will be useful to health administrators and physician leaders interested in implementing physician performance feedback or improving physician engagement.

  20. EZH2 enables germinal centre formation through epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A and an Rb-E2F1 feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguelin, Wendy; Rivas, Martín A; Calvo Fernández, María T; Teater, Matt; Purwada, Alberto; Redmond, David; Shen, Hao; Challman, Matt F; Elemento, Olivier; Singh, Ankur; Melnick, Ari M

    2017-10-12

    The EZH2 histone methyltransferase is required for B cells to form germinal centers (GC). Here we show that EZH2 mediates GC formation through repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21(Cip1)). Deletion of Cdkn1a rescues the GC reaction in Ezh2 (-/-) mice. Using a 3D B cell follicular organoid system that mimics the GC reaction, we show that depletion of EZH2 suppresses G1 to S phase transition of GC B cells in a Cdkn1a-dependent manner. GC B cells of Cdkn1a (-/-) Ezh2 (-/-) mice have high levels of phospho-Rb, indicating that loss of Cdkn1a enables progression of cell cycle. Moreover, the transcription factor E2F1 induces EZH2 during the GC reaction. E2f1 (-/-) mice manifest impaired GC responses, which is rescued by restoring EZH2 expression, thus defining a positive feedback loop in which EZH2 controls GC B cell proliferation by suppressing CDKN1A, enabling cell cycle progression with a concomitant phosphorylation of Rb and release of E2F1.The histone methyltransferase EZH2 silences genes by generating H3K27me3 marks. Here the authors use a 3D GC organoid and show EZH2 mediates germinal centre (GC) formation through epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A and release of cell cycle checkpoints.

  1. Peer feedback as an aid to learning--what do we want? Feedback. When do we want it? Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Annie; Abbott, Stephen; Lothian, Doug; Hall, Angela; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2011-01-01

    With 360° appraisals integral to professional life, learning how to give constructive feedback is an essential generic skill. To use a formative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for skills acquisition and development in giving feedback, whilst facilitating awareness of the importance of communication skills in clinical practice. Medical and nursing students took part in a formative OSCE. Using actors as simulated patients, a three-station OSCE circuit was repeated three times so that students could rotate through the roles as 'candidate', 'examiner' and 'observer'. As 'candidates', they received immediate feedback on their consultation from the 'examiner'/'observer'. The events were evaluated using a questionnaire and focus groups. Students immensely valued this learning event for considering expectations for a performance (91-100%). Concerns around giving peers feedback were acknowledged, and they were divided on preference for feedback from peers or tutors (48% versus 52%). But training in providing feedback and criteria for assessment were considered helpful, as was instruction by faculty to give corrective feedback to peers. Peer observation and professional accountability for giving constructive feedback enhanced awareness of their skills education and training needs. It also opened the dialogue for identifying opportunities for peer assessment and feedback to support work-based education and skills development.

  2. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Feedback Simulation Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  3. Effects of longitudinal small-group learning on delivery and receipt of communication skills feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Calvin L; Masters, Dylan E; Chang, Anna; Kruidering, Marieke; Hauer, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Although feedback is a critical component of learning, recent data suggest that learners may discount feedback they receive. The emotional threat inherent in feedback can contribute to its ineffectiveness, particularly for sensitive topics like communication skills. Longitudinal relationships among peers may increase their sense of safety and soften the perceived threat of feedback to allow students to give, receive and potentially more effectively incorporate feedback. We studied the effects of prior shared learning experiences among medical students in the delivery and receipt of feedback on clinical (communication) skills. During a formative clinical skills examination, we divided Year 3 students at a US medical school into two subgroups comprising, respectively, small-group classmates from a 2-year longitudinal pre-clerkship clinical skills course (with prior peer-learning relationships), and peers with no prior shared small-group coursework. Students in both subgroups observed peers in a simulated clinical case and then provided feedback, which was videotaped, transcribed and coded. Feedback recipients also completed a survey on their perceptions of the feedback. Students valued the feedback they received and intended to enact it, regardless of whether they had prior peer-learning relationships. Coding of feedback revealed high specificity. Feedback providers who had prior peer-learning relationships with recipients provided more specific corrective feedback on communication skills than those with no such relationships (p = 0.014); there was no significant difference between subgroups in the provision of reinforcing feedback on communication skills. Year 3 medical student peers can deliver specific feedback on clinical skills; prior peer-learning relationships in pre-clerkship clinical skills courses enrich the provision of specific corrective feedback about communication skills. Feedback between peers with pre-existing peer-learning relationships represents

  4. Effects on the estimated cause-specific mortality fraction of providing physician reviewers with different formats of verbal autopsy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Clara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of data collection and the methods used to assign the cause of death vary significantly among different verbal autopsy protocols, but there are few data to describe the consequences of the choices made. The aim of this study was to objectively define the impact of the format of data presented to physician reviewers on the cause-specific mortality fractions defined by a verbal autopsy-based mortality-surveillance system. Methods Verbal autopsies were done by primary health care workers for all deaths between October 2006 and September 2007 in a community in rural Andhra Pradesh, India (total population about 180,162. Each questionnaire had a structured section, composed of a series of check boxes, and a free-text section, in which a narrative description of the events leading to death was recorded. For each death, a physician coder was presented first with one section and then the other in random order with a 20- to 40-day interval between. A cause of death was recorded for each data format at the level of ICD 10 chapter headings or else the death was documented as unclassified. After another 20- to 40-day interval, both the structured and free-text sections of the questionnaire were presented together and an index cause of death was assigned. Results In all, 1,407 verbal autopsies were available for analysis, representing 94% of all deaths recorded in the population that year. An index cause of death was assigned using the combined data for 1,190 with the other 217 remaining unclassified. The observed cause-specific mortality fractions were the same regardless of whether the structured, free-text or combined data sources were used. At the individual level, the assignments made using the structured format matched the index in 1,012 (72% of cases with a kappa statistic of 0.66. For the free-text format, the corresponding figures were 989 (70% and 0.64. Conclusions The format of the verbal autopsy data used to assign

  5. Online feedback op schriftelijk werk: betere feedback in minder tijd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.A.M.; van der Hulst, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is a powerful teaching technic to raise students’ performance, provided that the feedback is informative on how to improve, is given in a timely manner and students have the opportunity to act upon it. Therefore, many institutions want their students to receive feedback on their performance

  6. Directional R-Loop Formation by the CRISPR-Cas Surveillance Complex Cascade Provides Efficient Off-Target Site Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Rutkauskas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against foreign nucleic acids. In type I CRISPR-Cas systems, invading DNA is detected by a large ribonucleoprotein surveillance complex called Cascade. The crRNA component of Cascade is used to recognize target sites in foreign DNA (protospacers by formation of an R-loop driven by base-pairing complementarity. Using single-molecule supercoiling experiments with near base-pair resolution, we probe here the mechanism of R-loop formation and detect short-lived R-loop intermediates on off-target sites bearing single mismatches. We show that R-loops propagate directionally starting from the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM. Upon reaching a mismatch, R-loop propagation stalls and collapses in a length-dependent manner. This unambiguously demonstrates that directional zipping of the R-loop accomplishes efficient target recognition by rapidly rejecting binding to off-target sites with PAM-proximal mutations. R-loops that reach the protospacer end become locked to license DNA degradation by the auxiliary Cas3 nuclease/helicase without further target verification.

  7. Examining a Web-Based Peer Feedback System in an Introductory Computer Literacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Tufan; Varank, Ilhan; Erkoç, Mehmet Fatih; Buyukimdat, Meryem Koskeroglu

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on formative use of peer feedback in an online system that was used in basic computer literacy for word processing assignment-related purposes. Specifically, the effect of quantity, modality and satisfaction of peer feedback provided through the online system on students' performance, self-efficacy, and technology acceptance was…

  8. Formativ Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod

    Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...

  9. Starting Block Performance in Sprinters: A Statistical Method for Identifying Discriminative Parameters of the Performance and an Analysis of the Effect of Providing Feedback over a 6-Week Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Sylvie; Basset, Fabien A; Mbourou, Ginette A; Favérial, Jérôme; Teasdale, Normand

    2005-06-01

    (a) to examine if kinetic and kinematic parameters of the sprint start could differentiate elite from sub-elite sprinters and, (b) to investigate whether providing feedback (FB) about selected parameters could improve starting block performance of intermediate sprinters over a 6-week training period. Twelve male sprinters, assigned to an elite or a sub-elite group, participated in Experiment 1. Eight intermediate sprinters participated in Experiment 2. All athletes were required to perform three sprint starts at maximum intensity followed by a 10-m run. To detect differences between elite and sub-elite groups, comparisons were made using t-tests for independent samples. Parameters reaching a significant group difference were retained for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The LDA yielded four discriminative kinetic parameters. Feedback about these selected parameters was given to sprinters in Experiment 2. For this experiment, data acquisition was divided into three periods. The first six sessions were without specific FB, whereas the following six sessions were enriched by kinetic FB. Finally, athletes underwent a retention session (without FB) 4 weeks after the twelfth session. Even though differences were found in the time to front peak force, the time to rear peak force, and the front peak force in the retention session, the results of the present study showed that providing FB about selected kinetic parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite sprinters did not improve the starting block performance of intermediate sprinters. Key PointsThe linear discriminative analysis allows the identification of starting block parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite athletes.6-week of feedback does not alter starting block performance in training context.The present results failed to confirm previous studies since feedback did not improve targeted kinetic parameters of the complex motor task in real-world context.

  10. A Journey towards Sustainable Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Allyson; Young, Charlotte; Davey, Tamzyn; Fitzgerald, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Meeting students' expectations associated with the provision of feedback is a perennial challenge for tertiary education. Efforts to provide comprehensive, timely feedback within our own first year undergraduate public health courses have not always met students' expectations. In response, we sought to develop peer feedback activities to support…

  11. Provider Profiling: A Population Health Improvement Tool for the Southeast Military Health System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pemberton, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    ...). Profiling with Provider Perspectives, a Primary Care Management Tool, provides the SEMHS with a standardized performance measurement system that offers feedback in a user friendly and non-threatening format...

  12. 77 FR 9945 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Providing Submissions in Electronic Format-Standardized Study Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... current thinking on the submission of study data in a standard electronic format. The draft guidance... current thinking on submitting standardized study data in electronic format. It does not create or confer... Electronic Format--Standardized Study Data; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  13. PROVIDING STRINGENT STAR FORMATION RATE LIMITS OF z ∼ 2 QSO HOST GALAXIES AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Do, Tuan [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Larkin, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-04-10

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ∼ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host. We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ∼0.″2 (∼1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (z{sub Hα} = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (z{sub Hα} = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290–350 km s{sup −1}. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ∼7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%–40% of the Eddington rate, if

  14. Vertical microbial community variability of carbonate-based cones may provide insight into ancient conical stromatolite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, James; Daille, Leslie; Trivedi, Christopher; Bojanowski, Caitlin; Nunn, Heather; Stamps, Blake; Johnson, Hope; Stevenson, Bradley; Berelson, Will; Corsetti, Frank; Spear, John

    2016-04-01

    Stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood, and the process by which microbial mats become mineralized is a primary question in microbialite formation. Ancient conical stromatolites are primarily carbonate-based whereas the few modern analogues in hot springs are either non-mineralized or mineralized by silica. A team from the 2015 International GeoBiology Course investigated carbonate-rich microbial cones from near Little Hot Creek (LHC), Long Valley Caldera, California, to investigate how conical stromatolites might form in a hot spring carbonate system. The cones rise up from a layered microbial mat on the east side of a 45° C pool with very low flow that is super-saturated with respect to CaCO3. Cone structures are 8-30 mm in height, are rigid and do not deform when removed from the pool. Morphological characterization through environmental scanning electronic microscopy revealed that the cone structure is maintained by a matrix of intertwining microbial filaments around carbonate grains. This matrix gives rise to cone-filaments that are arranged vertically or horizontally, and provides further stability to the cone. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated variability of community composition between different vertical levels of the cone. The cone tip had comparatively greater abundance of filamentous cyanobacteria including Leptolingbya, Phormidium and Isosphaera and fewer heterotrophs (e.g. Chloroflexi) compared to the cone bottom. This supports the hypothesis that cone formation may depend on the differential abundance of the microbial community and their potential functional roles. Metagenomic analyses of the cones revealed potential genes related to chemotaxis and motility. Specifically, a genomic bin identified as a member of the genus Isosphaera contained an hmp chemotaxis operon implicated in gliding motility in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. Isosphaera is a Planctomycete shown to have phototactic capabilities, and may play a role in

  15. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part I: Utility, technical performance and service provider perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Patricia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formative evaluation is conducted in the early stages of system implementation to assess how it works in practice and to identify opportunities for improving technical and process performance. A formative evaluation of a teleneurophysiology service was conducted to examine its technical and sociological dimensions. Methods A teleneurophysiology service providing routine EEG investigation was established. Service use, technical performance and satisfaction of clinical neurophysiology personnel were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. These were contrasted with a previously reported analysis of the need for teleneurophysiology, and examination of expectation and satisfaction with clinical neurophysiology services in Ireland. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. Results Over the course of 40 clinical sessions during 20 weeks, 142 EEG investigations were recorded and stored on a file server at a satellite centre which was 130 miles away from the host clinical neurophysiology department. Using a virtual private network, the EEGs were accessed by a consultant neurophysiologist at the host centre for interpretation. The model resulted in a 5-fold increase in access to EEG services as well as reducing average waiting times for investigation by a half. Technically the model worked well, although a temporary loss of virtual private network connectivity highlighted the need for clarity in terms of responsibility for troubleshooting and repair of equipment problems. Referral quality, communication between host and satellite centres, quality of EEG recordings, and ease of EEG review and reporting indicated that appropriate organisational processes were adopted by the service. Compared to traditional CN service delivery, the teleneurophysiology model resulted in a comparable unit cost per EEG. Conclusion Observations suggest that when traditional organisational boundaries are crossed challenges associated with the

  16. Strategies for effective feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritek, Patricia A

    2015-04-01

    Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education; however, many individuals have not been formally trained in this pedagogical skill. At the bedside or in the clinic, effective performance feedback can be accomplished by following four key steps. Begin by setting expectations that incorporate the trainee's personal goals and external objectives. Delineate how and when you will provide feedback to the learner. Next, directly observe the trainee's performance. This can be challenging while engaged on a busy clinical service, but a focus on discrete activities or interactions (e.g., family meeting, intravascular volume assessment using bedside ultrasound, or obtaining informed consent) is helpful. The third step is to plan and prioritize the feedback session. Feedback is most effective when given in a timely fashion and delivered in a safe environment. Limit the issues addressed because learners often disengage if confronted with too many deficiencies. Finally, when delivering feedback, begin by listening to the trainee's self-evaluation and then take a balanced approach. Describe in detail what the trainee does well and discuss opportunities for improvement with emphasis on specific, modifiable behaviors. The feedback loop is completed with a plan for follow-up reassessment. Through the use of these relatively simple practices, both the trainee and teacher can have a more productive learning experience.

  17. A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Aaron Z; Koshland, Douglas E

    2013-12-01

    Here we describe the first high-throughput amenable method of quantifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Current high-throughput methods of assessing yeast cell viability, such as flow cytometry and SGA analysis, do not measure the percentage viability of a culture but instead measure cell vitality or colony fitness, respectively. We developed a method, called tadpoling, to quantify the percentage viability of a yeast culture, with the ability to detect as few as one viable cell amongst ~10(8) dead cells. The most important feature of this assay is the exploitation of yeast colony formation in liquid medium. Utilizing a microtiter dish, we are able to observe a range of viability of 100% to 0.0001%. Comparison of tadpoling to the traditional plating method to measure yeast culture viability reveals that, for the majority of Saccharomyces species analyzed there is no significant difference between the two methods. In comparison to flow cytometry using propidium iodide, the high-throughput method of measuring yeast culture viability, tadpoling is much more accurate at culture viabilities < 1%. Thus, we show that tadpoling provides an easy, inexpensive, space-saving method, amenable to high-throughput screens, for accurately measuring yeast cell viability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part I: utility, technical performance and service provider perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Formative evaluation is conducted in the early stages of system implementation to assess how it works in practice and to identify opportunities for improving technical and process performance. A formative evaluation of a teleneurophysiology service was conducted to examine its technical and sociological dimensions.

  19. STARTING BLOCK PERFORMANCE IN SPRINTERS: A STATISTICAL METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETERS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF PROVIDING FEEDBACK OVER A 6-WEEK PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Fortier

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to examine if kinetic and kinematic parameters of the sprint start could differentiate elite from sub-elite sprinters and, (b to investigate whether providing feedback (FB about selected parameters could improve starting block performance of intermediate sprinters over a 6-week training period. Twelve male sprinters, assigned to an elite or a sub-elite group, participated in Experiment 1. Eight intermediate sprinters participated in Experiment 2. All athletes were required to perform three sprint starts at maximum intensity followed by a 10-m run. To detect differences between elite and sub-elite groups, comparisons were made using t-tests for independent samples. Parameters reaching a significant group difference were retained for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA. The LDA yielded four discriminative kinetic parameters. Feedback about these selected parameters was given to sprinters in Experiment 2. For this experiment, data acquisition was divided into three periods. The first six sessions were without specific FB, whereas the following six sessions were enriched by kinetic FB. Finally, athletes underwent a retention session (without FB 4 weeks after the twelfth session. Even though differences were found in the time to front peak force, the time to rear peak force, and the front peak force in the retention session, the results of the present study showed that providing FB about selected kinetic parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite sprinters did not improve the starting block performance of intermediate sprinters

  20. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  1. FEEDBACK AND LOGISTICS CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehesne Berek Szilvia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The following things led to that the feedback, the supervision and improvement of the processes have become more pronounced: continuous rise in the importance of logistics; increase in complexity of its content; its activity becoming more complex. These activities are necessary for the optimum information supply. The intensification of market competition requires the corporations to possess exact and up-to-date information about their activities. Complexity of the logistics system presumes a parallel application of an effective feedback, supervision and management system simultaneously with the given logistics system. The indispensability of logistics is also proved by the fact that it can be found sporadically (in the form of logistics departments or in a complex way in case of each organization. The logistical approach means a huge support in the management since it contains the complexity, the handling as a unit in order to ensure a harmony of the different corporate departments and part activities. In addition to the professional application of a logistics system, there is an opportunity to coordinate the relations inside an organization as well as between the organizations and to handle them as a unit. The sine qua non of the success of logistical processes is a harmony of the devices applied. The controlling system is a device for feeding back the processes of a corporate system. By means of the checkpoints intercalated into the processes, the logistics controlling provides information for the leadership which contributes even more to the complex approach of logistics system. By dint of the logistics controlling, the monitoring and coordination of every logistical part activity become possible with the help of information supply ensured by the logistics controlling. The logistics controlling reviews, assesses and coordinates; these activities have an effect on the cost and income management. Its reason is to be searched in the built

  2. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  3. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R. [and others

    1995-05-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.

  4. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J.; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  5. Mechanistic implications for the formation of the diiron cluster in ribonucleotide reductase provided by quantitative EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brad S; Elgren, Timothy E; Hendrich, Michael P

    2003-07-23

    The small subunit of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (R2) is a homodimeric (betabeta) protein, in which each beta-peptide contains a diiron cluster composed of two inequivalent iron sites. R2 is capable of reductively activating O(2) to produce a stable tyrosine radical (Y122*), which is essential for production of deoxyribonucleotides on the larger R1 subunit. In this work, the paramagnetic Mn(II) ion is used as a spectroscopic probe to characterize the assembly of the R2 site with EPR spectroscopy. Upon titration of Mn(II) into samples of apoR2, we have been able to quantitatively follow three species (aquaMn(II), mononuclear Mn(II)R2, and dinuclear Mn(2)(II)R2) and fit each to a sequential two binding site model. As previously observed for Fe(II) binding within apoR2, one of the sites has a greater binding affinity relative to the other, K(1) = (5.5 +/- 1.1) x 10(5) M(-)(1) and K(2) = (3.9 +/- 0.6) x 10(4) M(-)(1), which are assigned to the B and A sites, respectively. In multiple titrations, only one dinuclear Mn(2)(II)R2 site was created per homodimer of R2, indicating that only one of the two beta-peptides of R2 is capable of binding Mn(II) following addition of Mn(II) to apoR2. Under anaerobic conditions, addition of only 2 equiv of Fe(II) to R2 (Fe(2)(II)R2) completely prevented the formation of any bound MnR2 species. Upon reaction of this sample with O(2) in the presence of Mn(II), both Y122* and Mn(2)(II)R2 were produced in equal amounts. Previous stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy studies have indicated that apoR2 undergoes a protein conformational change upon binding of metal (Tong et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 2107-2108). On the basis of these observations, we propose a model for R2 metal incorporation that invokes an allosteric interaction between the two beta-peptides of R2. Upon binding the first equiv of metal to a beta-peptide (beta(I)), the aforementioned protein conformational change prevents metal binding in the adjacent beta

  6. The Art of Giving Online Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, Nancyruth; Schwarz, Laura Marie

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of providing online feedback that is positive, effective, and enhances the learning experience is a valuable educator skill. Acquisition of the art of providing feedback is through education, practice, and faculty development. This article provides information about the best practices for delivering online feedback to learners. An…

  7. The effect of providing feedback on inhaler technique and adherence from an electronic audio recording device, INCA®, in a community pharmacy setting: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Susan Mary; MacHale, Elaine; Sulaiman, Imran; Holmes, Martin; Hughes, Cian; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; Taylor, Terence; Boland, Fiona; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Reilly, Richard B; Ryder, Sheila A; Costello, Richard W

    2016-05-04

    Poor adherence to inhaled medication may lead to inadequate symptom control in patients with respiratory disease. In practice it can be difficult to identify poor adherence. We designed an acoustic recording device, the INCA® (INhaler Compliance Assessment) device, which, when attached to an inhaler, identifies and records the time and technique of inhaler use, thereby providing objective longitudinal data on an individual's adherence to inhaled medication. This study will test the hypothesis that providing objective, personalised, visual feedback on adherence to patients in combination with a tailored educational intervention in a community pharmacy setting, improves adherence more effectively than education alone. The study is a prospective, cluster randomised, parallel-group, multi-site study conducted over 6 months. The study is designed to compare current best practice in care (i.e. routine inhaler technique training) with the use of the INCA® device for respiratory patients in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacies are the unit of randomisation and on enrolment to the study they will be allocated by the lead researcher to one of the three study groups (intervention, comparator or control groups) using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Given the nature of the intervention neither pharmacists nor participants can be blinded. The intervention group will receive feedback from the acoustic recording device on inhaler technique and adherence three times over a 6-month period along with inhaler technique training at each of these times. The comparator group will also receive training in inhaler use three times over the 6-month study period but no feedback on their habitual performance. The control group will receive usual care (i.e. the safe supply of medicines and advice on their use). The primary outcome is the rate of participant adherence to their inhaled medication, defined as the proportion of correctly taken doses of medication at the correct

  8. Identification of hydroxyapatite spherules provides new insight into subretinal pigment epithelial deposit formation in the aging eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard B.; Reffatto, Valentina; Bundy, Jacob G.; Kortvely, Elod; Flinn, Jane M.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Jones, Emrys A.; McPhail, David S.; Fearn, Sarah; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius; Ratu, Savanjeet Guy Singh; Pauleikhoff, Laurenz; Bird, Alan C.; Lengyel, Imre

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of protein- and lipid-containing deposits external to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is common in the aging eye, and has long been viewed as the hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The cause for the accumulation and retention of molecules in the sub-RPE space, however, remains an enigma. Here, we present fluorescence microscopy and X-ray diffraction evidence for the formation of small (0.5–20 μm in diameter), hollow, hydroxyapatite (HAP) spherules in Bruch’s membrane in human eyes. These spherules are distinct in form, placement, and staining from the well-known calcification of the elastin layer of the aging Bruch’s membrane. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging confirmed the presence of calcium phosphate in the spherules and identified cholesterol enrichment in their core. Using HAP-selective fluorescent dyes, we show that all types of sub-RPE deposits in the macula, as well as in the periphery, contain numerous HAP spherules. Immunohistochemical labeling for proteins characteristic of sub-RPE deposits, such as complement factor H, vitronectin, and amyloid beta, revealed that HAP spherules were coated with these proteins. HAP spherules were also found outside the sub-RPE deposits, ready to bind proteins at the RPE/choroid interface. Based on these results, we propose a novel mechanism for the growth, and possibly even the formation, of sub-RPE deposits, namely, that the deposit growth and formation begin with the deposition of insoluble HAP shells around naturally occurring, cholesterol-containing extracellular lipid droplets at the RPE/choroid interface; proteins and lipids then attach to these shells, initiating or supporting the growth of sub-RPE deposits. PMID:25605911

  9. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Formative and Summative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated how teachers can shape students' self-efficacy through the evaluative feedback they provide. With the aim of determining which of summative and formative evaluative feedback methods will have greater influence on changes in students' self-efficacy. The study population comprised of 105 University ...

  10. Electroencephalogy (EEG) Feedback in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision- Making The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful...feedback when training rapid decision-making. More specifically, EEG will allow us to provide online feedback about the neural decision processes...Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision-Making Report Title The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful

  11. Granules Harboring Translationally Active mRNAs Provide a Platform for P-Body Formation following Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The localization of mRNA to defined cytoplasmic sites in eukaryotic cells not only allows localized protein production but also determines the fate of mRNAs. For instance, translationally repressed mRNAs localize to P-bodies and stress granules where their decay and storage, respectively, are directed. Here, we find that several mRNAs are localized to granules in unstressed, actively growing cells. These granules play a key role in the stress-dependent formation of P-bodies. Specific glycolytic mRNAs are colocalized in multiple granules per cell, which aggregate during P-body formation. Such aggregation is still observed under conditions or in mutants where P-bodies do not form. In unstressed cells, the mRNA granules appear associated with active translation; this might enable a coregulation of protein expression from the same pathways or complexes. Parallels can be drawn between this coregulation and the advantage of operons in prokaryotic systems.

  12. Emotional feedback for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Seebode, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the functional adequacy as well as the affective impression made by feedback messages on mobile devices. It presents an easily adoptable experimental setup to examine context effects on various feedback messages, and applies it to auditory, tactile and auditory-tactile feedback messages. This approach provides insights into the relationship between the affective impression and functional applicability of these messages as well as an understanding of the influence of unimodal components on the perception of multimodal feedback messages. The developed paradigm can also be extended to investigate other aspects of context and used to investigate feedback messages in modalities other than those presented. The book uses questionnaires implemented on a Smartphone, which can easily be adopted for field studies to broaden the scope even wider. Finally, the book offers guidelines for the design of system feedback.

  13. Offering effective feedback to trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Morkos

    2015-01-01

    Effective feedback on performance is an integral part of clinical training. It allows the trainee to critically reflect on their development, as well as enable the teacher to chart progress and detect areas for development. In order to provide effective feedback, we need to take into account the performance itself, but also the setting where feedback is offered, and the expected outcomes of the encounter. As ever, negative feedback remains more difficult to give and receive, and as such requires a greater degree of delicacy to produce a positive result.

  14. 78 FR 44573 - Guidance for Industry on Providing Submissions in Electronic Format-Postmarket Non-Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Providing Submissions in Electronic...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance to industry entitled ``Providing Submissions in...

  15. Vertical Microbial Community Variability of Carbonate-based Cones may Provide Insight into Formation in the Rock Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, C.; Bojanowski, C.; Daille, L. K.; Bradley, J.; Johnson, H.; Stamps, B. W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Berelson, W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood, and the process by which microbial mats become mineralized is a primary question in microbialite formation. Ancient conical stromatolites are primarily carbonate-based whereas the few modern analogues in hot springs are either non-mineralized or mineralized by silica. A team from the 2015 International GeoBiology Course investigated carbonate-rich microbial cones from near Little Hot Creek (LHC), Long Valley Caldera, California, to investigate how conical stromatolites might form in a hot spring carbonate system. The cones are up to 3 cm tall and are found in a calm, ~45° C pool near LHC that is 4 times super-saturated with respect to CaCO3. The cones rise from a flat, layered microbial mat at the edge of the pool. Scanning electron microscopy revealed filamentous bacteria associated with calcite crystals within the cone tips. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated variability of community composition between different vertical levels of the cone. The cone tip had comparatively greater abundance of filamentous cyanobacteria (Leptolyngbya and Phormidium) and fewer heterotrophs (e.g. Chloroflexi) compared to the cone bottom. This supports the hypothesis that cone formation may depend on the differential abundance of the microbial community and their potential functional roles. Metagenomic analyses of the cones revealed potential genes related to chemotaxis and motility. Specifically, a genomic bin identified as a member of the genus Isosphaera contained an hmp chemotaxis operon implicated in gliding motility in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme [1]. Isosphaera is a Planctomycete shown to have phototactic capabilities [2], and may play a role in conjunction with cyanobacteria in the vertical formation of the cones. This analysis of actively growing cones indicates a complex interplay of geochemistry and microbiology that form structures which can serve as models for processes that occurred in the past and are

  16. Development of the Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme: evaluating the quality of feedback in peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Kreijns, Karel; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that feedback is an essential element in learning. This study focuses on feedback that teachers provide in reciprocal peer groups to improve their performance in the classroom. The Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme (TFOS) was developed to identify feedback patterns, which

  17. 360-degree feedback for medical trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Ellen; Holm, Kirsten; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2015-01-01

    In 360-degree feedback medical colleagues and collaborators give a trainee feedback by answering a questionnaire on behaviour of the trainee. The questionnaire may contain questions answered on a scale or/and they may contain open questions. The result from 360-degree feedback is used for formative...... feedback and assessment. In order to secure reliability 8-15 respondents are needed. It is a matter of discussion whether the respondents should be chosen by the trainee or by a third part, and if respondents should be anonymous. The process includes a feedback session with a trained supervisor....

  18. Playing Games with Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Games can be great tools to engage reluctant learners and provide ongoing feedback to educators about how their lessons are "sticking." Cassie discusses how to use gamified formative assessments to measure different kinds of skills and looks at the different ways teachers can use games in the classroom--from out-of-the-box board games to…

  19. The parasexual cycle in Candida albicans provides an alternative pathway to meiosis for the formation of recombinant strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Forche

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans has an elaborate, yet efficient, mating system that promotes conjugation between diploid a and alpha strains. The product of mating is a tetraploid a/alpha cell that must undergo a reductional division to return to the diploid state. Despite the presence of several "meiosis-specific" genes in the C. albicans genome, a meiotic program has not been observed. Instead, tetraploid products of mating can be induced to undergo efficient, random chromosome loss, often producing strains that are diploid, or close to diploid, in ploidy. Using SNP and comparative genome hybridization arrays we have now analyzed the genotypes of products from the C. albicans parasexual cycle. We show that the parasexual cycle generates progeny strains with shuffled combinations of the eight C. albicans chromosomes. In addition, several isolates had undergone extensive genetic recombination between homologous chromosomes, including multiple gene conversion events. Progeny strains exhibited altered colony morphologies on laboratory media, demonstrating that the parasexual cycle generates phenotypic variants of C. albicans. In several fungi, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the conserved Spo11 protein is integral to meiotic recombination, where it is required for the formation of DNA double-strand breaks. We show that deletion of SPO11 prevented genetic recombination between homologous chromosomes during the C. albicans parasexual cycle. These findings suggest that at least one meiosis-specific gene has been re-programmed to mediate genetic recombination during the alternative parasexual life cycle of C. albicans. We discuss, in light of the long association of C. albicans with warm-blooded animals, the potential advantages of a parasexual cycle over a conventional sexual cycle.

  20. Feedback-giving behaviour in performance evaluations during clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Harold G J; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Spruijt, Annemarie; Van Beukelen, Peter; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M; Teunissen, Pim W

    2016-01-01

    Narrative feedback documented in performance evaluations by the teacher, i.e. the clinical supervisor, is generally accepted to be essential for workplace learning. Many studies have examined factors of influence on the usage of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) instruments and provision of feedback, but little is known about how these factors influence teachers' feedback-giving behaviour. In this study, we investigated teachers' use of mini-CEX in performance evaluations to provide narrative feedback in undergraduate clinical training. We designed an exploratory qualitative study using an interpretive approach. Focusing on the usage of mini-CEX instruments in clinical training, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore teachers' perceptions. Between February and June 2013, we conducted interviews with 14 clinicians participated as teachers during undergraduate clinical clerkships. Informed by concepts from the literature, we coded interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed data using template analysis. We identified three main themes of interrelated factors that influenced teachers' practice with regard to mini-CEX instruments: teacher-related factors; teacher-student interaction-related factors, and teacher-context interaction-related factors. Four issues (direct observation, relationship between teacher and student, verbal versus written feedback, formative versus summative purposes) that are pertinent to workplace-based performance evaluations were presented to clarify how different factors interact with each other and influence teachers' feedback-giving behaviour. Embedding performance observation in clinical practice and establishing trustworthy teacher-student relationships in more longitudinal clinical clerkships were considered important in creating a learning environment that supports and facilitates the feedback exchange. Teachers' feedback-giving behaviour within the clinical context results from the interaction

  1. Styrket feedback gennem studerendes selvevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Studerende er ofte utilfredse med såvel kvaliteten som kvantiteten af feedback på skriftligt arbejde. Ligeledes kan det som underviser være svært at afgive feedback, der tager udgangspunkt i de studerendes respektive læringssituationer, hvis man ikke har andet afsæt end opgavetekster. Denne artikel...... beskriver derfor to eksperimenter med brug af selvevaluering som kvalificerende mellemled i ekstern feedback på skriveøvelser. Eksperimenternes formål er at styrke den formative læring ved skriftligt arbejde. I det første eksperiment bestod feedbacken af underviser-feedback, mens det andet eksperiment...... indebar peer-feedback og fælles feedback. I begge tilfælde blev selvevalueringen foretaget med udgangspunkt i en kriteriebaseret retteguide. Eksperimenterne medførte, at den eksterne feedback blev målrettet og kvalificeret i forhold til den enkelte studerende, mens selve skriveprocessen mod forventning...

  2. Gamification and Smart, Competence-Centered Feedback: Promising Experiences in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamification appears being a promising approach to utilize the strong motivational potential of “gaming” in classroom without suffering from shortcomings such as low efficiency, weak pedagogy, or maybe most importantly the high costs. In the context of a European project we developed a rather light weight tool for learning and practicing multiplications. The target age group of the tool is 6 to 8 years. To benefit from the motivational potential of games we used a “gamification” approach. Accordingly we designed and developed a game-like, attractive user interface and integrated aspects of competition. The system is capable of providing students formative, competence-oriented feedback in real-time. Tailored to the age group this feedback is presented in form of a ninja character. For an experimental comparison of the effects of different feedback modes, we realized the conditions (i no feedback, (ii written only right/wrong feedback, (iii audio right/wrong feedback, and (iv competence-based, smart formative feedback. We applied and evaluated the tool in Austrian classrooms and found some evidence for the motivational aspect of the gamification elements, in particular the scoring. We also found strong positive effects of an individualized and meaningful feedback about achievements and progress.

  3. Pilot study using hair nicotine feedback to reduce Latino children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I; Conway, Terry L; Elder, John P; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2007-01-01

    This was a pilot study to assess the usability and impact of a feedback-based environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) reduction approach for Latino families. A one-group, pre-post design was used. Information from hair samples from children analyzed for nicotine was used to create three feedback versions presented in a counterbalanced fashion. The intervention was conducted by a promotora in the participants' homes, with mailed materials and over the phone. Fifty Latino parent-child pairs were recruited. Parents were Spanish-speaking smoking adults (typically the mother) who reported exposing their children to ETS. Intervention efforts included home visits to provide nicotine feedback and counseling, two mailers presenting alternative versions of the feedback, and a supportive telephone call delivered over a 6-week period. Pre-post assessments conducted by a bicultural measurement technician measured parent reports of children's ETS exposure and children's hair nicotine. Parents' liking/usability of the three feedback formats was measured at the post-assessment. Paired t-tests assessed pre-post changes in exposure outcomes. Parents' reports of exposure and children's hair nicotine levels showed statistically significant reductions. Parents liked all three feedback formats, particularly a comparative graphic format. Consistency of the positive findings suggests that this feedback approach to ETS reduction warrants further study with a more rigorous design.

  4. Targeted Feedback in the Milestones Era: Utilization of the Ask-Tell-Ask Feedback Model to Promote Reflection and Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Judith C; Colbert, Colleen Y; Pien, Lily C; Dannefer, Elaine F; Taylor, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Milestones Project focuses trainee education on the formation of valued behaviors and skills believed to be necessary for trainees to become independent practitioners. The development and refinement of behaviors and skills outlined within the milestones will require learners to monitor, reflect, and assess their own performance over time. External feedback provides an opportunity for learners to recalibrate their self-assessments, thereby enabling them to develop better self-monitoring and self-assessment skills. Yet, feedback to trainees is frequently generic, such as "great job," "nice work," or "you need to read more." In this article, we describe a feedback model that faculty can use to provide specific feedback, while increasing accountability for learners. We offer practical examples of its use in a variety of settings in the milestone era. The Ask-Tell-Ask (ATA) patient communication skills strategy, which was adapted for use as a trainee feedback model 10 years ago at our institution, is a learner-centered approach for reinforcing and modifying behaviors. The model is efficient, promotes learner accountability, and helps trainees develop reflection and self-assessment skills. A feedback agreement further enhances ATA by establishing a shared understanding of goals for the educational encounter. The ATA feedback model, combined with a feedback agreement, encourages learners to self-identify strengths and areas for improvement, before receiving feedback. Personal monitoring, reflection, self-assessment, and increased accountability make ATA an ideal learner-centered feedback model for the milestones era, which focuses on performance improvement over time. We believe the introduction of the ATA feedback model in surgical training programs is a step in the right direction towards meaningful programmatic culture change. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  5. Formation of tools of resource providing management at the enterprise of the industry of construction materials in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstina Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of the results of activities at the level of industrial sector of the Russian economy in general and at the level of certain subjects of economy - the enterprise of construction materials and products is completed in the article. According to the analysis results the insufficient efficiency of the use of cumulative resource capacity of the enterprises is proved and the need of the development of complex tools of resource providing management, to which the priority attention is caused by the crisis of economy requiring taking measures to diversification of a range of construction materials and products of the construction offered by the enterprise for the markets, is determined. In the core of the offered tools of management there are approaches of “ramp-up” of the management directed to the maximum concentration of resources of the enterprise in case of new products launch for the construction industry. Three options of financing of production, based on the choice of a ratio of loan and own sources of means are considered. Some conditions of macroeconomic nature, which are important for effective development of the enterprises involved in production of construction materials and products are determined in the conclusion.

  6. Feedback, Incentives and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    . The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner takes-all tournament. We find that the principal should not provide any information on relative  performance, regardless of the pay scheme used, since feedback does not improve performance. Indeed, we do not find evidence of positive peer...... effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In both pay schemes, interim feedback generates negative quality peer effects on the less able performers. We find however evidence of positive peer effects in the tournament scheme since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback about relative performance...

  7. Effectiveness of Feedback in First Year Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bearden, Ian; Voigt, Karen A; Mathiasen, Helle

    How can we provide better and more effective feedback to our students? How can we encourage students to use feedback effectively? We will present results of a study of first year physics students addressing these questions and comparing the effectiveness of written and screencast feedback....

  8. Mass production of individual feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, David

    2006-01-01

    Learning to program is intrinsically difficult. In addition there is a trend towards increased student diversity and larger class sizes. Student diversity increases the need for individual attention for each student, while increased class sizes decreases the amount of time a lecturer has to provide this attention. This thesis investigates an approach to help provide each student with detailed individual feedback. This feedback is important where individual attention is lacking. We used tw...

  9. Assessment of clinical feedback given to medical students via an electronic feedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughness, Gabrielle; Georgoff, Patrick E; Sandhu, Gurjit; Leininger, Lisa; Nikolian, Vahagn C; Reddy, Rishindra; Hughes, David T

    2017-10-01

    The feedback medical students receive during clinical rotations, traditionally verbal and not formally captured, plays a critical role in student development. This study evaluates written daily feedback given to students through a novel web-based feedback system. A Minute Feedback System was used to collect feedback given to medical students during their surgery clerkship from May 2015-April 2016. Using qualitative content analysis, feedback comments were categorized as: encouraging, corrective, specific, and nonspecific. Effective feedback was a combination of specific and either corrective or encouraging feedback; ineffective feedback contained only nonspecific comments; mediocre feedback contained elements of both effective and ineffective comments. 3191 feedback requests were sent by medical students and 2029 faculty/resident feedback responses were received. The overall response rate was 62%. Nonspecific feedback comprised 80% of faculty, 83% of senior resident, and 78% of junior resident comments. Specific feedback was given by only 35% of faculty, 17% of senior residents, and 26% of junior residents. Faculty provided Effective feedback in only 16% of comments, senior residents 8%, and junior residents 17%. Mediocre feedback comprised 13% of faculty, 9% of senior resident, and 7% of junior resident comments. Ineffective feedback comprised 67% of all feedback: 60% of faculty, 72% of senior resident, and 68% of junior resident feedback. The majority of resident and faculty feedback to medical students using an electronic, email-based application during their surgery clerkship was nonspecific and encouraging and therefore of limited effectiveness. This presents an opportunity for resident/faculty development and education regarding optimal feedback techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Students' perceptions on feedback module in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Varsha J; Malhotra, Supriya D; Rana, Devang A

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is an integral part of formative assessment though underutilized in medical education. The objective of this study was to review our feedback module through students' perceptions. We have developed a feedback module which is practiced by us for last 10 years for term ending examination that gives collective feedback to the whole class, followed by individual student-teacher interactions. Students were also exposed to 6-7 multiple choice questions (MCQs) based assessment during the course of pharmacology. Immediately after each MCQ test the answer keys is displayed along with an explanation. Two classes of students were requested to give their perceptions about the feedback by responding on Likert scale for the statements in the questionnaire. All the 206 students who volunteered for the study were enrolled in the study. Mann-Whitney test was used to calculate the difference in perceptions. Of 278 students of two classes, 206 responded (74%). Students' agreement varied from 93% to 98% for 5 items in the questionnaire for the feedback after term ending examinations. Perception of students attending one or more than one feedback session did not differ significantly. For MCQs, tests agreement was 91% to 98% for the 4 items. There was no significant difference between two classes in their perceptions regarding feedback practices (P feedback module. In the medical colleges with a large number of students, this module is feasible for feedback in formative assessment in the form of written tests.

  11. The ACS LCID Project. V. The Star Formation History of the Dwarf Galaxy LGS-3: Clues to Cosmic Reionization and Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Skillman, Evan; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Cole, Andrew; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard J.; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Stetson, Peter; Tolstoy, Eline; Ferguson, Henry

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of the transition-type (dIrr/dSph) Local Group galaxy LGS-3 (Pisces) based on deep photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations reach the oldest main-sequence turnoffs at high

  12. The ACS LCID Project : V. The Star Formation History of the Dwarf Galaxy LGS-3: Clues to Cosmic Reionization and Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Skillman, Evan; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Cole, Andrew; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard J.; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Stetson, Peter; Tolstoy, Eline; Ferguson, Henry

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of the transition-type (dIrr/dSph) Local Group galaxy LGS-3 (Pisces) based on deep photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations reach the oldest main-sequence turnoffs at high

  13. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  14. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Wang, Guo-Dong; Sun, Gui-Ling; Grant, Marcus; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Feedback for Teachers: Focused, Specific, and Constructive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    Across the country, there is a renewed emphasis on using teacher evaluation not only to rate teachers but also to give them formative feedback that will help them improve classroom instruction. Recent research shows that applying the strategies that teachers use to give students effective feedback to the teacher evaluation process produces…

  16. Comprehensive feedback on trainee surgeons' non-technical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanager, Lene; Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons' non-technical skills. METHODS: Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non......-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark tool to stimulate feedback conversations. Audio recordings of post-operation feedback conversations were collected. Trainees and supervisors provided questionnaire responses on the usefulness and comprehensiveness of the feedback. The feedback conversations were...

  17. The Impact of Elaborated Feedback on Competency Assessment of IT Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alexandra TOADER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feedback represents an important component in the process of assessing the competencies of the IT professionals as it allows to evaluate their performance and helps their managers to personalize the learning content according to employees’ needs and profiles. In the current paper we propose a computer-based formative feedback framework that provides personalized feedback for the technical employees. Extensive research has been carried out focusing on formative assessment aspects that includes the elaborate feedback. An online competency assessment tool was designed and it is going to be implemented in order to measure the professionals’ performance in software organizations. The subjects of the study are going to be software developers, working in departments of IT Romanian companies. Their performance is going to be evaluated through the competency-based assessment tool. At the end of the assessment process, an elaborate feedback is provided in order to improve their current level of competency acquired. The current paper reveals the role of the computer-based formative assessment within software organizations as well as the importance of an elaborate feedback that can improve the employees’ knowledge and skills.

  18. Feedback as real-time constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous oral interaction and asynchronous text-based interaction mediated by digital media....

  19. Feedback as real-time constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    The article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous, oral interaction and asynchronous, text-based interaction mediated by digital media....

  20. The Efficacy of Standardized Patient Feedback in Clinical Teaching: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Doyle Howley, PhD

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of oral feedback from standardized patients on medical students’ overall perceptions of an educational exercise. We chose a mixed-methods approach to better understand the following research questions: Does satisfaction with the standardized patient exercise differ among those students who receive oral feedback and those who do not? What is the quality of oral feedback provided by standardized patients? Procedures. In order to address the first question, a basic randomized design comparing treatment (or those receiving SP feedback to control (those not receiving SP feedback was conducted. To address the second question, students in the treatment group were surveyed about their impressions of the quality of the feedback provided to them by their SP. One hundred and thirty six first year medical students were divided into treatment and control groups and interviewed one standardized patient during a single 20-minute encounter. Standardized patients were trained to simulate one of two outpatient cases and provide feedback using standard training materials. Both treatment and control groups completed a rating scale and questionnaire regarding their satisfaction with the encounter and students in the treatment group responded to additional questions regarding the quality of the SP feedback. Results. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA revealed significant differences among control and treatment groups on the seven combined dependent variables, Wilks’ =.890, F(7, 127=2.25, p<.034, ?2=.110. Students reported that the quality of SP feedback was very strong and additional qualitative analysis revealed further evidence to support the efficacy of providing oral SP feedback in a formative pre-clinical educational activity.

  1. Three-phase Interstellar Medium in Galaxies Resolving Evolution with Star Formation and Supernova Feedback (TIGRESS): Algorithms, Fiducial Model, and Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce TIGRESS, a novel framework for multi-physics numerical simulations of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) implemented in the Athena MHD code. The algorithms of TIGRESS are designed to spatially and temporally resolve key physical features, including: (1) the gravitational collapse and ongoing accretion of gas that leads to star formation in clusters; (2) the explosions of supernovae (SNe), both near their progenitor birth sites and from runaway OB stars, with time delays relative to star formation determined by population synthesis; (3) explicit evolution of SN remnants prior to the onset of cooling, which leads to the creation of the hot ISM; (4) photoelectric heating of the warm and cold phases of the ISM that tracks the time-dependent ambient FUV field from the young cluster population; (5) large-scale galactic differential rotation, which leads to epicyclic motion and shears out overdense structures, limiting large-scale gravitational collapse; (6) accurate evolution of magnetic fields, which can be important for vertical support of the ISM disk as well as angular momentum transport. We present tests of the newly implemented physics modules, and demonstrate application of TIGRESS in a fiducial model representing the solar neighborhood environment. We use a resolution study to demonstrate convergence and evaluate the minimum resolution {{Δ }}x required to correctly recover several ISM properties, including the star formation rate, wind mass-loss rate, disk scale height, turbulent and Alfvénic velocity dispersions, and volume fractions of warm and hot phases. For the solar neighborhood model, all these ISM properties are converged at {{Δ }}x≤slant 8 {pc}.

  2. Skriftlig feedback i engelskundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2017-01-01

    The article describes useful feedback strategies in language teaching and describes the feedback practices of lower-seconday teachers in Denmark. The article is aimed at language teahcers in secondary schools.......The article describes useful feedback strategies in language teaching and describes the feedback practices of lower-seconday teachers in Denmark. The article is aimed at language teahcers in secondary schools....

  3. Teacher feedback in the classroom. Analyzing and developing teachers' feedback behavior in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Providing feedback is one of the most influential means of teachers to enhance student learning. In this dissertation, we first focused on what is known from research about effective (i.e. learning-enhancing) feedback. Effective feedback, mostly studied from a cognitive psychologist point of view,

  4. The influence of force feedback and visual feedback in grasping tissue laparoscopically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnsdijk, E. A. M.; Pasdeloup, A.; van der Pijl, A. J.; Dankelman, J.; Gouma, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Due to the limited force feedback provided by laparoscopic instruments, surgeons may have difficulty in applying the appropriate force on the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of force feedback and visual feedback on the exerted pinch force. Methods: A grasper

  5. The Feedback Tango: An Integrative Review and Analysis of the Content of the Teacher-Learner Feedback Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-You, Robert; Varaklis, Kalli; Hayes, Victoria; Trowbridge, Robert; Kemp, Heather; McKelvy, Dina

    2017-10-03

    To conduct an integrative review and analysis of the literature on the content of feedback to learners in medical education. Following completion of a scoping review in 2016, the authors analyzed a subset of articles published through 2015 describing the analysis of feedback exchange content in various contexts: audiotapes, clinical examination, feedback cards, multisource feedback, videotapes, and written feedback. Two reviewers extracted data from these articles and identified common themes. Of the 51 included articles, about half (49%) were published since 2011. Most involved medical students (43%) or residents (43%). A leniency bias was noted in many (37%), as there was frequently reluctance to provide constructive feedback. More than one-quarter (29%) indicated the feedback was low in quality (e.g., too general, limited amount, no action plans). Some (16%) indicated faculty dominated conversations, did not use feedback forms appropriately, or provided inadequate feedback, even after training. Multiple feedback tools were used, with some articles (14%) describing varying degrees of use, completion, or legibility. Some articles (14%) noted the impact of the gender of the feedback provider or learner. The findings reveal that the exchange of feedback is troubled by low-quality feedback, leniency bias, faculty deficient in feedback competencies, challenges with multiple feedback tools, and gender impacts. Using the tango dance form as a metaphor for this dynamic partnership, the authors recommend ways to improve feedback for teachers and learners willing to partner with each other and engage in the complexities of the feedback exchange.

  6. Factors Influencing Spanish Instructors' In-Class Feedback Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura

    2016-01-01

    While oral corrective feedback is a principal focus in second language acquisition research, most studies examine feedback once it has been provided. Investigating how instructors make in-class feedback decisions has not been thoroughly explored, despite the fact that classroom feedback occurs at the discretion of the individual language…

  7. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.

    2012-08-01

    Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

  8. Understanding Litter Input Controls on Soil Organic Matter Turnover and Formation are Essential for Improving Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions for Arctic, Tundra Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenstein, Matthew [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    The Arctic region stored vast amounts of carbon (C) in soils over thousands of years because decomposition has been limited by cold, wet conditions. Arctic soils now contain roughly as much C that is contained in all other soils across the globe combined. However, climate warming could unlock this oil C as decomposition accelerates and permafrost thaws. In addition to temperature-driven acceleration of decomposition, several additional processes could either counteract or augment warming-induced SOM losses. For example, increased plant growth under a warmer climate will increase organic matter inputs to soils, which could fuel further soil decomposition by microbes, but will also increase the production of new SOM. Whether Arctic ecosystems store or release carbon in the future depends in part on the balance between these two counteracting processes. By differentiating SOM decomposition and formation and understanding the drivers of these processes, we will better understand how these systems function. We did not find evidence of priming under current conditions, defined as an increase in the decomposition of native SOM stocks. This suggests that decomposition is unlikely to be further accelerated through this mechanism. We did find that decomposition of native SOM did occur when nitrogen was added to these soils, suggesting that nitrogen limits decomposition in these systems. Our results highlight the resilience and extraordinary C storage capacity of these soils, and suggest shrub expansion may partially mitigate C losses from decomposition of old SOM as Arctic soils warm.

  9. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for Digital Learning Environments on the Basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciss, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008), and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the…

  10. Feedback and learning support that fosters students' independent learning: an Australian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine students’ reactions to formative (i.e. face to face, audio, wiki and live, email) feedback. This approach is used to improve students’ communication and critical-thinking skills and to encourage independent learning. This paper provides empirical evidence from 327 students

  11. Automated Detection of Essay Revising Patterns: Applications for Intelligent Feedback in a Writing Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Rod D.; Snow, Erica L.; Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system designed to support writing proficiency and strategy acquisition for adolescent writers. A fundamental aspect of the instructional model is automated formative feedback that provides concrete information and strategies oriented toward student improvement. In this paper, the authors explore…

  12. Technologies for learner-centered feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the number, type, and use of technologies to support learning increases, so do the opportunities for using these technologies for feedback. Learner-centered feedback is a core to the teaching-learning process. It is related to assessment in describing how learners perform in their learning, their gain in knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Feedback, types of feedback, guidelines for effective learner-centered feedback, and feedback’s relationship to assessment are presented. Methods of providing feedback, for example, automated, audio scribe pens, digital audio, etc., and the related technologies are described. Technologies that allow instructors to make informed decisions about the use of various methods for feedback are discussed.

  13. PEER FEEDBACK ON LANGUAGE FORM IN TELECOLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Ware

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed a two-phase, year-long research project that explored the impact of peer feedback on language development. We investigated specifically how and when post-secondary learners of English and Spanish provide corrective feedback on their partners' use of the target language in weekly asynchronous discussions by assigning them to one of two conditions: e-tutoring, in which students were asked to provide peer feedback on any linguistic form they perceived as incorrect; and e-partnering, in which students were not required to provide peer feedback but could do so on their own initiative. We examined the frequency and type of language use by coding the feedback for language-related episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1998 and for feedback strategies (Ros i Solé & Truman, 2005. The findings indicate that students in both conditions preferred an inclusion of feedback on form as part of their exchange, but such feedback only occurred when explicitly required in the e-tutoring condition. Pedagogical implications include the need to situate peer feedback on form within current models of telecollaboration and to assist students in using feedback strategies such as reformulations, which do not rely on a deep understanding of the target or native language grammar.

  14. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  15. Developing Sustainable Feedback Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David; Salter, Diane; Yang, Min; Lam, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and…

  16. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  17. Using Feedback to Promote Physical Activity: The Role of the Feedback Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kowatsch, Tobias

    2017-06-02

    Providing feedback is a technique to promote health behavior that is emphasized by behavior change theories. However, these theories make contradicting predictions regarding the effect of the feedback sign-that is, whether the feedback signals success or failure. Thus, it is unclear whether positive or negative feedback leads to more favorable behavior change in a health behavior intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the feedback sign in a health behavior change intervention. Data from participants (N=1623) of a 6-month physical activity intervention was used. Participants received a feedback email at the beginning of each month. Feedback was either positive or negative depending on the participants' physical activity in the previous month. In an exploratory analysis, change in monthly step count averages was used to evaluate the feedback effect. The feedback sign did not predict the change in monthly step count averages over the course of the intervention (b=-84.28, P=.28). Descriptive differences between positive and negative feedback can be explained by regression to the mean. The feedback sign might not influence the effect of monthly feedback emails sent out to participants of a large-scale physical activity intervention. However, randomized studies are needed to further support this conclusion. Limitations as well as opportunities for future research are discussed.

  18. Model depicting aspects of audit and feedback that impact physicians' acceptance of clinical performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L; Hysong, Sylvia J

    2016-07-13

    Audit and feedback (A&F) is a strategy that has been used in various disciplines for performance and quality improvement. There is limited research regarding medical professionals' acceptance of clinical-performance feedback and whether feedback impacts clinical practice. The objectives of our research were to (1) investigate aspects of A&F that impact physicians' acceptance of performance feedback; (2) determine actions physicians take when receiving feedback; and (3) determine if feedback impacts physicians' patient-management behavior. In this qualitative study, we employed grounded theory methods to perform a secondary analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 VA primary care physicians. We analyzed a subset of interview questions from the primary study, which aimed to determine how providers of high, low and moderately performing VA medical centers use performance feedback to maintain and improve quality of care, and determine perceived utility of performance feedback. Based on the themes emergent from our analysis and their observed relationships, we developed a model depicting aspects of the A&F process that impact feedback acceptance and physicians' patient-management behavior. The model is comprised of three core components - Reaction, Action and Impact - and depicts elements associated with feedback recipients' reaction to feedback, action taken when feedback is received, and physicians modifying their patient-management behavior. Feedback characteristics, the environment, external locus-of-control components, core values, emotion and the assessment process induce or deter reaction, action and impact. Feedback characteristics (content and timeliness), and the procedural justice of the assessment process (unjust penalties) impact feedback acceptance. External locus-of-control elements (financial incentives, competition), the environment (patient volume, time constraints) and emotion impact patient-management behavior. Receiving feedback generated

  19. Frequent feedback enhances complex motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, G; Shea, C H; Matschiner, S

    1998-06-01

    Feedback frequency effects on the learning of a complex motor skill, the production of slalom-type movements on a ski-simulator, were examined. In Experiment 1, a movement feature that characterizes expert performance was identified. Participants (N = 8) practiced the task for 6 days. Significant changes across practice were found for movement amplitude and relative force onset. Relative force onset is considered a measure of movement efficiency; relatively late force onsets characterize expert performance. In Experiment 2, different groups of participants (N = 27) were given concurrent feedback about force onset on either 100% or 50% of the practice trials; a control group was given no feedback. The following hypothesis was tested: Contrary to previous findings concerning relatively simple tasks, for the learning of a complex task such as the one used here, a high relative feedback frequency (100%) is more beneficial for learning than a reduced feedback frequency (50%). Participants practiced the task on 2 consecutive days and performed a retention test without feedback on Day 3. The 100% feedback group demonstrated later relative force onsets than the control group in retention; the 50% feedback group showed intermediate performance. The results provide support for the notion that high feedback frequencies are beneficial for the learning of complex motor skills, at least until a certain level of expertise is achieved. That finding suggests that there may be an interaction between task difficulty and feedback frequency similar to the interaction found in the summary-KR literature.

  20. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  1. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Sandro; DellaValle, Nives; Mittone, Luigi; Soraperra, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  2. Feedback and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2009-01-01

    use two pay schemes, a piece rate and a tournament. We find that overall feedback does not improve performance. In contrast to the piece-rate pay scheme there is some evidence of positive peer effects in tournaments since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay schemes and relative performance feedback policies on employee effort. We explore three feedback rules: no feedback on relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback. We...... behind, and front runners do not slack off. But in both pay schemes relative performance feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work; we refer to this as a "negative quality peer effect"....

  3. Audio Feedback to Physiotherapy Students for Viva Voce: How Effective Is "The Living Voice"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Wendy; Hollingworth, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Assessment and feedback remains one of the categories that students are least satisfied with within the United Kingdom National Student Survey. The Student Charter promotes the use of various formats of feedback to enhance student learning. This study evaluates the use of audio MP3 as an alternative feedback mechanism to written feedback for…

  4. Linear feedback controls the essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The design of control systems is at the very core of engineering. Feedback controls are ubiquitous, ranging from simple room thermostats to airplane engine control. Helping to make sense of this wide-ranging field, this book provides a new approach by keeping a tight focus on the essentials with a limited, yet consistent set of examples. Analysis and design methods are explained in terms of theory and practice. The book covers classical, linear feedback controls, and linear approximations are used when needed. In parallel, the book covers time-discrete (digital) control systems and juxtapos

  5. Does source matter? Nurses' and Physicians' perceptions of interprofessional feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Sandrijn M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Eva, Kevin W; Irby, David M; Regehr, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Receptiveness to interprofessional feedback, which is important for optimal collaboration, may be influenced by 'in-group or out-group' categorisation, as suggested by social identity theory. We used an experimental design to explore how nurses and resident physicians perceive feedback from people within and outside their own professional group. Paediatric residents and nurses participated in a simulation-based team exercise. Two nurses and two physicians wrote anonymous performance feedback for each participant. Participants each received a survey containing these feedback comments with prompts to rate (i) the usefulness (ii) the positivity and (iii) their agreement with each comment. Half of the participants received feedback labelled with the feedback provider's profession (two comments correctly labelled and two incorrectly labelled). Half received unlabelled feedback and were asked to guess the provider's profession. For each group, we performed separate three-way anovas on usefulness, positivity and agreement ratings to examine interactions between the recipient's profession, actual provider profession and perceived provider profession. Forty-five out of 50 participants completed the survey. There were no significant interactions between profession of the recipient and the actual profession of the feedback provider for any of the 3 variables. Among participants who guessed the source of the feedback, we found significant interactions between the profession of the feedback recipient and the guessed source of the feedback for both usefulness (F1,48 = 25.6; p feedback they guessed to be from nurses were higher than ratings of feedback they guessed to be from physicians, and vice versa. Among participants who received labelled feedback, we noted a similar interaction between the profession of the feedback recipient and labelled source of feedback for usefulness ratings (F1,92 = 4.72; p feedback to the in-group than to the out-group. This finding has potential

  6. INDIRECT WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK, REVISION, AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrective feedback, the necessity of providing it, and how it should be provided has been one of the hot topics in the area of ELT. Amid continuing controversies over whether providing feedback helps L2 learners improve their writing accuracy, many research studies have been undertaken to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of feedback. However, the difference between two types of indirect corrective feedback, namely indication and indication plus location, have not been properly examined yet. Motivated to narrow this gap, this study is designed to compare two groups of Iranian learners, each revising their papers based on one of the aforementioned options. For data analysis, a series of independent samples t tests were employed. The results revealed that the difference between the two groups in their reduction of errors from the original draft to the revision of each task followed a growing trend and became significant. Nonetheless, the difference in accuracy of new pieces of writing fell short of significance. Finally, it was found that error reduction in revision stage cannot be considered as learning. The results of the study, discussed in relation to that of others, implicate that the purpose for which feedback is provided is essential in determining the type of feedback; more explicit feedback is better for revising purposes while more implicit feedback is good for learning purposes.

  7. Optical feedback structures and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2014-11-18

    An optical resonator can include an optical feedback structure disposed on a substrate, and a composite including a matrix including a chromophore. The composite disposed on the substrate and in optical communication with the optical feedback structure. The chromophore can be a semiconductor nanocrystal. The resonator can provide laser emission when excited.

  8. Short Cycle Assessment: Improving Student Achievement through Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Susan; Stanley, Todd; Moore, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    This book shows you how to improve student achievement by providing them with frequent feedback on their work. It provides a step-by-step process to help you: (1) write good questions that assess student learning; (2) design your own formative assessments; (3) administer short-cycle assessments; (4) analyze and use data to shape instruction; and…

  9. Developing a Web-Based Developmental Feedback Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Developmental feedback programs provide an opportunity to improve leadership practices by giving leaders feedback about their performance from a number of sources, This thesis expanded on Capt Doug Patton's pilot study (2002...

  10. The Many Routes to AGN Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Morganti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy released by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN in the form of radiation, winds, or radio plasma jets, is known to impact on the surrounding interstellar medium. The result of these processes, known as AGN (negative feedback, is suggested to prevent gas, in and around galaxies, from cooling, and to remove, or at least redistribute, gas by driving massive and fast outflows, hence playing a key role in galaxy evolution. Given its importance, a large effort is devoted by the astronomical community to trace the effects of AGN on the surrounding gaseous medium and to quantify their impact for different types of AGN. This review briefly summarizes some of the recent observational results obtained in different wavebands, tracing different phases of the gas. I also summarize the new insights they have brought, and the constraints they provide to numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution. The recent addition of deep observations of cold gas and, in particular, of cold molecular gas, has brought some interesting surprises and has expanded our understanding of AGN and AGN feedback.

  11. Understanding constructive feedback: a commitment between teachers and students for academic and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Yasir; Mahmood, Sajid

    2010-03-01

    This review highlights the need in the Pakistani medical education system for teachers and students to be able to: define constructive feedback; provide constructive feedback; identify standards for constructive feedback; identify a suitable model for the provision of constructive feedback and evaluate the use of constructive feedback. For the purpose of literature review we had defined the key word glossary as: feedback, constructive feedback, teaching constructive feedback, models for feedback, models for constructive feedback and giving and receiving feedback. The data bases for the search include: Medline (EBSCO), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, TRIP, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, U.K. Pubmed Central, ZETOC, University of Dundee Library catalogue, SCIRUS (Elsevier) and Google Scholar. This article states that the Pakistani medical schools do not reflect on or use the benefits of the constructive feedback process. The discussion about constructive feedback suggests that in the context of Pakistan, constructive feedback will facilitate the teaching and learning activities.

  12. The impact of immediate or delayed feedback on driving behaviour in a simulated Pay-As-You-Drive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Lewis-Evans, Ben; Jelijs, Bart; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) insurance links an individual's driving behaviour to the insurance fee that they pay, making car insurance more actuarially accurate. The best known PAYD insurance format is purely mileage based and is estimated to reduce accidents by about 15% (Litman, 2011). However, these benefits could be further enhanced by incorporating a wider range of driving behaviours, such as lateral and longitudinal accelerations and speeding behaviour, thereby stimulating not only a safe but also an eco-friendly driving style. Currently, feedback on rewards and driver behaviour is mostly provided through a web-based interface, which is presented temporally separated from driving. However, providing immediate feedback within the vehicle itself could elicit more effect. To investigate this hypothesis, two groups of 20 participants drove with a behavioural based PAYD system in a driving simulator and were provided with either delayed feedback through a website, or immediate feedback through an in-car interface, allowing them to earn up to €6 extra. To be clear, every participant in the web group did actually view their feedback during the one week between sessions. Results indicate clear driving behaviour improvements for both PAYD groups as compared to baseline rides and an equal sized control group. After both PAYD groups had received feedback, the initial advantage of the in-car group was reduced substantially. Taken together with usability ratings and driving behaviours in specific situations these results show a moderate advantage of using immediate in-car feedback. However, the study also showed that under conditions of feedback certainty, the effectiveness of delayed feedback approaches that of immediate feedback as compared to a naïve control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stellar Feedback from Galactic Bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shikui; Wang, D. Q.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that feedback from galactic bulges can play an essential role in the halo gas dynamics and the evolution of their host galaxies by conducting a series of 1-D and 3-D simulations. In our 1-D models we approximately divide the the bulge stellar feedback into two phases: 1) a starbusrt-induced blastwave from the formation of bulge built up through frequent major mergers at high redshift and 2) a gradual feedback in forms of stellar wind and Type Ia SNe from low mass stars. Our simulations show that the combination of the two-phase feedback can heat the surrounding gas beyond the virial radius and stop further gas accretion, which naturally produces a baryon deficit around MW-like galaxies and explains the lack of large-scale X-ray halos, consistent with observations. The hot gas dynamics depends sensitively on the environment and bulge formation history. This dependency may account for the large dispersion in the X-ray luminosities of the galaxies with similar L_B. In the 3-D simulations, we examine the spatial, thermal, and chemical substructures and their effects on X-ray measurements. The sporadic SN explosion creates wealth of filamentary and shell-like structures in the hot gas and produces a broad lognormal-like emission-measure distribution, which enhances the X-ray emission at a low and high temperatures. The luminosity at 0.3-2.0 keV band is nearly tripled due to the gas structures. We find that the SN Ia ejecta are not well-mixed with the ambient medium within the bulge scale, and the X-ray emission is primarily from shocked stellar wind materials which in general has low metallicity.

  14. What molecular gas teaches us about AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    In galaxy evolution, "AGN feedback" (the action of an accreting supermassive black hole to heat and expel star-forming fuel) has been invoked in order to stunt the growth of the most massive red elliptical galaxies and rapidly cease star formation in a transitioning galaxy by blowing out the remaining star-forming fuel. Observations in the last 5 years have shown that outflows of gas around AGNs are ubiquitous. Although on the surface, these observed outflows appear to provide the necessary power to remove gas rapidly, their ubiquity also directly challenges their effectiveness. I will discuss my analysis of these observations of AGN outflow host galaxies at z=0, and what implications they have on how AGN outflows function in black hole growth, our interpretation of AGN feedback, and on the evolution of gas in AGN host galaxies.

  15. Contributions of the hippocampus to feedback learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Kathryn C; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2015-12-01

    Humans learn about the world in a variety of manners, including by observation, by associating cues in the environment, and via feedback. Across species, two brain structures have been predominantly involved in these learning processes: the hippocampus--supporting learning via observation and paired association--and the striatum--critical for feedback learning. This simple dichotomy, however, has recently been challenged by reports of hippocampal engagement in feedback learning, although the role of the hippocampus is not fully understood. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the hippocampal response during feedback learning by manipulating varying levels of memory interference. Consistent with prior reports, feedback learning recruited the striatum and midbrain. Notably, feedback learning also engaged the hippocampus. The level of activity in these regions was modulated by the degree of memory interference, such that the greatest activation occurred during the highest level of memory interference. Importantly, the accuracy of information learned via feedback correlated with hippocampal activation and was reduced by the presence of high memory interference. Taken together, these findings provide evidence of hippocampal involvement in feedback learning by demonstrating both its relevance for the accuracy of information learned via feedback and its susceptibility to interference.

  16. The Surface Warfare Community's 360-Degree Feedback Pilot Program: A Preliminary Analysis and Evaluation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, James M

    2005-01-01

    The system known as 360-degree feedback, also called multi-source or multi-rater feedback, is a development program that provides a recipient with feedback from supervisors, peers, and subordinates...

  17. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  18. Neural cryptography with feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido

    2004-04-01

    Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.

  19. Neural cryptography with feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido

    2004-04-01

    Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.

  20. Feedback in surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Boghdady, Michael; Alijani, Afshin

    2017-04-01

    The positive effect of feedback has long been recognized in surgical education. Surgical educators convey feedback to improve the performance of the surgical trainees. We aimed to review the scientific classification and application of feedback in surgical education, and to propose possible future directions for research. A literature search was performed using Pubmed, OVID, CINAHL, Web of science, EMBASE, ERIC database and Google Scholar. The following search terms were used: 'feedback', 'feedback in medical education', 'feedback in medical training' and 'feedback in surgery'. The search was limited to articles in English. From 1157 citations, 12 books and 43 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for this review. Feedback comes in a variety of types and is an essential tool for learning and developing performance in surgical education. Different methods of feedback application are evolving and future work needs to concentrate on the value of each method as well as the role of new technologies in surgical education. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  2. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  3. Feedback Loop Gains and Feedback Behavior (1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik

    2012-01-01

    Linking feedback loops and system behavior is part of the foundation of system dynamics, yet the lack of formal tools has so far prevented a systematic application of the concept, except for very simple systems. Having such tools at their disposal would be a great help to analysts in understanding...... large, complicated simulation models. The paper applies tools from graph theory formally linking individual feedback loop strengths to the system eigenvalues. The significance of a link or a loop gain and an eigenvalue can be expressed in the eigenvalue elasticity, i.e., the relative change...... of an eigenvalue resulting from a relative change in the gain. The elasticities of individual links and loops may be found through simple matrix operations on the linearized system. Even though the number of feedback loops can grow rapidly with system size, reaching astronomical proportions even for modest systems...

  4. Effective Instructor Feedback: Perceptions of Online Graduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Getzlaf

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explored online graduate students' perceptions of effective instructor feedback. The objectives of the study were to determine the students’ perceptions of the content of effective instructor feedback (“what should be included in effective feedback?” and the process of effective instructor feedback (“how should effective feedback be provided?”. The participants were students completing health-related graduate courses offered exclusively online. Data were collected via a survey that included open ended questions inviting participants to share their perspectives regarding effective online instructor feedback. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: student involvement/individualization, gentle guidance, being positively constructive, timeliness and future orientation. We conclude that effective instructor feedback has positive outcomes for the students. Future studies are warranted to investigate strategies to make feedback a mutual process between instructor and student that supports an effective feedback cycle.

  5. Who Is Giving Feedback To Whom In Entrepreneurship Education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle Elmholdt, Stine; Warhuus, Jan; Blenker, Per

    feedback, feedback, feed-forward and reflective feedback) (Evans, 2013) is used to understand the feedback mechanisms that may be used in entrepreneurship “through” courses. These different kinds of feedback mechanisms are positioned in the suggested two-by-two model to discuss how different kinds......The question we care about (objectives):When entrepreneurship is taught through the process of practicing entrepreneurship and based on experiential learning, a need arises for different forms of assessment, evaluation, and feedback procedures than those applied to traditional forms of higher...... evaluate and provide feedback on, with regard to both the teaching and the learning that takes place in these types of courses. We therefore ask: Who is giving feedback to whom in entrepreneurship education - and for what purpose?The intent of the paper is to develop and explore the system of feedback...

  6. Mobile Voting Systems for Creating Collaboration Environments and Getting Immediate Feedback: A New Curriculum Model of a University Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Svetlana; Talmo, Tord

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices can enhance learning and teaching by providing instant feedback and better diagnosis of learning problems, helping design new assessment models, enhancing learner autonomy and creating new formats of enquiry-based activities. The objective of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of mobile voting tools. The authors'…

  7. How we give personalised audio feedback after summative OSCEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher J; Molyneux, Adrian J; Blackwell, Sara; Wass, Valerie J

    2015-04-01

    Students often receive little feedback after summative objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to enable them to improve their performance. Electronic audio feedback has shown promise in other educational areas. We investigated the feasibility of electronic audio feedback in OSCEs. An electronic OSCE system was designed, comprising (1) an application for iPads allowing examiners to mark in the key consultation skill domains, provide "tick-box" feedback identifying strengths and difficulties, and record voice feedback; (2) a feedback website giving students the opportunity to view/listen in multiple ways to the feedback. Acceptability of the audio feedback was investigated, using focus groups with students and questionnaires with both examiners and students. 87 (95%) students accessed the examiners' audio comments; 83 (90%) found the comments useful and 63 (68%) reported changing the way they perform a skill as a result of the audio feedback. They valued its highly personalised, relevant nature and found it much more useful than written feedback. Eighty-nine per cent of examiners gave audio feedback to all students on their stations. Although many found the method easy, lack of time was a factor. Electronic audio feedback provides timely, personalised feedback to students after a summative OSCE provided enough time is allocated to the process.

  8. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships: does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-04-05

    Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on power distance. This study was conducted to validate the influence of five feedback characteristics on students' perceived learning value of feedback in an Indonesian clerkship context. We asked clerks in Neurology (n = 169) and Internal Medicine (n = 132) to assess on a 5-point Likert scale the learning value of the feedback they received. We asked them to record whether the feedback provider (1) informed the student what went well, (2) mentioned which aspects of performance needed improvement, (3) compared the student's performance to a standard, (4) further explained or demonstrated the correct performance, and (5) prepared an action plan with the student to improve performance. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression. A total of 250 students participated in this study, 131 from Internal Medicine (response rate 99%) and 119 from Neurology (response rate 70%). Of these participants, 225 respondents (44% males, 56% females) completed the form and reported 889 feedback moments. Students perceived feedback as more valuable when the feedback provider mentioned their weaknesses (β = 0.153, p learning value of feedback. No gender differences were found for perceived learning value. In Indonesia, we could validate four out of the five characteristics for effective feedback. We argue that our findings relate to culture, in particular to the levels of individualism and power distance. The recognized characteristics of what constitutes effective feedback should be validated across cultures.

  9. Real-time feedback on nonverbal clinical communication. Theoretical framework and clinician acceptance of ambient visual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, A L; Patel, R A; Czerwinski, M; Pratt, W; Roseway, A; Chandrasekaran, N; Back, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Effective nonverbal communication between patients and clinicians fosters both the delivery of empathic patient-centered care and positive patient outcomes. Although nonverbal skill training is a recognized need, few efforts to enhance patient-clinician communication provide visual feedback on nonverbal aspects of the clinical encounter. We describe a novel approach that uses social signal processing technology (SSP) to capture nonverbal cues in real time and to display ambient visual feedback on control and affiliation--two primary, yet distinct dimensions of interpersonal nonverbal communication. To examine the design and clinician acceptance of ambient visual feedback on nonverbal communication, we 1) formulated a model of relational communication to ground SSP and 2) conducted a formative user study using mixed methods to explore the design of visual feedback. Based on a model of relational communication, we reviewed interpersonal communication research to map nonverbal cues to signals of affiliation and control evidenced in patient-clinician interaction. Corresponding with our formulation of this theoretical framework, we designed ambient real-time visualizations that reflect variations of affiliation and control. To explore clinicians' acceptance of this visual feedback, we conducted a lab study using the Wizard-of-Oz technique to simulate system use with 16 healthcare professionals. We followed up with seven of those participants through interviews to iterate on the design with a revised visualization that addressed emergent design considerations. Ambient visual feedback on non- verbal communication provides a theoretically grounded and acceptable way to provide clinicians with awareness of their nonverbal communication style. We provide implications for the design of such visual feedback that encourages empathic patient

  10. Feedback in Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Vivian

    In this paper, two theoretical approaches to language teaching, the audio-lingual and the cognitive code methods, are examined with respect to how they deal with feedback in the classroom situation. Audio-lingual theorists either ignore completely the need for feedback in the classroom or deal with it only in terms of its reinforcing attributes.…

  11. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out that there...

  12. Feedback og interpersonel kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Som interpersonel kommunikationsform handler feedback om at observere, mærke og italesætte det, som handler om relationen mellem samtaleparterne mere end om samtaleemnet. Her er fokus på, hvad der siges og hvordan der kommunikeres sammen. Feedback er her ikke en korrigerende tilbagemelding til...

  13. A Broader Theoretical Model for Feedback in Ambulatory Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. Scott; Francovich, Chris; Gieselman, Janet; Servis, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Ask faculty if they provide feedback and they will likely reply "Sure, it's important, I do it all the time". Ask medical students if they receive feedback and they may say, "We hardly ever get it". Ask most residents if they receive feedback and you get "Rarely, but it's not that helpful anyway". How is it that these perceptions are so strikingly different? Can they be talking about the same thing? If we wish to improve the educational value of feedback, we must understand these differences. One useful clue is provided by the adage "do as I say, not as I do". This saying suggests that there are two types of feedback: that which we can measure against a standard and describe (traditional feedback), and that which comes from being immersed in real situations (situated feedback). This dichotomy is a useful construct from which to understand feedback.

  14. Feedback stabilization of semilinear heat equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the internal and boundary stabilization of the steady-state solutions to quasilinear heat equations via internal linear feedback controllers provided by an LQ control problem associated with the linearized equation.

  15. Final report, Feedback limitations of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Thomas D.

    1999-07-22

    Final report of research on carbon metabolism of photosynthesis. The feedback from carbon metabolism to primary photosynthetic processes is summarized, and a comprehensive list of published scientific papers is provided.

  16. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Kyoung eWoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  17. Preface: Multiscale feedbacks in ecogeomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Joseph M.; Gibbins, Chris; Wainwright, John; Larsen, Laurel G.; McElroy, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Geomorphic systems are known to exhibit nonlinear responses to physical–biological feedbacks (Thornes, 1985; Baas, 2002; Reinhardt et al., 2010). These responses make understanding and/or predicting system response to change highly challenging. With growing concerns over ecosystem health, a pressing need exists for research that tries to elucidate these feedbacks (Jerolmack, 2008; Darby, 2010; National Research Council, 2010). A session was convened at the Fall 2008 meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) to provide an outlet for some of this truly interdisciplinary and original research, which is central to understanding geomorphic and ecological dynamics. The session attracted over 39 contributions, which were divided into two well-attended oral sessions and a very busy poster session. This special issue presents new research from the AGU session, which highlights clear physical–biological feedbacks. The aim is to bring together contrasting perspectives on biological and geomorphic feedbacks in a diversity of physiographic settings, ranging from wetlands and estuaries, through rivers, to uplands. These papers highlight biological and physical feedbacks which involve the modulation or amplification of geomorphic processes. These papers will be of interest to a core geomorphology audience, and should also draw attention from the fields of ecohydraulics, hydroecology, ecohydrology, ecomorphology, biogeochemistry and biogeography, and biogeomorphology as well as the more traditional fields of hydrology, ecology and biology. In this preface to the special issue, we a) review past contributions to the emerging field of ecogeomorphology and related disciplines, b) provide some context for how this topical special issue came to fruition, and c) summarize the contributions to this special issue.

  18. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide new insights into the regulation mechanism of low-temperature-induced leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chang Wei; Wei, Yan Ping; Xiao, Dong; Gao, Li Wei; Lyu, Shan Wu; Hou, Xi Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese cabbage, leafy head-related traits are directly related to the cabbage yield and marketability, which are often primarily concerned target for breeders. Although intensive studies has been on head formation in Chinese cabbage in the past decade, very scanty information is available on

  19. Feedback i matematik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Feedback bliver i litteraturen igen og igen fremhævet som et af de mest effektive midler til at fremme elevers præstationer i skolen (Hartberg, Dobson, & Gran, 2012; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Wiliam, 2015). Dette på trods af, at flere forskere påpeger, at feedback ikke altid er læringsfremmende...... (Hattie & Gan, 2011), og nogle endda viser, at feedback kan have en negativ virkning i forhold til præstationer (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). Artiklen vil undersøge disse tilsyneladende modstridende resultater ved at stille spørgsmålet: Under hvilke forudsætninger virker feedback i matematik læringsfremmende......? Dette gøres ved at dykke ned i forskningslitteraturen omhandlende feedback ud fra en række temaer for på den måde at besvare ovenstående spørgsmål....

  20. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  1. Design of feedback in interactive multimedia language learning environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turel, Vehbi

    2012-01-01

    ...: 73, 82; Fleta et al. 1999: 52). The implication of this is that not only should feedback be provided in interactive multimedia language learning environments, but the feedback should also pedagogically be appropriate for the targeted learners and objectives. Feedback, which is a reaction or response that is usually triggered and received by LLs a...

  2. A Content Analysis of Peer Feedback in Triadic Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, Janeé R.; Wahesh, Edward; Purgason, Lucy L.; Borders, L. DiAnne; Mobley, A. Keith

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the types of peer feedback exchanged during triadic supervision. Through a content analysis, the authors found that students provided feedback about counseling performance and cognitive counseling skills most often in supervision sessions. However, there were differences in the types of feedback exchanged across three…

  3. Academic Writing and Grammatical Accuracy: The Role of Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Gordani, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Investigations into the effect of providing corrective feedback on L2 writing have often produced contradictory results. This study, following a line of research concerned with the role of corrective feedback in writing, contributes to this line of research by analyzing different feedback types in an EFL academic writing context. 45 graduate…

  4. Peer Feedback in Second Language Writing (2005-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews research on peer feedback in second language (L2) writing published in the last decade (i.e. 2005-2014). We analyse first the theoretical underpinnings that have informed both peer feedback research and the pedagogical use of peer feedback in L2 writing instruction. We also provide a critical interpretation of existing peer…

  5. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning: Current Practices in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…

  6. Probabilistic models for feedback systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Boggs, Paul T.

    2011-02-01

    In previous work, we developed a Bayesian-based methodology to analyze the reliability of hierarchical systems. The output of the procedure is a statistical distribution of the reliability, thus allowing many questions to be answered. The principal advantage of the approach is that along with an estimate of the reliability, we also can provide statements of confidence in the results. The model is quite general in that it allows general representations of all of the distributions involved, it incorporates prior knowledge into the models, it allows errors in the 'engineered' nodes of a system to be determined by the data, and leads to the ability to determine optimal testing strategies. In this report, we provide the preliminary steps necessary to extend this approach to systems with feedback. Feedback is an essential component of 'complexity' and provides interesting challenges in modeling the time-dependent action of a feedback loop. We provide a mechanism for doing this and analyze a simple case. We then consider some extensions to more interesting examples with local control affecting the entire system. Finally, a discussion of the status of the research is also included.

  7. Feedback som tredjeordensiagttagelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Qvortrup

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Feedback tilskrives stor betydning for læring, men trods intensiv forskning på området synes det svært at fange, hvori feedbacks særlige potentiale består. I forsøgene på at gøre dette knyttes an til en række faktorer eller parametre, der fremhæves som centrale. En af disse faktorer er tid, hvor der kredses om forskellen mellem umiddelbar og forsinket feedback samt om fordele og ulemper ved hver af de to. I denne artikel knyttes der an til en forståelse af feedback som tredjeordensiagttagelse, og der sættes herfra fokus på, hvordan man i en praktisk undervisningssituation kan imødekomme tidsfaktoren knyttet til feedback. Med udgangspunkt i et undervisningsforløb på bachelorniveau, hvor der er arbejdet systematisk med feedback understøttet af Wikis, belyses det, hvordan et sådant arbejde synes at have potentiale for understøttelse af såvel læring som undervisning. En sådan teoretisk reflekteret belysning kan udgøre et refleksionsprogram for fremtidig planlægning af og løbende refleksion over undervisning.     The article investigates the effect of feedback on learning. Feedback has been shown to be one of the most powerful influences on achievement in education. But, in spite of much research on the matter, there is no agreement on how the special potential of feedback can be described, and consequently no agreement on what is good and bad feedback. This article sets out to rectify this omission by seeking a new theoretical framework that is sensitive to the complexity of the impact of feedback. The author propose a system theoretical frame and through its use identifies significant didactical issues. Although feedback is described as an internal, system-relative construction, when seen through a system theoretical lens different teaching environments create diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of the paper explores this idea in relation to wikis.

  8. Are They Using My Feedback? The Extent of Students' Feedback Use Has a Large Impact on Subsequent Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardi, Kirsten; Colthorpe, Kay; Dekker, Andrew; Engstrom, Craig; Bugarcic, Andrea; Worthy, Peter; Victor, Ruban; Chunduri, Prasad; Lluka, Lesley; Long, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Feedback is known to have a large influence on student learning gains, and the emergence of online tools has greatly enhanced the opportunity for delivering timely, expressive, digital feedback and for investigating its learning impacts. However, to date there have been no large quantitative investigations of the feedback provided by large teams…

  9. Assessing feedback in a mobile videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player feedback is an important part of serious games, although there is no consensus regarding its delivery or optimal content. "Mommio" is a serious game designed to help mothers motivate their preschoolers to eat vegetables. The purpose of this study was to assess optimal format and content of pl...

  10. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Provides insight into the Key Proteins as Possible Targets Involved in Aspirin Inhibiting Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus xylosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Geng Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus xylosus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infection in humans and cow mastitis. And S. xylosus possesses a strong ability to form biofilms in vitro. As biofilm formation facilitates resistance to antimicrobial agents, the discovery of new medicinal properties for classic drugs is highly desired. Aspirin, which is the most common active component of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds, affects the biofilm-forming capacity of various bacterial species. We have found that aspirin effectively inhibits biofilm formation of S. xylosus by Crystal violet (CV staining and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The present study sought to elucidate possible targets of aspirin in suppressing S. xylosus biofilm formation. Based on an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ fold-change of >1.2 or <0.8 (P-value < 0.05, 178 differentially expressed proteins, 111 down-regulated and 67 up-regulated, were identified after application of aspirin to cells at a 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration. Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment in metabolic processes for the majority of the differentially expressed proteins. We then used the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway database to analyze a large number of differentially expressed proteins and identified genes involved in biosynthesis of amino acids pathway, carbon metabolism (pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways, tricarboxylic acid cycle and nitrogen metabolism (histidine metabolism. These novel proteins represent candidate targets in aspirin-mediated inhibition of S. xylosus biofilm formation at sub-MIC levels. The findings lay the foundation for further studies to identify potential aspirin targets.

  11. Quantitative relationships between huntingtin levels, polyglutamine length, inclusion body formation, and neuronal death provide novel insight into Huntington’s disease molecular pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason; Arrasate, Montserrat; Shaby, Benjamin A.; Mitra, Siddhartha; Masliah, Eliezer; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    An expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch in the protein huntingtin (htt) induces self-aggregation into inclusion bodies (IBs) and causes Huntington’s disease (HD). Defining precise relationships between early observable variables and neuronal death at the molecular and cellular levels should improve our understanding of HD pathogenesis. Here, we utilized an automated microscope that can track thousands of neurons individually over their entire lifetime to quantify interconnected relationships between early variables, such as htt levels, polyQ length, and IB formation, and neuronal death in a primary striatal model of HD. The resulting model revealed that: mutant htt increases the risk of death by tonically interfering with homeostatic coping mechanisms rather than producing accumulated damage to the neuron; htt toxicity is saturable; the rate limiting steps for inclusion body formation and death can be traced to different conformational changes in monomeric htt; and IB formation reduces the impact of a neuron’s starting levels of htt on its risk of death. Finally, the model that emerges from our quantitative measurements places critical limits on the potential mechanisms by which mutant htt might induce neurodegeneration, which should help direct future research. PMID:20685997

  12. Computer-supported feedback message tailoring: theory-informed adaptation of clinical audit and feedback for learning and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Lewis, Zach; Brehaut, Jamie C; Hochheiser, Harry; Douglas, Gerald P; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-01-21

    Evidence shows that clinical audit and feedback can significantly improve compliance with desired practice, but it is unclear when and how it is effective. Audit and feedback is likely to be more effective when feedback messages can influence barriers to behavior change, but barriers to change differ across individual health-care providers, stemming from differences in providers' individual characteristics. The purpose of this article is to invite debate and direct research attention towards a novel audit and feedback component that could enable interventions to adapt to barriers to behavior change for individual health-care providers: computer-supported tailoring of feedback messages. We argue that, by leveraging available clinical data, theory-informed knowledge about behavior change, and the knowledge of clinical supervisors or peers who deliver feedback messages, a software application that supports feedback message tailoring could improve feedback message relevance for barriers to behavior change, thereby increasing the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions. We describe a prototype system that supports the provision of tailored feedback messages by generating a menu of graphical and textual messages with associated descriptions of targeted barriers to behavior change. Supervisors could use the menu to select messages based on their awareness of each feedback recipient's specific barriers to behavior change. We anticipate that such a system, if designed appropriately, could guide supervisors towards giving more effective feedback for health-care providers. A foundation of evidence and knowledge in related health research domains supports the development of feedback message tailoring systems for clinical audit and feedback. Creating and evaluating computer-supported feedback tailoring tools is a promising approach to improving the effectiveness of clinical audit and feedback.

  13. Receptivity to Learner-Driven Feedback in EAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Clare

    2017-01-01

    There is still debate surrounding what constitutes the most effective feedback on EFL learners' writing, particularly in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) settings. Unanswered questions are found in the literature on topics such as the best formats for feedback, the role of technology, authors' authority over written texts, and ways of helping…

  14. The Use of Freshmen Seminar Programs to Deliver Personalized Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of delivering personalized feedback to first-semester college freshmen in a group lecture format. Participants enrolled in semester-long courses were randomly assigned to receive either personalized feedback or general information about alcohol. Both lecture conditions were delivered during a standard…

  15. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Casal

    Full Text Available Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  16. Feedback and Incentives:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedba...... of positive peer effects since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly behind, and frontrunners do not slack off. Moreover, in both pay schemes information feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work.......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback....... The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner-takes-all tournament. We find that, regardless of the pay scheme used, feedback does not improve performance. There are no significant peer effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In contrast, in the tournament scheme we find some evidence...

  17. Feedback - fra et elevperspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Benedikte Vilslev; Pedersen, Bent Sortkær

    Feedback bliver i litteraturen igen og igen fremhævet som et af de mest effektive midler til at fremme elevers præstationer i skolen (Hattie og Timperley, 2007). Andre studier er dog inde på at feedback ikke altid er læringsfremmende og nogle viser endda at feedback kan have en negativ virkning i...... forhold til præstationer (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). I forsøget på at forklare hvordan og hvorfor feedback virker (forskelligt), er der undersøgt flere dimensioner og forhold omkring feedback (se bl.a. Black og Wiliam, 1998; Hattie og Timperley, 2007; Shute, 2008). Dog er der få studier der undersøger...... hvordan feedback opleves fra et elevperspektiv (Ruiz-Primo og Li, 2013). Samtidig er der i feedbacklitteraturen en mangel på kvalitative studier, der kommer tæt på fænomenet feedback, som det viser sig i klasserummet (Ruiz-Primo og Li, 2013) i naturlige omgivelser (Black og Wiliam, 1998), og hvordan...

  18. Fear of feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Jay M; Strober, Myra H

    2003-04-01

    Nobody likes performance reviews. Subordinates are terrified they'll hear nothing but criticism. Bosses think their direct reports will respond to even the mildest criticism with anger or tears. The result? Everyone keeps quiet. That's unfortunate, because most people need help figuring out how to improve their performance and advance their careers. This fear of feedback doesn't come into play just during annual reviews. At least half the executives with whom the authors have worked never ask for feedback. Many expect the worst: heated arguments, even threats of dismissal. So rather than seek feedback, people try to guess what their bosses are thinking. Fears and assumptions about feedback often manifest themselves in psychologically maladaptive behaviors such as procrastination, denial, brooding, jealousy, and self-sabotage. But there's hope, say the authors. Those who learn adaptive techniques can free themselves from destructive responses. They'll be able to deal with feedback better if they acknowledge negative emotions, reframe fear and criticism constructively, develop realistic goals, create support systems, and reward themselves for achievements along the way. Once you've begun to alter your maladaptive behaviors, you can begin seeking regular feedback from your boss. The authors take you through four steps for doing just that: self-assessment, external assessment, absorbing the feedback, and taking action toward change. Organizations profit when employees ask for feedback and deal well with criticism. Once people begin to know how they are doing relative to management's priorities, their work becomes better aligned with organizational goals. What's more, they begin to transform a feedback-averse environment into a more honest and open one, in turn improving performance throughout the organization.

  19. Useful but Different: Resident Physician Perceptions of Interprofessional Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Travis P; O'Brien, Bridget C; Henry, Duncan M; van Schaik, Sandrijn M

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenon: Based on recently formulated interprofessional core competencies, physicians are expected to incorporate feedback from other healthcare professionals. Based on social identity theory, physicians likely differentiate between feedback from members of their own profession and others. The current study examined residents' experiences with, and perceptions of, interprofessional feedback. In 2013, Anesthesia, Obstetrics-Gynecology, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry residents completed a survey including questions about frequency of feedback from different professionals and its perceived value (5-point scale). The authors performed an analysis of variance to examine interactions between residency program and profession of feedback provider. They conducted follow-up interviews with a subset of residents to explore reasons for residents' survey ratings. Fifty-two percent (131/254) of residents completed the survey, and 15 participated in interviews. Eighty percent of residents reported receiving written feedback from physicians, 26% from nurses, and less than 10% from other professions. There was a significant interaction between residency program and feedback provider profession, F(21, 847) = 3.82, p feedback provider profession, F(7, 847) = 73.7, p feedback from attending physicians higher than feedback from others, and anesthesia residents rated feedback from other professionals significantly lower than other residents. Ten major themes arose from qualitative data analysis, which revealed an overall positive attitude toward interprofessional feedback and clarified reasons behind residents' perceptions and identified barriers. Insights: Residents in our study reported limited exposure to interprofessional feedback and valued such feedback less than intraprofessional feedback. However, our data suggest opportunities exist for effective utilization of interprofessional feedback.

  20. Developing classroom formative assessment in dutch primary mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Harskamp, E.G.; Suhre, C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Dutch primary school students scored below expectation in international mathematics tests. An explanation for this may be that teachers fail to adequately assess their students’ understanding of learning goals and provide timely feedback. To improve the teachers’ formative

  1. Developing Classroom Formative Assessment in Dutch Primary Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, M.; Harskamp, E. G.; Suhre, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Dutch primary school students scored below expectation in international mathematics tests. An explanation for this may be that teachers fail to adequately assess their students' understanding of learning goals and provide timely feedback. To improve the teachers' formative assessment practice, researchers, curriculum…

  2. EFFECTS OF THREE FEEDBACK CONDITIONS ON AEROBIC SWIM SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez Soriano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to develop an underwater chronometer capable to provide feedback while the athlete is swimming, as well as being a control tool for the coach, and (b to analyse its feedback effect on swim pace control compared with feedback provided by the coach and with no feedback, in 25 m and 50 m swimming pools. 30 male swimmers of national level volunteer to participate. Each swimmer swam 3 x 200 m at aerobic speed (AS and 3 x 200 m just under the anaerobic threshold speed (AnS, each swam repetition with a different feedback condition: chronometer, coach and without feedback. Results (a validate the chronometer system developed and (b show that swimmers pace control is affected by the type of feedback provided, the swim speed elected and the size of the swimming pool

  3. Clarifying students' feedback-seeking behaviour in clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Harold G J; Teunissen, Pim W; Spruijt, Annemarie; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-03-01

    Why and how do students seek feedback on their performance in the clinical workplace and which factors influence this? These questions have remained largely unanswered in research into workplace learning during clinical clerkships. Research on feedback has focused mainly on feedback providers. Whether and how feedback recipients actively seek feedback are under-examined issues. Research in organisational psychology has proposed a mechanism whereby feedback seeking is influenced by motives and goal orientation mediated by the perceived costs and benefits of feedback. Building on a recently published model of resident doctors' feedback-seeking behaviour, we conducted a qualitative study to explore students' feedback-seeking behaviours in the clinical workplace. Between April and June 2011, we conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with veterinary medicine students in Years 5 and 6 about their feedback-seeking behaviour during clinical clerkships. In the interviews, 14 students were asked about their goals and motives for seeking feedback, the characteristics of their feedback-seeking behaviour and factors influencing that behaviour. Using template analysis, we coded the interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed the data until agreement on the final template was reached. The students described personal and interpersonal factors to explain their reasons for seeking feedback. The factors related to intentions and the characteristics of the feedback provider, and the relationship between the feedback seeker and provider. Motives relating to image and ego, particularly when students thought that feedback might have a positive effect on image and ego, influenced feedback-seeking behaviour and could induce specific behaviours related to students' orientation towards particular sources of feedback, their orientation towards particular topics for and timing of feedback, and the frequency and method of feedback-seeking behaviour. This study shows

  4. Ultramassive black hole feedback in compact galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations confirm the existence of ultra-massive black holes (UMBH) in the nuclei of compact galaxies, with physical properties similar to NGC 1277. The nature of these objects poses a new puzzle to the `black hole-host galaxy co-evolution' scenario. We discuss the potential link between UMBH and galaxy compactness, possibly connected via extreme active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback at early times ($z > 2$). In our picture, AGN feedback is driven by radiation pressure on dust. We suggest that early UMBH feedback blows away all the gas beyond a $\\sim$kpc or so, while triggering star formation at inner radii, eventually leaving a compact galaxy remnant. Such extreme UMBH feedback can also affect the surrounding environment on larger scales, e.g. the outflowing stars may form a diffuse stellar halo around the compact galaxy, or even escape into the intergalactic or intracluster medium. On the other hand, less massive black holes will drive less powerful feedback, such that the stars formed within the AGN feedback-driven outflow remain bound to the host galaxy, and contribute to its size growth over cosmic time.

  5. Generalized fast feedback system in the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; Rouse, F.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1991-11-01

    A generalized fast feedback system has been developed to stabilize beams at various locations in the SLC. The system is designed to perform measurements and change actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle and energy on a pulse to pulse basis. The software design is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. The system is database-driven, facilitating the addition of new loops without requiring additional software. A communications system, KISNet, provides fast communications links between microprocessors for feedback loops which involve multiple micros. Feedback loops have been installed in seventeen locations throughout the SLC and have proven to be invaluable in stabilizing the machine.

  6. Audit and feedback and clinical practice guideline adherence: making feedback actionable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2006-04-28

    As a strategy for improving clinical practice guideline (CPG) adherence, audit and feedback (A&F) has been found to be variably effective, yet A&F research has not investigated the impact of feedback characteristics on its effectiveness. This paper explores how high performing facilities (HPF) and low performing facilities (LPF) differ in the way they use clinical audit data for feedback purposes. Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low adherence to six CPGs, as measured by external chart review audits. One-hundred and two employees involved with outpatient CPG implementation across the six facilities participated in one-hour semi-structured interviews where they discussed strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementing CPGs. Interviews were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory method. High performers provided timely, individualized, non-punitive feedback to providers, whereas low performers were more variable in their timeliness and non-punitiveness and relied on more standardized, facility-level reports. The concept of actionable feedback emerged as the core category from the data, around which timeliness, individualization, non-punitiveness, and customizability can be hierarchically ordered. Facilities with a successful record of guideline adherence tend to deliver more timely, individualized and non-punitive feedback to providers about their adherence than facilities with a poor record of guideline adherence. Consistent with findings from organizational research, feedback intervention characteristics may influence the feedback's effectiveness at changing desired behaviors.

  7. Pyff - a pythonic framework for feedback applications and stimulus presentation in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venthur, Bastian; Scholler, Simon; Williamson, John; Dähne, Sven; Treder, Matthias S; Kramarek, Maria T; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces Pyff, the Pythonic feedback framework for feedback applications and stimulus presentation. Pyff provides a platform-independent framework that allows users to develop and run neuroscientific experiments in the programming language Python. Existing solutions have mostly been implemented in C++, which makes for a rather tedious programming task for non-computer-scientists, or in Matlab, which is not well suited for more advanced visual or auditory applications. Pyff was designed to make experimental paradigms (i.e., feedback and stimulus applications) easily programmable. It includes base classes for various types of common feedbacks and stimuli as well as useful libraries for external hardware such as eyetrackers. Pyff is also equipped with a steadily growing set of ready-to-use feedbacks and stimuli. It can be used as a standalone application, for instance providing stimulus presentation in psychophysics experiments, or within a closed loop such as in biofeedback or brain-computer interfacing experiments. Pyff communicates with other systems via a standardized communication protocol and is therefore suitable to be used with any system that may be adapted to send its data in the specified format. Having such a general, open-source framework will help foster a fruitful exchange of experimental paradigms between research groups. In particular, it will decrease the need of reprogramming standard paradigms, ease the reproducibility of published results, and naturally entail some standardization of stimulus presentation.

  8. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  9. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback web application allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program...

  10. Feedback control of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then

  11. Control Analysis and Feedback Techniques for Multi Agent Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salman; Karsiti, Mohd Noh; Robert N. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a simulation framework based on the kinematic model for the multi agent robots using the leader-follower formation was presented. The design of feedback controllers for leader-follower formation using feedback linearization techniques was also presented. The follower robots derived their inputs based on the control inputs sent by the leader robot. The leader robot transmitted its control inputs to the follower using the Bluetooth piconet profile. The posture stabilization contr...

  12. Utilising feedback from patients and their families as a learning strategy in a Foundation Degree in palliative and supportive care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Laura M; Dixon, Rachael E; Faull, Christina M

    2014-03-01

    In the UK, support workers provide much of the care that palliative care patients receive, and a novel Foundation Degree was developed to enhance their skills. Feedback on performance is a recognised educational tool that reinforces good practice, and gives insight into areas of weakness, but its use with this workforce has not been described. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore tutor and support workers' experiences of seeking and receiving feedback from patients and their families; focusing on its values and challenges. Support workers enrolled onto the Foundation Degree in Palliative and Supportive Care, were asked to seek feedback from patients and/or their families about the care that they provided using a 'My Experience' questionnaire. Forms were returned anonymously to the course tutor who discussed results with the student as a formative education strategy. The students' experience of this was explored in focus group interviews at three time points. Two tutors' experiences were similarly explored. Results were analysed thematically. Students enjoyed receiving feedback. Positive feedback helped to increase confidence, and negative feedback allowed students to look critically at their practice and identify areas of weakness. Some experienced challenges in approaching patients/families due to having a small number of suitable patients/families; a reluctance to burden patients; high patient turnover and brevity of care relationships. The tutors enjoyed delivering feedback, recognising its benefits as an educational strategy. Some concern was expressed about how to balance delivering negative feedback while continuing to provide tutorial support throughout the Foundation Degree. User feedback is considered a key formative educational strategy. Its use in health and social support workers is not established. The experiences of students and tutors in this Foundation Degree demonstrate some of the benefits and challenges of this as an educational

  13. Adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand improves performance when online visual feedback is disturbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Eitan; Portnoy, Sigal; Friedman, Jason

    2018-01-17

    We investigated whether adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand, when visual feedback is disturbed, can improve performance during a functional test. For this purpose, able-bodied subjects, activating a myoelectric-controlled hand attached to their right hand performed the modified Box & Blocks test, grasping and manipulating wooden blocks over a partition. This was performed in 3 conditions, using a repeated-measures design: in full light, in a dark room where visual feedback was disturbed and no auditory feedback - one time with the addition of tactile feedback provided during object grasping and manipulation, and one time without any tactile feedback. The average time needed to transfer one block was measured, and an infrared camera was used to give information on the number of grasping errors during performance of the test. Our results show that when vibrotactile feedback was provided, performance time was reduced significantly, compared with when no vibrotactile feedback was available. Furthermore, the accuracy of grasping and manipulation was improved, reflected by significantly fewer errors during test performance. In conclusion, adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand has positive effects on functional performance when visual feedback is disturbed. This may have applications to current myoelectric-controlled hands, as adding tactile feedback may help prosthesis users to improve their functional ability during daily life activities in different environments, particularly when limited visual feedback is available or desirable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PEP-II RF feedback system simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tighe, R. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A model containing the fundamental impedance of the PEP-II cavity along with the longitudinal beam dynamics and RF feedback system components is in use. It is prepared in a format allowing time-domain as well as frequency-domain analysis and full graphics capability. Matlab and Simulink are control system design and analysis programs (widely available) with many built-in tools. The model allows the use of compiled C-code modules for compute intensive portions. We desire to represent as nearly as possible the components of the feedback system including all delays, sample rates and applicable nonlinearities. (author)

  15. Coherent-feedback control in nanophotonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    The emerging discipline of coherent-feedback quantum control provides core concepts and methods for nanopho- tonic circuit theory, which can be assimilated within modern approaches to computer-aided design. Current research in this area includes the development of software tools to enable a schematic capture workflow for compilation and analysis of quantum stochastic models for nanophotonic circuits, exploration of elementary coherent-feedback circuit motifs, and laboratory demonstrations of quantum nonlinear photonic devices.

  16. The Effect of Information Feedback in Construction Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Soo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  With the goal to achieve efficiency in bidding competitions, many codes of bidding procedure recommend clients provide contractors with bidding feedback information. Contractors strive to bid competitively via learning based on their experiences in past bidding attempts. The level of bidding feedback information, however, varies across clients. In many cases, clients do not provide feedback or provide insufficient feedback to contractors. Focussing on two information feedback conditions (full and partial, we examine: (i the changes in bidding trend over time, and (ii the effects of bidding feedback information on bidders’ competitiveness in bidding. Data were gathered using a bidding experiment that involved student (inexperienced bidders with a construction project management background. The results show that the variations in bids over time for full information feedback condition are statistically significant, but not for bids from bidders with partial bidding feedback information. Bidders with full bidding feedback information are more competitive than those with partial bidding feedback information. The findings add to both our theoretical and empirical understanding of construction bidding: an understanding of the process of changes in the price of building work, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information.

  17. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-11-01

    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of force feedback and visual feedback in grasping tissue laparoscopically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnsdijk, E A M; Pasdeloup, A; van der Pijl, A J; Dankelman, J; Gouma, D J

    2004-06-01

    Due to the limited force feedback provided by laparoscopic instruments, surgeons may have difficulty in applying the appropriate force on the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of force feedback and visual feedback on the exerted pinch force. A grasper with a force sensor in the jaws was developed. Subjects with and without laparoscopic experience grasped and pulled pig bowel with a force of 5 N. The applied pinch force was measured during tasks of 1-s and 1-min duration. Visual feedback was provided in half the measurements. Force feedback was adjusted by changing the mechanical efficiency of the forceps from 30% to 90%. The mean pinch force applied was 6.8 N (+/-0.5), whereas the force to prevent slippage was 3.0 N (+/-0.4). Improving the mechanical efficiency had no effect on the pinch force for the 1-s measurements. The amount of excessive pinch force when holding tissue for 1 min was lower at 30% mechanical efficiency compared with 90% (105% vs 131%, p = 0.04). The tissue slipped more often when the subject had no visual feedback (2% vs 8%, p = 0.02). Force feedback and visual feedback play a more limited role than expected in the task of grasping tissue with laparoscopic forceps.

  19. Stable carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers provide new insight into the formation of calcite and siderite concretions in organic-matter rich deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Lydia; Birgel, Daniel; Wagreich, Michael; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Carbonate concretions from two distinct settings have been studied for their petrography, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, and lipid biomarker content. Carbonate concretions are in large part products of microbial degradation of organic matter, as for example by sulfate-reducing bacteria, iron-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. For these prokaryotes certain lipid biomarkers such as hopanoids, terminally-branched fatty acids (bacteria) and isoprenoids (archaea) are characteristic. Two different types of concretions were studied: a) Upper Miocene septarian calcite concretions of the southern Vienna Basin embedded in brackish sediments represented by partly bituminous calcareous sands, silts and clays; b) Paleocene-Eocene siderite concretions enclosed in marine, sandy to silty turbidites with varying carbonate contents and marl layers from the Upper Gosau Subgroup in northern Styria. Calcite concretions consist of abundant calcite microspar (80-90 vol.%), as well as detrital minerals and iron oxyhydroxides. The septarian cracks show beginning cementation with dog-tooth calcite to varying degrees. Framboidal pyrite occurs in some of the calcite concretions, pointing to bacterial sulfate reduction. Siderite concretions consist of even finer carbonate crystals, mainly siderite (40-70 vol.%) but also abundant ferroan calcite, accompanied by iron oxyhydroxides and detrital minerals. The δ13C values of the calcite concretions (-6.8 to -4.1o ) most likely reflect a combination of bacterial organic matter oxidation and input of marine biodetrital carbonate. The δ18O values range from -8.9 to -7.8o agreeing with a formation within a meteoric environment. The surrounding host sediment shows about 1-2o higher δ13C and δ18O values. The siderite δ13C values (-11.1 to -7.5o ) point to microbial respiration of organic carbon and the δ18O values (-3.5 to +2.2o ) agree with a marine depositional environment. In contrast to the calcite concretions, the stable isotope

  20. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  1. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs. Opportunities for Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Tondro, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer’s understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  2. Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manesh B. Kokare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.

  3. Real-time TEM imaging of the formation of crystalline nanoscale gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Douglas R; Johnston, Danvers E; Guiton, Beth S; Datta, Sujit S; Davies, Peter K; Bonnell, Dawn A; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2008-02-08

    We present real-time transmission electron microscopy of nanogap formation by feedback controlled electromigration that reveals a remarkable degree of crystalline order. Crystal facets appear during feedback controlled electromigration indicating a layer-by-layer, highly reproducible electromigration process avoiding thermal runaway and melting. These measurements provide insight into the electromigration induced failure mechanism in sub-20 nm size interconnects, indicating that the current density at failure increases as the width decreases to approximately 1 nm.

  4. Real-Time TEM Imaging of the Formation of Crystalline Nanoscale Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Douglas R.; Johnston, Danvers E.; Guiton, Beth S.; Datta, Sujit S.; Davies, Peter K.; Bonnell, Dawn A.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2008-02-01

    We present real-time transmission electron microscopy of nanogap formation by feedback controlled electromigration that reveals a remarkable degree of crystalline order. Crystal facets appear during feedback controlled electromigration indicating a layer-by-layer, highly reproducible electromigration process avoiding thermal runaway and melting. These measurements provide insight into the electromigration induced failure mechanism in sub-20 nm size interconnects, indicating that the current density at failure increases as the width decreases to approximately 1 nm.

  5. Comprehensive feedback on trainee surgeons’ non-technical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Oestergaard, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons’ non-technical skills. Methods Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark tool to stimulate feedback conversations. Audio recordings of post-operation feedback conversations were collected. Trainees and supervisors provided questionnaire responses on the usefulness and comprehensiveness of the feedback. The feedback conversations were qualitatively analyzed for content and feedback style. Usefulness was investigated using a scale from 1 to 5 and written comments were qualitatively analyzed. Results Six trainees and six supervisors participated in eight feedback conversations. Eighty questionnaires (response rate 83 percent) were collected from 13 trainees and 12 supervisors. Conversations lasted median eight (2-15) minutes. Supervisors used the elements and categories in the tool to structure the content of the conversations. Supervisors tended to talk about the trainees’ actions and their own frames rather than attempting to understand the trainees’ perceptions. Supervisors and trainees welcomed the feedback opportunity and agreed that the conversations were useful and comprehensive. Conclusions The content of the feedback conversations reflected the contents of the tool and the feedback was considered useful and comprehensive. However, supervisors talked primarily about their own frames, so in order for the feedback to reach its full potential, supervisors may benefit from training techniques to stimulate a deeper reflection among trainees. PMID:25602262

  6. Global climate feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. The osteopontin-controlled switching of calcium oxalate monohydrate morphologies in artificial urine provides insights into the formation of papillary kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Aaron; Grohe, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The protein osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stones. To gain insight into these mechanisms, crystallization was induced by addition of human kidney OPN to artificial urine (ionic strength comparable to urine; without citrate), and the OPN-COM interaction studied using a combination of scanning electron (SEM) and confocal microscopy. By SEM, we found that increasing OPN concentrations formed large monoclinic penetration twins (no protein added) and, at higher concentrations (1-, 2μg/ml OPN), super and hyper twins with crystal habits not found in previous studies. For instance, the hyper twins indicate well-facetted gearwheel-like habits with "teeth" developed in all crystallographic directions. At OPN concentrations ≥2μg/ml, a switching to small dumbbell-shaped COM habits with fine-textured surfaces occurred. Confocal microscopy of these dumbbells indicates protein incorporation in almost the entire crystal structure (in contrast to facetted COM), proposing a threshold concentration of ∼2μg/ml OPN for the facetted to the non-facetted habit transformation. Both the gearwheel-like and the dumbbell-shaped habit are again found side-by-side (presumably triggered by OPN concentration gradients within the sample) in in-vitro formed conglomerates, which resemble cross-sections of papillary kidney stones. The abrupt transformation from facetted to non-facetted habits and the unique compliance of the two in-vitro formed habits with the two main morphologies found in papillary kidney stones propose that OPN is a main effector in direct stone-forming processes. Moreover, stone structures which exhibit these two morphologies side-by-side might serve as a novel indicator for OPN concentrations surrounding those structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feedback-based alcohol interventions for mandated students: an effectiveness study of three modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Jacqueline; Hall, Thomas V; Dunn, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a randomized clinical trial design to examine the effectiveness of personalized alcohol feedback delivered individually, in a group and via computer on alcohol use and related negative consequences in a sample of 173 college students referred for alcohol-related violations. Findings revealed statistically significant reductions in alcohol use and related harms for the individually delivered intervention, with significant reductions in alcohol-related harms for the electronically delivered intervention. No statistically significant results were found for the group-delivered intervention or between groups, and a main effect of time was noted for all outcome variables. This study adds to the literature by being the first randomized clinical trial to include analyses of an empirically supported individually delivered personalized alcohol feedback intervention with more cost-effective group-delivered and electronically delivered feedback formats within a single research design, by expanding the range of participant drinking habits reported at baseline to include all drinking levels and not solely those classified as 'heavy drinking' and by providing anonymity pre-intervention and post-intervention given the potential demand characteristics to underreport illegal and/or illicit behaviours in this vulnerable population. Personalized alcohol feedback delivered in a one-on-one, face-to-face format serves to decrease both alcohol use and harms in mandated college students. The use of web-delivered personalized alcohol feedback may be clinically useful when working with a mandated student population to reduce alcohol-related harms. Personalized alcohol feedback delivered in a group setting may not be indicated for use with a mandated student population as it does not demonstrate decreases in either alcohol use or harms, possibly because of the normalization of deviant behaviour. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. High-accuracy brain-machine interfaces using feedback information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gi Yeom

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is very important for movement control. However, feedback information has not been directly used to update movement prediction model in the previous BMI studies, although the closed-loop BMI system provides the visual feedback to users. Here, we propose a BMI framework combining image processing as the feedback information with a novel prediction method. The feedback-prediction algorithm (FPA generates feedback information from the positions of objects and modifies movement prediction according to the information. The FPA predicts a target among objects based on the movement direction predicted from the neural activity. After the target selection, the FPA modifies the predicted direction toward the target and modulates the magnitude of the predicted vector to easily reach the target. The FPA repeats the modification in every prediction time points. To evaluate the improvements of prediction accuracy provided by the feedback, we compared the prediction performances with feedback (FPA and without feedback. We demonstrated that accuracy of movement prediction can be considerably improved by the FPA combining feedback information. The accuracy of the movement prediction was significantly improved for all subjects (P<0.001 and 32.1% of the mean error was reduced. The BMI performance will be improved by combining feedback information and it will promote the development of a practical BMI system.

  10. Nonlinear output feedback control of underwater vehicle propellers using feedback form estimated axial flow velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory and feedback from the axial water velocity in the propeller disc. In this paper, an output feedback controller is derived, reconstructing the axial flow velocity from vehicle speed measurements, using...... a three-state model of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle, and the axial flow velocity. Lyapunov stability theory is used to prove that a nonlinear observer combined with an output feedback integral controller provide exponential stability. The output feedback controller...... velocity can be estimated with good accuracy. In addition, the output feedback integral controller shows superior performance and robustness compared to a conventional shaft speed controller....

  11. Towards Next Generation Rubrics: An Automated Assignment Feedback System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilupulee Nathawitharana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the use of blended learning environments and digital technologies become integrated into the higher education sector, rich technologies such as analytics have shown promise in facilitating teaching and learning. One popular application of analytics is Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE systems. Such systems can be used in a formative way; for example, by providing students with feedback on digitally submitted assignments. This paper presents work on the development of an AWE software tool for an Australian university using advanced text analytics techniques. The tool was designed to provide students with timely feedback on their initial assignment drafts, for revision and further improvement. Moreover, it could also assist academics in better understanding students’ assignment performance so as to inform future teaching activities. The paper provides details on the methodology used for development of the software, and presents the results obtained from the analysis of text-based assignments submitted in two subjects. The results are discussed, highlighting how the tool can provide practical value, followed by insights into existing challenges and possible future directions.

  12. The Academic Journal Review Process as a Framework for Student Developmental Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental peer feedback has been suggested as a method for providing students with individual feedback critical to the learning process. However, many faculty members are reluctant to employ peer feedback citing fear of student responses, student feedback capabilities, unfamiliarity with the process, and time constraints in and outside of…

  13. When Feedback Is Cognitively-Demanding: The Importance of Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Emily R.; DeCaro, Marci S.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is generally considered a beneficial learning tool, and providing feedback is a recommended instructional practice. However, there are a variety of feedback types with little guidance on how to choose the most effective one. We examined individual differences in working memory capacity as a potential moderator of feedback type. Second-…

  14. Case-based discussion: perceptions of feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanaruban, Aruchuna; Flanders, Lucy; Rees, Huw

    2017-04-12

    Over recent years there has been a trend towards developing high-quality assessments to assess a doctor's performance in the workplace. Case-based discussion (CbD) is a form of workplace-based assessment that has the potential to provide feedback to trainees on their performance or management of a specific case. The aim of this study was to explore how CbDs are perceived and implemented in practice amongst a UK cohort of medical trainees. This study involved 78 medical trainees at a UK hospital completing a questionnaire rating their last CbD experience, including the duration spent receiving feedback, whether it was pre-planned or ad hoc and how they responded to the feedback received. Focus groups were conducted involving 12 trainees to discuss common themes on feedback arising from the questionnaire, and thematic analysis was carried out following these discussions. Only 19 per cent of assessments were pre-planned and the average duration of assessments was 6-10 minutes, with feedback lasting less than 5 minutes. A total of 76 per cent of trainees responded to the feedback they received by completing self-directed learning or by addressing the specific action points arising from the feedback. The focus groups highlighted the barriers to incorporating these assessments into everyday practice, including appreciating the time constraints and the importance of trainer engagement in the assessment process. The aim of this study was to explore how CbDs are perceived and implemented in practice CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that most trainees appreciate the educational value of CbDs, but more emphasis and training is required in planning these assessments and in providing feedback that is both specific and actionable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  15. Making Information Literacy Instruction More Efficient by Providing Individual Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…

  16. Spatial Intercell Interference Cancellation with CSI Training and Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Letaief, Khaled B

    2011-01-01

    We investigate intercell interference cancellation (ICIC) with a practical downlink training and uplink channel state information (CSI) feedback model. The average downlink throughput for such a 2-cell network is derived. The user location has a strong effect on the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) and the channel estimation error. This motivates adaptively switching between traditional (single-cell) beamforming and ICIC at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) where ICIC is preferred only with low SIR and accurate channel estimation, and the use of ICIC with optimized training and feedback at high SNR. For a given channel coherence time and fixed training and feedback overheads, we develop optimal data vs. pilot power allocation for CSI training as well as optimal feedback resource allocation to feed back CSI of different channels. Both analog and finite-rate digital feedback are considered. With analog feedback, the training power optimization provides a more significant performance gain than feedback optimizat...

  17. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E Stepp

    Full Text Available Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.

  18. Delivering Faster Congestion Feedback with the Mark-Front Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Jain, Raj

    2001-01-01

    Computer networks use congestion feedback from the routers and destinations to control the transmission load. Delivering timely congestion feedback is essential to the performance of networks. Reaction to the congestion can be more effective if faster feedback is provided. Current TCP/IP networks use timeout, duplicate Acknowledgement Packets (ACKs) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) to deliver the congestion feedback, each provides a faster feedback than the previous method. In this paper, we propose a markfront strategy that delivers an even faster congestion feedback. With analytical and simulation results, we show that mark-front strategy reduces buffer size requirement, improves link efficiency and provides better fairness among users. Keywords: Explicit Congestion Notification, mark-front, congestion control, buffer size requirement, fairness.

  19. Study of floristic diversity and the structural dynamics of some species providers of non woody forest products in the vegetable formations of the Centre East of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, J M K; Gnoula, C; Zerbo, P; Simpore, J; Nikiema, J B; Canini, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of certain species providing Non Woody Forest Products (NWFP) in the Centre East of Burkina Faso. This study aims to determine the state of the resources in Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa. For this purpose, an inventory of the vegetation was carried out in circular pieces of land of 1250 m2, as a sample of the zone of work, based on the chart of occupation of the grounds. We are identified 158 species comprising 90 genera and 47 families. Those species represent more than 90% of the trees from which various parts are used in food, traditional pharmacopeia and the craft industry. We also showed that because of the strong anthropisation of the zone, the bad pedoclimatic conditions and the permanent bush fires, the regeneration and growth of Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica and Lannea microcarpa are disturbed.

  20. Quelles aides les formations hybrides en langues proposent-elles à l'apprenant pour favoriser son autonomie ? What kind of assistance do blended language learning courses provide to learners in order to foster their autonomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available L'apprenant qui suit une formation hybride en langues travaille partiellement à distance, ce qui lui demande une certaine autonomie. La question alors est de savoir si ces formations soutiennent l'apprenant dans le développement de son autonomie et si oui, comment. Les réponses des concepteurs de huit formations hybrides à un questionnaire auto-administré montrent que les nécessaires développement et soutien de l'autonomie sont toujours respectés ; ainsi, ces huit formations proposent des aides pour favoriser l'autonomie dans les domaines technique, méthodologique, social et, bien sûr, langagier. Développer ces autonomies semble donc être devenu un standard dans le cadre des formations observées. En revanche, les autonomies de type psycho-affectif, informationnel, cognitif et métacognitif ne sont pas prises en considération dans toutes les formations.When taking a blended learning course, a learner works partially at a distance, which requires some autonomy. The aim of this study is to find out whether blended learning courses sustain the development of learner autonomy and if they do so, how they do it. The statements that 8 course designers made in a questionnaire show that their courses always help the learners to become or to be autonomous. All 8 courses provide assistance (advice, information and activities in order to foster technical, methodological, social and, of course, language autonomy. Consequently, sustaining these four types of autonomy seems to have become a standard in blended learning courses. But, on the contrary, assistance for other types of autonomy is not systematically provided: only several of these courses help the learners to develop psycho affective, informational, cognitive and metacognive autonomy.

  1. Feedback in the OSCE: What Do Residents Remember?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Mihok, Marika; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire; Halman, Samantha; Wood, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    The move to competency-based education has heightened the importance of direct observation of clinical skills and effective feedback. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is widely used for assessment and affords an opportunity for both direct observation and feedback to occur simultaneously. For feedback to be effective, it should include direct observation, assessment of performance, provision of feedback, reflection, decision making, and use of feedback for learning and change. If one of the goals of feedback is to engage students to think about their performance (i.e., reflection), it would seem imperative that they can recall this feedback both immediately and into the future. This study explores recall of feedback in the context of an OSCE. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to (a) determine the amount and the accuracy of feedback that trainees remember immediately after an OSCE, as well as 1 month later, and (b) assess whether prompting immediate recall improved delayed recall. Internal medicine residents received 2 minutes of verbal feedback from physician examiners in the context of an OSCE. The feedback was audio-recorded and later transcribed. Residents were randomly allocated to the immediate recall group (immediate-RG; n = 10) or the delayed recall group (delayed-RG; n = 8). The immediate-RG completed a questionnaire prompting recall of feedback received immediately after the OSCE, and then again 1 month later. The delayed-RG completed a questionnaire only 1 month after the OSCE. The total number and accuracy of feedback points provided by examiners were compared to the points recalled by residents. Results comparing recall at 1 month between the immediate-RG and the delayed-RG were also studied. Physician examiners provided considerably more feedback points (M = 16.3) than the residents recalled immediately after the OSCE (M = 2.61, p feedback points recalled upon completion of the OSCE (2.61) compared to 1 month later (M = 1

  2. Enhanced Motor Imagery Training Using a Hybrid BCI With Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Fangyi; Zhang, Rui; Gu, Zhenghui; Cichocki, Andrzej; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-07-01

    Motor imagery-related mu/beta rhythms, which can be voluntarily modulated by subjects, have been widely used in EEG-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). Moreover, it has been suggested that motor imagery-specific EEG differences can be enhanced by feedback training. However, the differences observed in the EEGs of naive subjects are typically not sufficient to provide reliable EEG control and thus result in unintended feedback. Such feedback can frustrate subjects and impede training. In this study, a hybrid BCI paradigm combining motor imagery and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) has been proposed to provide effective continuous feedback for motor imagery training. During the initial training sessions, subjects must focus on flickering buttons to evoke SSVEPs as they perform motor imagery tasks. The output/feedback of the hybrid BCI is based on hybrid features consisting of motor imagery- and SSVEP-related brain signals. In this context, the SSVEP plays a more important role than motor imagery in generating feedback. As the training progresses, the subjects can gradually decrease their visual attention to the flickering buttons, provided that the feedback is still effective. In this case, the feedback is mainly based on motor imagery. Our experimental results demonstrate that subjects generate distinguishable brain patterns of hand motor imagery after only five training sessions lasting approximately 1.5 h each. The proposed hybrid feedback paradigm can be used to enhance motor imagery training. This hybrid BCI system with feedback can effectively identify the intentions of the subjects.

  3. Plant–soil feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, Roeland; Schröder-Georgi, Thomas; Weigelt, Alexandra; Putten, van der Wim H.; Deyn, De Gerlinde B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we

  4. Giving Students Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Some of the special challenges associated with evaluation and grading in the large class are discussed. Suggestions for evaluation methods include seeking clarity, reducing the stress of test administration, giving feedback, guarding against errors in record keeping, and returning exams efficiently and with respect. (MLW)

  5. Feedback i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2015-01-01

    undervisningsdifferentiering, feedback på læreprocesser, formativ og summativ evaluering, observationer og analyse af undervisning samt lærernes teamsamarbejde herom. Praktikken udgør et særligt læringsrum i læreruddannelsen. Samspillet mellem studerende, praktiklærere og undervisere giver den studerende en unik mulighed...

  6. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...

  7. Portfolio, refleksion og feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Jørgen; Qvortrup, Ane; Christensen, Inger-Marie F.

    2017-01-01

    Denne leder definerer indledningsvist begrebet portfolio og gør rede for anvendelsesmuligheder i en uddannelseskontekst. Dernæst behandles portfoliometodens kvalitet og effekt for læring og undervisning og de centrale begreber refleksion, progression og feedback præsenteres og diskuteres. Herefter...

  8. Formative Assessment in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Heidi; Lui, Angela; Palma, Maria; Hefferen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is crucial to students' growth as dancers. When used within the framework of formative assessment, or assessment for learning, feedback results in actionable next steps that dancers can use to improve their performances. This article showcases the work of two dance specialists, one elementary and one middle school teacher, who have…

  9. Going Full Circle With Teacher Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Anne L. Manswell Butty

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the evaluation of early childhood programs focuses mainly on its outcomes rather than its process with often little attention given to the role that feedback to teachers in pre-kindergarten (pre-k programs plays in the larger cycle of the evaluation process. This article provides a case example of a multiyear evaluation of community-based pre-k programs serving about 360 three- and four-year old children over a 5-year period in the District of Columbia. The Closing the Loop Evaluation Model proposed represents a responsive evaluation approach that illustrates the interconnected interactions between teacher feedback during the evaluation process and two supporting evaluation methodologies that emphasize social justice and utility. Findings from the case example highlight the responsive evaluation approach, feedback process, and ensuing conceptual and instrumental changes that occurred among stakeholders from whole-group feedback to small-group “report card” meetings with add-ons such as technical assistance, teacher-generated action plans, and teacher follow-up and feedback to close the evaluation loop. The authors discuss lessons learned about the evaluation process from the case example around aspects of feedback, including timing, audience, and function. Findings highlight the importance of feedback being timely and prompt, high quality in focus and content, non-punitive, collaborative, concise, and useful. The authors conclude that an evaluation process that includes teacher feedback, couched in social justice and utility, can have positive outcomes for all stakeholders and will likely lead to higher quality early childhood education programs.

  10. Online assessment: what influences students to engage with feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Alan

    2014-07-01

    The intention of giving written feedback is to close the gap between the standard achieved and the standard desired, but students do not always read it. Web-based marking tools are increasingly being used in assessment practices to deliver the feedback. What motivates students to read the feedback provided, especially since the advent of these online marking tools, is poorly understood. This research looked at the factors likely to influence a medical student's engagement with written feedback delivered through an online marking tool (grademark by Turnitin). What motivates students to read the feedback provided Third-year medical students on a UK undergraduate medical course submitted an assignment online. A questionnaire was distributed to a cohort of them following the release of their results and feedback, allowing quantitative and qualitative data collection. Software recorded whether they opened their feedback. Previous examination performance figures were also collated. Online feedback is accessible and acceptable to the majority of students. Personal demographics, computer literacy, previous course performance, or personal motivational drivers did not predict those who did or did not read it. Some students reported seeing little value in feedback because of their previous negative experiences. A minority found feedback hurtful, and were likely to show avoidance behaviours. This research found that feedback provided through an online marking tool overcame many of the problems associated with handwritten feedback, but alone was not enough to ensure universal engagement. Feedback dialogues are proposed as a method to overcome negative student experiences, enhance tutor performance and encourage future student engagement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Lessons from Alternative Grading: Essential Qualities of Teacher Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percell, Jay C.

    2017-01-01

    One critically important step in the instructional process is providing feedback to students, and yet, providing timely and thorough feedback is often lacking due attention. Reasons for this oversight could range from several factors including increased class sizes, vast content coverage requirements, extracurricular responsibilities, and the…

  12. Feedback effects on students' writing motivation, process, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836230

    2010-01-01

    Many students’ writing capacities remain insufficient during college years (Kellogg & Whiteford, 2009). Teachers try to improve students’ writing skills by providing them with feedback on their texts. Remarkably, research on the effects of feedback provided on written products is scarce (Graham &

  13. Self-control of feedback during motor learning: accounting for the absolute amount of feedback using a yoked group with self-control over feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steve; Pfeiffer, Jacob; Patterson, Jae Todd

    2011-01-01

    A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-controls their reception of feedback receives feedback in the same relative and absolute manner. This traditional control group typically does not learn the task as well as the self-control group. Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback they receive, the information is provided on trials in which the individual may not request feedback if he or she were provided the opportunity. Similarly, individuals may not receive feedback on trials for which it would be a beneficial learning experience. Subsequently, the mismatch between the provision of feedback and the potential learning opportunity leads to a decrement in retention. The present study was designed to examine motor learning for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of feedback, but who could self-control when they received feedback. Increased mental processing of error detection and correction was expected for the participants in the yoked self-control group because of their choice to employ a limited resource in the form of a decreasing amount of feedback opportunities. Participants in the yoked with self-control group committed fewer errors than the self-control group in retention and the traditional yoked group in both the retention and time transfer blocks. The results suggest that the yoked with self-control group was able to produce efficient learning effects and can be a viable control group for further motor learning studies.

  14. Benefits of Bandwidth Feedback in Learning a Complex Gymnastic Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Niznikowski, Tomasz

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task. PMID:24146719

  15. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-09

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  16. No Longer a Teacher Monologue--Involving EFL Writing Learners in Teachers' Assessment and Feedback Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design of learning-oriented formative assessments in an EFL writing course that involved learners in regularly responding to teacher feedback. Following major assessment and feedback frameworks developed recently, these formative assessments were explicated in three aspects: the scheduling of learning and assessment…

  17. Energy Feedback Systems: Evaluation of Meta-studies on energy savings through feedback

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO SERRENHO TIAGO; ZANGHERI PAOLO; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2015-01-01

    The Energy Efficiency Directive, in its Articles 9 to 11 focuses on the availability of accurate, up to date information to be provided to final energy consumers in a cost-effective way. The present study proposes a literature review on existing studies regarding energy feedback systems, having in consideration the type of feedback, its duration, the geographical area where these have been performed and the correlation from these with the type of energy carrier being used by the final consume...

  18. Feedback Menggunakan Telepon Genggam terhadap Latihan Mandiri Mahasiswa: Penelitian Kualitatif

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Ide Pustaka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Feedback is usually delivered face to face, in appropriate manner and appropriate time (Dent & Harden, 2005), from instructor to the students during skills training session. But how the instructor gives feedback when the students conduct independent study? Could recording facility of students’ mobile phone (hand-phone) solve this problem? The aims of this study are to understand whether or not mobile phone could be used to provide feedback toward students’ independent study as wel...

  19. Feedback – A systems approach to evaluation and course design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Holmes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses feedback and evaluation in classroom materials and in course design, very important issues for language teachers, from the point of view of systems analysis. It compares both open-loop feedback (less controlled and closed-loop feedback (more controlled and explores both the application and the consequences of choosing between one or the other within the language learning process. Apart from the theoretical discussion, examples of practical materials that integrate evaluation and meaningful meaning are provided.

  20. Tactile Feedback for Above-Device Gesture Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Euan; Brewster, Stephen; Lantz, Vuokko

    2014-01-01

    Above-device gesture interfaces let people interact in the space above mobile devices using hand and finger movements. For example, users could gesture over a mobile phone or wearable without having to use the touchscreen. We look at how above-device interfaces can also give feedback in the space over the device. Recent haptic and wearable technologies give new ways to provide tactile feedback while gesturing, letting touchless gesture interfaces give touch feedback. In this paper we take a f...

  1. The password is praise: content of feedback affects categorization of feedback sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A; Landon, Emily; Neill, Caitlin; Mason-Brown, Sapphire; Burdett, Lucie

    2014-09-01

    In three experimental studies, we investigated the effect of the content of group-directed feedback on categorization of the feedback source as an ingroup or an outgroup member. In all studies, feedback valence (criticism vs. praise) and the attributional content of feedback (attributing outcomes to internal properties of the group vs. external circumstances) were experimentally manipulated. The results demonstrated that anonymous (Study 1) and ambiguous (Studies 2 and 3) sources of feedback are more likely to be seen as (typical) ingroup members when they provide praise rather than criticism. In addition, in all studies there was a significant interaction between valence and the attributional content of feedback, such that sources of praise were more likely to be seen as ingroup members when they attributed the group's success to internal (rather than external) causes, while the opposite was observed for critics. These effects were mediated by perceived group image threat. Implications for research on group-based feedback and social categorization are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Feedback: Focusing Attention on Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Margaret; Handley, Karen; Millar, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Within many higher education systems there is a search for means to increase levels of student satisfaction with assessment feedback. This article suggests that the search is under way in the wrong place by concentrating on feedback as a product rather than looking more widely to feedback as a long-term dialogic process in which all parties are…

  3. Det ved vi om Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Vibeke; Bærenholdt, Jørgen

    Præsentation af forskningsviden om feedback i forskellige personkonstellationer i undervisningen: Feedback fra lærer til elev, fra elever til lærer, fra elev til elev og elevens eget arbejde med feedback til sig selv. De præsenterede forskningsresultater er udvalgt dels inden for en kognitivistisk...

  4. How to Give Professional Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning "should be a joy," the authors write, "not an affliction." Feedback experts Brookhart and Moss show how professional feedback can best motivate educators to learn. Professional conversations should be dialogs between the teacher and the principal, and feedback should feed teacher professional learning…

  5. Multivariable Feedback Control of Unstable Aircraft Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Abhishek

    The purpose of a flight control system is to provide stability and control for the aircraft with the help of control surfaces. FCS helps improve aircraft performance characteristics during flight. Stability is secured by the mechanism of feedback. Feedback plays an important part in providing a baseline control approach for stabilizing a non-linear unstable aircraft. It helps suppress effects of disturbances. Numerical Linearization is used to design a stabilizing controller for a non-linear model of the F-16 Fighting Falcon jet initialized with nominal flight condition. First a single-loop at a time feedback is designed using Matlab for longitudinal stabilization. Then the lateral modes of the aircraft are fed back and used in a single-loop at a time fashion to stabilize the lateral dynamics. Then, a multivariable feedback approach is used to stabilize the lateral dynamics for a constant turn rate condition using a cost function optimization approach to find suitable gains for the feedback loops. All of these controllers are tested by using a non-linear Simulink simulation of the scale-model F-16 dynamics.

  6. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  7. The interaction of positive and negative sensory feedback loops in dynamic regulation of a motor pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausborn, Jessica; Wolf, Harald; Stein, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    In many rhythmic behaviors, phasic sensory feedback modifies the motor pattern. This modification is assumed to depend on feedback sign (positive vs. negative). While on a phenomenological level feedback sign is well defined, many sensory pathways also process antagonistic, and possibly contradictory, sensory information. We here model the locust flight pattern generator and proprioceptive feedback provided by the tegula wing receptor to test the functional significance of sensory pathways processing antagonistic information. We demonstrate that the tegula provides delayed positive feedback via interneuron 301, while all other pathways provide negative feedback. Contradictory to previous assumptions, the increase of wing beat frequency when the tegula is activated during flight is due to the positive feedback. By use of an abstract model we reveal that the regulation of motor pattern frequency by sensory feedback critically depends on the interaction of positive and negative feedback, and thus on the weighting of antagonistic pathways.

  8. Positive feedback promotes oscillations in negative feedback loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    A simple three-component negative feedback loop is a recurring motif in biochemical oscillators. This motif oscillates as it has the three necessary ingredients for oscillations: a three-step delay, negative feedback, and nonlinearity in the loop. However, to oscillate, this motif under the common Goodwin formulation requires a high degree of cooperativity (a measure of nonlinearity) in the feedback that is biologically "unlikely." Moreover, this recurring negative feedback motif is commonly observed augmented by positive feedback interactions. Here we show that these positive feedback interactions promote oscillation at lower degrees of cooperativity, and we can thus unify several common kinetic mechanisms that facilitate oscillations, such as self-activation and Michaelis-Menten degradation. The positive feedback loops are most beneficial when acting on the shortest lived component, where they function by balancing the lifetimes of the different components. The benefits of multiple positive feedback interactions are cumulative for a majority of situations considered, when benefits are measured by the reduction in the cooperativity required to oscillate. These positive feedback motifs also allow oscillations with longer periods than that determined by the lifetimes of the components alone. We can therefore conjecture that these positive feedback loops have evolved to facilitate oscillations at lower, kinetically achievable, degrees of cooperativity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our conclusions on the mammalian molecular clock, a system modeled extensively based on the three-component negative feedback loop.

  9. Nature and nurture in galaxy formation simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Marcel Richard

    2010-01-01

    We study several aspects of the formation of galaxies, using numerical simulations. We investigate the influence of about thirty different sub-grid physics recipes for cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, AGN feedback etc. on the resulting galaxy populations with large SPH simulations. We

  10. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  11. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  12. Audit and feedback and clinical practice guideline adherence: Making feedback actionable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Richard G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a strategy for improving clinical practice guideline (CPG adherence, audit and feedback (A&F has been found to be variably effective, yet A&F research has not investigated the impact of feedback characteristics on its effectiveness. This paper explores how high performing facilities (HPF and low performing facilities (LPF differ in the way they use clinical audit data for feedback purposes. Method Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs with high and low adherence to six CPGs, as measured by external chart review audits. One-hundred and two employees involved with outpatient CPG implementation across the six facilities participated in one-hour semi-structured interviews where they discussed strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementing CPGs. Interviews were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory method. Results High performers provided timely, individualized, non-punitive feedback to providers, whereas low performers were more variable in their timeliness and non-punitiveness and relied on more standardized, facility-level reports. The concept of actionable feedback emerged as the core category from the data, around which timeliness, individualization, non-punitiveness, and customizability can be hierarchically ordered. Conclusion Facilities with a successful record of guideline adherence tend to deliver more timely, individualized and non-punitive feedback to providers about their adherence than facilities with a poor record of guideline adherence. Consistent with findings from organizational research, feedback intervention characteristics may influence the feedback's effectiveness at changing desired behaviors.

  13. Tracing Galactic Outflows to the Source: Spatially Resolved Feedback in M83 with COS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    Star-formation (SF) feedback plays a vital role in shaping galaxy properties, but there are many open questions about how this feedback is created, propagated, and felt by galaxies. SF-driven feedback can be observationally constrained with rest-frame UV absorption-line spectroscopy that accesses a range of powerful gas density and kinematic diagnostics. Studies at both high and low redshift show clear evidence for large-scale outflows in star-forming galaxies that scale with galaxy SF rate. However, by sampling one sightline or the galaxy as a whole, these studies are not tailored to reveal how the large-scale outflows develop from their ultimate sources at the scale of individual SF regions. We propose the first spatially-resolved COS G130M/G160M (1130-1800 A) study of the ISM in the nearby (4.6 Mpc) face-on spiral starburst M83 using individual young star clusters as background sources. This is the first down-the-barrel study where blueshifted absorptions can be identified directly with outflowing gas in a spatially resolved fashion. The kpc-scale flows sampled by the COS pointings will be anchored to the properties of the large-scale (10-100 kpc) flows thanks to the wealth of multi-wavelength observations of M83 from X-ray to radio. A comparison of COS data with mock spectra from constrained simulations of spiral galaxies with FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments; a code with unprecedented 1-100 pc spatial resolution and self-consistent treatments of stellar feedback) will provide an important validation of these simulations and will supply the community with a powerful and well-tested tool for galaxy formation predictions applicable to all redshifts.

  14. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  15. Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback with the Square Kilometre Array and Implications for Cluster Physics and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Kale, Ruta; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Nath, Biman B.; Pandge, Mahadev; Sharma, Prateek; Malik, Manzoor A.; Raychaudhury, Somak

    2017-12-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback is regarded as an important non-gravitational process in galaxy clusters, providing useful constraints on large-scale structure formation. It modifies the structure and energetics of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) and hence its understanding is crucially needed in order to use clusters as high precision cosmological probes. In this context, particularly keeping in mind the upcoming high quality radio data expected from radio surveys like Square Kilometre Array (SKA) with its higher sensitivity, high spatial and spectral resolutions, we review our current understanding of AGN feedback, its cosmological implications and the impact that SKA can have in revolutionizing our understanding of AGN feedback in large-scale structures. Recent developments regarding the AGN outbursts and its possible contribution to excess entropy in the hot atmospheres of groups and clusters, its correlation with the feedback energy in ICM, quenching of cooling flows and the possible connection between cool core clusters and radio mini-halos, are discussed. We describe current major issues regarding modeling of AGN feedback and its impact on the surrounding medium. With regard to the future of AGN feedback studies, we examine the possible breakthroughs that can be expected from SKA observations. In the context of cluster cosmology, for example, we point out the importance of SKA observations for cluster mass calibration by noting that most of z>1 clusters discovered by eROSITA X-ray mission can be expected to be followed up through a 1000 hour SKA1-mid programme. Moreover, approximately 1000 radio mini halos and ˜ 2500 radio halos at z<0.6 can be potentially detected by SKA1 and SKA2 and used as tracers of galaxy clusters and determination of cluster selection function.

  16. Facilitating planning : Tangible objects with multimodal feedback mitigate cognitive workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, W. de; Rypkema, J.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Complex planning tasks require substantial cognitive resources. Supporting planning tasks through enabling embodied interaction and providing multisensory feedback may reduce the cognitive load. We developed Sensators: interactive tangible objects to be used on multi-touch tables which provide both.

  17. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  18. The Effect of Giving Feedback to Students' Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Zainuddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although writing is as important as other skills such as listening, speaking, and reading, it needs more special attention. In order to write well, students need a long process to learn to write and they need continous feedback. The aim of this article is to know whether giving feedback to students' writing has a significant effect or not. Two groups of students, experimental and control, were involved. The compositions of the first group were given feedback, while those of the second group were not given feedback. The study shows that provision of feedback improves student's writing. In light of the result of the study, it is recommended that teachers provide feedback on students' writing.

  19. Physician Perceptions of Performance Feedback in a Quality Improvement Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Aimee R; Hansen, Elizabeth; Hagen, Michael D; Peterson, Lars E

    2017-10-01

    Physician performance and peer comparison feedback can affect physician care quality and patient outcomes. This study aimed to understand family physician perspectives of the value of performance feedback in quality improvement (QI) activities. This study analyzed American Board of Family Medicine open-ended survey data collected between 2004 and 2014 from physicians who completed a QI module that provided pre- and post-QI project individual performance data and peer comparisons. Physicians made 3480 comments in response to a question about this performance feedback, which were generally positive in nature (86%). Main themes that emerged were importance of accurate feedback data, enhanced detail in the content of feedback, and ability to customize peer comparison groups to compare performance to peers with similar patient populations or practice characteristics. Meaningful and tailored performance feedback may be an important tool for physicians to improve their care quality and should be considered an integral part of QI project design.

  20. Robust permanence for ecological equations with internal and external feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swati; Schreiber, Sebastian J

    2017-10-26

    Species experience both internal feedbacks with endogenous factors such as trait evolution and external feedbacks with exogenous factors such as weather. These feedbacks can play an important role in determining whether populations persist or communities of species coexist. To provide a general mathematical framework for studying these effects, we develop a theorem for coexistence for ecological models accounting for internal and external feedbacks. Specifically, we use average Lyapunov functions and Morse decompositions to develop sufficient and necessary conditions for robust permanence, a form of coexistence robust to large perturbations of the population densities and small structural perturbations of the models. We illustrate how our results can be applied to verify permanence in non-autonomous models, structured population models, including those with frequency-dependent feedbacks, and models of eco-evolutionary dynamics. In these applications, we discuss how our results relate to previous results for models with particular types of feedbacks.

  1. The BGC Feedbacks Scientific Focus Area 2016 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riley, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Randerson, James T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The BGC Feedbacks Project will identify and quantify the feedbacks between biogeochemical cycles and the climate system, and quantify and reduce the uncertainties in Earth System Models (ESMs) associated with those feedbacks. The BGC Feedbacks Project will contribute to the integration of the experimental and modeling science communities, providing researchers with new tools to compare measurements and models, thereby enabling DOE to contribute more effectively to future climate assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  2. Evaluation of multimodal feedback effects on improving rowing competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the selection and preliminary evaluation of different types of modal and information feedback in virtual environment to facilitate acquisition and transfer of a complex motor-cognitive skill of rowing. Specifically, we addressed the effectiveness of immediate information feedback provided visually as compared to sensory haptic feedback on the improvement in hands kinematics and changes in cognitive load during the course of learning the basic rowing technique. Several pilot experiments described in this report lead to the evaluation and optimization of the training protocol, to enhance facilitatory effects of adding visual and haptic feedback during training.

  3. Haptic feedback for virtual assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Greg R.; Zafer, Naci

    1998-12-01

    Assembly operations require high speed and precision with low cost. The manufacturing industry has recently turned attenuation to the possibility of investigating assembly procedures using graphical display of CAD parts. For these tasks, some sort of feedback to the person is invaluable in providing a real sense of interaction with virtual parts. This research develops the use of a commercial assembly robot as the haptic display in such tasks. For demonstration, a peg-hole insertion task is studied. Kane's Method is employed to derive the dynamics of the peg and the contact motions between the peg and the hole. A handle modeled as a cylindrical peg is attached to the end effector of a PUMA 560 robotic arm. The arm is handle modeled as a cylindrical peg is attached to the end effector of a PUMA 560 robotic arm. The arm is equipped with a six axis force/torque transducer. The use grabs the handle and the user-applied forces are recorded. A 300 MHz Pentium computer is used to simulate the dynamics of the virtual peg and its interactions as it is inserted in the virtual hole. The computed torque control is then employed to exert the full dynamics of the task to the user hand. Visual feedback is also incorporated to help the user in the process of inserting the peg into the hole. Experimental results are presented to show several contact configurations for this virtually simulated task.

  4. Feedback på arbejdspladser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Feedback på arbejdspladser er vigtig. Men feedback er også et populært begreb mange taler med om uden dog at vide sig helt sikker på hvad det er. Formålet med denne bog er at bidrage til en bedre forståelse af hvad feedback er, hvordan det fungerer og dermed hvordan arbejdspladser bedst muligt bør...... understøtte feedback. Med udgangspunkt i forskningen identificeres centrale udfordringer ved feedback, bl.a. hvorfor det kan være svært at give præcis feedback, hvordan forholdet mellem lederen og den ansatte påvirker den feedback der gives, og hvad der kendetegner en feedback kultur. Bogen er skrevet til...... undervisere og studerende på videregående uddannelser samt praktikere der ønsker en systematisk og forskningsbaseret forståelse af feedback på arbejdspladser. Bogen er således ikke en kogebog til bedre feedback, men en analyse og diskussion af hvad forskningen ved om feedback, og bidrager med inspiration og...

  5. Two-dimensional dissipative rogue waves due to time-delayed feedback in cavity nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlidi, Mustapha; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a way to generate two-dimensional rogue waves in two types of broad area nonlinear optical systems subject to time-delayed feedback: in the generic Lugiato-Lefever model and in the model of a broad-area surface-emitting laser with saturable absorber. The delayed feedback is found to induce a spontaneous formation of rogue waves. In the absence of delayed feedback, spatial pulses are stationary. The rogue waves are exited and controlled by the delay feedback. We characterize their formation by computing the probability distribution of the pulse height. The long-tailed statistical contribution, which is often considered as a signature of the presence of rogue waves, appears for sufficiently strong feedback. The generality of our analysis suggests that the feedback induced instability leading to the spontaneous formation of two-dimensional rogue waves is a universal phenomenon.

  6. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for digital learning environments on the basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Narciss

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008, and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the regulation of a learning process in order to help learners acquire or improve the competencies needed to master learning tasks. It integrates findings from systems theory with recommendations of prior research on interactive instruction and elaborated feedback, on task analyses, on error analyses, and on tutoring techniques. Based on this multi-dimensional view of formative tutoring feedback methodological implications for designing and investigating multiple effects of feedback under multiple individual and situational conditions are described. Furthermore, the paper outlines how the implications of the ITF-model have been applied in several studies to the design and evaluation of tutoring feedback strategies for digital learning environments (e.g., Narciss, 2004; Narciss & Huth, 2006; Narciss, Schnaubert, Andres, Eichelmann, Goguadze, & Sosnovsky, 2013.

  7. Teacher Language Awareness in Supervisory Feedback Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Kristen; Baecher, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates pre- and post-observation feedback provided to TESOL teacher candidates who are preparing to work in content-based instruction/content and language integrated learning contexts, extending the conceptualization of teacher language awareness (TLA) to candidate supervision. It examines the extent to which TLA is manifested by…

  8. Subjective Evaluations: Discretionary Bonuses and Feedback Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, William

    2013-01-01

    We provide a new rationale for the use of discretionary bonuses. In a setting with unknown match qualities between a worker and a firm and subjective evaluations by the principal, bonuses are useful in order to make the feedback from the firm to the workers credible. This way workers in good matches are less inclined to accept outside offers.

  9. Mining Feedback in Ranking and Recommendation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziming

    2009-01-01

    The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…

  10. Diversity in School Performance Feedback Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Goedele; Schildkamp, Kim; Luyten, Hans; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As data-based decision making is receiving increased attention in education, more and more school performance feedback systems (SPFSs) are being developed and used worldwide. These systems provide schools with data on their functioning. However, little research is available on the characteristics of the different SPFSs. Therefore, this study…

  11. Website Feedback | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thank you for providing feedback about the CCR website. There are 5 comment areas available via this webform, but it may be submitted as often as needed. Whenever possible please be specific - give the url of the page and details about your concern.

  12. Revisiting corrective saccades: role of visual feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Ying, Howard S.; Zee, David S.

    2013-01-01

    To clarify the role of visual feedback in the generation of corrective movements after inaccurate primary saccades, we used a visually-triggered saccade task in which we varied how long the target was visible. The target was on for only 100 ms (OFF100ms), on until the start of the primary saccade (OFFonset) or on for 2 s (ON). We found that the tolerance for the post-saccadic error was small (− 2%) with a visual signal (ON) but greater (−6%) without visual feedback (OFF100ms). Saccades with an error of −10%, however, were likely to be followed by corrective saccades regardless of whether or not visual feedback was present. Corrective saccades were generally generated earlier when visual error information was available; their latency was related to the size of the error. The LATER (Linear Approach to Threshold with Ergodic Rate) model analysis also showed a comparable small population of short latency corrective saccades irrespective of the target visibility. Finally, we found, in the absence of visual feedback, the accuracy of corrective saccades across subjects was related to the latency of the primary saccade. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the programming of corrective saccades: 1) the preparation of corrective saccades begins along with the preparation of the primary saccades, 2) the accuracy of corrective saccades depends on the reaction time of the primary saccades and 3) if visual feedback is available after the initiation of the primary saccade, the prepared correction can be updated. PMID:23891705

  13. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.

  14. An Extended Validity Argument for Assessing Feedback Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougas, Steven; Clyne, Brian; Cianciolo, Anna T; Chan, Teresa M; Sherbino, Jonathan; Yarris, Lalena M

    2015-01-01

    NEGEA 2015 CONFERENCE ABSTRACT (EDITED): Measuring an Organization's Culture of Feedback: Can It Be Done? Steven Rougas and Brian Clyne. CONSTRUCT: This study sought to develop a construct for measuring formative feedback culture in an academic emergency medicine department. Four archetypes (Market, Adhocracy, Clan, Hierarchy) reflecting an organization's values with respect to focus (internal vs. external) and process (flexibility vs. stability and control) were used to characterize one department's receptiveness to formative feedback. The prevalence of residents' identification with certain archetypes served as an indicator of the department's organizational feedback culture. New regulations have forced academic institutions to implement wide-ranging changes to accommodate competency-based milestones and their assessment. These changes challenge residencies that use formative feedback from faculty as a major source of data for determining training advancement. Though various approaches have been taken to improve formative feedback to residents, there currently exists no tool to objectively measure the organizational culture that surrounds this process. Assessing organizational culture, commonly used in the business sector to represent organizational health, may help residency directors gauge their program's success in fostering formative feedback. The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) is widely used, extensively validated, applicable to survey research, and theoretically based and may be modifiable to assess formative feedback culture in the emergency department. Using a modified Delphi technique and several iterations of focus groups amongst educators at one institution, four of the original six OCAI domains (which each contain 4 possible responses) were modified to create a 16-item Formative Feedback Culture Tool (FFCT) that was administered to 26 residents (response rate = 55%) at a single academic emergency medicine department. The mean

  15. Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback in Developmental Multilingual Writing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzer, Kendon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the role of dynamic written corrective feedback (DWCF; Evans, Hartshorn, McCollum, & Wolfersberger, 2010; Hartshorn & Evans, 2015; Hartshorn et al., 2010), a mode of providing specific, targeted, and individualized grammar feedback in developmental English as a second language (ESL) writing classes (pre-first year…

  16. "Is This Okay?" Developing Student Ownership in Artmaking through Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sok Hui

    2015-01-01

    When used effectively, feedback promotes student ownership in artmaking by encouraging students to inject originality, persist, and improve. Feedback from teacher, self, and peers can also provide students with motivation. In this article, the author explores her students' understanding of the idea of ownership, observes how feedback…

  17. Constructive feedback as a learning tool to enhance students' self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If feedback is provided in a way that can develop students' self-regulatory skills, it could enhance learning and, consequently, lead to improved performance. To improve teaching and learning in higher education (HE), this study sought to determine whether the feedback to first-year students affords them an opportunity to ...

  18. Getting Students to Read Instructor Feedback (and Maybe Actually Learn from It)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Bibia R.; Kennette, Lynne N.

    2017-01-01

    Effective instructor feedback can be used to increase student learning, provided that students read and apply this feedback, which is not always the case. The current study investigates an approach which may encourage students to read and immediately apply instructor-provided feedback. This is done by giving students the opportunity to submit…

  19. Nurses' perceptions of feedback to nursing teams on quality measurements: An embedded case study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, A.P.; Schouteten, R.L.; Poutsma, E.; Heijden, B.I. van der; Achterberg, T. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing nursing teams with feedback on quality measurements is used as a quality improvement instrument in healthcare organizations worldwide. Previous research indicated contradictory results regarding the effect of such feedback on both nurses' well-being and performance. OBJECTIVES:

  20. Nurses’ perceptions of feedback to nursing teams on quality measurements: An embedded case study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, A.P.M.; Schouteten, R.L.J.; Poutsma, Erik; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Achterberg, T. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Providing nursing teams with feedback on quality measurements is used as a quality improvement instrument in healthcare organizations worldwide. Previous research indicated contradictory results regarding the effect of such feedback on both nurses’ well-being and

  1. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Improve Formative Assessment for Senior Pediatrics Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Karen A; Jeffers, Justin M; Burns, Rebekah A; Trainor, Jennifer L; Unti, Sharon M; Eppich, Walter; Adler, Mark D

    2015-09-01

    Residency programs are developing new methods to assess resident competence and to improve the quality of formative assessment and feedback to trainees. Simulation is a valuable tool for giving formative feedback to residents. To develop an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to improve formative assessment of senior pediatrics residents. We developed a multistation examination using various simulation formats to assess the skills of senior pediatrics residents in communication and acute resuscitation. We measured several logistical factors (staffing and program costs) to determine the feasibility of such a program. Thirty-one residents participated in the assessment program over a 3-month period. Residents received formative feedback comparing their performance to both a standard task checklist and to peers' performance. The program required 16 faculty members per session, and had a cost of $624 per resident. A concentrated assessment program using simulation can be a valuable tool to assess residents' skills in communication and acute resuscitation and provide directed formative feedback. However, such a program requires considerable financial and staffing resources.

  2. Social Media and Peer Feedback: What Do Students Really Think about Using Wiki and Facebook as Platforms for Peer Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbilek, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools are becoming increasingly pervasive in higher education, and as a result, there is increasing interest in the use of online feedback activities. This study investigated students' actual experiences and perceptions using social media, Wiki and Facebook, tools to provide peer feedback on students' instructional material projects and to…

  3. Haptic Feedback Compared with Visual Feedback for BCI

    OpenAIRE

    Kauhanen, L.; Palomäki, T; Jylänki, P.; Aloise, F; Nuttin, Marnix; Millán, José del R.

    2006-01-01

    Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). Here we compare visual and haptic feedback in a short experiment. By imagining left and right hand movements, six subjects tried to control a BCI with the help of either visual or haptic feedback every 1s. Alpha band EEG signals from C3 and C4 were classified. The classifier was updated after each prediction using correct class information. Thus feedback could be given throughout the experiment. Subjects g...

  4. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.

    2007-12-04

    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  5. Evaluation of Augmented Reality Feedback in Surgical Training Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahiri, Mohsen; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2017-11-01

    Providing computer-based laparoscopic surgical training has several advantages that enhance the training process. Self-evaluation and real-time performance feedback are 2 of these advantages, which avoid dependency of trainees on expert feedback. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a visual time indicator as real-time feedback correlated with the laparoscopic surgical training. Twenty novices participated in this study working with (and without) different presentations of time indicators. They performed a standard peg transfer task, and their completion times and muscle activity were recorded and compared. Also of interest was whether the use of this type of feedback induced any side effect in terms of motivation or muscle fatigue. Of the 20 participants, 15 (75%) preferred using a time indicator in the training process rather than having no feedback. However, time to task completion showed no significant difference in performance with the time indicator; furthermore, no significant differences in muscle activity or muscle fatigue were detected with/without time feedback. The absence of significant difference between task performance with/without time feedback shows that using visual real-time feedback can be included in surgical training based on user preference. Trainees may benefit from this type of feedback in the form of increased motivation. The extent to which this can influence training frequency leading to performance improvement is a question for further study.

  6. Social anxiety and the ironic effects of positive interviewer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, Christopher J; Kowal, Marta; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-01-01

    Positive interviewer feedback should encourage positive experiences and outcomes for interviewees. Yet, positive feedback is inconsistent with socially anxious interviewees' negative self-views. Socially anxious interviewees might experience increased self-focus while attempting to reconcile the inconsistency between their self-perceptions and that feedback. This could interfere with successful interview performance. This study used a 3 (feedback: positive, negative, no) × 2 (social anxiety: high, low) between-subjects design. Undergraduate students (N = 88) completed a measure of dispositional social anxiety. They then engaged in a simulated interview with a White confederate trained to adhere to a standardized script. Interviewees received positive, negative, or no interviewer feedback. Each interview was video recorded to code anxiety displays, impression management tactics, and interview success. Following positive feedback, socially anxious interviewees displayed more anxiety, less assertiveness, and received lower success ratings. Among anxious interviewees, increased self-focus provided an indirect path between positive feedback and lower success. Consistent with self-verification theory, anxious interviewees had poorer interview performance following positive feedback that contradicted their negative self-views. Thus, socially anxious interviewees might be at a disadvantage when interviewing, especially following positive feedback. Implications for interviewees and interviewers are discussed.

  7. More feedback is better than less: Learning a novel upper limb joint coordination pattern with augmented auditory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya eFujii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is a process whereby the acquisition of new skills occurs with practice, and can be influenced by the provision of feedback. An important question is what frequency of feedback facilitates motor learning. The guidance hypothesis assumes that the provision of less augmented feedback is better than more because a learner can use his/her own inherent feedback. However, it is unclear whether this hypothesis holds true for all types of augmented feedback, including for example sonified information about performance. Thus, we aimed to test what frequency of augmented sonified feedback facilitates the motor learning of a novel joint coordination pattern. Twenty healthy volunteers first reached to a target with their arm (baseline phase. We manipulated this baseline kinematic data for each individual to create a novel target joint coordination pattern. Participants then practiced to learn the novel target joint coordination pattern, receiving either feedback on every trial i.e. 100% feedback (n = 10, or every other trial, i.e. 50% feedback (n = 10 (acquisition phase. We created a sonification system to provide the feedback. This feedback was a pure tone that varied in intensity in proportion to the error of the performed joint coordination relative to the target pattern. Thus, the auditory feedback contained information about performance in real-time (i.e. concurrent, knowledge of performance feedback. Participants performed the novel joint coordination pattern with no-feedback immediately after the acquisition phase (immediate retention phase, and on the next day (delayed retention phase. The root-mean squared error (RMSE and variable error (VE of joint coordination were significantly reduced during the acquisition phase in both 100% and 50% feedback groups. There was no significant difference in VE between the groups at immediate and delayed retention phases. However, at both these retention phases, the 100% feedback group showed

  8. Designing feedback: multimodality and specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Sugiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Now that many of us carry around devices that are equipped with sensors (e.g., smartphones with accelerometers) we can use these sensors to measure behavior. The data thus captured can be used to give someone feedback about this behavior. These feedback mechanisms are often used in so called smart coaches, a growing group of product-service systems within the domain of persuasive technology. Despite decades of research on persuasive systems, challenges remain for designers of feedback systems...

  9. Self-Evaluation and Recruitment of Feedback for Enhanced Social Interaction by a Student with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2005-01-01

    A student who is visually impaired was trained to evaluate his social behavior and to recruit feedback from his sighted peers, who were trained by him to provide the feedback. The self-recruitment of feedback improved the student's accuracy in evaluating social skills requiring visual cues. In addition, the peers extended their feedback to other…

  10. Seasonal contributions to climate feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, R. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2003-05-01

    Heading Abstract. This study addresses the question: how do the contributions to feedbacks in a climate model vary over the seasonal cycle? To answer this the feedbacks are evaluated from an equilibrium doubled CO{sub 2} experiment performed using the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) General Circulation Model. Monthly means of the top-of-atmosphere radiative perturbations (which together comprise the annual climate feedbacks) are extracted to produce a mean annual cycle. It is found that the radiative contributions to the total longwave (LW) feedback are fairly constant throughout the year. Those to the total shortwave (SW) feedback, on the other hand, vary by a factor of three, from a maximum in July to a minimum in November. Of the LW feedbacks, contributions to the lapse rate shows greatest seasonal variation, while those to water vapour and cloud feedbacks vary by relatively small amounts throughout the year. Contributions to the lapse rate feedback as a function of surface type and latitude reveal conflicting positive and negative radiative perturbations, which vary most strongly at high latitudes. Of the SW feedbacks, contributions to both albedo and cloud show large seasonal variations. Radiative perturbations contributing to albedo feedback vary in strength with snow and sea-ice retreat which occurs at different latitudes and in different months. They are shown to be highly sensitive to the amount of incident solar radiation in a given month. SW radiative perturbations due to cloud changes vary in sign between opposite seasons. Contributions to the seasonal variations of the cloud component feedbacks, which make up the total cloud feedback, are also examined. In the LW, the feedback is dominated by the total cloud water term. Radiative perturbations due to this component show relatively little variation throughout the year. In the SW, the main source of seasonal variation occurs for contributions to the cloud amount feedback: radiative

  11. Hvad siger forskningen om feedback?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Feedback skal serveres ligesom en gammeldags sandwich. Først lidt brød, så det lidt sejere kød og til sidst igen til lidt brød”. Sådan nogenlunde lyder en pragmatisk løsning på udfordringerne ved at give feedback. Når medarbejdere skal have negativ feedback, skal denne altså pakkes ind, så feedb...... feedbacken indledes med let fordøjeligt positiv feedback, derefter kommer den negative – og noget sværere fordøjelige – feedback, og til sidst afrundes feedbacken med en god udgangsreplik, nemlig den positive feedback.......”Feedback skal serveres ligesom en gammeldags sandwich. Først lidt brød, så det lidt sejere kød og til sidst igen til lidt brød”. Sådan nogenlunde lyder en pragmatisk løsning på udfordringerne ved at give feedback. Når medarbejdere skal have negativ feedback, skal denne altså pakkes ind, så...

  12. Feedback strategies for wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ozbek, Berna

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the different strategies regarding the feedback information for wireless communication systems. The text analyzes the impact of quantization and correlation of channel state information (CSI) on the system performance. The authors show the effect of the reduced and limited feedback information and gives an overview about the feedback strategies in the standards. This volume presents theoretical analysis as well as practical algorithms for the required feedback information at the base stations to perform adaptive resource allocation efficiently and mitigate interference coming from other cells.

  13. Gender differences in reward and punishment for monetary and social feedback in children: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Wang, Encong; Zou, Yuchen; Song, Yan; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Wanyi; Li, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences in feedback processing have been observed among adolescents and adults through event-related potentials. However, information on whether and how this feedback processing is affected by feedback valence, feedback type, and individual sensitivity in reward/punishment among children remains minimal. In this study, we used a guessing game task coupled with electroencephalography to investigate gender differences in feedback processing, in which feedback to reward and punishment was presented in the context of monetary and social conditions. Results showed that boys were less likely to switch their response after punishment, had generally less feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, and longer FRN latency in monetary and punishment conditions than girls. Moreover, FRN for monetary punishment, which is related to individual difference in reward sensitivity, was observed only in girls. The study provides gender-specific evidence for the neural processing of feedback, which may offer educational guidance for appropriate feedback for girls and boys.

  14. Gender differences in reward and punishment for monetary and social feedback in children: An ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ding

    Full Text Available Gender differences in feedback processing have been observed among adolescents and adults through event-related potentials. However, information on whether and how this feedback processing is affected by feedback valence, feedback type, and individual sensitivity in reward/punishment among children remains minimal. In this study, we used a guessing game task coupled with electroencephalography to investigate gender differences in feedback processing, in which feedback to reward and punishment was presented in the context of monetary and social conditions. Results showed that boys were less likely to switch their response after punishment, had generally less feedback-related negativity (FRN amplitude, and longer FRN latency in monetary and punishment conditions than girls. Moreover, FRN for monetary punishment, which is related to individual difference in reward sensitivity, was observed only in girls. The study provides gender-specific evidence for the neural processing of feedback, which may offer educational guidance for appropriate feedback for girls and boys.

  15. KEKB bunch feedback systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobiyama, M.; Kikutani, E. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Design and the present status of the bunch by bunch feedback systems for KEKB rings are shown. The detection of the bunch oscillation are made with the phase detection for longitudinal plane, the AM/PM method for transverse plane. Two GHz component of the bunch signal which is extracted with an analog FIR filter is used for the detection. Hardware two-tap FIR filter systems to shift the phase of the oscillation by 90deg will be used for the longitudinal signal processing. The same system will be used with no filtering but with only digital delay for transverse system. The candidate for the kicker and the required maximum power are also estimated. (author)

  16. Feedback matters current feedback practices in the EFL classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Reitbauer, Margit; Mercer, Sarah; Schumm-Fauster, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This varied collection of papers is concerned with feedback in the language learning context. With its blend of theoretical overviews, action research-based empirical studies and practical implications, this will be a valuable resource for all academics and practitioners concerned with generating feedback that matters.

  17. What higher education students do with teacher feedback: Feedback ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Writing pedagogy research has constantly maintained that feedback is 'an essential component of virtually every model of the writing process' (Hall, 1990: 43) as it motivates writers to improve their next draft. Feedback during the writing process improves not only student attitude to writing but writing performance if students ...

  18. Rationalizing Oral Corrective Feedback in Sudanese EFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Abuelnour Elbashir Hussein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is primarily investigating teachers’ perceptions about the application of oral corrective feedback in Sudanese EFL classrooms. It attempts to explore and rationalize the application of oral feedback in an EFL context, specifically in Sudan. For this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to (70 EFL secondary school teachers. An observation checklist was also used during class visits to further support the qualitative data. The results showed that EFL teachers have different views about giving oral corrective feedback. The findings also revealed that recast is the most commonly used approach, followed by elicitation and metalinguistic feedback, respectively. Clarification requests were found to be the least commonly used approach. Regarding teaching language systems, it was found that recasts is the most common approach used in teaching vocabulary and pronunciation whereas metalinguistic is highly preferred in teaching grammar. The study concluded with some relevant recommendations: First, it is the responsibility of the concerned authorities to make the school environment a better place for learning; class size and learning aids are important to help facilitate the role of the teacher in offering good quality teaching where feedback is provided for every learner. Second, educators and experts should hold regular seminars and conferences, issue magazines and periodicals on feedback and other relevant ELT topics. Moreover, teachers should be trained on how to give feedback on oral production. Finally, teachers should push students towards pair/group work because by doing so this will provide opportunities for ST-ST and T-ST feedback.

  19. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. Interface Prostheses With Classifier-Feedback-Based User Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yinfeng; Zhou, Dalin; Li, Kairu; Liu, Honghai

    It is evident that user training significantly affects performance of pattern-recognition-based myoelectric prosthetic device control. Despite plausible classification accuracy on offline datasets, online accuracy usually suffers from the changes in physiological conditions and electrode displacement. The user ability in generating consistent electromyographic (EMG) patterns can be enhanced via proper user training strategies in order to improve online performance. This study proposes a clustering-feedback strategy that provides real-time feedback to users by means of a visualized online EMG signal input as well as the centroids of the training samples, whose dimensionality is reduced to minimal number by dimension reduction. Clustering feedback provides a criterion that guides users to adjust motion gestures and muscle contraction forces intentionally. The experiment results have demonstrated that hand motion recognition accuracy increases steadily along the progress of the clustering-feedback-based user training, while conventional classifier-feedback methods, i.e., label feedback, hardly achieve any improvement. The result concludes that the use of proper classifier feedback can accelerate the process of user training, and implies prosperous future for the amputees with limited or no experience in pattern-recognition-based prosthetic device manipulation.It is evident that user training significantly affects performance of pattern-recognition-based myoelectric prosthetic device control. Despite plausible classification accuracy on offline datasets, online accuracy usually suffers from the changes in physiological conditions and electrode displacement. The user ability in generating consistent electromyographic (EMG) patterns can be enhanced via proper user training strategies in order to improve online performance. This study proposes a clustering-feedback strategy that provides real-time feedback to users by means of a visualized online EMG signal input as well

  1. Feedback in Clinical Education, Part II: Approved Clinical Instructor and Student Perceptions of and Influences on Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara; Henning, Jolene

    2014-01-01

    Context: Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs; now known as preceptors) are expected to provide feedback to athletic training students (ATSs) during clinical education experiences. Researchers in other fields have found that clinical instructors and students often have different perceptions of actual and ideal feedback and that several factors may influence the feedback exchanges between instructors and students. However, understanding of these issues in athletic training education is minimal. Objective: To investigate the current characteristics and perceptions of and the influences on feedback exchanges between ATSs and ACIs. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: One entry-level master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants: Four ACIs and 4 second-year ATSs. Data Collection and Analysis: Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted with participants and integrated with field notes and observations for analysis. We used the constant comparative approach to inductively analyze data and develop codes and categories. Member checking, triangulation, and peer debriefing were used to promote trustworthiness of the study. Results: Participants described that feedback plays an important role in clinical education and has several purposes related to improving performance. The ACIs and ATSs also discussed several preferred characteristics of feedback. Participants identified 4 main influences on their feedback exchanges, including the ACI, the ATS, personalities, and the learning environment. Conclusions: The ACIs and ATSs had similar perceptions of ideal feedback in addition to the actual feedback that was provided during their clinical education experiences. Most of the preferences for feedback were aligned with recommendations in the literature, suggesting that existing research findings are applicable to athletic training clinical education. Several factors influenced the

  2. A feedback quenched oscillator produces turing patterning with one diffuser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Hsia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to engineer synthetic gene networks that spontaneously produce patterning in multicellular ensembles have focused on Turing's original model and the "activator-inhibitor" models of Meinhardt and Gierer. Systems based on this model are notoriously difficult to engineer. We present the first demonstration that Turing pattern formation can arise in a new family of oscillator-driven gene network topologies, specifically when a second feedback loop is introduced which quenches oscillations and incorporates a diffusible molecule. We provide an analysis of the system that predicts the range of kinetic parameters over which patterning should emerge and demonstrate the system's viability using stochastic simulations of a field of cells using realistic parameters. The primary goal of this paper is to provide a circuit architecture which can be implemented with relative ease by practitioners and which could serve as a model system for pattern generation in synthetic multicellular systems. Given the wide range of oscillatory circuits in natural systems, our system supports the tantalizing possibility that Turing pattern formation in natural multicellular systems can arise from oscillator-driven mechanisms.

  3. Intelligent dental training simulator with objective skill assessment and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Dailey, Matthew N

    2011-06-01

    We present a dental training simulator that provides a virtual reality (VR) environment with haptic feedback for dental students to practice dental surgical skills in the context of a crown preparation procedure. The simulator addresses challenges in traditional training such as the subjective nature of surgical skill assessment and the limited availability of expert supervision. We identified important features for characterizing the quality of a procedure based on interviews with experienced dentists. The features are patterns combining tool position, tool orientation, and applied force. The simulator monitors these features during the procedure, objectively assesses the quality of the performed procedure using hidden Markov models (HMMs), and provides objective feedback on the user's performance in each stage of the procedure. We recruited five dental students and five experienced dentists to evaluate the accuracy of our skill assessment method and the quality of the system's generated feedback. The experimental results show that HMMs with selected features can correctly classify all test sequences into novice and expert categories. The evaluation also indicates a high acceptance rate from experts for the system's generated feedback. In this work, we introduce our VR dental training simulator and describe a mechanism for providing objective skill assessment and feedback. The HMM is demonstrated as an effective tool for classifying a particular operator as novice-level or expert-level. The simulator can generate tutoring feedback with quality comparable to the feedback provided by human tutors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  5. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  6. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Linda Keuvelaar - van den Bergh

    2013-01-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to enhance student learning. In 2006, the Dutch Inspectorate of Education concluded from classroom observations that it is difficult for Dutch teachers to give their students good feedback in order to stimulate students' learning process

  7. Videoer om feedback i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Nexø

    2017-01-01

    I denne video bliver du introduceret til en måde at praktisere og rammesætte klyngevejledning på i bachelorundervisning. Klyngefeedbackformen til de studerende er valgt, da de studerende lærer meget af både at give og om modtage feedback fra medstuderende. Fokus på feedback ligger derfor primært i...

  8. Designing feedback: multimodality and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Sugiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Now that many of us carry around devices that are equipped with sensors (e.g., smartphones with accelerometers) we can use these sensors to measure behavior. The data thus captured can be used to give someone feedback about this behavior. These feedback mechanisms are often used in so called smart

  9. Learner-centred feedback using remote assessment of clinical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Kneebone; Fernando Bello; Debra Nestel; Neville Mooney; Andrew Codling; Faranak Yadollahi; Tanya Tierney; David Wilcockson; Ara Darzi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Imperial College Feedback and Assessment System (ICFAS) and explores its feasibility in supporting the learning of practical clinical procedures. ICFAS is an innovative combination of existing technologies which brings together video recording, networked mobile computers (laptop and handheld) and content management software. The aim is to observe, record, assess and provide feedback on multiple simulated encounters. We have developed ICFAS within the framework of our Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI) (Kneebone et al. 2006a,b), providing a technology-based 'feedback space' for maximizing educational value.

  10. Medicare FFS Physician Feedback Program Value-Based Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician Feedback - Value-Based Modifier Program provides comparative performance information to physicians as one part of Medicares efforts to improve the...

  11. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M.

    2014-12-19

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main co...

  12. How Quasar Feedback May Shape the Co-evolutionary Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Ishibashi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations point toward some form of “co-evolutionary sequence,” from dust-enshrouded starbursts to luminous unobscured quasars. Active galactic nucleus (AGN feedback is generally invoked to expel the obscuring dusty gas in a blow-out event, eventually revealing the hidden central quasar. However, the physical mechanism driving AGN feedback, either due to winds or radiation, remains uncertain and is still a source of much debate. We consider quasar feedback, based on radiation pressure on dust, which directly acts on the obscuring dusty gas. We show that AGN radiative feedback is capable of efficiently removing the obscuring cocoon, and driving powerful outflows on galactic scales, consistent with recent observations. I will discuss how such quasar feedback may provide a natural physical interpretation of the observed evolutionary path, and the physical implications in the broader context of black hole-host galaxy co-evolution.

  13. Quantifying Feedback – Insights Into Peer Assessment Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak

    2017-01-01

    The act of producing content - for example in forms of written reports - is one of the most used methods for teaching and learning all the way from primary school to university. It is a learning tool which helps students relate their theories to practice. Getting relevant and helpful feedback...... on this work is important to ensure a good learning experience for the students. Providing this feedback is often a time-consuming job for the teacher. An effective way to learn is to teach others, and similarly give feedback on work done by others. One way to approach a combined solution to the above...... of more than 10,000 students. The students have together made more than 100,000 peer-evaluations of work by other students, and these evaluations together contain more than 10,000,000 words of text feedback. A key problem when using peer assessment is to ensure high quality feedback between peers...

  14. The Listening Circle: Using the SBI Model to Enhance Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommelje, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The Listening Circle is a learning activity that is designed to provide students with the opportunity to connect listening knowledge with observed behaviors and to strengthen student peer feedback. Not knowing how to give feedback can result in messages that are confusing, tactless, and counter-productive. Many feedback messages leave the receiver…

  15. Analysis of Peer Review Comments: QM Recommendations and Feedback Intervention Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Andria F.; Altman, Barbara W.

    2015-01-01

    Because feedback is a critical component of the continuous improvement cycle of the Quality Matters (QM) peer review process, the present research analyzed the feedback that peer reviewers provided to course developers after a voluntary, nonofficial QM peer review of online courses. Previous research reveals that the effects of feedback on…

  16. The Use of Video Feedback in Teaching Process-Approach EFL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkul, Sertaç; Ortaçtepe, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the use of video feedback as an alternative to feedback with correction codes at an institution where the latter was commonly used for teaching process-approach English as a foreign language (EFL) writing. Over a 5-week period, the control and the experimental groups were provided with feedback based on…

  17. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  18. Yes/No/Maybe: A Boolean attempt at feedback | Louw | Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes an experiment in which Boolean feedback (a kind of checklist) was used to provide feedback on the paragraph structures of first year students in an Academic Literacy course. We begin by introducing the major problems with feedback on L2 writing and establishing why a focus on paragraph structures ...

  19. Mitigation of Cognitive Bias with a Serious Game: Two Experiments Testing Feedback Timing and Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Jensen, Matthew L.; Miller, Claude H.; Bessarabova, Elena; Lee, Yu-Hao; Wilson, Scott N.; Elizondo, Javier; Adame, Bradley J.; Valacich, Joseph; Straub, Sara; Burgoon, Judee K.; Lane, Brianna; Piercy, Cameron W.; Wilson, David; King, Shawn; Vincent, Cindy; Schuetzler, Ryan M.

    One of the benefits of using digital games for education is that games can provide feedback for learners to assess their situation and correct their mistakes. We conducted two studies to examine the effectiveness of different feedback design (timing, duration, repeats, and feedback source) in a serious game designed to teach learners about…

  20. The Effects of Foreign Language Anxiety on EFL Learners' Perceptions of Oral Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    The study reported in this paper explored if learners' perceptions of two types of oral corrective feedback, recasts, and metalinguistic feedback, are influenced by their foreign language anxiety in classrooms. Corrective feedback was provided to English as a foreign language (EFL) learners who were homogeneous with regard to their proficiency…