Sample records for providing finely divided

  1. Automatic Control System for Dispensing Precise Amounts of FInely Divided Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, J. M.; McGraw, H. R.; Draut, C. F.


    A device for automatic dispensing of precise amounts of finely divided solids has been developed. Precision is a function of dispensing time. Smaller than gram quantities may be dispensed at a rate of about 1/3 g/min with a precision corresponding to a weight range of about 0.001 g for a series. The process consists in moving the material with the effect of the vibratory motion of a miniature air-powered vibrator. Operation is automatically controlled by the electronic system of the weighing unit interfaced to the pneumatic dispensing device via a combination fluidic and pneumatic control system.

  2. Finely divided methylsilsesquioxane particles with SiO4/2 fragments in structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Averichkin


    Full Text Available Results of structural and morphological investigations of methylsilsesquioxane finely divided particles synthesized by hydrolytic co-condensation of in situ alkoxylated methyltrichlorosilane and tetrachlorous silicon are presented. The silica-type hydrophobe particles have been obtained using the abovementioned method with an output of 98.7–99.4 wt% of the load. These particles have been identified as crystalline formations with a lattice period of 5.5–8.0 nm and an interplane distance of 0.92–1.04 nm in the near order. We show that unlike for well-known crystalline methylsilsesquioxanes, introduction of chemically bonded SiO4/2 fragments to the material structure leads to the formation of 2–3 μm-sized spherical particles from the initial 10–15 nm particles; these particles are responsible for the spherical morphology of the surface. A method of extracting siloxane nanoparticles (2.5–280 nm from the reaction products has been described, the behavior of particles in suspension has been studied and particle dimensional parameters have been determined using helium−neon 0.6328 nm laser correlation spectroscopy.

  3. Breaking down violence detection: combining divide-et-impera and coarse-to-fine strategies


    Acar, Esra; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin


    In today׳s society where audio–visual content is ubiquitous, violence detection in movies and Web videos has become a decisive functionality, e.g., for providing automated youth protection services. In this paper, we concentrate on two important aspects of video content analysis: Time efficiency and modeling of concepts (in this case, violence modeling). Traditional approaches to violent scene detection build on audio or visual features to model violence as a single concept in the feature spa...

  4. Maintaining Long-Distance Friendships: Communication Practices for Seeking and Providing Social Support across Geographic Divides (United States)

    Lobburi, Patipan


    People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…

  5. Anthropic Reasoning about Fine-Tuning, and Neoclassical Cosmology: Providence, Omnipresence, and Observation Selection Theory (United States)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.


    Anthropic reasoning about observation selection effects upon the appearance of cosmic providential fine-tuning (fine-tuning that provides for life) is often motivated by a desire to avoid theological implications (implications favoring the idea of a divine cosmic provider) without appealing to sheer lucky-for-us-cosmic-jackpot happenstance and coincidence. Cosmic coincidence can be rendered less incredible by appealing to a multiverse context. Cosmic providence can be rendered non-theological by appealing to an agent-less providential purpose, or by appealing to less-than-omnipresent/local providers, such as alien intelligences creating life- providing baby universes. Instead of choosing either cosmic coincidence or cosmic providence, as though they were mutually exclusive; it is better to accept both. Neoclassical thought accepts coincidence and providence, plus many local providers and one omnipresent provider. Moreover, fundamental observation selection theory should distinguish the many local observers of some events from the one omnipresent observer of all events. Accepting both coincidence and providence avoids classical theology (providence without coincidence) and classical atheism (coincidence without providence), but not neoclassical theology (providence with coincidence). Cosmology cannot avoid the idea of an all-inclusive omnipresent providential dice-throwing living-creative whole of reality, an idea essential to neoclassical theology, and to neoclassical cosmology.

  6. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus


    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...... than 20,000 articles published in 59 IR journals to construct a network among IR journals and finds a discipline with a center consisting of pedigreed IR journals, albeit closely related to political science. Divisions are identifiable as specialty areas that form clusters of specialized journals along...

  7. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia


    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  8. Continental Divide Trail (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  9. Localized adenosine signaling provides fine-tuned negative feedback over a wide dynamic range of neocortical network activities (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J. E.


    Although the patterns of activity produced by neocortical networks are now better understood, how these states are activated, sustained, and terminated still remains unclear. Negative feedback by the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine may potentially play an important role, as it can be released by activity and there is dense A1 receptor expression in the neocortex. Using electrophysiology, biosensors, and modeling, we have investigated the properties of adenosine signaling during physiological and pathological network activity in rat neocortical slices. Both low- and high-rate network activities were reduced by A1 receptor activation and enhanced by block of A1 receptors, consistent with activity-dependent adenosine release. Since the A1 receptors were neither saturated nor completely unoccupied during either low- or high-rate activity, adenosine signaling provides a negative-feedback mechanism with a wide dynamic range. Modeling and biosensor experiments show that during high-rate activity increases in extracellular adenosine concentration are highly localized and are uncorrelated over short distances that are certainly adenosine release during low-rate activity, although it is present, is probably a consequence of small localized increases in adenosine concentration that are rapidly diminished by diffusion and active removal mechanisms. Saturation of such removal mechanisms when higher concentrations of adenosine are released results in the accumulation of inosine, explaining the strong purine signal during high-rate activity. PMID:25392170

  10. Facial primer provides immediate and long-term improvements in mild-to-moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines associated with photoaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts WE


    Full Text Available Wendy E Roberts,1 Lily I Jiang,2 James H Herndon Jr3 1Generational and Cosmetic Dermatology, Rancho Mirage, CA, 2Thomas J Stephens and Associates, Richardson, 3Dermatology Center of Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA Background: Photoaged skin results from various environmental factors, most importantly chronic sun exposure. Dyschromia and fine lines/wrinkles are common clinical manifestations of photodamaged skin. Purpose: This single-center clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a new multifunctional facial primer (camouflage, broad-spectrum SPF 50, and a treatment for hyperpigmentation when used by females with mild-to-moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines due to photoaging over a course of 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Subjects were provided test material (Even Up-Clinical Pigment Perfector and supporting products to use on their face and neck. Products were used according to specific application instructions. Clinical grading for efficacy and tolerability assessments were performed by an expert grader at baseline, baseline (post-application primer, week 4, week 8, week 12, and week 12 (post-application primer. Standardized digital photographs were taken, and self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. Results: Twenty-eight female subjects completed the 12-week trial. The facial primer improved scores for the appearance of hyperpigmentation and other photoaging parameters immediately after the first application. The treatment also showed a progressive improvement in the clinical assessment of hyperpigmentation and other photoaging parameters over the 12-week trial. These long-term benefits can be attributed to an improvement in the underlying skin condition. The facial primer was well tolerated. Subject questionnaires showed that the product was highly rated at all visits. Conclusion: The facial primer was shown to be effective and well tolerated for immediate and long-term improvement in the appearance

  11. Effects of providing and withholding postfitting fine-tuning adjustments on outcome measures in novice hearing aid users: a pilot study. (United States)

    Cunningham, D R; Williams, K J; Goldsmith, L J


    This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of either providing or withholding subject-driven, postfitting electroacoustic changes (fine tuning) on hearing aid performance as measured by tests of speech recognition in noise, sound quality, and benefit. A group of adult first-time hearing aid users with moderate, high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss was studied over a 5-month postfitting period. Half of the group served as a control group; half constituted the treatment group. Treatment consisted of making as many postfitting electroacoustic manipulations as the participants' complaints/observations required. These adjustments were withheld from the control group individuals. Group performance differences were assessed using the COSI, two versions of the APHAB, a Satisfaction scale, a Sound Quality tool, and the SIN test. Analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in the control and treatment groups' performances or perceived benefit at any of the five postfitting test sessions. These data suggested that there was no measurable advantage to be derived from making postfitting frequency-gain adjustments of 10 dB or less to hearing aids with wide dynamic range compression fitted in the manner described in this article. Definitive studies of the effects of postfitting electroacoustic fine tuning must be undertaken.

  12. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)


    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  13. RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus). (United States)

    Benestan, Laura; Gosselin, Thierry; Perrier, Charles; Sainte-Marie, Bernard; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis


    Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species' range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs using RAD sequencing to delineate genetic structure and perform population assignment for 586 American lobsters collected in 17 locations distributed across a large portion of the species' natural distribution range. Our results revealed the existence of a hierarchical genetic structure, first separating lobsters from the northern and southern part of the range (FCT  = 0.0011; P-value = 0.0002) and then revealing a total of 11 genetically distinguishable populations (mean FST  = 0.00185; CI: 0.0007-0.0021, P-value < 0.0002), providing strong evidence for weak, albeit fine-scale population structuring within each region. A resampling procedure showed that assignment success was highest with a subset of 3000 SNPs having the highest FST . Applying Anderson's (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010, 10, 701) method to avoid 'high-grading bias', 94.2% and 80.8% of individuals were correctly assigned to their region and location of origin, respectively. Lastly, we showed that assignment success was positively associated with sample size. These results demonstrate that using a large number of SNPs improves fine-scale population structure delineation and population assignment success in a context of weak genetic structure. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation and management of highly connected marine species, particularly regarding the geographic scale of demographic independence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. ABCR unites what ophthalmologists divide(s) (United States)

    van Driel, M A; Maugeri, A; Klevering, B J; Hoyng, C B; Cremers, F P


    Over the last years, the molecular causes of monogenic chorioretinal diseases have been elucidated at an increasing pace. In contrast, only recently have genetic factors been found that contribute to multifactorial eye disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Mutations in the retina-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter gene (ABCR) cause recessive Stargardt's disease (STGD) and fundus flavimaculatus (FFM), and were also found in 16% of patients with AMD. In addition, ABCR mutations were identified in families with recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cone dystrophy (COD), and cone-rod dystrophy (CRD). In this review, we summarize these findings and propose a model which provides a framework to explain the observed genotypes and phenotypes. We hypothesize that most ABCR mutations can be classified in different classes of severity, and that, depending on the remaining total activity of ABCR, the phenotype can range from AMD at the mild end to RP at the severe end of the spectrum. This model allows us to make several predictions on the type and/or severity of ABCR mutations that are present in patients with AMD, STGD/FFM, COD, CRD, and RP.

  15. A dividing issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter


    Why are organised shoots involving birds that are farm-reared and subsequently released a dividing issue in several countries? As a contribution to answering this question the paper reports a national survey of landowners (n = 1207), hunters (n = 1130) and the general public (n = 1001) in Denmark....... While there was broad agreement across all three groups that recreational hunting of naturally occurring “surplus” wildlife is acceptable, the release of farm-reared game birds for shooting was a dividing issue, both within the groups and between them. The majority of participants (51%) in the survey...... representing the general public were against the practice; a majority of hunters (61%) were in favour of it; and landowner approval rates lay between these two poles. Respondents with a “mutualist” or “distanced” wildlife value orientation according to the definitions by Teel et al. (2005) consistently...

  16. Facebook's gender divide


    Garcia, David; Kassa, Yonas Mitike; Cuevas, Angel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Rahwan, Iyad; Cuevas, Ruben


    Online social media are information resources that can have a transformative power in society. While the Web was envisioned as an equalizing force that allows everyone to access information, the digital divide prevents large amounts of people from being present online. Online social media in particular are prone to gender inequality, an important issue given the link between social media use and employment. Understanding gender inequality in social media is a challenging task due to the neces...

  17. Melting the Divide (United States)

    Gibson, S. M.


    Presenting Quaternary Environmental Change to students who fall into Widening Participation criteria at the University of Cambridge, gives a unique opportunity to present academic debate in an approachable and entertaining way. Literally by discussing the melting of our ice caps, melts the divide Cambridge has between its reputation and the reality for the brightest, underprivileged, students. There is a balance between presenting cutting edge research with the need to come across as accessible (and importantly valuable to "learning"). Climate change over the Quaternary lends itself well to this aim. By lecturing groups of potential students through the entire Quaternary in an hour, stopping to discuss how our ancestors interacted with past Interglacials and what are the mechanisms driving change (in generalized terms), you are able to introduce cutting edge research (such as the latest NEEM ice core) to the students. This shows the evolution and importance of higher education and academic research. The lecture leads well onto group discussions (termed "supervisions" in Cambridge), to explore their opinions on the concern for present Anthropogenic Climate Change in relation to Past Climate Change after being presented with images that our ancestors "made it". Here discussion thrives off students saying obvious things (or sarcastic comments!) which quickly can lead into a deep technical discussion on their terms. Such discussions give the students a zest for higher education, simply throwing Ruddiman's (2003) "The Anthroprocene Started Several Thousand Years Ago" at them, questions in a second their concept of Anthropogenic Climate Change. Supervisions lend themselves well to bright, articulate, students and by offering these experiences to students of Widening Participation criteria we quickly melt the divide between the reputation of Cambridge ( and higher education as a whole) and the day to day practice. Higher education is not for the privileged, but a free and

  18. Divide and Pacify

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    unemployment benefits and many others onto early retirement and disability pensions. From a narrow economic viewpoint, these policies often appeared to be immensely costly or irresponsibly populist. Yet a more inclusive social-scientific perspective can shed new light on these seemingly irrational policies......, hundreds of thousands of people suddenly became disabled and retired or simply vanished from the labor market. … Pieter Vanhuysse, in his lucid and brilliantly argued slim book Divide and Pacify, shows how the second oddity goes a long way toward explaining the first one. By connecting two puzzles he...... about political economy as an art of analysis. Vanhuysse presents theory, methodology and empirical analysis with equal force, blends them into a powerful and very interesting narrative…. Highly recommended" – European Sociological Review "Pieter Vanhuysse has written a fascinating book on the phenomena...

  19. Why do bacteria divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vic eNorris


    Full Text Available The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium and non-equilibrium cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias `hyperstructures'. The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of equilibrium material and the intensity of use of non-equilibrium material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics

  20. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development. (United States)

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues


    colonization in tomato roots, indicating that, besides hormonal interactions, a fine-tuning of each hormone level is required for AM development.

  1. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna


    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  2. DNA repair mechanisms in dividing and non-dividing cells. (United States)

    Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M


    DNA damage created by endogenous or exogenous genotoxic agents can exist in multiple forms, and if allowed to persist, can promote genome instability and directly lead to various human diseases, particularly cancer, neurological abnormalities, immunodeficiency and premature aging. To avoid such deleterious outcomes, cells have evolved an array of DNA repair pathways, which carry out what is typically a multiple-step process to resolve specific DNA lesions and maintain genome integrity. To fully appreciate the biological contributions of the different DNA repair systems, one must keep in mind the cellular context within which they operate. For example, the human body is composed of non-dividing and dividing cell types, including, in the brain, neurons and glial cells. We describe herein the molecular mechanisms of the different DNA repair pathways, and review their roles in non-dividing and dividing cells, with an eye toward how these pathways may regulate the development of neurological disease. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda


    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  4. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique (United States)

    Lewis, Robert


    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  5. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink


    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  6. A low-power digital frequency divider for system-on-a-chip applications

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham


    In this paper, an idea for a new frequency divider architecture is proposed. The divider is based on a coarse-fine architecture. The coarse block operates at a low frequency to save power consumption and it selectively enables the fine block which operates at the high input frequency. The proposed divider has the advantages of synchronous divider, but with lower power consumption and higher operation speed. The design can achieve a wide division range with a minor effect on power consumption and speed. The architecture was implemented on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to verify its operation. Experimental measurements validate system operation with power reduction greater than 40%. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Bridging the Health Data Divide. (United States)

    Celi, Leo Anthony; Davidzon, Guido; Johnson, Alistair Ew; Komorowski, Matthieu; Marshall, Dominic C; Nair, Sunil S; Phillips, Colin T; Pollard, Tom J; Raffa, Jesse D; Salciccioli, Justin D; Salgueiro, Francisco Muge; Stone, David J


    Fundamental quality, safety, and cost problems have not been resolved by the increasing digitization of health care. This digitization has progressed alongside the presence of a persistent divide between clinicians, the domain experts, and the technical experts, such as data scientists. The disconnect between clinicians and data scientists translates into a waste of research and health care resources, slow uptake of innovations, and poorer outcomes than are desirable and achievable. The divide can be narrowed by creating a culture of collaboration between these two disciplines, exemplified by events such as datathons. However, in order to more fully and meaningfully bridge the divide, the infrastructure of medical education, publication, and funding processes must evolve to support and enhance a learning health care system. ©Leo Anthony Celi, Guido Davidzon, Alistair EW Johnson, Matthieu Komorowski, Dominic C Marshall, Sunil S Nair, Colin T Phillips, Tom J Pollard, Jesse D Raffa, Justin D Salciccioli, Francisco Muge Salgueiro, David J Stone. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 20.12.2016.

  8. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter


    of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...... welfare state does not seem to foster agreement among the public, either. These findings have important policy implications for advanced welfare states, including a renewed emphasis on ‘predistribution’ (i.e., policies that influence the primary distribution of income) in order to avoid the scenario...

  9. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  10. Crossroads - Bridging the Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cobb


    Full Text Available It’s so good to be in Cambridge, it feels almost like home. Let me start by stating that in the past year ITMB, a successful map publisher in British Columbia, Canada published more paper map titles than at any time in their history. Similarly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS recently announced that they have ceased producing paper from their aerial photography archive and will only produce digital copies. I believe that both of these facts speak to the future of maps and digital data. It means there will be paper maps well into the future and there will be an increasing array of digital data - some of it reformatted, as in the USGS case, and most of it will be born digital. When asked to speak about GIS and its role in libraries I often find myself in a conundrum - am I here to slay the dragon, or to pet the dragon. The role of technology in libraries is not one that has been embraced by everyone, and often the technology itself seems to have been force-fed upon us. The library profession is not one that has historically been a proponent of change and the very nature of GIS is change. In one sense, we have been given the choice of becoming paper museums or, at the very least, making GIS technology available in our collections. Today, I would like to review the many ways that GIS is, or will, affect our collections. I will divide the presentation into a general overview of GIS in libraries, how it affects our acquisitions or collection development policies, its effect on cataloging, on reference services, staffing, and our web services. Then I will shift the focus a little and discuss the current situation at the Harvard Map Collection, the future role of legacy collections, and a look to the future.

  11. One Nation, Divided: Culture, Civic Institutions, and the Marriage Divide (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford; Wolfinger, Nicholas H.; Stokes, Charles E.


    Since the 1960s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic retreat from marriage, marked by divorce, cohabitation, single parenthood, and lower overall marriage rates. Marriage is now less likely to anchor adults' lives or provide a stable framework for childrearing, especially among poor and working-class Americans. Much research on the retreat…

  12. [Design of broadband power divider in microwave hyperthermia system]. (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Jiang, Guotai; Lu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yi


    In clinical application of microwave hyperthermia, multi-applicators are often simultaneously required to irradiate the tumor because of its large volume or its deep location. Power divider separates the input microwave energy into equal, or unequal, energy to each applicator. In this paper, the design procedure for the three-section transmission-line transformer based one-to-two equal-split Wilkinson power divider is introduced. By impedance analysis on equivalent scheme, the design parameter of power divider is provided, and by simulation and optimization on Ansoft HFSS, a microstrip structure Wilkinson power divider operating frequency 2. 45 GHz is given. Measurement test results from network analyzer show that it has 25% bandwidth and good isolation in output with this structure. Besides, it is characterized by small size and easy processing. This power divider suits microwave hyperthermia.

  13. Observations of substorm fine structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazutin


    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field measurements on the CRRES satellite were used, together with geosynchronous satellites and ground-based observations, to investigate the fine structure of a magnetospheric substorm on February 9, 1991. Using the variations in the electron fluxes, the substorm activity was divided into several intensifications lasting about 3–15 minutes each. The two main features of the data were: (1 the intensifications showed internal fine structure in the time scale of about 2 minutes or less. We call these shorter periods activations. Energetic electrons and protons at the closest geosynchronous spacecraft (1990 095 were found to have comparable activation structure. (2 The energetic (>69 keV proton injections were delayed with respect to electron injections, and actually coincided in time with the end of the intensifications and partial returns to locally more stretched field line configuration. We propose that the energetic protons could be able to control the dynamics of the system locally be quenching the ongoing intensification and possibly preparing the final large-scale poleward movement of the activity. It was also shown that these protons originated from the same intensification as the preceeding electrons. Therefore, the substorm instability responsible for the intensifications could introduce a negative feedback loop into the system, creating the observed fine structure with the intensification time scales.Key words. Magnetospheric Physics (Storms and substorms.

  14. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan


    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  15. Impact of usability on efforts to bridge the digital divide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebesin, F


    Full Text Available to Bridge the Digital Divide Funmi Adebesin Meraka Institute of the CSIR and School of Computing, UNISA P.O. Box 395 Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Paula Kotzé Meraka Institute of the CSIR and School of Computing, UNISA P.O. Box.... To address the problem, international and national initiatives are ongoing to provide access to technologies with the aim of bridging the digital divide. Many of the efforts to narrow the divide have been concerned with the provision of physical...

  16. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Wright, James D.


    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and

  17. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.


    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  18. Quantitative Measurement of the Digital Divide (United States)

    Cottrell, Roger


    Bandwidth and the Internet infrastructure are the life-blood of the world's knowledge economy, but they are often scarcest where most needed. Measuring the numbers of users of the Internet infrastructure is not easy in developing countries because many people share accounts, use corporate and academic networks, or visit the rapidly growing number of cyber cafes, telecentres and business services. Also measuring the number of users does not take into account the level of use. One valuable indicator for measuring the Internet infrastructure is the international Internet performance of a country or region. One of the major aims of the PingER project is to provide an historical archive of extensive, publicly accessible, up-to-date, measurements, analyses and reports of multiple Internet performance indicators (such as delay, loss, throughput, reachability, and jitter) between sites, countries and regions of the world. This talk will briefly describe the PingER project and then compare and contrast the Internet performance and its trends within and between countries and regions of the world. By means of extensive case studies it will also identify which regions need the greatest attention, together with their major issues and possible approaches to reducing the divide.

  19. Bridging the divide between science and journalism. (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer


    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  20. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M


    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  1. Digital divide in Serbia from demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Slavoljub M.


    Full Text Available Digital divide is a term that defines differences and inequality between various groups of population considering opportunities and abilities for access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT, particularly the Internet. Digital divide can be viewed from regional and global aspect, so there are significant differences between regions in a country and between countries, considering the use of ICT. On the global level, there are the countries where a great part of the population has access to ICT and countries where that is not the case. Serbia as a country that is in transition period belongs to the second group of countries. In addition, digital divide exists on a country level, because in south-east region of Serbia relatively small number of people has access to ICT comparing to the other regions. The paper just treats problem of digital divide on the example of Republic of Serbia, with specific view to demographic aspect of the problem.

  2. Environmental Aesthetics. Crossing Divides and Breaking Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, M.; Keulartz, J.


    Environmental aesthetics crosses several commonly recognized divides: between analytic and continental philosophy, Eastern and Western traditions, universalizing and historicizing approaches, and theoretical and practical concerns. This volume sets out to show how these,perspectives can be brought

  3. Divide and Recombine for Large Complex Data (United States)


    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Divide and Recombine (D& R ) statistical approach was developed for analyzing ‘big data’ where the computational very high. The analyst divides data into subsets by a D& R division technique, applying analytic methods to each subset independently, without...communication. Outputs of each analytic method are recombined by a D& R recombination procedure, which allows extensive parallel computation. DeltaRho

  4. Dense, finely, grained composite materials (United States)

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Holt, Joseph B.; Kingman, Donald D.; Munir, Zuhair A.


    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dini


    Full Text Available Recensione di due prodotti software destinati alla "produzione" che possono rappresentare un valido supporto alle attivita’ didattiche nell’ambito della musica e della grafica: OUVERTURE e FINE ARTIST.

  6. Fine Arts Database (FAD) (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  7. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.


    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  8. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties" (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh


    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  9. Transformer-based design techniques for oscillators and frequency dividers

    CERN Document Server

    Luong, Howard Cam


    This book provides in-depth coverage of transformer-based design techniques that enable CMOS oscillators and frequency dividers to achieve state-of-the-art performance.  Design, optimization, and measured performance of oscillators and frequency dividers for different applications are discussed in detail, focusing on not only ultra-low supply voltage but also ultra-wide frequency tuning range and locking range.  This book will be an invaluable reference for anyone working or interested in CMOS radio-frequency or mm-Wave integrated circuits and systems.

  10. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad


    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  11. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.


    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of

  12. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz


    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  13. Divide and Multiply: Baptist Diversity in Appalachia. (United States)

    Dorgan, Howard


    Baptists' propensity for splitting apart arises from the faith's avowed love of theological argument. Gives an overview of Baptist denominations, and identifies the main issues that divide them: atonement, predestination, the nature and origins of good and evil, worship practices, church governance, gender issues, and other social and cultural…

  14. Project DIVIDE Instrument Development. Technical Report # 0810 (United States)

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne; Jung, Eunju; Geller, Josh; Yovanoff, Paul


    In this technical report, we describe the development of cognitive diagnostic test items that form the basis of the diagnostic system for Project DIVIDE (Dynamic Instruction Via Individually Designed Environments). The construct underlying the diagnostic test is division of fractions. We include a description of the process we used to identify the…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    claim both common ancestry and a common cultural tradition”(p. 218). ... foundation. Among several other reasons that results to ethno- religious divide in Nigeria is the amalgamation event which is the hand work of the European imperial powers under the ... ethnicity is said to be rooted in the very set up of Nigeria,but it got.

  16. Ouroboros: A Tool for Building Generic, Hybrid, Divide& Conquer Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J R; Foster, I


    A hybrid divide and conquer algorithm is one that switches from a divide and conquer to an iterative strategy at a specified problem size. Such algorithms can provide significant performance improvements relative to alternatives that use a single strategy. However, the identification of the optimal problem size at which to switch for a particular algorithm and platform can be challenging. We describe an automated approach to this problem that first conducts experiments to explore the performance space on a particular platform and then uses the resulting performance data to construct an optimal hybrid algorithm on that platform. We implement this technique in a tool, ''Ouroboros'', that automatically constructs a high-performance hybrid algorithm from a set of registered algorithms. We present results obtained with this tool for several classical divide and conquer algorithms, including matrix multiply and sorting, and report speedups of up to six times achieved over non-hybrid algorithms.

  17. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo


    Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives. Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country. Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society. Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  18. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo


    Full Text Available Background: Botswana is putting in place initiatives towards establishing itself as a knowledgebased economy. Transformation from a resource-based to a knowledge-based economy is partly hinged on innovation, research and development capability, knowledge channels, and the funding of research and development activities.Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives.Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country.Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society.Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  19. Government Information Focus. The Digital Divide: Understanding and Addressing the Challenge. (United States)

    Latimer, Christopher P.

    This report discusses the challenges of the Digital Divide. Part I examines the issues concerning access as it relates to schools, communities, free Internet service providers, and broadband. Part II defines technological literacy and how it pertains to the Digital Divide debate. Part III examines those who are affected by the divide and…

  20. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas......Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  2. Fine 5 lavastab Venemaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tantsuteatru Fine 5 koreograafid Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik toovad Jekaterinburgis välja lavastuse "... and Red", esitajaks Venemaa nimekas nüüdistantsutrupp Provintsialnõje Tantsõ. Lavastuses kõlab Taavo Remmeli kontrabassiimprovisatsioon "12.12.2006"

  3. The Fine Dutch Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.


    Publication of the exhibition and symposium on water adaptive urban planning and architecture in Bangkok. The Urban Fine Dutch Tradition is a dynamic tradition of making urban designs using the parameters of the natural system – incorperating in an efficient way the hydrological cycle, the soil and

  4. Imeilus Fine 5

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Vaba Lava teatrikeskuse laval esineb Fine 5 oma lavastusega "Imeilus". Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik, tantsulavastuse autorid on koreograafid, õppejõud, lavastajad ja kogemustega tantsijad. 29. jaanuaril korraldavad Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik Tallinna Ülikoolis kaasaegse liikumismõtlemise töötoa, mis on pühendatud lavastusele "Imeilus"

  5. Comparison of Maximal Lingual Pressure Generation During Isometric Gross and Fine Sensorimotor Tasks in Healthy Adults. (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole; Churness, Kim; Hind, Jacqueline; Gangnon, Ronald; Banaszynski, Kelsey; Robbins, JoAnne


    To (1) compare 2 distinct isometric lingual press tasks, fine sensorimotor versus gross sensorimotor, at multiple sensor locations in relation to age and sex; and (2) provide a normative data set using a lingual-strengthening device. Cohort study. University. Healthy men and women (N=71; age range, 21-82y) recruited from the community. Participants were stratified by age and sex and divided into 3 age groups. Participants completed, in random order, 2 isometric tasks: (1) fine sensorimotor: tongue press maximally and discreetly against each of 5 sensors; and (2) gross sensorimotor: tongue press maximally against all 5 sensors simultaneously. Primary outcome was maximum isometric pressure in hectopascals (hPa). Secondary outcomes were time to reach peak pressure (s) and pressure gradient (hPa/s). Maximum pressures were significantly lower in those of older age for both fine and gross sensorimotor lingual tasks (Psensorimotor task generating higher pressures at the front sensor for all age groups. However, the gross sensorimotor task generated faster maximum pressures at all sensor locations for all age groups. For both sensorimotor tasks, subjects of older age as a whole generated less steep pressure gradients (Psensorimotor task may be more beneficial for targeting timing as a biomechanical parameter during therapy, and the fine sensorimotor task may be more beneficial for targeting strength. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bridging the Digital Divide: Enhancing Empowerment and Social Capital


    Diane Marie Charleson


    In the contemporary world, the digital divide constitutes a significant inequality and thus poses a very real problem of social justice – this being particularly the case for those already burdened with disadvantage and marginalisation. In this paper, As part of its commitment to Social Justice the Australian Catholic University runs a Catalyst Clemente program. Catalyst-Clemente provides people experiencing multiple disadvantage with university level education by means of a program that aims...

  7. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.


    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  8. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift


    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in providing a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL) · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  10. Characterization of DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte


    The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is revealed, when measuring DPOAE with a very fine frequency resolution. It is characterized by consistent maxima and minima with notches of up to 20 dB depth. The fine structure is known also from absolute hearing thresholds...

  11. The New Digital Divide For Digital BioMarkers. (United States)

    Torous, John; Rodriguez, Jorge; Powell, Adam


    As smartphone and sensors continue to become more ubiquitous across the world, digital biomarkers have emerged as a scalable and practical tool to explore disease states and advance health. But as the digital divide of access and ownership begins to fade, a new digital divide is emerging. Who are the types of people that own smartphones or smart watches, who are the types of people that download health apps or partake in digital biomarker studies, and who are the types of people that are actually active with digital biomarkers apps and sensors - the people providing the high quality and longitudinal data that this field is being founded upon? Understanding the people behind digital biomarkers, the very people this emerging field aims to help, may actually be the real challenge as well as opportunity for digital biomarkers.

  12. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio


    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  13. The Digital Divide and urban older adults. (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W


    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  14. The private-public law divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth; Kronborg, Annette; Gyldenløve Jeppesen-De Boer, Christina


    In a Scandinavian perspective, the family and the individual have changed places during the 20th Century. Today, the law takes its starting point in the individual - not in the family. A consequence of this development is that it is no longer legally possible to relate the good family to a partic......In a Scandinavian perspective, the family and the individual have changed places during the 20th Century. Today, the law takes its starting point in the individual - not in the family. A consequence of this development is that it is no longer legally possible to relate the good family...... to a particular societal institution. Marriage as an institution has been individualized and the goodness of the family has to relate to the well-being of the individuals instead. This article shows that within this historical development the private-public law divide has not been seriously challenged...... that the historical development neccessitates a re-thinking of the distinction between child welfare law and family law. It shows how the distinction is nationally and institutionally embedded. Further, that the distinction has only been superficially adressed by the CRC Committee....

  15. Dispersal of fine sediment in nearshore coastal waters (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.


    Fine sediment (silt and clay) plays an important role in the physical, ecological, and environmental conditions of coastal systems, yet little is known about the dispersal and fate of fine sediment across coastal margin settings outside of river mouths. Here I provide simple physical scaling and detailed monitoring of a beach nourishment project near Imperial Beach, California, with a high portion of fines (40% silt and clay by weight). These results provide insights into the pathways and residence times of fine sediment transport across a wave-dominated coastal margin. Monitoring of the project used physical, optical, acoustic, and remote sensing techniques to track the fine portion of the nourishment sediment. The initial transport of fine sediment from the beach was influenced strongly by longshore currents of the surf zone that were established in response to the approach angles of the waves. The mean residence time of fine sediment in the surf zone—once it was suspended—was approximately 1 hour, and rapid decreases in surf zone fine sediment concentrations along the beach resulted from mixing and offshore transport in turbid rip heads. For example, during a day with oblique wave directions and surf zone longshore currents of approximately 25 cm/s, the offshore losses of fine sediment in rips resulted in a 95% reduction in alongshore surf zone fine sediment flux within 1 km of the nourishment site. However, because of the direct placement of nourishment sediment on the beach, fine suspended-sediment concentrations in the swash zone remained elevated for several days after nourishment, while fine sediment was winnowed from the beach. Once offshore of the surf zone, fine sediment settled downward in the water column and was observed to transport along and across the inner shelf. Vertically sheared currents influenced the directions and rates of fine sediment transport on the shelf. Sedimentation of fine sediment was greatest on the seafloor directly offshore

  16. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  17. Digital Divide and Social Media: Connectivity Doesn’t End the Digital Divide, Skills Do


    Radovanovic, Danica


    Whether we like it or not, we live in a very unequal and stratified world. We live in societies in which inequality is ignored in education, science, and in the social media. As Internet technologies are rapidly evolving and new digital divides on the Internet emerge, we must move beyond, at some point, a singular concern over Internet access and technological infrastructure issues. We must tackle socio-cultural differences, we must focus on Internet skills, literacies and social media usage.

  18. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ


    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  19. Bridging the Digital Divide through Educational Initiatives: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Butler


    Full Text Available Being on the wrong side of the digital divide limits the life chances of the socially excluded, who have had neither the wherewithal nor the opportunity to obtain highly paid, skilled positions in IT. Irish policy makers see education as the solution to this problem. However, provid-ing institutional support for the socially disadvantaged who wish to avail of third level education in IT poses significant challenges. This paper describes these problems and explains how they were overcome in implementing an undergraduate university programme called the Diploma in Applied Business Computing. This targeted initiative was an unqualified success in that it achieved its primary objectives--academic and social. However, what made it so was the commitment of concerned stakeholders, from members of the executive steering committee who developed and implemented the course, to the lecturers who delivered it, the companies who supported it, and the students who participated in it.

  20. Physician executives straddle the digital divide. (United States)

    Coile, R C


    e-Health is here to stay and experts predict that the Internet will become the hub of health care. Rapid advancements in biotechnology and medical research, increasingly curious patients who surf the Internet for medical information, and pressures from managed care companies to contain costs and speed treatments are the central components driving e-health. Despite physician reluctance to embrace the e-revolution, many hospitals and medical groups are employing the Internet and information technology to improve their customer interface, as well as to reduce business costs. This article offers seven e-strategies for health care performance improvement: (1) Supply chain management; (2) e-transactions; (3) care management; (4) improving quality; (5) boosting revenues; (6) outsourcing; and (7) provider networks (Intranets). By helping to incorporate these key e-solutions, physician executives can position their organizations for success in the new millennium.

  1. A Wide-Band CMOS Injection Locked Frequency Divider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, M.; Leenaerts, Domine; Nauta, Bram

    In this paper we propose a novel inductorless injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) that can make divisions with ratios 2,4,6 and 8 with wide locking ranges. Fabricated in a digital 0.18 μm CMOS process the divider can operate up to 15 GHz. The measured locking ranges of the divider for division

  2. Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; telecommunications constraints; lack of investment in ICT infrastructure, etc. Benefits derivable from bridging the digital divide such ...

  3. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth


    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among

  4. Identifying fine sediment sources to alleviate flood risk caused by fine sediments through catchment connectivity analysis (United States)

    Twohig, Sarah; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham


    Fine sediment poses a significant threat to UK river systems in terms of vegetation, aquatic habitats and morphology. Deposition of fine sediment onto the river bed reduces channel capacity resulting in decreased volume to contain high flow events. Once the in channel problem has been identified managers are under pressure to sustainably mitigate flood risk. With climate change and land use adaptations increasing future pressures on river catchments it is important to consider the connectivity of fine sediment throughout the river catchment and its influence on channel capacity, particularly in systems experiencing long term aggradation. Fine sediment erosion is a continuing concern in the River Eye, Leicestershire. The predominately rural catchment has a history of flooding within the town of Melton Mowbray. Fine sediment from agricultural fields has been identified as a major contributor of sediment delivery into the channel. Current mitigation measures are not sustainable or successful in preventing the continuum of sediment throughout the catchment. Identifying the potential sources and connections of fine sediment would provide insight into targeted catchment management. 'Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling Analysis Platforms' (SCIMAP) is a tool often used by UK catchment managers to identify potential sources and routes of sediment within a catchment. SCIMAP is a risk based model that combines hydrological (rainfall) and geomorphic controls (slope, land cover) to identify the risk of fine sediment being transported from source into the channel. A desktop version of SCIMAP was run for the River Eye at a catchment scale using 5m terrain, rainfall and land cover data. A series of SCIMAP model runs were conducted changing individual parameters to determine the sensitivity of the model. Climate Change prediction data for the catchment was used to identify potential areas of future connectivity and erosion risk for catchment managers. The results have been


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  6. 'RAT' Leaves a Fine Mess (United States)


    This graph shows the light signatures, or spectra, of two sides of the rock dubbed 'Bounce,' located at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The spectra were taken by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The left side of this rock is covered by fine dust created when the rover drilled into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. These 'fines' produce a layer of pyroxene dust that can be detected here in the top spectrum. The right side of the rock has fewer fines and was used to investigate the composition of this basaltic rock.

  7. Amniotic membrane graft to reconstruct divided nevi of eyelids. (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Singh, Manpreet; Bhattacharjee, Harsha


    Two patients with congenital divided nevi of the eyelids presented with chief symptoms of cosmetic blemish (n=2) and epiphora (n=1). All the lesions were surgically excised with histological free margins and amniotic membrane graft (AMG) was used to cover the mucosal and eyelid marginal defects. Caruncular and punctal involvement was managed with complete excision and monocanalicular stent insertion to prevent punctal stenosis. AMG provided an adequate scaffold for conjunctival regenesis and anatomic continuity was found within 6 weeks in both patients. None of them had any residual pigmentation or disease recurrence after a follow-up of more than 2.5 years. Local absence of eyelashes was the only drawback which patients masked with modern artificial eyelashes or make-up. This novel utility of AMG illustrates effective conjunctival regenesis and maintenance of mucocutaneous junction functionality. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Measure theory and fine properties of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence Craig


    Measure Theory and Fine Properties of Functions, Revised Edition provides a detailed examination of the central assertions of measure theory in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The book emphasizes the roles of Hausdorff measure and capacity in characterizing the fine properties of sets and functions. Topics covered include a quick review of abstract measure theory, theorems and differentiation in ℝn, Hausdorff measures, area and coarea formulas for Lipschitz mappings and related change-of-variable formulas, and Sobolev functions as well as functions of bounded variation.The text provides complete proofs of many key results omitted from other books, including Besicovitch's covering theorem, Rademacher's theorem (on the differentiability a.e. of Lipschitz functions), area and coarea formulas, the precise structure of Sobolev and BV functions, the precise structure of sets of finite perimeter, and Aleksandrov's theorem (on the twice differentiability a.e. of convex functions).This revised edition includes countl...

  9. Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.


    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the July to September 1994 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in noncatalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manji, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results obtained are reported in this report.

  10. Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the January to March 1995 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in non-catalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manjii, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results are reported herein. In order to evaluate the role of the different components in resids, the resids were separated into hexane soluble materials and hexane insoluble materials. The hexane solubles, which should contain the naphthenes present in the resid, and the untreated whole resids were reacted with coal at equivalent liquefaction conditions and at the same conditions as when the resids were reacted individually.

  11. Fine 5 kolib Kumu lavale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Kumu kunstimuuseumi auditooriumis toimub 21. veebruaril Fine 5 kaasaegse tantsu etendus "Panus". Esinevad Tiina Ollesk, Irina Pähn, žonglöör Dimitri Kruus, disainer Rain Saukas ja muusik Mattias Siitan

  12. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman


    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  13. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  14. 8 CFR 1280.1 - Notice of intention to fine; administrative proceedings not exclusive. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of intention to fine; administrative... of intention to fine; administrative proceedings not exclusive. Whenever a district director or the... Act, he shall cause a Notice of Intention to Fine, Form I-79, to be served as provided in this part...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  16. 37 CFR 2.87 - Dividing an application. (United States)


    .... (1) When the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organization notifies the Office... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.87 Dividing an application. (a... accordance with paragraph (d) of this section. (b) Fee. In the case of a request to divide out one or more...

  17. The Digital Divide and University Education Systems in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the concept of the digital divide, how the divide can relegate Africa to the background and how a transformed tertiary educational system can help to minimise the bridge between the information-rich countries of the North and the information-poor African countries. It is argued that if the barriers to ...

  18. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei


    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  19. 7 CFR 800.163 - Divided-lot certificates. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Divided-lot certificates. 800.163 Section 800.163... Certificates § 800.163 Divided-lot certificates. (a) General. When shiplot grain is offered for inspection or Class X weighing as a single lot and is certificated as a single lot, the applicant may exchange the...

  20. 7 CFR 868.74 - Divided-lot certificates. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Divided-lot certificates. 868.74 Section 868.74... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Official Certificates § 868.74 Divided-lot certificates. (a) General. When commodities are offered for inspection and are certificated as a single lot...

  1. The care of fine books

    CERN Document Server

    Greenfield, Jane; Basbanes, Nicholas A


    The Care of Fine Books is a thorough, readable guide to caring for books of value. From a discussion of the various techniques and materials used in bookbinding to advice on handling and storage, Jane Greenfield has created a succinct yet complete resource for anyone who wants to preserve and protect their fine books. Whether you are a collector, a librarian, or a conservation professional, you will benefit from this expert advice. Learn about appropriate levels of light, temperature, relative humidity, and pollution; how to secure a collection against fire, insect infestation, flood, and theft; and methods for cleaning and repairing books that have already been damaged. Always practical and amply illustrated, this is a must-have reference for anyone who loves fine books.

  2. Comparision of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Fine Needle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Open biopsy of the breast used to be the main traditional method of diagnosis of breast lumps. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was later introduced which depends on suction and thus yields hemorrhagic material for cytological study.This study was undertaken to find out if there is a difference in ...

  3. "Is There a Second Level Divide in Student’s Internet Skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna; Dau, Susanne


    The concept of a digital divide has moved beyond only physical disparities in technology usage and now also encompasses issues impeding access such as human social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies. This paper focuses on students......’ insufficient skill levels in making the best use of available Internet technology, discussing students in higher education in scenarios in Denmark and India. The paper emphasizes the reflective and conceptual issues which the students face in retrieving information from the Internet, which result in a second......-level divide. Through a cross-national comparison, the paper hopes to contribute to the literature through experiences of students in the two countries, providing researchers with insights into the digital divide. This divide in Internet skills is illuminated from different perspectives in the context of two...

  4. Obtaining time-dependent multi-dimensional dividing surfaces using Lagrangian descriptors (United States)

    Feldmaier, Matthias; Junginger, Andrej; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Hernandez, Rigoberto


    Dynamics between reactants and products are often mediated by a rate-determining barrier and an associated dividing surface leading to the transition state theory rate. This framework is challenged when the barrier is time-dependent because its motion can give rise to recrossings across the fixed dividing surface. A non-recrossing time-dependent dividing surface can nevertheless be attached to the TS trajectory resulting in recrossing-free dynamics. We extend the formalism-constructed using Lagrangian Descriptors-to systems with additional bath degrees of freedom. The propagation of reactant ensembles provides a numerical demonstration that our dividing surface is recrossing-free and leads to exact TST rates.

  5. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon


    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth


    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among different categories of income, employment, education, age, and ethnicity can be proved to have existed in the 1980s and 1990s according to official American and Dutch statistics. If only by effects of sat...

  6. The Digital Divide in Romania – A Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV


    Full Text Available The digital divide is a subject of major importance in the current economic circumstances in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICT are seen as a significant determinant of increasing the domestic competitiveness and contribute to better life quality. Latest international reports regarding various aspects of ICT usage in modern society reveal a decrease of overall digital disparity towards the average trends of the worldwide ITC’s sector – this relates to latest advances of mobile and computer penetration rates, both for personal use and for households/ business. In Romania, the low starting point in the development of economy and society in the ICT direction was, in some extent, compensated by the rapid annual growth of the last decade. Even with these dynamic developments, the statistical data still indicate poor positions in European Union hierarchy; in this respect, the prospects of a rapid recovery of the low performance of the Romanian ICT endowment and usage and the issue continue to be regarded as a challenge for progress in economic and societal terms. The paper presents several methods for assessing the current state of ICT related aspects in terms of Internet usage based on the latest data provided by international databases. The current position of Romanian economy is judged according to several economy using statistical methods based on variability measurements: the descriptive statistics indicators, static measures of disparities and distance metrics.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson


    This is the second quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others.

  8. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D


    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  9. Methane Isotopes from the WAIS Divide Ice Core, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes methane (CH4) isotope data from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core, WDC05A, in Antarctica. The data include depth, gas age,...

  10. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information as commodity\\". Some global and local developments in information access and the Open Access movement are highlighted, and the National Library of South Africa\\'s interim strategies to bridge the information and digital divide are identified ...

  11. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  12. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention. (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold


    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  13. Divide-and-conquer approach for the exemplar breakpoint distance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, C Thach; Tay, Y C; Zhang, Louxin


    .... Unfortunately, the problem is NP-hard even for the breakpoint distance. This paper proposes a divide-and-conquer approach for calculating the exemplar breakpoint distance between two genomes with multiple gene families...

  14. Justifying the Classical-Quantum Divide of the Copenhagen Interpretation


    Bolotin, Arkady


    Perhaps the most significant drawback, which the Copenhagen interpretation (still the most popular interpretation of quantum theory) suffers from, is the classical-quantum divide between the large classical systems that carry out measurements and the small quantum systems that they measure. So, an "ideal" alternative interpretation of quantum theory would either eliminate this divide or justify it in some reasonable way. The present paper demonstrates that it is possible to justify the classi...

  15. The road to sustainability must bridge three great divides. (United States)

    Aronson, James; Blignaut, James N; de Groot, Rudolf S; Clewell, Andre; Lowry, Porter P; Woodworth, Paddy; Cowling, Richard M; Renison, Daniel; Farley, Joshua; Fontaine, Christelle; Tongway, David; Levy, Samuel; Milton, Suzanne J; Rangel, Orlando; Debrincat, Bev; Birkinshaw, Chris


    The world's large and rapidly growing human population is exhausting Earth's natural capital at ever-faster rates, and yet appears mostly oblivious to the fact that these resources are limited. This is dangerous for our well-being and perhaps for our survival, as documented by numerous studies over many years. Why are we not moving instead toward sustainable levels of use? We argue here that this disconnection between our knowledge and our actions is largely caused by three "great divides": an ideological divide between economists and ecologists; an economic development divide between the rich and the poor; and an information divide, which obstructs communications between scientists, public opinion, and policy makers. These divides prevent our economies from responding effectively to urgent signals of environmental and ecological stress. The restoration of natural capital (RNC) can be an important strategy in bridging all of these divides. RNC projects and programs make explicit the multiple and mutually reinforcing linkages between environmental and economic well-being, while opening up a promising policy road in the search for a sustainable and desirable future for global society. The bridge-building capacity of RNC derives from its double focus: on the ecological restoration of degraded, overexploited natural ecosystems, and on the full socio-economic and ecological interface between people and their environments.

  16. A New Method for Urban Storm Flood Inundation Simulation with Fine CD-TIN Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Li


    Full Text Available Urban storm inundation, which frequently has dramatic impacts on city safety and social life, is an emergent and difficult issue. Due to the complexity of urban surfaces and the variety of spatial modeling elements, the lack of detailed hydrological data and accurate urban surface models compromise the study and implementation of urban storm inundation simulations. This paper introduces a Constrained Delaunay Triangular Irregular Network (CD-TIN to model fine urban surfaces (based on detailed ground sampling data and subsequently employs a depression division method that refers to Fine Constrained Features (FCFs to construct computational urban water depressions. Storm-runoff yield is placed through mass conservation to calculate the volume of rainfall, runoff and drainage. The water confluences between neighboring depressions are provided when the water level exceeds the outlet of a certain depression. Numerical solutions achieved through a dichotomy are introduced to obtain the water level. Therefore, the continuous inundation process can be divided into different time intervals to obtain a series of inundation scenarios. The main campus of Beijing Normal University (BNU was used as a case study to simulate the “7.21” storm inundation event to validate the usability and suitability of the proposed methods. In comparing the simulation results with in-situ observations, the proposed method is accurate and effective, with significantly lower drainage data requirements being obtained. The proposed methods will also be useful for urban drainage design and city inundation emergency preparations.

  17. A Sub-band Divided Ray Tracing Algorithm Using the DPS Subspace in UWB Indoor Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Mingming; Xu, Zhinan; Hofer, Markus


    Sub-band divided ray tracing (SDRT) is one technique that has been extensively used to obtain the channel characteristics for ultra-wideband (UWB) radio wave propagation in realistic indoor environments. However, the computational complexity of SDRT scales directly with the number of sub......-bands. Although we have proposed a low-complexity SDRT algorithm for one terminal position [1], the computational complexity i s still extremely high when involving multiple mobile terminal positions. Moreover, some indoor positioning techniques require for high positioning accuracy data from measurements/simulations...... with a very fine spatial resolution. To cope with this, we propose an algorithm to reduce the computational complexity of SDRT for multiple mobile terminal positions. The algorithm uses a projection of all propagation paths on a subspace spanned by two-dimensional discrete prolate spheroidal (DPS) sequences...

  18. Fine-Grained Concrete of Composite Binder (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Pak, A.; Kuzmin, D.


    The article is devoted to the application of industrial wastes for the production of high-quality concretes with specified characteristics. The composite binders with low water demand (BLW) have been developed. Their strength is approximately twice the strength of the initial cement, and dilute BLW with 50 - 70% of the ground slag or quartz sand in their composition provide the same strength as the original Portland cement. It was proved that the quartzite sand screening can be used as a filler in the preparation of fine-grained concretes.

  19. Interactions Between Pinus taeda (loblolly) Fine Roots and Soil Fungi: Impacts of Elevated CO2, N Availability, and Spatial Distribution of Fungi on Fine Root Persistence and Turnover (United States)

    Strand, A.; Beidler, K.; McGlinn, D.; Pritchard, S. G.


    Fine root turnover represents the most significant mode of flux from plants into soil C pools. Unfortunately fine root senescence and decomposition, processes critical in turnover, are particularly understudied. For example, little is known about either the factors that influence fine-root decomposition or the fate of compounds they contain during root death. Better understanding fine root senescence and decomposition should reduce uncertainty associated with global climate models; including re-uptake of materials in dying leaves into these models has already been shown to increase their accuracy. Over 4400 individual fine-roots and 4734 rhizomorphs were tracked from initiation until disintegration over 12 years using minirhizotrons at the Duke FACE site. Image-based approaches such as minirhizotrons cannot directly assess fine-root physiological status. To assess fine-root function directly, we are now conducting manipulative experiments in P. taeda in which fine-root senescence is induced through two treatments, steam- and direct hand-girdling. Physiological status is then assessed by examining gene-expression, root anatomy and chemical composition of manipulated roots. Changing [CO2] did not change persistence times for roots, but did impact rhizomorph persistence. Both roots and rhizomorphs showed interactions between effects of N and CO2 on persistence. Most interesting is the interaction between fine-roots and rhizomorphs: fine root persistence times are reduced in the presence of rhizomorphs, but this effect depends on the amount of N available. Finally, we found experimentally inducing senescence via steam girdling to be very effective relative to hand-girdling. These results provide evidence of the importance of priming on function of soil fungi and the role of N availability on fine-root turnover. The ability to stimulate fine-root senescence provides a powerful experimental tool to examine the fates of resources contained in fine-root pools as these

  20. Fine Shades of a Sombrero (United States)


    In addition to their scientific value, many of the exposures now being obtained by visiting astronomers to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) are also very beautiful. This is certainly true for this new image of the famous early-type spiral galaxy Messier 104 , widely known as the "Sombrero" (the Mexican hat) because of its particular shape. The colour image was made by a combination of three CCD images from the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on VLT ANTU , recently obtained by Peter Barthel from the Kapteyn Institute (Groningen, The Netherlands) during an observing run at the Paranal Observatory. He and Mark Neeser , also from the Kapteyn Institute, produced the composite images. The galaxy fits perfectly into the 6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 field-of-view of the FORS1 camera. A great amount of fine detail is revealed, from the structures in the pronounced dust band in the equatorial plane, to many faint background galaxies that shine through the outer regions. The "Sombrero" is located in the constellation Virgo (The Virgin), at a distance of about 50 million light-years. The overall "sharpness" of this colour image corresponds to about 0.7 arcsec which translates into a resolution of about 170 light-years at that distance. About Messier 104 Messier 104 is the 104th object in the famous catalogue of nebulae by French astronomer Charles Messier (1730 - 1817). It was not included in the first two editions (with 45 objects in 1774; 103 in 1781), but Messier soon thereafter added it by hand in his personal copy as a "very faint nebula". The recession velocity, about 1000 km/sec, was first measured by American astronomer Vesto M. Slipher at the Lowell Observatory in 1912; he was also the first to detect the galaxy's rotation. ESO Press Photo 07c/00 ESO Press Photo 07c/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 307; 59k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 614; 308k] [Full-Res; JPEG: 2028 x 1556; 2.3Mb] PR Photo 07c/00 has been processed to show the numerous dust bands in the central plane of the Sombrero galaxy (see

  1. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)


    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  2. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna


    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  3. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chern-Pin Chua

    Full Text Available Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1 performed alone (single task; 2 performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task; and 3 performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task. Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  4. Investigation on Locking and Pulling Modes in Analog Frequency Dividers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Buonomo


    Full Text Available We compare the main analytical results available to estimate the locking range, which is the key figure-of-merit of LC frequency dividers based on the injection locking phenomenon. Starting from the classical result by Adler concerning injection-locked oscillators, we elucidate the merits and the shortcomings of the different approaches to study injection-locked frequency dividers, with particular emphasis on divider-by-2. In particular, we show the potential of a perturbation approach which enables a more complete analysis of frequency dividers, making it possible to calculate not only the amplitude and the phase of the locked oscillation, but also the region where it exists and is stable, which defines the locking region. Finally, we analyze the dynamical behaviour of the dividers in the vicinity of the boundary of the locking region, showing that there exists a border region where the occurrence of the locking or the pulling operation mode is possible, depending on the initial conditions of the system.

  5. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR


    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson


    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  7. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,


    Full Text Available BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.This book discusses how educational technology can be used to transform education and assist developing communities to close the knowledge divide. Its broader audience is anyone who is interested in educational technology for development. In the book you can find best practices and case studies especially from countries in Africa.The book is edited by Stewart Marshall, Wanjira Kinuthia, Wallace Taylor. Professor Stewart Marshall, PhD, is the director of the Academic Division of the University of the West Indies Open Campus (UWIOC and holds the UNESCO Chair in Educational Technologies.Dr. Wanjira Kinuthia is assistant professor of Learning Technologies at Georgia State University. She works as an instructional designer in higher education and business and industry for several years. Professor Wallace Taylor, PhD, is a founding director of The Information Society Institute (TISI, a non-profit academic, research, and policy development organization based in South Africa.The book is consisted of 433 pages (+xxxv covering 24 articles divided into four sections and provides information about flexible learning for empowerment, managing and communicating knowledge, flexible delivery in higher education and preparing teacher using flexible approaches.Topics covered in the book are as follows


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla M. Kolomiiets


    Full Text Available The article deals with the notion of information and digital divide on the grounds of the world processes of the information society establishment. This paper presents a research of the level of informatization of the main spheres of life activity of citizens of foreign countries, and the analysis of the experience of the leading countries in organization and implementation of a complex of measures, aimed at crossing the digital divide. Also, there have been outlined the peculiarities and problems of the development of higher education in Ukraine in the context of information and digital inequality. On the basis of the analysis of scientific literature and personal professional experience, the ways of the solution of the problem of teacher’s selection of the adequate and the most effective pedagogical technologies, forms and methods of study in the process of overcoming the information and digital divide at higher educational institutions have been determined in this article.

  9. Echocardiographic diagnosis of divided right atrium-cor triatriatum dextrum. (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush; Retkoceri, Ragip; Bejiqi, Hana; Zeka, Naim; Kelmendi, Myrvete


    First reported in 1868, cor triatriatum, that is, a heart with 3 atria (triatrial heart), is a congenital anomaly in which the left atrium (cor triatriatum sinistrum) or right atrium (cor triatriatum dextrum) is divided into two parts by a fold of tissue, a membrane, or a fibromuscular band. As far as division of the morphologically left atrium (cor triatriatum) is a recognized clinical and surgical entity. Division of the right atrium (prominence of the eustachian and thebesian valves) is recognized pathologically, but is rare. A partition division the right atrium was attached to the orifice of the inferior caval vei. The dividing partition is placed between the systemic venous sinus and the distal part of the right atrium, made up of the vestibule and appendage. This report describes a case of a divided right atrium, associated with a large atrial septal defect and valvular pulmonary stenosis.

  10. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information. (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D


    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  11. Dividing traffic cluster into parts by signal control (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi


    When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.


    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  13. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  14. Enhanced Model of Nonlinear Spiral High Voltage Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Panko


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the enhanced accurate DC and RF model of nonlinear spiral polysilicon voltage divider. The high resistance polysilicon divider is a sensing part of the high voltage start-up MOSFET transistor that can operate up to 700 V. This paper presents the structure of a proposed model, implemented voltage, frequency and temperature dependency, and scalability. A special attention is paid to the ability of the created model to cover the mismatch and influence of a variation of process parameters on the device characteristics. Finally, the comparison of measured data vs. simulation is presented in order to confirm the model validity and a typical application is demonstrated.

  15. Reducing the Digital Divide through ICT Adoption: Factors, Barriers, and How ICT in Schools Can Help (United States)

    Tengtrakul, Pitikorn


    Through econometric analysis of data from multiple surveys, this study explores factors that affect ICT adoption and evaluates the extent to which ICT in schools affect the ICT adoption of surrounding communities, in order to provide a perspective that can help narrow the gap of digital divide. Understanding factors affecting ICT adoption may…

  16. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton


    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  17. Working with the Divides: Two Critical Axes in Development for Transformative Professional Practices (United States)

    Avery, Helen; Nordén, Birgitta


    Purpose: The paper aims to provide a conceptual map of how to mediate between sustainability theory and practice in higher education and how disciplinary divides can be bridged. It further looks at issues linked to knowledge views and drivers for institutional change that affect opportunities for whole institution development promoting action…

  18. Considering Fine Art and Picture Books (United States)

    Serafini, Frank


    There has been a close association between picturebook illustrations and works of fine art since the picturebook was first conceived, and many ways these associations among works of fine art and picturebook illustrations and design play out. To make sense of all the various ways picturebook illustrations are associated with works of fine art,…

  19. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a reasonable...

  20. Response Styles and the Rural-Urban Divide (United States)

    Thomas, Troy D.; Abts, Koen; Vander Weyden, Patrick


    This article investigates the effect of the rural-urban divide on mean response styles (RSs) and their relationships with the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. It uses the Representative Indicator Response Style Means and Covariance Structure (RIRSMACS) method and data from Guyana--a developing country in the Caribbean. The…

  1. The impact of digital divide on skills development amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today library function/services are carried out with the help of ICT facilities. This has forced academic librarians to shift from manual library services to the use of ICT facilities in carrying out library functions. The paper is on the impact of digital divide on skills development amongst academic librarians in Imo State.

  2. The Credit/Non-Credit Divide: Breaking Down the Wall (United States)

    Fouts, Susan; Mallory, Judy


    Programs awarding academic credit and programs awarding continuing education credit coexist on university campuses but often do not communicate or collaborate. This article explores the components of a successful program that reaches across the credit-noncredit divide to engage and serve the community. While most theoretical models are based on a…

  3. Divided dreamworlds? The cultural cold war in East and West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, P.; Scott-Smith, G.; Segal, J.


    While the divide between capitalism and communism, embodied in the image of the Iron Curtain, seemed to be as wide and definitive as any cultural rift, Giles Scott-Smith, Joes Segal, and Peter Romijn have compiled a selection of essays on how culture contributed to the blurring of ideological

  4. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.


    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  5. Communication in a Divided World: Opportunities and Constraints. (United States)

    Lasswell, Harold

    Communication systems in a divided world can perpetuate tension and violence or can be instrumental in developing unity. In response to this power, communicators must focus on generating worldwide recognition of interdependence in the shaping and sharing of values. Likewise, a responsible communication policy must stimulate the invention and…

  6. Monitoring Progress Toward the Information Society : Digital Divide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orbicom's Digital Divide Index is a rigorous statistical tool for benchmarking access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), and monitoring progress toward the information society over time. ... Businesses can understand trade trends and future challenges in the ASEAN Economic community.

  7. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan. Despite that approximately 70% of Pakistan's 160 million inhabitants living in rural villages, nearly 90% of the ICT-related infrastructure is installed in urban areas. ... Sustainable Development Policy Institute. Institution Country. Pakistan. Institution Website.

  8. Geothermal resources of the Washakie and Great Divide basins, Wyoming (United States)

    Heasler, H. P.; Buelow, K. L.


    The geothermal resources of the Great Divide and Washakie Basins of southern Wyoming are described. Oil well bottomhole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data were interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. It was concluded large areas in Wyoming are underlain by water hotter than 120 F. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist within each basin.

  9. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.


    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  10. A Technique to Avoid the Marginal Artery During Divided Colostomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colostomy is a frequently performed procedure in neonates presenting with anorectal malformation and Hirschsprungs disease. A divided colostomy is more commonly performed but has a definite risk of injury to the marginal artery during the procedure, leading to stoma necrosis. This is a description of a technique which ...

  11. Loop versus divided colostomy for the management of anorectal malformations. (United States)

    Oda, Omar; Davies, Dafydd; Colapinto, Kimberly; Gerstle, J Ted


    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of loop and divided colostomies in patients with anorectal malformations (ARM). We performed a retrospective cohort study reviewing the medical records of all patients with ARM managed with diverting colostomies between 2000 and 2010 at our institution. Independent variables and outcomes of stoma complications were analyzed by parametric measures and logistic regression. One hundred forty-four patients managed with a colostomy for ARM were evaluated (37.5% females, 50.7% loop, 49.3% divided). The incidence of patients with loop and divided colostomies who developed stoma-related complications was 31.5 and 15.5%, respectively (p=0.031). The incidence of prolapse was 17.8 and 2.8%, respectively (p=0.005). Multivariable-logistic regression controlling for other significant independent variables found loop colostomies to be positively associated with the development of a stoma complication (OR 3.13, 95%CI (1.09, 8.96), p=0.033). When individual complications were evaluated, it was only stoma prolapse that was more likely in patients with loop colostomies (OR 8.75, 95%CI (1.74, 44.16), p=0.009). Because of the higher incidence of prolapse, loop colostomies were found to be associated with a higher total incidence of complications than divided stomas. The development of other complications, including urinary tract infections (UTIs) and megarectum, were independent of the type of colostomy performed. © 2014.

  12. Competing discourses on Europe: the divided case of Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen


    Historical and cultural context and individual experience are likely to influence the ‘imagination of Europe’. Such discourses exist according to specific social patterns that may critically divide societies into different and competing social constructions of Europe. Is there a transnational

  13. Theories of Learning in Educational Development: Relocating the Paradigmatic Divide. (United States)

    Inglis, Alistair


    Offers a critique of a previous discussion on instructional industrialism in distance education based on instructional design. Topics include the psychological foundations of instructional design, competing paradigms in educational development, behaviorism and cognitivism, theories of learning and the paradigmatic divide, and implications for…

  14. Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology to the professional performance of ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. African Health Sciences ... MIMCom makes possible enhanced access to the Internet and to medical literature.

  15. Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology to the professional performance of malaria researchers in Africa. ... retrieve information, obtain documents, write proposals, and prepare papers for publication; and to determine the contribution of this intervention to their professional performance.

  16. Interacting divided channel method for compound channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huthoff, Freek; Roos, Pieter C.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.


    A new method to calculate flow in compound channels is proposed: the interacting divided channel method (IDCM), based on a new parametrization of the interface stress between adjacent flow compartments, typically between the main channel and floodplain of a two-stage channel. This expression is

  17. Divide and conquer? Size adjustment with allometry and intermediate outcomes. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Kar, Fonti; O'Dea, Rose E; Pick, Joel L; Lagisz, Malgorzata


    Many trait measurements are size-dependent, and while we often divide these traits by size before fitting statistical models to control for the effect of size, this approach does not account for allometry and the intermediate outcome problem. We describe these problems and outline potential solutions.

  18. Tamil Nadu and the Diagonal Divide in Sex Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); S. Srinivasan (Sharada)


    textabstractBetween 1961 and 2001, India’s 0-6 sex ratio has steadily declined. Despite evidence to the contrary, this ratio is often characterised in terms of a diagonal divide with low 0-6 sex ratios in northern and western India and normal 0-6 sex ratios in eastern and southern India. While

  19. Reconciling Ethnic and National Identities in a Divided Society: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as a valuable lesson for nation-state building in post-colonial multiethnic countries. In addition to the institutional design approach, the paper points to the importance of civic education, collective history, and democracy in promoting national integration in a divided society. Democracy & Development Vol.4(2) 2004: 31-48 ...

  20. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta


    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  1. South Africa’s Socio-Techno divide: a critical discourse analysis of government speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Chigona


    Full Text Available This paper aims at contributing to the debate about the digital divide. We first focus on what to us constitutes the root problem: the typical approaches to the development of people through and by the use of information and communication technologies (ICT. In contrast to governmental, political and technological attempts that focus almost exclusively on providing access to digital communication technologies, and expect “development” naturally to flow from that, we argue for a focus on “development” which is based on our notion of sustainable socio-economic development. We refer to “technocentric approaches” when the approaches propose and pursue technological interventions and show little regard for the actual needs of the people involved. At the other end of the scale, where the focus is on people and their developmental needs, we will speak of “sociocentric approaches”. This presents us with a different divide, which we will refer to as the “socio-techno divide”. We argue that it is this divide that has to be addressed – not the digital divide – and then present an analysis of the socio-techno divide. This analysis takes the form of two types of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, namely Foucauldian and Habermassian. The analysis of the South African government’s rhetoric illuminates the issues that need our attention and indicates an agenda for constructive engagement about the use of ICT for development in the Third and Fourth worlds.

  2. The effects of the smart environment on the information divide experienced by people with disabilities. (United States)

    Nam, Su-Jung; Park, Eun-Young


    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is connected with every aspect of social, cultural, economic, educational, and commercial activity. Smart devices in particular have changed society and are necessary goods for modern people. Smart device usage is rapidly growing in everyday life, so the ability to use a smart device is increasingly important, yet there is little data supporting increased digital inclusion of people with disabilities in mobile device use. This study investigates the effects of the smart environment on the information divide experienced by people with disabilities. Data from the 2013 Information Divide Index Data of the National Information Society Agency was analyzed regarding three aspects: access, skill, and competence. The accessibility difference was investigated by comparing access to a PC or smart device in two groups. The effects of a smart environment on the information divide were analyzed using General Linear Modeling (GLM). The access rate was higher for the general group than for that of those with disabilities, and this difference appeared to be greater in the smart environment. The results of the GLM showed that disability and device access had statistically significant effects on skill and all aspects of competence. These results provide evidence that the smart environment further creates the information divide for people with disabilities. Strategies should be formed to reduce this divide, particularly within smart environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Paste thickening of fine coal refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Patil; R. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research


    The coal industry is being subjected to increasing public scrutiny with regards to its effect on the environment and impact on public health and safety. Recently, disposal and storage of fine coal waste slurry has drawn considerable public attention. This article discusses the emerging paste thickening technology as a possible solution to the fine coal waste slurry disposal problem. Paste-thickening studies were conducted on thickener underflow slurry from a central Appalachia preparation plant. Initial experiments were conducted with a laboratory scale T-Floc apparatus to optimize flocculant dosages to obtain maximum settling flux and underflow solids concentration. Results showed that the addition of anionic flocculant (400 g/t) to the slurry followed by cationic flocculant (100 g/t) provided the highest settling flux (3.85 tonnes/hr/m{sup 2}) and solids concentration (35% by weight). Pilot-scale paste thickening tests were conducted using a Dorr-Oliver Eimco Deepcone{trademark} thickener. The thickener concentrated the solids from 10% to 50% by weight using about 450 g/t of anionic and 150 g/t of cationic flocculants. The thickened paste had a yield stress of about 165 Pa that is sufficiently low to allow transport using a conventional positive displacement pump to a disposal area. The clarity of the overflow stream was similar to that currently obtained with a conventional thickener.

  4. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley Williamson


    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  5. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan


    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. The UN Security Council Divided: Syria in Crisis


    Gifkins, J


    The UN Security Council has been deeply divided over how to respond to the Arab Spring crisis in Syria. Since the uprising began in Syria in March 2011 the Syrian Government has responded with extreme violence against civilians and civilian areas to suppress protests. In the face of escalating violence, the Security Council has experienced protracted deadlock. Divisions on how to interpret the situation in Syria left the Security Council unable to find consensus on issuing a non-binding Presi...

  7. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults


    Chih-Chien Huang; Scott T. Yabiku


    Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes ho...

  8. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita


    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  9. Designing and establishing a fine hardwood timber plantation (United States)

    James R. McKenna; Lenny D. Farlee


    Today, new tools and lessons learned from established plantations of black walnut and other fine hardwoods can provide landowners with guidelines to design and establish successful plantations to produce quality timber for the future. From earlier plantations now maturing, we can recognize design features critical during establishment. Current production practices...

  10. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team


    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  11. Fine Tuning Mission to reach those influenced by Darwinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Tucker


    Full Text Available The scientifically aware section of the South African population is increasing. Many are being exposed to the concept of Darwinian evolution. Exposure has generated a religious sub �people group� who have problems with Christianity because they have been influenced by the naturalistic element in Darwinian philosophy. Christian antagonism towards evolution has often prejudiced them unfavourably towards the gospel. Recent discoveries concerning the fine-tuning of the universe have now presented a window of opportunity for overcoming this. It may enable the church to �fine-tune� its missionary approach to present them with the gospel in a more acceptable manner. It is suggested that Paul�s Areopagus speech provides a model for such cross-cultural evangelism. A section is included at the end, describing some objections that have been raised against the cosmological fine-tuning apologetic.

  12. MRL and SuperFine+MRL: new supertree methods (United States)


    Background Supertree methods combine trees on subsets of the full taxon set together to produce a tree on the entire set of taxa. Of the many supertree methods, the most popular is MRP (Matrix Representation with Parsimony), a method that operates by first encoding the input set of source trees by a large matrix (the "MRP matrix") over {0,1, ?}, and then running maximum parsimony heuristics on the MRP matrix. Experimental studies evaluating MRP in comparison to other supertree methods have established that for large datasets, MRP generally produces trees of equal or greater accuracy than other methods, and can run on larger datasets. A recent development in supertree methods is SuperFine+MRP, a method that combines MRP with a divide-and-conquer approach, and produces more accurate trees in less time than MRP. In this paper we consider a new approach for supertree estimation, called MRL (Matrix Representation with Likelihood). MRL begins with the same MRP matrix, but then analyzes the MRP matrix using heuristics (such as RAxML) for 2-state Maximum Likelihood. Results We compared MRP and SuperFine+MRP with MRL and SuperFine+MRL on simulated and biological datasets. We examined the MRP and MRL scores of each method on a wide range of datasets, as well as the resulting topological accuracy of the trees. Our experimental results show that MRL, coupled with a very good ML heuristic such as RAxML, produced more accurate trees than MRP, and MRL scores were more strongly correlated with topological accuracy than MRP scores. Conclusions SuperFine+MRP, when based upon a good MP heuristic, such as TNT, produces among the best scores for both MRP and MRL, and is generally faster and more topologically accurate than other supertree methods we tested. PMID:22280525


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson


    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October--December, 2001 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The persistent daily trends described in the previous quarterly report are seen in the fall particulate data, superimposed on the seasonal trend toward lower concentrations in the cooler months. Some instrumental issues were noted with the APS and the sulfate monitoring instruments, as described in the main report.

  14. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad


    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  15. MRI enterography with divided dose oral preparation: Effect on bowel distension and diagnostic quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sinha


    divided dose resulted in the majority of patients being scanned in a single visit to the MRI suite. Dividing the oral contrast into aliquots can promote uniform distension of the entire small bowel and provide better bowel distension and improve the diagnostic quality.

  16. Surface Tension and Adsorption without a Dividing Surface. (United States)

    Marmur, Abraham


    The ingenious concept of a dividing surface of zero thickness that was introduced by Gibbs is the basis of the theory of surface tension and adsorption. However, some fundamental questions, mainly those related to the location of the dividing surface and the proper definition of relative adsorption, have remained open over the years. To avoid these questions, the present paper proposes to analyze an interfacial phase by defining a thermodynamic system of constant, but nonzero thickness. The interfacial phase is analyzed as it really is, namely a nonuniform three-dimensional entity. The current analysis redevelops the equation for calculating surface tension, though with different assumptions. However, the main point in the proposed model is that the thermodynamic interfacial system, due to its fixed thickness, conforms to the requirement of first-order homogeneity of the internal energy. This property is the key that allows using the Gibbs adsorption isotherm. It is also characteristic of the Gibbs dividing surface model, but has not always been discussed with regard to subsequent models. The resulting equation leads to a simple, "natural" expression for the relative adsorption. This expression may be compared with simulations and sophisticated surface concentration measurements, and from which the dependence of interfacial tension on the solution composition can be derived. Finally, it is important to point out that in order to calculate the interfacial tension as well as the relative adsorption from data on the properties of the interfacial phase, there is no need to know its exact thickness, as long as it is bigger than the actual thickness but sufficiently small.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Anokhin


    Full Text Available Introduction. Determination of power quality indices in high-voltage power grids allows to find the reasons for the deterioration of the power quality. The relevant national and International Standards for power quality contain relevant norms of quality indices and requirements for their accuracy measurement. Problem. The most complicated part in the process of measuring the power quality indices at high voltage is the selection of the corresponding high-voltage scale voltage converters. Therefore, comparing the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 to high voltage scale voltage converters is an important task. Goal. Analysis of the International Standard IEC 61000-4-30 requirements feasibility for measuring the indices of power quality in high-voltage electrical networks using different types of high-voltage scale voltage converters. Methodology. Comparison of the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 Standard to high-voltage scale voltage converters, when measuring power quality indices, with the characteristics of high voltage electromagnetic transformers used in Ukraine, and with promising developments of high-voltage converters of other types. Results. It is shown in the study that in order to fulfill some of the requirements for class A of IEC 61000-4-30, the characteristics of electromagnetic voltage transformers should be determined in the substation conditions using mobile calibration high-voltage laboratories. To meet all the requirements for Class A IEC 61000-4-30, it is recommended to use broadband high-voltage dividers of resistive-capacitive type. Originality. In study it is shown firstly that all the requirements of the IEC 61000-4-30 Standard for high-voltage scale voltage converters can be performed on the basis of the use of broadband resistive-capacitive damped voltage dividers. Practical value. Expositions of specific types of resistive-capacitive high-voltage dividers are presented, their parameters are confirmed by the results of state


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In his contribution, the author wishes to trace a few of the contemporary trends of western European theology. He notes that alongside the growing infl uence of Roman Catholic theological thought in the West, there also arose a new theological divide between, what he terms, the romantic and the classical modes of theological orthodoxy. Both positions use diff erent methodological approaches in their common attempt at off ering resistance to secular modernity: the former appealing to the senses, the imagination and the fantasy, and the latter to unadulterated human reason.

  19. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith


    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  20. Affinity and Hostility in Divided Communities: a Mathematical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thron, Christopher


    We propose, develop, and analyze a mathematical model of intergroup attitudes in a community that is divided between two distinct social groups (which may be distinguished by religion, ethnicity, or some other socially distinguishing factor). The model is based on very simple premises that are both intuitive and justified by sociological research. We investigate the behavior of the model in various special cases, for various model configurations. We discuss the stability of the model, and the continuous or discontinuous dependence of model behavior on various parameters. Finally, we discuss possible implications for strategies to improve intergroup affinity, and to defuse tension and prevent deterioration of intergroup relationships.

  1. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.


    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.

  2. Towards a renewed understanding of the complex nerves of the digital divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Mubarak


    Full Text Available Past research has provided ample support for the assertion that advancement in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT accelerates economic growth. Recently, developing countries are witnessing high growth rates in ICT; nevertheless, the pace of research in this sector is relatively lower than the developed world. Although the digital divide globally seems to be diminished over time, the awareness about the issue is on a continuous rise. Despite vast research in the field, the multidimensional aspects of the term ‘digital divide’ are poorly understood. The majority of the published literature on the digital divide suffers from the lack of a multidimensional perspective on the topic. It appears that the conventional knowledge base on the digital divide has caused confusion in academia rather than clarifications. The aim of this paper is to establish an adequate understanding of the enormous complexity that hides in the term ‘digital divide’. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature review consisting of peer reviewed scientific articles was systematically conducted to understand and examine the current trends in the topic. Building on the past peer reviewed research; the present study discusses the multifaceted concept of the digital divide in depth and proposes future courses of action for policy makers.

  3. A prototype splitter apparatus for dividing large catches of small fish (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Edwards, William H.


    Due to financial and time constraints, it is often necessary in fisheries studies to divide large samples of fish and estimate total catch from the subsample. The subsampling procedure may involve potential human biases or may be difficult to perform in rough conditions. We present a prototype gravity-fed splitter apparatus for dividing large samples of small fish (30–100 mm TL). The apparatus features a tapered hopper with a sliding and removable shutter. The apparatus provides a comparatively stable platform for objectively obtaining subsamples, and it can be modified to accommodate different sizes of fish and different sample volumes. The apparatus is easy to build, inexpensive, and convenient to use in the field. To illustrate the performance of the apparatus, we divided three samples (total N = 2,000 fish) composed of four fish species. Our results indicated no significant bias in estimating either the number or proportion of each species from the subsample. Use of this apparatus or a similar apparatus can help to standardize subsampling procedures in large surveys of fish. The apparatus could be used for other applications that require dividing a large amount of material into one or more smaller subsamples.

  4. Quantifying and Mapping the Digital Divide from an Internet Point of View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; /SLAC; Khan, Shahryar; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Williams, Jerrod; /SLAC; Mehdi, Akbar; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi


    Quantitative knowledge of the magnitude, extent and trends of the Digital Divide are critical to understand and identify the regions most in need of help, to make rational decisions on how to address the problems and to make cases for executives, funding agencies and politicians. We report on a project (PingER) to measure the Digital Divide from the point of view of Internet performance. The PingER project has been measuring Internet performance since 1995 and with the increased emphasis on measuring and tracking the Digital Divide, it now covers over 700 hosts in over 150 countries that between them contain over 99% of the world's Internet connected population. In this paper we will describe the how PingER works, it deployment, the data analysis, and presentation. We also introduce a new PingER visualization tool (ViPER) that provides a more appealing interactive visualization of the PingER data and also works on mobile PDAs. We will also show results from PingER that illustrate the magnitude, extent and trends for the Digital Divide, and also compare PingER results with some human development and technology indices.

  5. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores (United States)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tolochko


    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for fine-grained structure of ingots during crystallization depending on the used foundry technologies. It is shown that by using modern scientific and technological advances may improve the traditional and the development of new casting processes, providing production of cast parts with over fine-grained structure and enhanced properties.

  7. The quality of specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 27, 2011 ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) can be defined as the removal of a sample of cells, using a fine needle, from a suspicious mass for diagnostic purposes.1 The first description of the use of needles for therapeutic purposes was provided by an Arab physician, Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas ...

  8. Stratified Flow Past a Hill: Dividing Streamline Concept Revisited (United States)

    Leo, Laura S.; Thompson, Michael Y.; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Fernando, Harindra J. S.


    The Sheppard formula (Q J R Meteorol Soc 82:528-529, 1956) for the dividing streamline height H_s assumes a uniform velocity U_∞ and a constant buoyancy frequency N for the approach flow towards a mountain of height h, and takes the form H_s/h=( {1-F} ) , where F=U_{∞}/Nh. We extend this solution to a logarithmic approach-velocity profile with constant N. An analytical solution is obtained for H_s/h in terms of Lambert-W functions, which also suggests alternative scaling for H_s/h. A `modified' logarithmic velocity profile is proposed for stably stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flows. A field experiment designed to observe H_s is described, which utilized instrumentation from the spring field campaign of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program. Multiple releases of smoke at F≈ 0.3-0.4 support the new formulation, notwithstanding the limited success of experiments due to logistical constraints. No dividing streamline is discerned for F≈ 10, since, if present, it is too close to the foothill. Flow separation and vortex shedding is observed in this case. The proposed modified logarithmic profile is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.

  9. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong


    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling\\'s interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling\\'s interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling\\'s interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Embodied ideas and divided selves: revisiting Laing via Bakhtin. (United States)

    Burkitt, Ian; Sullivan, Paul


    In this article, we apply Mikhail Bakhtin's model of a 'divided self' to R.D. Laing's eponymous work on the lived experience of divided selves in 'psychosis'. Both of these authors offer intriguing insights into the fracturing of self through its social relationships (including the 'micro-dialogues' staged for oneself) but from uniquely different perspectives. Bakhtin (1984) uses Dostoevsky's novels as his material for a theory of self, centrally concerned with moments of split identity, crisis, and personal transformation, while Laing relies on his patient's accounts of 'psychosis'. We will outline how two key Bakhtinian divisions of the self (spirit/soul and authoritative/internally persuasive discourse) help to make sense of Laing's descriptions of his patient's experiences and micro-dialogues. Conversely, when refracted through Laing's phenomenology Bakhtin's account of the self becomes richer and somewhat darkened in terms of a double-edged ontology, which describes a maximally open self but one that is consumed by ideas, unable to manage their contradictions. The implications of this for managing the dilemmas of self-identity will be drawn out.

  11. Divided attention impairs human motor adaptation but not feedback control. (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Thoroughman, Kurt A


    When humans experience externally induced errors in a movement, the motor system's feedback control compensates for those errors within the movement. The motor system's predictive control then uses information about those errors to inform future movements. The role of attention in these two distinct motor processes is unclear. Previous experiments have revealed a role for attention in motor learning over the course of many movements; however, these experimental paradigms do not determine how attention influences within-movement feedback control versus across-movement adaptation. Here we develop a dual-task paradigm, consisting of movement and audio tasks, which can differentiate and expose attention's role in these two processes of motor control. Over the course of several days, subjects performed horizontal reaching movements, with and without the audio task; movements were occasionally subjected to transient force perturbations. On movements with a force perturbation, subjects compensated for the force-induced movement errors, and on movements immediately after the force perturbation subjects exhibited adaptation. On every movement trial, subjects performed a two-tone frequency-discrimination task. The temporal specificity of the frequency-discrimination task allowed us to divide attention within and across movements. We find that divided attention did not impair the within-movement feedback control of the arm, but did reduce subsequent movement adaptation. We suggest that the secondary task interfered with the encoding and transformation of errors into changes in predictive control.

  12. Crossing the Sacred/Secular Divide; Unraveling Turkish Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrow Lisa


    Full Text Available This paper unpacks the ideas in the poem “Pull Down My Statues” by Süleyman Apaydın, to examine some common descriptors in use about modern Turkey. Taking his inspiration from Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the modern Turkish republic, Apaydın ponders the success of Atatürk’s vision, based on the idea of a secular/sacred divide. Combining this with the way travel in Turkey is heavily promoted using the same themes, I explore how this divide, with its underlying connotations of West versus East and modernity versus tradition (as found in Turkey’s Ottoman past, is applied to Turkish identity. Turks are commonly portrayed as a homogenous people only differentiated by their degree of religiosity, but I argue that this analysis is too simplistic. Turkish identity has never been based on a single clear cut model, and this is becoming obvious as more traditional Islamic ways of life are being reworked by new forms of Islam based on capitalism. Consequently, although it is important to acknowledge Turkey’s past, looking to history for a way to steer through the complexities of the present is no longer useful or even relevant.

  13. Fine mapping of gene regions regulating neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Swanberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Damage to nerve cells and axons leading to neurodegeneration is a characteristic feature of many neurological diseases. The degree of genetic influence on susceptibility to axotomy-induced neuronal death has so far been unknown. We have examined two gene regions, Vra1 and Vra2, previously linked to nerve cell loss after ventral root avulsion in a rat F2 intercross between the DA and PVG inbred rat strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we use two generations (G8 and G10 cohorts of an advanced intercross line between DA and PVG(av1 to reproduce linkage to Vra1 and to fine-map this region. By isolating the effect from Vra1 in congenic strains, we demonstrate that Vra1 significantly regulates the loss of motoneurons after avulsion. The regulatory effect mediated by Vra1 thus resides in a congenic fragment of 9 megabases. Furthermore, we have used the advanced intercross lines to give more support to Vra2, originally detected as a suggestive QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated here show that naturally occurring allelic variations affect susceptibility to axotomy-induced nerve cell death. Vra1 and Vra2 represent the first quantitative trait loci regulating this phenotype that are characterized and fine mapped in an advanced intercross line. In addition, congenic strains provide experimental evidence for the Vra1 effect on the extent of injury-induced neurodegeneration. Identification of the underlying genetic variations will increase our understanding of the regulation and mechanisms of neurodegeneration.

  14. Hand/Eye Coordination For Fine Robotic Motion (United States)

    Lokshin, Anatole M.


    Fine motions of robotic manipulator controlled with help of visual feedback by new method reducing position errors by order of magnitude. Robotic vision subsystem includes five cameras: three stationary ones providing wide-angle views of workspace and two mounted on wrist of auxiliary robot arm. Stereoscopic cameras on arm give close-up views of object and end effector. Cameras measure errors between commanded and actual positions and/or provide data for mapping between visual and manipulator-joint-angle coordinates.

  15. Flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils (United States)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang; Wang, Chong-qing


    The flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils were investigated through microflotation test, turbidity measurements, infrared spectroscopy, and interfacial interaction calculations. The results of the flotation test show that at pH 2-11, the floatability of molybdenite fines in the presence of transformer oil is markedly better than that in the presence of kerosene and diesel oil. The addition of transformer oil, which enhances the floatability of molybdenite fines, promotes the aggregation of molybdenite particles. Fourier transform infrared measurements illustrate that physical interaction dominates the adsorption mechanism of neutral oil on molybdenite. Interfacial interaction calculations indicate that hydrophobic attraction is the crucial force that acts among the oil collector, water, and molybdenite. Strong hydrophobic attraction between the oily collector and water provides the strong dispersion capability of the collector in water. Furthermore, the dispersion capability of the collector, not the interaction strength between the oily collectors and molybdenite, has a highly significant role in the flotation system of molybdenite fines. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of molybdenite flotation.

  16. Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits


    Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Neziri, Burim; Mekaj, Agon Y; Lajqi, Shpetim; Shahini, Labinot


    Background: The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and b...

  17. Single camera spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography based on orthogonal channels by time divided detection (United States)

    He, Youwu; Li, Zhifang; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hui


    We demonstrate a simple polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography implement by using a single line-scan camera based on time divided detection. Two light shutters were placed on the dual assembly reference arm that provides a divided detection between the orthogonal vertical and horizontal polarized lights. The relative reflectivity and the retardance information were available by recombining the two orthogonal polarization images. This system can be employed to implement high speed polarization-sensitive OCT images.

  18. Attitude estimation by divided difference filter in quaternion space (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Khayatian, Alireza; Karimaghaee, Paknoush


    This article considers the application of Divided Difference Filter (DDF) to the orientation estimation, based on a quaternion-error continuous-discrete time model. DDF is a nonlinear estimator that in contrast to Taylor's expansion of extended Kalman Filter (EKF), exploit the polynomial approximations as a multivariable extension of Stirling's interpolation formula and require no derivatives. The DDF can be based on 1st and 2nd order Stirling's interpolation, which is named the divided difference filter-1st order (DDF1) and the divided difference filter-2nd order (DDF2). The orientation kinematics is defined in a quaternion vector space that unlike the Euler angle representation does not have any singularity problem. The presented nonlinear orientation model is an exact error model and is independent of the rigid body dynamics. The nonlinear process model includes six error-states in which only non-scalar elements of quaternion error vector are included in the error-state equations. The fourth element of quaternion error vector, which obeys unit norm constraint, is removed from system states to alleviate the estimated error covariance matrix divergence. The measurement system is a MARG sensor, which consists of a tri-axial rate gyro, a tri-axial accelerometer and a tri-axial magnetometer. The nonlinear measurement model is obtained based on the principals of magnetometer and accelerometer and the properties of the quaternion vector space. For the presented nonlinear orientation model, the performance of three filters namely DDF, EKF and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is compared for different sampling frequencies in terms of the rms error, the captured area under the error norm curve, the estimated state variance and the computational cost. It is shown that under the same initial angle-error conditions, DDFs and UKF are more robust than EKF. The DDFs perform better than unscented Kalman filter (UKF) although the computational load for UKF is less. Among DDF1 and

  19. Revolutions in Global Networking and Collaborations, and the Digital Divide (United States)

    Newman, Harvey


    The major physics experiments of the next twenty five years, such as those at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider, will break new ground in our understanding of the fundamental interactions, structures and symmetries that govern the nature of matter and spacetime. In order to realize the scientific wealth of these experimental programs, physicists have formed global-scale collaborations and built grid systems where the data is processed, distributed and collaboratively analyzed using networked computing facilities at more than 100 sites around the world. Effective use of these emerging ensembles of facilities and networks presents new challenges in Petabyte-scale data access, processing and distribution, and collaboration across national and international networks on a scale unprecedented in the history of science. The key to meeting these challenges is the effective use of data networks. The bandwidth use by high energy physicists, paralleled by scientists in other fields of data intensive science, continues to grow at several hundred times per decade, and there are indications that this growth is accelerating. This is helping to drive the growth of the major networks serving research and education, as well as mission-oriented networks in the US, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Physicists and computer scientists have together made striking technological advances in recent years, and have developed tools that allow full use of long range 10 gigabit/sec links on a routine basis for the first time. As the science community continues to advance in its development of networks and grid systems, a key concern is the rising Digital Divide between the favored and less-favored regions of the world. Closing the Divide is vital for the health of our global collaborations and our field. In this talk I will review these trends, and focus on the means to reduce the Digital Divide, from the perspective of

  20. Community Informatics: Challenges in Bridging the Digital Divide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Songan, Peter; Hamid, Khairuddin A; Yeo, Alvin; Gnaniah, Jayapragas; Zen, Hushairi


    ...) provides a context to demonstrate how information and communication technologies (ICTs) can provide opportunities for remote and rural communities to develop socially, culturally, and economically...

  1. Envy Up, Scorn Down: How Comparison Divides Us (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T.


    Comparison compels people, even as it stresses, depresses, and divides us. Comparison is only natural, but the collateral damage reveals envy upward and scorn downward, and these emotions, arguably, poison people and their relationships. Summaries of several experiments—using questionnaire, psychometric, response-time, electromyographic, and neuroimaging data—illustrate the dynamics of envy up and scorn down, as well as proposing how to mitigate their effects. Initial studies suggest the importance of status. Other data show how scorn down minimizes thought about another’s mind; power deactivates mental concepts. Regarding envy up, other studies demonstrate that Schadenfreude (malicious joy) targets envied outgroups. However, counterstereotypic information, empathy, and outcome dependency can mitigate both scorn and envy. PMID:21058760

  2. Bridging the Mass Divide: Super & Massive AGB Star Yields (United States)

    Doherty, C. L.; Gil-Pons, P.; Lau, H. H. B.; Lattanzio, J. C.


    Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (Super AGBs) lie in the mass range 6-11 M⊙, which bridges the divide between low/intermediate mass AGB and massive stars. During the thermally pulsing phase of evolution competition between hot bottom burning (HBB) and third dredge up (3DU) events determine the stellar yields. Obtaining these yields is far more computationally demanding than those of most AGB stars because Super AGBs undergo up to a few thousand thermal pulses. We describe results from evolutionary and nucleosynthetic calculations for these stellar models. We examine element production in these Super AGB stars over time, with results from five metallicities spanning the range Z = 0.02-10-4 ([Fe/H] 0 to -2.3). Super AGB star nucleosynthetic yields have hitherto been neglected in galactic chemical evolution modelling.

  3. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard


    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  4. Nationality Divides and Shared Leadership in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna


    dynamics, shared leadership within the team, and team performance. We conduct two empirical studies, and find that the number and balance of identity subgroups have important implications for multinational team functioning, in line with social identity approaches. Interestingly, the number and balance......How shared leadership is enacted in teams that are nationally diverse is currently under- researched, despite the increasing presence of multinational teams in the workplace. To better understand the phenomenon of shared leadership in multinational team contexts, we propose two ways in which...... nationality-based characteristics of members may divide teams and affect leadership. We argue that the national belonging of members may result in both identity subgroups and status ranks. However, the configurational properties of identity subgroups and status ranks will have distinct effects on team...

  5. Envy up, scorn down: how comparison divides us. (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T


    Comparison compels people, even as it stresses, depresses, and divides us. Comparison is only natural, but the collateral damage reveals envy upward and scorn downward, and these emotions, arguably, poison people and their relationships. Summaries of several experiments--using questionnaire, psychometric, response-time, electromyographic, and neuroimaging data--illustrate the dynamics of envy up and scorn down, as well as proposing how to mitigate their effects. Initial studies suggest the importance of status. Other data show how scorn down minimizes thought about another's mind; power deactivates mental concepts. Regarding envy up, other studies demonstrate that Schadenfreude (malicious joy) targets envied outgroups. However, counterstereotypic information, empathy, and outcome dependency can mitigate both scorn and envy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Restifo


    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  7. Effect of dividing daylight in symmetric prismatic daylight collector (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Ju-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Chin


    This paper presented a symmetric prismatic daylight collector to collect daylight for the natural light illumination system. We analyzed the characteristics of the emerging light when the parallel light beam illuminate on the horizontally placed symmetric prismatic daylight collector. The ratio of the relative intensities of collected daylight that emerging from each surface of the daylight collector shown that the ratio is varied with the incident angle during a day. The simulation of the emerging light of the daylight collector shown that the ratio of emerging light is varied with the tilted angle when sunshine illuminated on a symmetric prismatic daylight collector which was not placed horizontally. The integration of normalized intensity is also varied with the tilted angle. The symmetric prismatic daylight collector with the benefits of reducing glare and dividing intensity of incident daylight, it is applicable to using in the natural light illumination system and hybrid system for improving the efficiency of utilizing of solar energy.

  8. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide. (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S


    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale


    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  10. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction. (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo


    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide? (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela


    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen


    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  13. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail:


    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  14. A transient divided-bar method for simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Nielsen, Søren Bom; Balling, Niels


    Accurate information on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of materials is of central importance in relation to geoscience and engineering problems involving the transfer of heat. Within the geosciences, this applies to all aspects regarding the determination of terrestrial heat flow...... and subsurface temperature modelling. Several methods, including the classical divided-bar technique, are available for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity, and much fewer for thermal diffusivity. We have generalized the divided-bar technique to the transient case, in which thermal conductivity...... and volumetric heat capacity, and thereby also thermal diffusivity, are measured simultaneously. As the density of samples is easily determined independently, specific heat capacity may also be determined. Finite element formulation provides a flexible forward solution for heat transfer across the bar...

  15. R.D. Laing and theology: the influence of Christian existentialism on "The Divided Self". (United States)

    Miller, Gavin


    The radical psychiatrist R.D. Laing's first book, "The Divided Self" (1960), is informed by the work of Christian thinkers on scriptural interpretation -- an intellectual genealogy apparent in Laing's comparison of Karl Jaspers's symptomatology with the theological tradition of "form criticism." Rudolf Bultmann's theology, which was being enthusiastically promoted in 1950s Scotland, is particularly influential upon Laing. It furnishes him with the notion that schizophrenic speech expresses existential truths as if they were statements about the physical and organic world. It also provides him with a model of the schizoid position as a form of modern-day Stoicism. Such theological recontextualization of "The Divided Self" illuminates continuities in Laing's own work, and also indicates his relationship to a wider British context, such as the work of the "clinical theologian" Frank Lake.

  16. [Development ideas of fine pharmaceutical materials of traditional Chinese medicine preparations based on active cluster theory]. (United States)

    Ke, Zhong-Cheng; Hou, Xue-Feng; Jia, Xiao-Bin


    The pharmaceutical materials are divided into coarse and fine types in the development of traditional Chinese medicine preparations. Fine materials with clear composition, stable content and high quality control conform to the international development trend of traditional Chinese medicine preparations. In this paper, the status of fine materials was analyzed, and the development ideas were tentatively put forward. On the one hand, the study on simple methods and efficient equipment shall be strengthened for the simultaneous separation of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine; on the other hand, the knowledge for traditional Chinese medicine shall be broadened to further develop the scientific compatibility of monomers under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr


    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  18. Fine mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism effects estimation on pig chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 17 and X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, A.M.; Lopes, P.S.; Paixao, M.; Silva, F.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Paiva, A.


    Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) from previous linkage studies was performed on pig chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 17, and X which were known to harbor QTL. Traits were divided into: growth performance, carcass, internal organs, cut yields, and meat quality. Fifty families were used of a F2

  19. Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales (United States)

    Carter, Neil H.; Shrestha, Binoj K.; Karki, Jhamak B.; Pradhan, Narendra Man Babu; Liu, Jianguo


    Many wildlife species face imminent extinction because of human impacts, and therefore, a prevailing belief is that some wildlife species, particularly large carnivores and ungulates, cannot coexist with people at fine spatial scales (i.e., cannot regularly use the exact same point locations). This belief provides rationale for various conservation programs, such as resettling human communities outside protected areas. However, quantitative information on the capacity and mechanisms for wildlife to coexist with humans at fine spatial scales is scarce. Such information is vital, because the world is becoming increasingly crowded. Here, we provide empirical information about the capacity and mechanisms for tigers (a globally endangered species) to coexist with humans at fine spatial scales inside and outside Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, a flagship protected area for imperiled wildlife. Information obtained from field cameras in 2010 and 2011 indicated that human presence (i.e., people on foot and vehicles) was ubiquitous and abundant throughout the study site; however, tiger density was also high. Surprisingly, even at a fine spatial scale (i.e., camera locations), tigers spatially overlapped with people on foot and vehicles in both years. However, in both years, tigers offset their temporal activity patterns to be much less active during the day when human activity peaked. In addition to temporal displacement, tiger–human coexistence was likely enhanced by abundant tiger prey and low levels of tiger poaching. Incorporating fine-scale spatial and temporal activity patterns into conservation plans can help address a major global challenge—meeting human needs while sustaining wildlife. PMID:22949642


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Hujova


    Full Text Available Glass melting is significantly influenced by two processes: the dissolution of particles and the fining of glass. Because these processes are time- and energy-consuming in industry, fining agents are used. Although much literature has been reported about the use of fining agents, no extensive overview of such literature has yet been published. In this paper, we provide such a review, targeting articles that describe the influence of fining agents on (i the dissolution of particles, (ii the bubble nucleation and removal, (iii colour of glass at reduced melting conditions, and (iv the foaming of glass. We cover the history of fining agent usage from the earliest research in the field to the most recent cutting-edge discoveries. The advantages and disadvantages of all the traditional fining agents are described, with attention paid to the most widely used agent, sodium sulphate. In addition, sodium sulphate is considered as a surface-active compound and colouring substance. Furthermore, we include the influence of redox conditions on the process of fining. We believe that our review provides an ideal introduction to the use of fining agents, both for researchers and industry professionals.

  1. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection. (United States)

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T


    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

  2. "Let the "Orientales" Be as Enlightened as They Are Brave": The Digital Divide in the Context of Uruguay's Public Schools (United States)

    Capurro, Rafael; Rodríguez Fleitas, Maximiliano


    In this paper we present two recent information literacy and access initiatives in Uruguay and their necessary historical antecedents, and analyze them from a phenomenological perspective to provide commentary on current philosophical discussions about information and the digital divide. To provide historical context we present a brief history of…

  3. Actin in dividing cells: contractile ring filaments bind heavy meromyosin. (United States)

    Schroeder, T E


    Many microfilaments and microtubules are well preserved after glycerol-extraction of HeLa cells at room temperature (22 degrees ). Incubation in heavy meromyosin from rabbit skeletal muscle results in conspicuous and characteristic "decoration" of microfilaments of the contractile ring. Decoration is completely prevented by 10 mM ATP or 2 mM pyrophosphate, and fails to occur if heavy meromyosin is either omitted or replaced by egg albumin, a nonspecific protein. Decorated microfilaments have a substructure consisting of polarized, repeating arrowheads 27-35 nm apart. The specificity of these results strongly suggests that microfilaments of the contractile ring in HeLa cells are closely related to muscle actin. Very thin undecorated strands among the microfilaments of the contractile ring possibly represent a myosin component. These findings are discussed in terms of: the actomyosin-like properties of the contractile ring as a mechanochemical organelle that causes cell cleavage; the probable universal occurrence of actin-like protein in all dividing animal cells; and the contractile ring's combined sensitivity to cytochalasin B and its affinity for heavy meromyosin, a combination unique among microfilamentous organelles.

  4. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko


    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  5. Cultural safety and nursing education in divided societies. (United States)

    Arieli, Daniella; Mashiach, Michal; Hirschfeld, Miriam J; Friedman, Victor


    This research explores the experiences of cultural safety among nursing students from majority and minority groups in a divided society with implications for academic satisfaction and success. The study takes place in an academic nursing program in Israel, where Arab and Jewish students study together. A researcher-developed questionnaire was used with 17 statements concerning social relations between students, faculty support, and the effects of social relations on academic satisfaction and outcomes. Significant differences were found in the ways Arab and Jewish students perceived the cultural safety of the environment. Arab students perceived social relations and faculty attitude as less positive than Jewish students and perceived cultural safety as having greater influence on academic satisfaction and success. The findings indicate that students from different groups will perceive the same shared reality in significantly different ways. Nurse faculty and administrators need to make efforts to bring perceptions into closer alignment and to minimize the negative impact of external conflicts on feelings of cultural safety.

  6. Divided attention and mental effort after severe traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Azouvi, Philippe; Couillet, Josette; Leclercq, Michel; Martin, Yves; Asloun, Sybille; Rousseaux, Marc


    The aim of this study was to assess dual-task performance in TBI patients, under different experimental conditions, with or without explicit emphasis on one of two tasks. Results were compared with measurement of the subjective mental effort required to perform each task. Forty-three severe TBI patients at the subacute or chronic phase performed two tasks under single- and dual-task conditions: (a) random generation; (b) visual go-no go reaction time task. Three dual-task conditions were given, requiring either to consider both tasks as equally important or to focus preferentially on one of them. Patients were compared to matched controls. Subjective mental effort was rated on a visual analogic scale. TBI patients showed a disproportionate increase in reaction time in the go-no go task under the dual-task condition. However, they were just as able as controls to adapt performance to the specific instructions about the task to be emphasised. Patients reported significantly higher subjective mental effort, but the variation of mental effort according to task condition was similar to that of controls. These results suggest that the divided attention deficit of TBI patients is related to a reduction in available processing resources rather than an impairment of strategic processes responsible for attentional allocation and switching. The higher level of subjective mental effort may explain why TBI patients frequently complain of mental fatigue, although this subjective complaint seems to be relatively independent of cognitive impairment.

  7. Combas & Co. or the Figure and the Great Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Yaari


    Full Text Available The young painter, Robert Combas, leader of the 1980s "figuration libre" 'free figuration' movement, is seen here both as representative of stylistic and thematic trends in contemporary French art, and as illustrative, through the unfolding of his career, of the object "painting" and its sociology in contemporary France. Examined are: first, the "Postmodern convergence" of figurative, indeed narrative art, with the collapse of the "great divide" between elite and popular art forms; and second, traits such as hypertrophic verbal paratext, high erotic content, and political stand. Similar threads are followed in the work of a number of other artists, old and young, established or not, female and male—hence the "& Co." of the title. The essay raises, without claiming to solve, a set of sociologically and politically informed questions: What forces have shaped Combas' sensibility and style? What forces have made him a minor celebrity domestically, one that France's awesome cultural apparatus considers worthy of export? What, in the formation of contemporary mentalities and tastes, may account for the parallels found among artists as diverse as Combas, Quardon, Pierre and Gilles, Ben, and Klossowski?

  8. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc


    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  9. The influence of spatial separation on divided listening. (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Gallun, Frederick J; Ihlefeld, Antje; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G


    If spatial attention acts like a "spotlight," focusing on one location and excluding others, it may be advantageous to have all targets of interest within the same spatial region. This hypothesis was explored using a task where listeners reported keywords from two simultaneous talkers. In Experiment 1, the two talkers were placed symmetrically about the frontal midline with various angular separations. While there was a small performance improvement for moderate separations, the improvement decreased for larger separations. However, the dependency of the relative talker intensities on spatial configuration accounted for these effects. Experiment 2 tested whether spatial separation improved the intelligibility of each source, an effect that could counteract any degradation in performance as sources fell outside the spatial spotlight of attention. In this experiment, intelligibility of individual sources was equalized across configurations by adding masking noise. Under these conditions, the cost of divided listening (the drop in performance when reporting both messages compared to reporting just one) was smaller when the spatial separation was small. These results suggest that spatial separation enhances the intelligibility of individual sources in a competing pair but increases the cost associated with having to process both sources simultaneously, consistent with the attentional spotlight hypothesis.

  10. Viatical settlement tax reform: Republicans support relief, Democrats divided. (United States)

    James, J S; Roehr, B


    Congress is considering the tax exempt status on money received from a life insurance policy before death of a person with a short life expectancy due to illness. Tax exempt status is being considered for both accelerated benefits and viatical settlement. Accelerated benefits allows for pre-payment in advance of death. A viatical settlement is the purchase of an insurance policy by third parties with the condition of their becoming the irrevocable beneficiary of the policy being purchased. While House Republicans on the House Ways and Means Committee are generally supportive of not taxing viatical settlements, Democrats are divided. Letters to Congress are needed, especially to House Ways and Means Democrats from voters in their districts and states to encourage their support of the reform bill (HR 8, the Senior Citizens' Equity Act) which includes tax relief for both accelerated benefits and viatical settlements. More information can be obtained by calling Gary Rose, National Association of People with AIDS, (202) 898-0414, or Tom McCormack, Affording Care, (202) 479-2543.

  11. Divided Universities: The Postcolonial Experience of Contemporary Ukrainian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Svyrydenko


    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of Ukrainian divided universities, which appear at the result of Revolution of Dignity, annexation of Crimea by Russia as well as formation of quasi-republics of the East of Ukraine. Most of educational institutions form these territories were evacuated (students and teaching stuff, but “twin universities” appeared using campus and facilities of migrated ones. Author demonstrates the heuristic potential of using the interdisciplinary approaches for understanding the essence of this situation applying metaphors like “university cloning”, “university mitosis” and so on. This approach is strengthened by the ethical judgment through the basic axiological values of modern “idea of university” (freedom of thinking, academic freedom, institutional autonomy, will of knowledge and truth etc. collected at Magna Charta Universitatum. From these positions, migrated universities comprehend as an active bearer and translator of “idea of university”. The “twin universities” have a lot of formal arguments to be comprehended as authentic ones, but author stresses on the fact that these institutions don’t fit the universities axiological criteria: these universities rejected ones’ own tradition; teachers are ready to work in censored conditions and manipulate the knowledge; teachers and students risk to became subjects of violence; the autonomy and academic freedom are absent. Author also appeals the historical facts on the example of Cambridge University origination that let make the optimistic conclusion concerning the perspectives of migrated universities

  12. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider. (United States)

    Zhou, Bingpu; Wang, Limu; Li, Shunbo; Wang, Xiang; Hui, Yu Sanna; Wen, Weijia


    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function.

  13. Does fish ecology predict dispersal across a river drainage divide? (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Craw, Dave; Jack, Daniel C; King, Tania M; Waters, Jonathan M


    Obligate freshwater taxa are frequently distributed among catchments isolated by marine and terrestrial barriers. Such distributions can arise through vicariant changes in drainage geometry, or dispersal via intermittent freshwater connections. We employed two adjacent rivers in southern New Zealand to test for interdrainage dispersal while controlling for historical drainage geometry, and analyzed four ecologically distinct freshwater-limited fish taxa to assess any relationship with habitat preference. Individuals from the Mararoa and Oreti catchments (n >100 per species) were sequenced for a minimum of 1297 bp of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and control region). Phylogeographic relationships were consistent with ecological expectations of interdrainage dispersal capability, with the two obligate riverine taxa each exhibiting reciprocal monophyly between catchments, whereas the two facultative swamp dwellers revealed paraphyletic relationships, one of which shared a haplotype between catchments. Statistical phylogeography, accommodating taxon-specific mutation rates and the known age of the last major riverine connection between these catchments, rejected complete isolation of populations for one of the swamp dwellers. Therefore, dispersal across a young (145-240 kyr) drainage divide is inferred for one species, and can be predicted to some extent by species ecology. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of historical drainage geometry when assessing the causes of contemporary genetic structuring in freshwater taxa.

  14. Informaticiens Sans Frontieres: Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    ISF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry. ISF est né comme un club du CERN, en 2003, pendant le Sommet Mondiale de la Société de l'information à Genève. Aujourd'hui nous participons à plusieurs projets avec le but d'aider l'Afrique à reduire la Fracture Numérique, ou de fournir de la puissance de calcul (BOINC) à la recherche contre le Paludisme, ou en créant des GRIDs qui pourra...

  15. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu


    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Differential reinforcement and resistance to change of divided-attention performance. (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Thrailkill, Eric; Shahan, Timothy A


    Behavioral momentum theory provides a framework for understanding how conditions of reinforcement influence instrumental response strength under conditions of disruption (i.e., resistance to change). The present experiment examined resistance to change of divided-attention performance when different overall probabilities of reinforcement were arranged across two components of a multiple schedule. Pigeons responded in a delayed-matching-to-sample procedure with compound samples (color + line orientation) and element comparisons (two colors or two line orientations). Reinforcement ratios of 1:9, 1:1, and 9:1 for accurate matches on the two types of comparison trials were examined across conditions using reinforcement probabilities (color/lines) of .9/.1, .5/.5, and .1/.9 in the rich component and .18/.02, .1/.1, and .02/.18 in the lean component. Relative accuracy with color and line comparisons was an orderly function of relative reinforcement, but this relation did not depend on the overall rate of reinforcement between components. The resistance to change of divided-attention performance was greater for both trial types in the rich component with presession feeding and extinction, but not with decreases in sample duration. These findings suggest promise for the applicability of quantitative models of operant behavior to divided-attention performance, but they highlight the need to further explore conditions impacting the resistance to change of attending.

  17. Why Cortical Neurons Cannot Divide, and Why Do They Usually Die in the Attempt? (United States)

    Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando; Dent, Myrna A R


    Cortical neurons are prime examples of terminally differentiated, postmitotic cells. However, under experimental or pathological conditions, they can re-enter the cell cycle and replicate DNA but are unable to divide, dying by apoptosis or becoming either polyploid or aneuploid. Any cellular state that depends on the action of genes and their products can be reverted or bypassed by spontaneous or induced mutations, yet there are currently no reports of dividing cortical neurons. Thus, it seems unlikely that the remarkably stable postmitotic condition of cortical neurons depends on specific gene functions. This Review summarizes evidence that the postmitotic state of cortical neurons depends on the high stability of its underlying nuclear structure that results from an entropy-driven process aimed at dissipating the intrinsic structural stress present in chromosomal DNA in such a way that the structural stability of the neuronal nucleus becomes an insurmountable energy barrier for karyokinesis and mitosis. From this perspective, the integral properties of the nuclear higher order structure in neurons provide an explanation not only for why cortical neurons cannot divide but also for why they usually die if they happen to replicate their DNA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Huijing; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun


    Speakers rapidly adjust their ongoing vocal productions to compensate for errors they hear in their auditory feedback. It is currently unclear what role attention plays in these vocal compensations. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback regarding ongoing vocalisations. During the production of a sustained vowel, participants briefly heard their vocal pitch shifted up two semitones while they actively attended to auditory or visual events (selective attention), or both auditory and visual events (divided attention), or were not told to attend to either modality (control condition). The behavioral results showed that attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations than attending to the visual stimuli. Moreover, ERPs were likewise sensitive to the attentional manipulations: P2 responses to pitch perturbations were larger when participants attended to the auditory stimuli compared to when they attended to the visual stimuli, and compared to when they were not explicitly told to attend to either the visual or auditory stimuli. By contrast, dividing attention between the auditory and visual modalities caused suppressed P2 responses relative to all the other conditions and caused enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the influence of attention on the mechanisms underlying the auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. In addition, selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of pitch feedback errors in different ways. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various ...

  20. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  1. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEW RSW Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Note that the CGNS file is very...

  2. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Mixed Element Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RSW Fine Mixed Element Grid with viscous root wind tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 38016 Tria Surface Faces=...

  3. The Execution of Criminal Fine Penalty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cosmin Peneoașu


    This paper aims at dissecting the criminal provisions on criminal enforcement of fines in current Romanian criminal law with the goal of highlighting the new penal policy stated in the larger field of criminal penalties...

  4. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children. (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua


    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultra-Fine Grained Dual-Phase Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Militzer


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on obtaining low-carbon ultra-fine grained dual-phase steels through rapid intercritical annealing of cold-rolled sheet as improved materials for automotive applications. A laboratory processing route was designed that involves cold-rolling of a tempered martensite structure followed by a second tempering step to produce a fine grained aggregate of ferrite and carbides as the initial microstructure for rapid intercritical annealing. The intercritical annealing step was performed with heating and cooling rates of at least 100 °C/s and a holding time of 30 s. The intercritical temperature was selected to result in 20- 35% martensite in the final microstructures for C-Mn steels with carbon contents of 0.06, 0.12 and 0.17 wt%, respectively. The proposed processing routes produced an ultra-fine grained ferrite-martensite structure withgrain sizes of approximately 1 ?m for all three steels. The tensile strength of these ultra-fine grained dualphase steels can be increased by up to 200 MPa as compared to coarse-grained dual-phase steels while maintaining uniform elongation values. The rather narrow processing window necessary to obtain these properties was evaluated by determining the effect of intercritical annealing conditions on microstructure evolution. Further, the experimental results were confirmed with phase field simulations of austenite formation indicating that rapid heat treatment cycles are essential to obtain fine grained intercritical austenite that leads to martensite islands with sizes of 1 ?m and below in the final microstructure.

  6. Fine 5 Eesti tantsuväljal / Iiris Viirpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viirpalu, Iiris, 1992-


    Nüüdistantsuteatril Fine 5 täitub tänavu 25. tegutsemisaasta. Fine 5 käekirjast. Vestlusest Fine 5 tantsuteatri ja -kooli kauaaegsete kunstiliste juhtide Renee Nõmmiku ja Tiina Olleskiga Eesti tantsukunstist

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid (United States)

    ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy uses sound waves ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the ...

  8. Crossing cultural divides: moral conflict and the Cairo population conference. (United States)

    Davis, J E


    This essay considers the public conflict that arose during the drafting of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) as reflecting a moral argument between interest groups holding different world views. These differences are seen as running through and across civilizations rather than being civilization-specific. The essay opens with background information on the development of the concepts of population control and population stabilization as well as the adoption of national population policies and the goals of population programs. The public conflict over the ICPD is then reiterated and is seen to be something other than the usual "West versus the rest" tension or a "religious" versus "secular" battle. Instead the divide can be broadly categorized as "orthodox" versus "progressive." The contested issues included a conflict over language relating to abortion, marriage and the family, promiscuity and adultery, and development and international migration. The conflict over human rights involved health rights versus nonmedicalized moral norms, individual rights versus family rights, and sustainable development versus integral development. The underriding conflict is seen to be a conflict between those holding orthodox versus progressive world views over who will shape the future. The tactics of this high-stakes conflict included portraying the other side as fanatics, treating the moral debate as a distraction from more important issues, charging the other side with having a hidden agenda, and isolating certain ideas from the possibility of discussion. With 92% of the Draft Programme of Action uncontested, both sides made compromises that resulted in the gist of the text remaining intact. Because the result of implementation of the Programme of Action will be cultural change, the conflict did not end with the ICPD. As the globalization of Western culture proceeds, cross-cultural moral conflicts may arise.

  9. Robustness of synthetic oscillators in growing and dividing cells (United States)

    Paijmans, Joris; Lubensky, David K.; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter


    Synthetic biology sets out to implement new functions in cells, and to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles. Elowitz and Leibler [Nature (London) 403, 335 (2000), 10.1038/35002125] showed that by rational design of the reaction network, and using existing biological components, they could create a network that exhibits periodic gene expression, dubbed the repressilator. More recently, Stricker et al. [Nature (London) 456, 516 (2008), 10.1038/nature07389] presented another synthetic oscillator, called the dual-feedback oscillator, which is more stable. Detailed studies have been carried out to determine how the stability of these oscillators is affected by the intrinsic noise of the interactions between the components and the stochastic expression of their genes. However, as all biological oscillators reside in growing and dividing cells, an important question is how these oscillators are perturbed by the cell cycle. In previous work we showed that the periodic doubling of the gene copy numbers due to DNA replication can couple not only natural, circadian oscillators to the cell cycle [Paijmans et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 113, 4063 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1507291113], but also these synthetic oscillators. Here we expand this study. We find that the strength of the locking between oscillators depends not only on the positions of the genes on the chromosome, but also on the noise in the timing of gene replication: noise tends to weaken the coupling. Yet, even in the limit of high levels of noise in the replication times of the genes, both synthetic oscillators show clear signatures of locking to the cell cycle. This work enhances our understanding of the design of robust biological oscillators inside growing and diving cells.

  10. Working Safe and Feeling Fine. (United States)

    Milshtein, Amy


    Discusses the problem of repetitive stress disorders in the administrative workplace and shares some quick fixes to aid ergonomics. Some thoughts on the ergonomics of office chairs are provided as is the use of professional guidance in furniture purchasing. (GR)

  11. A closer look at dynamic speckles and the use of their fine-structure for object measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Iversen, Theis F.Q.; Jakobsen, Michael Linde


    The possibility to “dress up” the speckles and thereby providing them with a fine structure will be discussed. As these speckles arise from scattering off solid targets, the dynamics of the speckles and their inherent fine structure might vary, providing information on different aspects of the su...

  12. The digital divide in rural South Asia: Survey evidence from Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper examines bridging the digital divide through organisational innovations that provide low cost Internet access in developing countries, within the existing conditions of income levels. We use survey data from three South Asian countries, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka, to examine factors influencing patterns of computer and Internet use. We find that education plays a key role, in terms of its acquisition as a reason for computer and Internet use, and as an enabling variable (especially in the case of English language knowledge.

  13. Divide by 4 the emissions: the Negatep scenario; Diviser par 4 nos rejets: le scenario Negatep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P


    The Negatep scenario is proposed in the framework of the french energy policy, aiming to divide by 4 the CO{sub 2} emissions for 2050. After an evaluation of the today situation concerning the energy consumption and needs, the scenario proposes some ways of energy conservation in different sectors, other energy sources in place of the fossil fuels, the energy needs by sectors. The last part of the document provides the main consumption posts, the CO{sub 2} releases and the approach. (A.L.B.)

  14. The north–south divide in the Italian higher education system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco


    This work examines whether the macroeconomic divide between northern and southern Italy is also present at the level of higher education. The analysis confirms that the research performance in the sciences of the professors in the south is on average less than that of the professors in the north......, and that this gap does not show noticeable variations at the level of gender or academic rank. For the universities, the gap is still greater. The study analyzes some possible determinants of the gap, and provides some policy recommendations for its reduction....

  15. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples. (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H


    definition of "rigorous scientific research," one that includes both community development and scientific progress as legitimate objectives of genomic research. Innovative translational research is needed to develop practical, mutually acceptable methods for crossing the divide between genomic researchers and indigenous communities. This may mean the difference between success and failure in genomic science, and in improving health for all peoples. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Health literacy and the digital divide among older Americans. (United States)

    Levy, Helen; Janke, Alexander T; Langa, Kenneth M


    digital divide.

  17. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.


    the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in the cold season. Especially in the residential areas local wood combustion emissions were occasionally substantial. A notable contribution of particles originating from wood combustion was detected both at suburban and urban areas caused by emissions that were distributed regionally or they were long-range transported. In addition to the wood combustion emissions, transported smokes from open-land fires in Russia and the Baltic countries affected the air quality in Helsinki in the warm season. Source-specific tracer compounds were used in the thesis for identifying the biomass burning source of fine particles. The most used tracer compounds were anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan) that originate specifically in the pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, the main components of plant biomass. In summary, the sampling and analytical methods needed for the online chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning were developed in order to provide precise and prompt high-time-resolution information on biomass burning emissions. The results and the implications of this thesis provide new information on the concentrations and sources of fine particles in the boreal region. (orig.)

  18. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing (United States)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.


    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  19. Tracing fine sediment sources in small mountain catchment. (United States)

    Kouhpeima, A; Feiznia, S; Ahmadi, H


    Fine sediment represents an important diffuse source pollutant in surface waters, due to its role in governing the transfer and fate of many substances, including nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and other organic contaminants, and its influence on aquatic ecology. Therefore, catchment management strategies frequently need to include provision for the control of sediment mobilization and delivery. The sediment tracing concept provides a valuable framework for assisting the management and control of diffuse source sediment pollution by identifying the key sources and demonstrating the importance of intermediate storages and the likely impact of upstream mitigation strategies on downstream sediment and sediment associated contaminant fluxes. In this research, fine sediment sources were identified using tracing method. By field works, sediments were sampled from dam reservoir, different sources were also sampled. Fifteen tracers were first selected for tracing which are: The amounts of N, P, C, Cr, Co, Mg, K, Na, smectite, chlorite, illite, kaolinite, and two magnetic properties consisting of LOW Frequency Magnetic Susceptibility (X(LF)) and Frequency Dependent Magnetic Susceptibility (X(FD)). The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for these parameters and different statistical methods were applied to the data including Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and Stepwise Discriminant function analysis. The results provide important information on the relative importance of fine sediment sources to the reservoir sediments, which can be used to support model validation and the targeting of management and control strategies.

  20. Protecting buyers from fine print


    D'Agostino, Elena; Daniel J. Seidmann


    Buyers typically do not read the …ne print in contracts, providing an incentive for a monopolist to draft terms which are unfavorable to buyers. We model this problem, proving that trade must then be inefficient. We show that regulation which mandates efficient terms raises welfare. More interestingly, regulations which prohibit the least efficient terms may reduce welfare by inducing the monopolist not to other favorable terms. We extend these results to markets in which some buyers are naiv...

  1. Bridging cultural and social divides for indigenous health in Peru ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Feb 1, 2017 ... As the mother of three children under the age of 12, Raquel Tello faces the difficulty of providing healthy meals on a daily basis to her family in Huallhua, a tiny farming community in Peru's Andes Mountains. Although child malnutrition and anemia rates have generally dropped in Peru over the past ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    entrepreneurs which may generate employment and economic growth. The entire gamut of the ICT sector can provide better paid skilled employment. • Promote e-governance and e-commerce: The effectivce integration of ICT into the society is capable of promoting e-governance with its associated benefits of timeliness.

  3. Shared Education in Northern Ireland: School Collaboration in Divided Societies (United States)

    Gallagher, Tony


    During the years of political violence in Northern Ireland many looked to schools to contribute to reconciliation. A variety of interventions were attempted throughout those years, but there was little evidence that any had produced systemic change. The peace process provided an opportunity for renewed efforts. This paper outlines the experience…

  4. A House Divided: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. (United States)

    Hanks, Joanna D.; Williamson, Fred H.

    This paper explores the divisive issue of providing effective workforce development services from within a traditionally run academic institution. Over the years, state funding levels for community colleges have decreased dramatically. As a result, college presidents have had to become more adept at finding alternative sources of revenue. Many…

  5. United Nations - Divided States: Peacekeeping in the 1990S (United States)


    such an abundant stockpile that the weapons flow has reversed and former Khmer Rouge weapons have been traced to insurgent forces in Burma. 59 UNTAC provides some important lessons learned in the area of logistcs for these types of operations in the future. Even though Cambodia was

  6. Mind the gap: suggestions for bridging the divide between formal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These alternatives can be termed informal social security which, although providing a certain degree of security, functions outside the protection and recognition of the formal system. The article offers suggestions for mechanisms to enhance offers cooperation between these two social security systems that can assist ...

  7. Social Stratification: The Digital Divide In North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Wilson


    Full Text Available Despite efforts to provide access to the internet in rural areas, in most areas of information technology the gap between urban and rural areas is growing. Urban residents are far more likely to have access to computer services than their rural counterparts. Whites much more likely to have access to the internet at home compared to African Americans in North Carolina.

  8. The role of working memory and divided attention in metaphor interpretation. (United States)

    Iskandar, Sam; Baird, Anne D


    Although several types of figurative language exist, neuropsychological tests of non-literal language have focused on proverbs. Metaphors in the form X is (a) Y (e.g., The body's immunological response is a battle against disease.) place a lower demand on language skills and are more easily manipulated for novelty than proverbs. Forty healthy participants completed the Metaphor Interpretation Test (developed by the authors). The task includes 20 items chosen from a list of metaphors that were rated on several scales (e.g. imagery, aptness) in a study by Katz et al. (Metaphor Symb Act 3(4):191-214, 1988). Participants were asked to rate the familiarity and provide an explanation of each metaphor. A scoring system was developed to categorize answers into: abstract complete (AC), abstract partial (AP), concrete (CT), and other/unrelated (OT) types. Participants also completed short-term memory and divided attention tests. Overall, participants produced 56 % AC, 25.38 % AP, 7.88 % CT, and 10.88 % OT responses. It was found that a measure of verbal short-term memory span was the best predictor of performance on this task (adjusted R(2) = .369). It appears that short-term memory span, not working memory or divided attention, contributes most to providing abstract responses in explaining metaphors. This is in line with the idea that when one accesses the semantic network associated with a novel metaphor, one must hold this information in mind long enough to search for and link similar cognitive networks.

  9. The role of health education in addressing the health divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka


    The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with opportunit......The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people...... with opportunities (as part of teaching and learning processes) to critically examine health issues, including social determinants of health, and to gain experience with initiating health-promoting changes within the everyday realms of their school or its adjacent community....

  10. The Great American Divide: The Military-Civilian Gap (United States)


    Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, and Joseph J. Thorndike provide a historical account of America’s war-time fiscal policies for the major American wars...Representative Edward Little advocated the raising of a war time tax by stating that in addition to conscripting the youth for war “that you would...accessed January 16, 2012). 63 Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, Joseph J. Thorndike , War and Taxes (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 2008

  11. Examining the Digital Divide in K-12 Public Schools: Four-Year Trends for Supporting ICT Literacy in Florida (United States)

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.; Kemker, Kate


    While there is evidence that access to computers in schools has increased, there remain questions about whether low socio-economic status (SES) schools provide students with equitable supports for achieving information communication technology (ICT) literacy. This research first presents a theoretical model to examine the digital divide within…

  12. Some Laws Governing Twisted Two-Phase Flows in the over-Bed Space of a Fluidized Bed of Finely Divided Particles (United States)

    Pitsukha, E. A.; Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Borodulya, V. A.


    As a result of experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of a twisted air flow above a fluidized bed, the character of the effect of particle entrainment from the latter on the distribution of air velocities and pressure in the vortex zone has been established.

  13. Contribution to the study of porous or very finely divided alumina; Contribution a l'etude des alumines poreuses ou tres finement divisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juillet, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    An amorphous porous alumina having a large surface area can be made non-stoichiometric by a treatment at 500 - 700 deg C in a vacuum. The oxygen deficit after a treatment at 500 deg C, and the aluminium deficit after a treatment at 700 deg C, give rise to semiconductor properties successively of type n and of the type p. A crystallized {delta}-alumina in the form of non-porous spherical grains compressed at a pressure of 1 to 5 metric tons/cm{sup 2} is also non-stoichiometric with a deficit of oxygen or of aluminium. None of these phenomena could be observed with a sample which had not been compressed. The favorable influence of oxygen on the recrystallization process of amorphous alumina, and on the {delta}-{alpha}, transformation of crystallized alumina has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the strains produced by the compression of the {delta}-alumina make possible its transformation in air into a at a temperature lower than the temperature necessary to observe this phenomenon with non-compressed {delta}-alumina. Amorphous alumina undergoes an intergranular sintering at 500 deg C and an intergranular sintering at 1 000 deg C. Only the latter occurs in the case of spherical alumina grains. For these, the strains brought about by the compression cause a lowering of 100 deg C in the threshold sintering temperature, with respect to the temperature required to produce the phenomena in a non-compressed sample. The amount of sintering in a crystallized alumina pellet depends, as well, on the rate of rise of temperature. This study tends to show that new properties, or at least unusual solid-state properties, can be observed on disorganised solids or on solids which are crystallized but which have a large surface area and a certain amount of strain. (author) [French] Une alumine poreuse amorphe de grande surface specifique peut etre rendue non-stoechiometrique par traitement sous vide pousse a 500-700 deg C. Le deficit en oxygene apres chauffage a 500 deg C, puis le deficit en aluminium apres traitement a 700 deg C entrainant l'apparition des proprietes de semi-conducteur n puis p. Une alumine cristallisee delta sous forme do grains spheriques non poreux soumise a une compression de 1 a 5 t/cm{sup 2} presente egalement une non-stoechiometrie a deficit d'oxygene ou d'aluminium. Aucun de ces phenomenes n'a pu etre enregistre avec l'echantillon non soumis a la compression. L'influence favorable de l'oxygene dans le processus de recristallisation de l'alumine amorphe et dans la transformation delta-alpha de l'alumine cristallisee a ete mise en evidence, De plus, les contraintes developpees par compression de l'alumine delta permettent sa transformation en phase alpha dans l'air a une temperature inferieure a celle necessaire pour observer le meme phenomene dans l'alumine delta non comprimee. L'afumine amorphe subit un frittage intragranulaire des 500 deg C et un frittage intergranulaire a 1 000 deg C. Seul ce dernier s'observe pour l'alumine en grains spheriques. Pour cette derniere les contraintes developpees par la compression abaissent de 100 deg C le seuil de ce frittage par rapport a la temperature necessaire pour observer ce phenomene avec l'echantillon non comprime. Le taux de frittage d'un comprime d'alumine cristallisee depend, en plus, de la vitesse de la mise en temperature. L'ensemble de cette etude tend a montrer que des proprietes nouvelles, ou du moins inhabituelles de l'etat solide peuvent etre observees s'il est fait appel a des solides desorganises ou encore cristallises mais dotes d'une importante surface specifique et soumis a des contraintes. (auteur)

  14. Fine particles in welding workshop; Hitsaamon pienhiukkaset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, H.; Koskinen, A. [Helsinki Unviv. of Technology, Materials Sciences and Engineering, Espoo (Finland)


    The objectives of the project were to research ultra- fine particles developed in the welding and cutting processes, to classify the particles in the welding fume, as well as to assess how they transform in air and drift in the internal air. Also it was attempted to decrease the amount of ultra-fine particles in the welding processes and in the internal air. Experiments were performed in the laboratory environments so that the results are valid and comparable. The fine particles in the fumes were measured and sampled by cascade impactors (ELPI, DLPI), by SMPS and by filter samplers (personal and area). The composition, size, shape and activity of the particles were determined. During the project efficiency of personal welding helmets, fume extraction welding guns and MFI-precipitator were tested. Tests were carried out in the laboratory and in the industrial workshops. The three-year project started in the beginning of February 2003. (orig.)

  15. 76 FR 31307 - Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting The next meeting of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts is scheduled... oral statements should be addressed to Thomas Luebke, Secretary, U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, at the...

  16. Physical properties of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide deep core: Development, evolution, and interpretation (United States)

    Fegyveresi, John M.

    The physical properties of the WAIS Divide deep ice core record meteorological conditions during and shortly after deposition, mean temperature during transformation to ice, deformation within the ice, and may retain information on past surface elevations. The WAIS Divide (WDC06A) core was recovered from West Antarctica (79°28.058' S, 112°05.189' W, ˜1760 m elevation, ˜3450 m ice thickness) on the Ross Sea side of the ice-divide with the Amundsen Sea drainage. My observations of the core were supplemented by near-surface studies spanning five consecutive austral summer seasons (2008--2012). Near-surface processes including intense summertime solar heating produce distinct seasonal strata. Prominent "glazed" crusts form very near the surface during times of steep temperature gradients and subsequently develop polygonal cracks, allowing ventilation of deeper firn. The near-surface seasonal contrasts persist to, and beyond the bubble-trapping depth, where they have a weak effect on total trapped air. A new record of total air content also shows that impurities may affect this important parameter, complicating interpretation of past elevation changes. Paleoclimatic interpretation of the number-density of bubbles is extended successfully here through the "brittle ice" zone, providing a record of surface temperature spanning ˜5500 years. This new record reveals relatively stable values through the first half of the interval, with a very-slight warming early, followed by a slight cooling over the most recent two millennia. Bubbles were found to be preferentially elongated parallel to the basal planes of enclosing grains, with less overall elongation of bubbles in grains with lower resolved shear stresses on their basal planes, as expected if grain deformation occurs primarily on basal planes and proportional to the stress.

  17. Development model of the fine dining restaurant


    Miško Radjenović


    Purpose –The purpose of this work is to support the hypothesis that the Fine dining restaurants are important part of hotel offer. Design –In the first and second part of this work the special focus is given on the history and positive and negative aspects offline dining restaurant business. In the third and fourth part, this paper will present the model for fine dining development by analyzing practical examples and steps needed to be taken for opening this type of restaurant. Methodology –H...

  18. The nature and impacts of fines in smelter-grade alumina


    Perander, Linus M.; Zujovic, Zoran D.; Kemp, Thomas F.; Mark E. Smith; Metson, James B.


    Fines in smelter-grade aluminas art recognized (is a significant process problem in aluminum smelting. However understanding the nature of this fine material and how it impacts the reduction process arc, less clearly understood The combination of new analytical methods such as variable pressure scanning electron microscopy and very; high field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance provide new insights into the phases present and their spatial distribution within aluminas, and suggest how suc...

  19. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monozon, B.S., E-mail: [Physics Department, Marine Technical University, 3 Lotsmanskaya Str., 190008 St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)


    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  20. Feature Importance in Nonlinear Embeddings (FINE): Applications in Digital Pathology. (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B; Lee, George; Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Madabhushi, Anant


    Quantitative histomorphometry (QH) refers to the process of computationally modeling disease appearance on digital pathology images by extracting hundreds of image features and using them to predict disease presence or outcome. Since constructing a robust and interpretable classifier is challenging in a high dimensional feature space, dimensionality reduction (DR) is often implemented prior to classifier construction. However, when DR is performed it can be challenging to quantify the contribution of each of the original features to the final classification result. We have previously presented a method for scoring features based on their importance for classification on an embedding derived via principal components analysis (PCA). However, nonlinear DR involves the eigen-decomposition of a kernel matrix rather than the data itself, compounding the issue of classifier interpretability. In this paper we present feature importance in nonlinear embeddings (FINE), an extension of our PCA-based feature scoring method to kernel PCA (KPCA), as well as several NLDR algorithms that can be cast as variants of KPCA. FINE is applied to four digital pathology datasets to identify key QH features for predicting the risk of breast and prostate cancer recurrence. Measures of nuclear and glandular architecture and clusteredness were found to play an important role in predicting the likelihood of recurrence of both breast and prostate cancers. Compared to the t-test, Fisher score, and Gini index, FINE was able to identify a stable set of features that provide good classification accuracy on four publicly available datasets from the NIPS 2003 Feature Selection Challenge.

  1. Coupling fine particle and bedload transport in gravel-bedded streams (United States)

    Park, Jungsu; Hunt, James R.


    Fine particles in the silt- and clay-size range are important determinants of surface water quality. Since fine particle loading rates are not unique functions of stream discharge this limits the utility of the available models for water quality assessment. Data from 38 minimally developed watersheds within the United States Geological Survey stream gauging network in California, USA reveal three lines of evidence that fine particle release is coupled with bedload transport. First, there is a transition in fine particle loading rate as a function of discharge for gravel-bedded sediments that does not appear when the sediment bed is composed of sand, cobbles, boulders, or bedrock. Second, the discharge at the transition in the loading rate is correlated with the initiation of gravel mobilization. Third, high frequency particle concentration and discharge data are dominated by clockwise hysteresis where rising limb discharges generally have higher concentrations than falling limb discharges. These three observations across multiple watersheds lead to a conceptual model that fine particles accumulate within the sediment bed at discharges less than the transition and then the gravel bed fluidizes with fine particle release at discharges above the transition discharge. While these observations were individually recognized in the literature, this analysis provides a consistent conceptual model based on the coupling of fine particle dynamics with filtration at low discharges and gravel bed fluidization at higher discharges.

  2. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)


    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  3. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home (United States)

    Zilka, Gila Cohen


    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  4. Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, H; Flamma, B; Van der Meere, J.J.; van Engeland, H.

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was

  5. Score of Fine Motor Skill in Children with Down Syndrome using Nintendo Wii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspasari Sinaga


    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome occurs due to an extra chromosome 21, known as Trisomy 21. In addition to delayed cognitive and speech development, children with Down syndrome may also experience delayed gross and fine motor development. Virtual Reality Therapy, such as Nintendo Wii is a computer-based technology that allows users to interact with a virtual three-dimensional scenario and the most innovative physical rehabilitation method. High scores indicate that the player has a good motor skill. This study aimed to examine the difference between the score of fine motor skill in children with and without Down syndrome. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2015 to 40 children aged between 9–12 years old who came from public primary schools and special needs schools in Bandung, West Java. They were divided into 2 groups using random gender and age pairing; one group was children with Down syndrome and another other group was normal children. The children’ scores of Nintendo Wii game were collected three times. The collected data were statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results: The proportion of children with low-grade fine motor skill in Down syndrome group was larger than those with high-grade fine motor skill. In the other hand, in normal children group, the proportion was reversed compared to Down syndrome group. There was a significant difference in score of fine motor skill between children with Down syndrome and normal children (p=0.000. Conclusions: The fine motor skill of children with Down syndrome is poorer than normal children’s.

  6. eGY-Africa: addressing the digital divide for science in Africa (United States)

    Baki, Paul; Nguno, Anna; Barton, Charles; Amaeshi, Larry; Tenthani, Chifundo; Petitdidier, Monique; Cottrell, Les


    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in the development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is still a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this digital divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the digital divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the digital divide - either as a direct policy objective, or indirectly

  7. eGY-Africa: Addressing the Digital Divide for Science in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, C.E.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; /Lab.Phys.Plasmas, Saint Maur des Fosses; Barry, B.; /Assoc.African Univ., Accra; Chukwuma; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Cottrell, R.L.; /SLAC; Kalim, U.; /Pakistan Natl. U.; Mebrahtu, A.; /Mekelle U.; Petitdidier, M.; /Lab. d' Atmos., Velizy; Rabiu, B.; /Federal Tech. U., Akure; Reeves, C.; /Earthworks bv, Delft


    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists, and the gap is growing. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is but a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this Digital Divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the Digital Divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the Digital Divide - either as a direct policy

  8. Belowground Biomass Sampling to Estimate Fine Root Mass across NEON Sites (United States)

    Spencer, J. J.; Meier, C. L.; Abercrombie, H.; Everhart, J. C.


    Production of belowground biomass is an important and relatively uncharacterized component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystems. Fine root productivity makes up a significant portion of total belowground production because fine roots turn over rapidly, and therefore contribute disproportionately to annual estimates of belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). One of the major goals of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to quantify above- and below-ground NPP at 60 sites within 20 different eco-climactic regions. NEON's Terrestrial Observation System will carry out belowground biomass sampling throughout the life of the observatory to estimate fine root production. However, belowground biomass sampling during NEON operations will be constrained to a maximum depth of 50cm. This limited depth range leaves the question of what proportion of total fine root mass is being collected and how to optimally characterize belowground biomass given sampling depth limitations. During the construction period, NEON is characterizing fine root biomass distribution at depth down to 2m at each site, as well as physical and chemical properties in each soil horizon. Each sampling unit is a pit (2m deep and approximately 1.5m wide), dug in the site's dominant vegetation type where fine root biomass sampling will also occur during Operations. To sample fine root biomass in each pit, soil samples of a known volume are taken from three vertical profiles down the face of the pit. Samples are then wet sieved to extract fine root mass, and roots are dried at 65°C for 48 hours and then weighed. The soil pit data are used to estimate the proportion of total fine root biomass from each site as a function of depth. Non-linear curves are fitted to the data to calculate total fine root mass at depth and to provide estimates of the proportion of the total fine root mass that is sampled at each site during NEON's 30 year operational sampling. The belowground

  9. Lost in translation: Cultural divides in communication skills teaching identified in the ICCH 2016 student symposium. (United States)

    Schopper, Heather K; Mohamed, Nasteha A; Seegel, Max; Gorina, Kseniya; Silverman, Jonathan; Rosenbaum, Marcy


    To provide a platform for learners' voices at an international conference on communication in healthcare. A group of medical students were invited to explore their experiences with communication skills learning at a symposium at the 2016 International Conference on Communication in Healthcare in Heidelberg, DE. Students from the US, Denmark, Germany, and Russia discussed their experiences with communication skills curriculum at their institutions. We identified divides that have challenged our ability to develop and maintain strong communication skills: 1) valuation of communication skills vs. other topics, 2) curricular theory vs. practice, 3) evaluation vs. feedback, 4) preclinical vs. clinical learning, and 5) the medical student vs. practicing clinician role. The points of transition we identified on the road of communication skills teaching highlight opportunities to strengthen the educational experience for students. Without an effort to address these divides, however, our communication skills may be lost in translation. Students value communication skills teaching during their medical education and there are opportunities to translate this to countries that currently lack robust curricula and to the real-life post-graduate setting. Support is necessary from students, teachers, and administrators, and focus on translation of skills during role transitions is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Divide and rule: A qualitative analysis of the debriefing process in elite team sports. (United States)

    Macquet, A-C; Ferrand, C; Stanton, N A


    This article aimed to gain an understanding of the process of debriefing during major competitions in elite team sports. Debrief interviews were conducted with 9 head coaches. The interview data were used to identify how head coaches divided up the tasks given to staff and team members prior to, and during the post-match debriefing. Results showed that debriefing consisted of two steps: preparation and presentation. Preparation referred to four successive tasks. Presentation to the team of players consisted of eight tasks relating to transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Coaches were shown to divide the labor within the staff and team. The data tend to support the view that in elite team sports, coaches are both transformational and transactional leaders, adapting their style of leadership to the situation, athletes and time available. This study provides insights into the task-work and team-work underlying team functioning and division of labor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Physico-mathematical model of motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Petrov


    Full Text Available The traction characteristics are important for ensuring of motor vehicle work process. In providing the traction characteristics the average velocity of mobile energetic transport grows, energy costs for work process execution are uprating and operation costs are reducing. The implementation of traction characteristics is performed by transmission of mobile energetic transport. Aim: The aim of the work is improvement of torque transfer technology from the engine to the wheel driving forces through the establishment of new construction of divided weight vehicle transmission. Materials and Methods: Consider a motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element which performs rotary motions relative to the vehicle frame. Results: It was shown that, the momentum which creates the rotational motion depends on the module and the direction of rotation speed of the unifying energetic element. For the first time, the technology and design of vehicle transmission which differs from previous designs by significant simplifying of the torque transmission from the engine to driving wheels at increased value of efficiency coefficient were proposed.

  12. Bridging the divide between neuroprosthetic design, tissue engineering and neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Leach


    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic devices have made a major impact in the treatment of a variety of disorders such as paralysis and stroke. However, a major impediment in the advancement of this technology is the challenge of maintaining device performance during chronic implantation (months to years due to complex intrinsic host responses such as gliosis or glial scarring. The objective of this review is to bring together research communities in neurobiology, tissue engineering, and neuroprosthetics to address the major obstacles encountered in the translation of neuroprosthetics technology into long-term clinical use. This article draws connections between specific challenges faced by current neuroprosthetics technology and recent advances in the areas of nerve tissue engineering and neurobiology. Within the context of the device-nervous system interface and central nervous system (CNS implants, areas of synergistic opportunity are discussed, including platforms to present cells with multiple cues, controlled delivery of bioactive factors, three-dimensional constructs and in vitro models of gliosis and brain injury, nerve regeneration strategies, and neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC biology. Finally, recent insights gained from the fields of developmental neurobiology and cancer biology are discussed as examples of exciting new biological knowledge that may provide fresh inspiration towards novel technologies to address the complexities associated with long-term neuroprosthetic device performance.

  13. Bridging the Divide between Neuroprosthetic Design, Tissue Engineering and Neurobiology. (United States)

    Leach, Jennie B; Achyuta, Anil Kumar H; Murthy, Shashi K


    Neuroprosthetic devices have made a major impact in the treatment of a variety of disorders such as paralysis and stroke. However, a major impediment in the advancement of this technology is the challenge of maintaining device performance during chronic implantation (months to years) due to complex intrinsic host responses such as gliosis or glial scarring. The objective of this review is to bring together research communities in neurobiology, tissue engineering, and neuroprosthetics to address the major obstacles encountered in the translation of neuroprosthetics technology into long-term clinical use. This article draws connections between specific challenges faced by current neuroprosthetics technology and recent advances in the areas of nerve tissue engineering and neurobiology. Within the context of the device-nervous system interface and central nervous system implants, areas of synergistic opportunity are discussed, including platforms to present cells with multiple cues, controlled delivery of bioactive factors, three-dimensional constructs and in vitro models of gliosis and brain injury, nerve regeneration strategies, and neural stem/progenitor cell biology. Finally, recent insights gained from the fields of developmental neurobiology and cancer biology are discussed as examples of exciting new biological knowledge that may provide fresh inspiration toward novel technologies to address the complexities associated with long-term neuroprosthetic device performance.

  14. Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we propose a definition of approximation property which is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable dis- crete metric space. Moreover, we use the techniques of Ozawa's to prove that a fine hyperbolic graph has the metric invariant translation approximation property.

  15. The Last Taboo: Abolishing Library Fines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Sifton


    Full Text Available Many libraries have implemented progressive policies to encourage and increase library usage. In this context of change in this article looks at the small but growing number of libraries that have abolished overdues fines in favour of item replacement charges, similar to those found at video rental outlets and encourages other libraries to do the same.

  16. Testing with fine fragrances in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra


    The frequencies of contact allergic reactions to 2 fine fragrances were studied by patch testing. Further, a comparison was made of test results before and after evaporation of the solvent. A total of 480 consecutive eczema patients were included, 100 in the Dortmund clinic and 380 in the Gentoft...

  17. Field validation of recycled concrete fines usage. (United States)


    The amount of recycled concrete fines permitted in concrete mixing water is limited by ASTM C 1602 to 5.0 percent of the mixing : water, by mass, in order to avoid detrimental effects on concrete properties. Depending upon the exact nature of the rec...

  18. Fine-Tuning in a Design Experiment (United States)

    Ho, Foo Him; Toh, Pee Choon; Toh, Tin Lam


    Quek, Tay, Toh, Leong, and Dindyal (2011) proposed that a design-theory-practice troika should always be considered for a designed package to be acceptable to the research users who, in this case, are teachers and schools. This paper describes the fine-tuning to the MProSE problem-solving design made by the teachers in the school after first round…

  19. Local Alignments for Fine-Grained Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavves, E.; Fernando, B.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Tuytelaars, T.


    The aim of this paper is fine-grained categorization without human interaction. Different from prior work, which relies on detectors for specific object parts, we propose to localize distinctive details by roughly aligning the objects using just the overall shape. Then, one may proceed to the

  20. Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a definition of approximation property which is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable discrete metric space. Moreover, we use the techniques of Ozawa's to prove that a fine hyperbolic graph has the metric invariant translation approximation property.

  1. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Fine needle aspiration cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The increasing prevalence of extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis with the HIV scourge is a cause for concern. Objective: To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Patients and Methods: This is a consecutive 9-year analysis of ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    INTRODUCTION. Fine needle aspiration cytology. (FNAC), a technique for obtaining cellular material for cytological examination and diagnosis using a 21- gauge or smaller needle, is performed using a 5, 10, or 20ml syringe either freehand or using special syringe holders. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of ...

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of cutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of cutaneous sporotrichosis diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The cytologic findings had features which included presence of fungal elements compatible with Sporothrix morphology that allowed a correct diagnosis in our case. It is concluded that the FNA cytology of sporotrichosis is ...

  4. Seasonal changes of fine root density in the Southern Californian chaparral. (United States)

    Kummerow, Jochen; Krause, David; Jow, William


    Fine root extractions from soil cores of a south facing slope in the Southern Californian chaparral were used to study the dynamics of feeder root growth in a summer-dry area. The studies were concentrated on the root systems of Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos glauca, Ceanothus greggii, and Rhus ovata. The total fine root biomass of Adenostoma fasciculatum increased from 0.6 g dm-3 in early spring to 3.6 g dm-3 in late summer. Considering the specific soil conditions at this site and earlier gained information on fine root distribution with depth, the value of 3.6 g dm-3 converts to 1.58 kg m-2 of ground shaded by the shrub canopy. The observed seasonal biomass increase is mainly due to the accumulation of dead root material in the soil when low soil moisture contents presumably inhibited decomposition processes. The total length of living fine roots also increased during the season, e.g. from 0.8 m dm-3 to more than 5 m dm-3 (0.35 km m-2 to 2.2 km m-2) in A. fasciculatum. Unusual summer rains in the research year stimulated vigorous fine root growth at a time when the normally low soil moisture would prohibit further fine root growth. The average fine root diameters and total lengths of fine roots beneath one square meter of ground surface allowed an estimate of root area indices (RAI) analogous to the leaf area indices (LAI). The data provide evidence for a significant fine root turnover in the chaparral.

  5. Dividing up the pie: Whales, fish, and humans as competitors (United States)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Steele, John H.; Ballerini, Tosca; Gaichas, Sarah K.; Ainley, David G.


    : unassimilated consumption, feces; directed to detritus pools. Metabolism: basal metabolism, specific dynamic action, and activity costs in terms of ammonium excretion NH4+; directed to recycled nutrient pools. Predation: a production term; production directed to grazing or predation by other functional groups. “Other” mortality: a production term; “other” mortality is unconsumed production; principally unconsumed phytoplankton; directed to detritus pools. Export (losses): a production term; export of plankton and pelagic detritus by physical transport; export losses are handled as a reduction of group transfer efficiency (the fraction of consumption that is passed to higher trophic level groups through grazing or predation). “Consumption” for phytoplankton is the uptake of new nitrate NO3- input and recycled ammonium NH4+ produced by consumer metabolism. Nitrate input was rescaled to carbon based upon the Redfield ratio (6.625 mmole C mmole N-1) and to wet weight based upon the estimated carbon content of fish (8.8 mg wet weight mg C-1) (Steele et al., 2007).The E2E trophic network matrices for each region are provided as Supplementary material. The E2E network models for the Northern California Current (NCC), Central Gulf of Alaska (CGoA), and southwestern Antarctic Peninsula (sWAP) ecosystems were derived following the techniques of Steele and Ruzicka (2011) from solutions for biomasses, consumption rates, and predation pressure upon each functional group calculated using ECOPATH algorithms (Christensen and Walters, 2004). The NCC model was modified from Ruzicka et al. (2012), the CGoA model was modified as noted in the Supplementary material from the full Gulf of Alaska model documented in Aydin et al. (2007), and the sWAP model was modified from Ballerini et al. (submitted for publication). A quantitative assessment of the Georges Bank (GB) food web is given in Steele et al. (2007) and Collie et al. (2009). Top predators (seabirds, baleen whales, odontocetes

  6. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Wang


    Full Text Available Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3. Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable.

  7. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology


    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibition activates transgene expression from integration-defective lentiviral vectors in dividing and non-dividing cells. (United States)

    Pelascini, Laetitia P L; Janssen, Josephine M; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V


    Integration-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) are being increasingly deployed in both basic and preclinical gene transfer settings. Often, however, the IDLV transgene expression profile is muted when compared to that of their integration-proficient counterparts. We hypothesized that the episomal nature of IDLVs turns them into preferential targets for epigenetic silencing involving chromatin-remodeling histone deacetylation. Therefore, vectors carrying an array of cis-acting elements and transcriptional unit components were assembled with the aid of packaging constructs encoding either the wild-type or the class I mutant D116N integrase moieties. The transduction levels and transgene-product yields provided by each vector class were assessed in the presence and absence of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors sodium butyrate and trichostatin A. To investigate the role of the target cell replication status, we performed experiments in growth-arrested human mesenchymal stem cells and in post-mitotic syncytial myotubes. We found that IDLVs are acutely affected by HDACs regardless of their genetic makeup or target cell replication rate. Interestingly, the magnitude of IDLV transgene expression rescue due to HDAC inhibition varied in a vector backbone- and cell type-dependent manner. Finally, investigation of histone modifications by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) revealed a paucity of euchromatin marks distributed along IDLV genomes when compared to those measured on isogenic integration-competent vector templates. These findings support the view that IDLVs constitute preferential targets for epigenetic silencing involving histone deacetylation, which contributes to dampening their full transcriptional potential. Our data provide leads on how to most optimally titrate and deploy these promising episomal gene delivery vehicles.

  9. Bridging the divide in global climate policy. Strategies for enhanced participation and integration. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodi, Michael; Mehling, Michael A. (eds.)


    While climate change is a global challenge facing all humankind, every attempt to negotiate a common response has been fraught with division - a rift born out of the widely divergent interests of nation states and regions engaged in multilateral diplomacy. Still, as our understanding of the climate threat improves and lends substance to an increasingly urgent call for action, traditional dividing lines are beginning to shift; in many areas, formerly entrenched positions are giving way to a discussion about compromise. Yet even so, the road to an agreed solution will be long and filled with obstacles. Offering new perspectives on this evolutionary process, the essays collected in this volume describe the current state of negotiations and highlight the political realities guiding central actors in the diplomatic arena. More importantly, their value goes beyond providing an updated assessment of the present debate to helping understand the dynamics that have shaped past and existing divisions. (orig.)

  10. Effect of climate and ice-flow transients on ice-divide position and ice-core records (United States)

    Koutnik, M.; Waddington, E.; Fudge, T. J.; Neumann, T.; Rasmussen, S.; Dahl-Jensen, D.


    Transients in accumulation and in ice flow can drive ice-divide migration. However, it is likely that dynamical changes initiated near the ice-sheet margin control ice-divide position. Interior ice exhibits a rapid response to modern marginal changes, and larger marginal changes during glacial-interglacial transitions likely led to a larger response. We investigate how flux variations that drive ice-divide migrations on hundreds to tens of thousands of year timescales can affect the depth-age scale, the layer-thickness profile, and the ice-temperature profile at ice-core sites at or near a stable divide position. For this study we use a 2.5-D ice-flow model that sufficiently captures the broad-scale behavior of ice-sheet interiors including ice-divide migration. A simpler 1-D or 2-D model is often used to interpret ice-core records and we compare our flowband behavior to calculations with these models. We apply our ice-flow models to ice-sheet settings similar to 1) Central West Antarctica near the WAIS Divide ice-core site and to 2) Central Greenland near the GRIP and GISP2 ice-core sites. These interior sites may have experienced divide migrations of at least tens of kilometers and they have provided valuable ice-core records. While we do not know the actual migration histories at these sites we will explore the response to plausible changes in accumulation and ice flow on various timescales. We assess the degree to which upstream affects may need to be considered in order to characterize ice-sheet history at an ice-core site. In addition to using the ice-flow models with prescribed forcing to aid in the interpretation of ice-core records, the measured depth-age scale and ice-temperature profile may be used as additional data to constrain an inverse problem to infer histories of accumulation rate, ice thickness, and ice-divide position from radar-observed internal layers; it is important to understand the sensitivity of the measured values to the unknown values

  11. Magnification's effect on endodontic fine motor skills. (United States)

    Bowers, David J; Glickman, Gerald N; Solomon, Eric S; He, Jianing


    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effect of magnification on fine motor skills used in endodontics. This study used a novel manual dexterity test that was performed with and without magnification. An 8x operating microscope and 2.5x dental loupes were used for the magnification tests. Forty subjects, 20 with microscope experience and 20 without, participated in the study. Performance on the test was evaluated by using an accuracy scoring system, and the time needed to complete the test was recorded for each subject. A significant increase in accuracy score with each level of magnification was demonstrated (P magnification to enhance fine motor skills was supported in all age groups and experience levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments......’ in the everyday life and cast light on how design and ‘materialities of mobilites’ are creating differential mobilities across societies, social networks, and communities of practices....... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...

  13. Divided Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    institutions. This conceptual stretching takes place at the expense of accuracy and clarity clouding our understanding of the multiple levels involved in trusting. This chapter seeks to clarify this issue conceptually by comparing and developing Niklas Luhmann’s system theoretical investigation of trust...... and confidence with Knud E. Løgstrup’s phenomenology of trust. The main argument presented here is that while Luhmann’s analysis of trust and confidence remains one of the most powerful and persuasive it is only when combining it with Løgstrup’s phenomenology of trusting as situated process that the linkages...

  14. The Fine Structure of Herman Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian


    We study the geometric structure of the boundary of Herman rings in a model family of Blaschke products of degree 3 (up to quasiconformal deformation). Shishikura’s quasiconformal surgery relates the Herman ring to the Siegel disk of a quadratic polynomial. By studying the regularity properties...... of the maps involved, we transfer McMullen’s results on the fine local geometry of Siegel disks to the Herman ring setting....

  15. Fractal aggregation and breakup of fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bingru


    Full Text Available Breakup may exert a controlling influence on particle size distributions and particles either are fractured or are eroded particle-by-particle through shear. The shear-induced breakage of fine particles in turbulent conditions is investigated using Taylor-expansion moment method. Their equations have been derived in continuous form in terms of the number density function with particle volume. It suitable for future implementation in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  16. BepiColombo fine sun sensor (United States)

    Boslooper, Erik; van der Heiden, Nico; Naron, Daniël.; Schmits, Ruud; van der Velde, Jacob Jan; van Wakeren, Jorrit


    Design, development and verification of the passive Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) for the BepiColombo spacecraft is described. Major challenge in the design is to keep the detector at acceptable temperature levels while exposed to a solar flux intensity exceeding 10 times what is experienced in Earth orbit. A mesh type Heat Rejection Filter has been developed. The overall sensor design and its performance verification program is described.

  17. A solution defined by fine vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, G.; Sun, H.; Sun, H.; Hoede, C.; Driessen, Theo

    Bumb and Hoede have shown that a cooperative game can be split into two games, the reward game and the fine game, by considering the sign of quantities $c_v^S$ in the c-diagram of the game. One can then define a solution $x$ for the original game as $x = x_r - x_f$ , where $x_r$ is a solution for

  18. Distributed Magnetic Actuators for Fine Shape Control (United States)


    1988 Authors: SatCon Technology Corporation G. Anastas 71 Rogers Street D. Elsenhaure Cambridge, NA 02142 R. Hockney B. Johnson RO1-88 K. Misovec F04611...Security Classification) -2 Distributed Magnetic Actuators for Fine Shape Control (U) 12, PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) George Anastas, David Eisenhaure, Richard... Hockney , Bruce Johnson, Kathleen Misovec 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF"REPORT (ear, Month,Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Final FROM R7/7 TO

  19. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine (United States)

    Dumé, Belle


    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  20. Fine-grained Dutch named entity recognition


    Desmet, Bart; Hoste, Veronique


    This paper describes the creation of a fine-grained named entity annotation scheme and corpus for Dutch, and experiments on automatic main type and subtype named entity recognition. We give an overview of existing named entity annotation schemes, and motivate our own, which describes six main types (persons, organizations, locations, products, events and miscellaneous named entities) and finer-grained information on subtypes and metonymic usage. This was applied to a one-million-word subset o...

  1. Specification of the fineness of coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, B.P. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Specifications for the size distribution of coal ash usually consider one size, for example the mass retained on a 45{mu}m sieve, and ignore the general particle distribution. This over-simplified approach had tended to persist because alternative parameters, such as specific surface obtained from air permeability tests as used for cements, have been found to be even more unsatisfactory. However, if the size distribution is determined satisfactorily using modern techniques then it can be shown that a suitable parameter for the size distribution can be a valuable aid in characterising the material. The paper reviews the reasons for the deficiencies in the earlier tests for determining the fineness of PFA and then describes a technique for specifying PFA fineness which overcomes the problems associated with the above. The application of a suitable grading parameter for PFA is illustrated by reference to mix design for PFA concrete. Only by reference to the relevant characteristics of all the constituents of the concrete is it possible to design for a required property in the resulting concrete with any reasonable accuracy. A comprehensive method of mix design capable of accommodating different cements and PFAs as well as different fine and coarse aggregates and entrained air contents is outlined and it is seen that similar grading parameters can also be utilised for the aggregates to facilitate proportioning of constituents to achieve a required concrete workability in terms of Vebe time. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Computer games and fine motor skills. (United States)

    Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw


    The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.

  3. Defending The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Stenger, Victor J


    In 2011, I published a popular-level book, The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. It investigated a common claim found in contemporary religious literature that the parameters of physics and cosmology are so delicately balanced, so "fine-tuned," that any slight change and life in the universe would have been impossible. I concluded that while the precise form of life we find on Earth would not exist with slight changes in these parameters, some form of life could have evolved over a parameter range that is not infinitesimal, as often claimed. Postdoctoral fellow Luke Barnes has written a lengthy, highly technical review [arXiv:1112.4647] of the scientific literature on the fine-tuning problem. I have no significant disagreement with that literature and no prominent physicist or cosmologist has disputed my basic conclusions. Barnes does not invalidate these conclusions and misunderstands and misrepresents much of what is in the book.

  4. Across the Great Divide: The Effects of Technology in Secondary Biology Classrooms (United States)

    Worley, Johnny Howard, II

    This study investigates the relationship between technology use and student achievement in public high school across North Carolina. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in technology utilization based on student demographics of race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and municipality) exists among schools and whether those differences relate to student achievement in high school biology classrooms. The study uses North Carolina end-of-course (EOC) data for biology to analyze student demographic data and assessment results from the 2010-2011 school year from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. The data analyses use descriptive and factorial univariate statistics to determine the existence of digital divides and their effects on biology achievement. Analysis of these data described patterns of technology use to determine whether potential variances resulted in a digital divide. Specific technology uses were identified in the data and then their impact on biology achievement scores within various demographic groups was examined. Research findings revealed statistically significant variations of use within different population groups. Despite being statistically significant, the relevance of the association in the variations was minimal at best -- based on the effect scale established by Cohen (1988). Additional factorial univariate analyses were employed to determine potential relationships between technology use and student achievement. The data revealed that technology use did not influence the variation of student achievement scale scores as much as race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. White students outperformed Hispanic students by an average of three scale score points and Black students by an average of six scale score points. Technology use alone averaged less than a one point difference in mean scale scores, and only when interacting with race, gender, and/or SES did the mean difference

  5. Transition State Theory for solvated reactions beyond recrossing-free dividing surfaces


    Revuelta, F.; Bartsch, Thomas; Garcia-Muller, P. L.; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.


    The accuracy of rate constants calculated using transition state theory depends crucially on the correct identification of a recrossing--free dividing surface. We show here that it is possible to define such optimal dividing surface in systems with non--Markovian friction. However, a more direct approach to rate calculation is based on invariant manifolds and avoids the use of a dividing surface altogether, Using that method we obtain an explicit expression for the rate of crossing an anharmo...

  6. Zones of silence: A framework beyond the digital divide (originally published in May 2006)


    Potter, Amelia Bryne


    There is no doubt that much digital divide work — including connectivity initiatives, technology transfer programs, and other projects — is done with good intention. Yet, as has been widely recognized, the conceptual framework of the digital divide is limiting. The language of the digital divide not only places people into simplistic “have”/“have not” categories, making assumptions about the solution to “information poverty” with little attention to local contexts, its logic also continues a ...

  7. RSW Fully Tet Cell-Centered Fine Mesh (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW dataset for a fine fully tetrahedral grid designed for a cell-centered unstructured solver. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_fine_tetcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad...

  8. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  9. Microparticle, Conductivity, and Density Measurements from the WAIS Divide Deep Ice Core, Antarctica, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes microparticle concentration, electrical conductivity, and density measurements from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide deep ice core,...

  10. A divide and conquer approach to determine the Pareto frontier for optimization of protein engineering experiments (United States)

    He, Lu; Friedman, Alan M.; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris


    In developing improved protein variants by site-directed mutagenesis or recombination, there are often competing objectives that must be considered in designing an experiment (selecting mutations or breakpoints): stability vs. novelty, affinity vs. specificity, activity vs. immunogenicity, and so forth. Pareto optimal experimental designs make the best trade-offs between competing objectives. Such designs are not “dominated”; i.e., no other design is better than a Pareto optimal design for one objective without being worse for another objective. Our goal is to produce all the Pareto optimal designs (the Pareto frontier), in order to characterize the trade-offs and suggest designs most worth considering, but to avoid explicitly considering the large number of dominated designs. To do so, we develop a divide-and-conquer algorithm, PEPFR (Protein Engineering Pareto FRontier), that hierarchically subdivides the objective space, employing appropriate dynamic programming or integer programming methods to optimize designs in different regions. This divide-and-conquer approach is efficient in that the number of divisions (and thus calls to the optimizer) is directly proportional to the number of Pareto optimal designs. We demonstrate PEPFR with three protein engineering case studies: site-directed recombination for stability and diversity via dynamic programming, site-directed mutagenesis of interacting proteins for affinity and specificity via integer programming, and site-directed mutagenesis of a therapeutic protein for activity and immunogenicity via integer programming. We show that PEPFR is able to effectively produce all the Pareto optimal designs, discovering many more designs than previous methods. The characterization of the Pareto frontier provides additional insights into the local stability of design choices as well as global trends leading to trade-offs between competing criteria. PMID:22180081

  11. Electronic health record adoption in US hospitals: the emergence of a digital "advanced use" divide. (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Holmgren, A Jay; Kralovec, Peter; Worzala, Chantal; Searcy, Talisha; Patel, Vaishali


    While most hospitals have adopted electronic health records (EHRs), we know little about whether hospitals use EHRs in advanced ways that are critical to improving outcomes, and whether hospitals with fewer resources - small, rural, safety-net - are keeping up. Using 2008-2015 American Hospital Association Information Technology Supplement survey data, we measured "basic" and "comprehensive" EHR adoption among hospitals to provide the latest national numbers. We then used new supplement questions to assess advanced use of EHRs and EHR data for performance measurement and patient engagement functions. To assess a digital "advanced use" divide, we ran logistic regression models to identify hospital characteristics associated with high adoption in each advanced use domain. We found that 80.5% of hospitals adopted at least a basic EHR system, a 5.3 percentage point increase from 2014. Only 37.5% of hospitals adopted at least 8 (of 10) EHR data for performance measurement functions, and 41.7% of hospitals adopted at least 8 (of 10) patient engagement functions. Critical access hospitals were less likely to have adopted at least 8 performance measurement functions (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; P Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act resulted in widespread hospital EHR adoption, use of advanced EHR functions lags and a digital divide appears to be emerging, with critical-access hospitals in particular lagging behind. This is concerning, because EHR-enabled performance measurement and patient engagement are key contributors to improving hospital performance. Hospital EHR adoption is widespread and many hospitals are using EHRs to support performance measurement and patient engagement. However, this is not happening across all hospitals.

  12. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise


    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  13. Exploring Social Justice in Mixed/Divided Cities: From Local to Global Learning. (United States)

    Shdaimah, Corey; Lipscomb, Jane; Strier, Roni; Postan-Aizik, Dassi; Leviton, Susan; Olsen, Jody

    University of Haifa and the University of Maryland, Baltimore faculty developed a parallel binational, interprofessional American-Israeli course which explores social justice in the context of increasing urban, local, and global inequities. This article describes the course's innovative approach to critically examine how social justice is framed in mixed/divided cities from different professional perspectives (social work, health, law). Participatory methods such as photo-voice, experiential learning, and theatre of the oppressed provide students with a shared language and multiple media to express and problematize their own and others' understanding of social (in)justice and to imagine social change. Much learning about "self" takes place in an immersion experience with "others." Crucial conversations about "the other" and social justice can occur more easily within the intercultural context. In these conversations, students and faculty experience culture as diverse, complex, and personal. Students and faculty alike found the course personally and professionally transformative. Examination of social justice in Haifa and Baltimore strengthened our appreciation for the importance of context and the value of global learning to provide insights on local challenges and opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio


    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions – commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change – and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions. PMID:28690374

  15. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union. (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio


    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions - commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change - and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions.

  16. Bridging the digital divide in diabetes: family support and implications for health literacy. (United States)

    Mayberry, Lindsay S; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell L; Osborn, Chandra Y


    Abstract Background: Patient web portals (PWPs) offer patients remote access to their medical record and communication with providers. Adults with health literacy limitations are less likely to access and use health information technology (HIT), including PWPs. In diabetes, PWP use has been associated with patient satisfaction, patient-provider communication, and glycemic control. Using mixed methods, we explored the relationships between health literacy, numeracy, and computer literacy and the usage of a PWP and HIT. Participants (N=61 adults with type 2 diabetes) attended focus groups and completed surveys, including measures of health literacy, numeracy, and computer anxiety (an indicator of computer literacy) and frequency of PWP and HIT use. Computer literacy was positively associated with health literacy (r=0.41, Pliteracy was not associated with numeracy. Participants with limited health literacy (23%), numeracy (43%), or computer literacy (25%) were no less likely to access PWPs or HIT, but lower health literacy was associated with less frequent use of a computer to research diabetes medications or treatments. In focus groups, participants spontaneously commented on family support when accessing and using PWPs or HIT for diabetes management. Participants reported family members facilitated access and usage of HIT, taught them usage skills, and acted as online delegates. Participant statements suggest family members may bridge the HIT "digital divide" in diabetes by helping adults access a PWP or HIT for diabetes management.

  17. Economia da cibercultura: A exclusão digital (Digital Divide)


    Andrade, Pedro José de Oliveira


    Exclusão Digital (Digital Divide): Estatísticas da desigualdade; The Global Digital Divide; The Exploding Internet 2008; Uso da Internet em 2013. Nuvem semântica dos Media Sociais. Natureza qualitativa da exclusão. Exclusão de poder. Economia política da cibercultura. Classes e ciberpoder. Conetados e não-conetados.

  18. From Digital Divides to Digital Inequality -- The Emerging Digital Inequality in the Norwegian Unitarian School (United States)

    Krumsvik, Rune J.


    This position paper highlights existing and emerging, prospective digital divides in Norwegian schools and asks whether we are now moving from traditional digital divides to digital inequality in our digitized society and schools. Despite very good technology density in Norwegian society and schools in general, there is the reason to pay attention…

  19. Dynamic crossmodal links revealed by steady-state responses in auditory-visual divided attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Ritske; Toffanin, Paolo; Harbers, Marten; Martens, Sander

    Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were

  20. Is the Serpent Eating Its Tail? The Digital Divide and African Americans (United States)

    Horton, Jacqueline


    The Digital Divide is alive and well in America. What this means is the technology haves and the have-nots are continually growing further apart. Due to the pace of change in the field of computer technology, this divide widens faster in less time. Playing catch-up becomes an increasingly more difficult game to endure, with the government, public,…

  1. Analysing the role of ICT in bridging the digital divide amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also investigate the nature of this digital divide while focusing on the local perspective. A short pilot study was done at four schools and one adult education centre in South Africa regarding their access to ICT. The results are used to indicate how and why ICT can be used in South Africa to overcome the digital divide that ...

  2. Combination N-Way Power Divider/Combiner and Noninvasive Reflected Power Detection (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An N-way RF/microwave power divider/combiner utilizes one input and N outputs, or conversely N inputs and one output to divide (or combine) RF/microwave power while...

  3. Digital Divide in Sub Saharan Africa: Implications for E-governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phrase 'digital divide' has now come of age, having been conceptualized in the 1990s with various interpretations tied to it. Now, governments the world over are striving to bridge the digital divide in order to reap digital dividends in the social, economic and political spheres and lately to achieve Millennium ...

  4. An Empirical Study of Education Divide Diminishment through Online Learning Courses (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Yuan


    According to the swift development of education system, Taiwanese government is always devoting diminishing the educational divide between rural and urban regions. This research focuses on this educational divide by cross-employing the Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) of quantitative analysis and the Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis…

  5. Determinants of the digital divide: A study on IT development in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, G.D.M.


    The global digital divide is generally described as the inequality in use and ownership of computers and the internet across and within nations. While it is mostly approached from an economic point of view, this article argues for a more inclusive approach. The characteristics of the digital divide,

  6. Statistical and numerical methods to improve the transient divided bar method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    The divided bar method is a commonly used method to measure thermal conductivity of rock samples in laboratory. We present improvements to this method that allows for simultaneous measurements of both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The divided bar setup is run in a transient mode...

  7. Dustiness of fine and nanoscale powders. (United States)

    Evans, Douglas E; Turkevich, Leonid A; Roettgers, Cynthia T; Deye, Gregory J; Baron, Paul A


    Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3-37.9% and 0.1-31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300 nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100 nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100 nm particle contribution in a workplace.

  8. Pelagic Biocarbonates: Assessing the "Forgotten" Fine Fraction (United States)

    Brummer, G. J. A.


    Biocarbonates play an important role in the global carbon cycle and cover over half of the ocean floor. Biocarbonates in the open ocean are best known from planktonic foraminifera, which are relatively large (>150µm), heavy and few and coccoliths, which are very small (<32µm), light and abundant. Both of these components are relatively well studied. The size fraction in between adult foraminifera and coccoliths (32-150µm: the so-called fine fraction) consists of a large but poorly known mixture of particles, which is genarlly assumed to consist primarily of "juvenile" planktonic foraminifera, with minor amounts of calcareous dinoflagellates and various others less well-known microfossils. Abundance, diversity, mass and composition within the fine fraction are poorly constrained, as is the response to acidification/dissolution. This lack of knowledge primarily reflects the gap in size fraction studied by the different disciplinary approaches and techniques, which are not suited for identifying and quantifying these intermediate groups. Comparative ontogeny of planktonic foraminifera now shows that this fine fraction in sediments does not consist of "juveniles" as in the living plankton, but is dominated by mature specimens of small-sized species. First estimates indicate that these small species not only account for about one third of the number of species of planktonic foraminifera but also form about one third of their shell flux and global carbonate production in weight. Still, we hardly know anything on seasonality, depth habitat, shell composition (isotopes, trace metal incorporation), potential autotrophic symbionts, molecular genetics and geological range of these clearly very important species. Estimates from well-preserved sediments, show that the important role of these minute foraminiferal planktonic species may hold for much of the 180Ma long fossil record, opening a new research field pertaining to both modern and past pelagic ecosystems and the role

  9. CRUQS: A Miniature Fine Sun Sensor for Nanosatellites (United States)

    Heatwole, Scott; Snow, Carl; Santos, Luis


    A new miniature fine Sun sensor has been developed that uses a quadrant photodiode and housing to determine the Sun vector. Its size, mass, and power make it especially suited to small satellite applications, especially nanosatellites. Its accuracy is on the order of one arcminute, and it will enable new science in the area of nanosatellites. The motivation for this innovation was the need for high-performance Sun sensors in the nanosatellite category. The design idea comes out of the LISS (Lockheed Intermediate Sun Sensor) used by the sounding rocket program on their solar pointing ACS (Attitude Control System). This system uses photodiodes and a wall between them. The shadow cast by the Sun is used to determine the Sun angle. The new sensor takes this concept and miniaturizes it. A cruciform shaped housing and a surface-mount quadrant photodiode package allow for a two-axis fine Sun sensor to be packaged into a space approx.1.25xl x0.25 in. (approx.3.2x2.5x0.6 cm). The circuitry to read the photodiodes is a simple trans-impedance operational amplifier. This is much less complex than current small Sun sensors for nanosatellites that rely on photo-arrays and processing of images to determine the Sun center. The simplicity of the circuit allows for a low power draw as well. The sensor consists of housing with a cruciform machined in it. The cruciform walls are 0.5-mm thick and the center of the cruciform is situated over the center of the quadrant photodiode sensor. This allows for shadows to be cast on each of the four photodiodes based on the angle of the Sun. A simple operational amplifier circuit is used to read the output of the photodiodes as a voltage. The voltage output of each photodiode is summed based on rows and columns, and then the values of both rows or both columns are differenced and divided by the sum of the voltages for all four photodiodes. The value of both difference over sums for the rows and columns is compared to a table or a polynomial fit

  10. Volume reduction of Clark hot water extraction fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheeran, E. D. [ed.


    The principal focus of this volume is the reduction or elimination of the accumulation of fine tailings produced by the Clark Hot Water Extraction (CHWE) process, the process which is currently employed by commercial oil sands extraction operations in Alberta. Several opportunities in the process where reduction of fine tailings accumulation might be accomplished through either chemical or mechanical modifications, have been examined. Among these are: (1) selective mining, (2) alternate extraction processes, (3) prevention of segregation of coarse and fine tailings, (4) recombination of extraction tailings and fine tailings, (5) extraction of water from mature tailings, and (6) stabilization of mature fine tailings. 77 refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Therapy Provider Phase Information (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  12. Visible-near-infrared spectroscopy can predict the clay/organic carbon and mineral fines/organic carbon ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Cecilie; Knadel, Maria; Møldrup, Per


    The ratios of mineral fines (clay + fine silt) to organic carbon (OC), consisting of the n-ratio (i.e., the clay/OC ratio) and m-ratio (i.e., the fines/OC ratio) have recently been used to analyze and predict soil functional properties such as tilth conditions, clay dispersibility, degree...... from seven Danish and one Greenlandic fields, with a large textural range (clay: 0.027–0.355 kg kg−1; OC: 0.011–0.084 kg kg−1; n-ratio: 0.49–16.80; m-ratio: 1.46–32.14), were analyzed for texture and OC and subsequently scanned with a vis-NIR spectrometer from 400 to 2500 nm. The spectral data were...... correlated to reference values of the n-ratio, m-ratio, clay, fine silt, fines, and OC with partial least squares regression. The vis-NIR models were developed on a regional dataset comprising the 480 soil samples divided into calibration and validation subsets. Further, we tested vis-NIR models developed...

  13. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M


    Full Text Available as shown in Figure 5. When the circulating medium density is increased, the density of the feed to both the primary and secondary cyclones is increased, and relatively small increases in the circulating medium density causes fairly large increases... availability to treat the higher grade coal (the bottom layer of coal) from the no. 2 Seam for a local and export metallurgical market. Following the path of evolution, in 2007, Leeuwpan commissioned the first double stage ultra-fines dense medium cyclone...

  14. Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion (United States)


    Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.

  15. Superconducting transition temperature of aluminum fine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, K.; Kuroishi, T.; Fujita, T.


    The superconducting transition temperature T/sub C/ of films of aluminium fine particles deposited by gas evaporation method was determined by measuring D.C. electrical resistance. The observed values of T/sub C/ were distributed from 1.5 to 2.5K, about 5/4 = 2 times of that of bulk metal, for the samples of average particle diameter 150 = 50 A. The observed enhancement of T/sub C/ was not explained by the surface softening of the particles only.

  16. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru


    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  17. Hearing aid fine-tuning based on Dutch descriptions. (United States)

    Thielemans, Thijs; Pans, Donné; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien


    The aim of this study was to derive an independent fitting assistant based on expert consensus. Two questions were asked: (1) what (Dutch) terms do hearing impaired listeners use nowadays to describe their specific hearing aid fitting problems? (2) What is the expert consensus on how to resolve these complaints by adjusting hearing aid parameters? Hearing aid dispensers provided descriptors that impaired listeners use to describe their reactions to specific hearing aid fitting problems. Hearing aid fitting experts were asked "How would you adjust the hearing aid if its user reports that the aid sounds…?" with the blank filled with each of the 40 most frequently mentioned descriptors. 112 hearing aid dispensers and 15 hearing aid experts. The expert solution with the highest weight value was considered the best solution for that descriptor. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify a factor structure in fitting problems. Nine fitting problems could be identified resulting in an expert-based, hearing aid manufacturer independent, fine-tuning fitting assistant for clinical use. The construction of an expert-based, hearing aid manufacturer independent, fine-tuning fitting assistant to be used as an additional tool in the iterative fitting process is feasible.

  18. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines (United States)

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN


    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  19. Communication Optimizations for Fine-Grained UPCApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Iancu, Costin; Yelick, Katherine


    Global address space languages like UPC exhibit high performance and portability on a broad class of shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. The most scalable applications use bulk memory copies rather than individual reads and writes to the shared space, but finer-grained sharing can be useful for scenarios such as dynamic load balancing, event signaling, and distributed hash tables. In this paper we present three optimization techniques for global address space programs with fine-grained communication: redundancy elimination, use of split-phase communication, and communication coalescing. Parallel UPC programs are analyzed using static single assignment form and a data flow graph, which are extended to handle the various shared and private pointer types that are available in UPC. The optimizations also take advantage of UPC's relaxed memory consistency model, which reduces the need for cross thread analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the analysis and optimizations using several benchmarks, which were chosen to reflect the kinds of fine-grained, communication-intensive phases that exist in some larger applications. The optimizations show speedups of up to 70 percent on three parallel systems, which represent three different types of cluster network technologies.

  20. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter


    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.

  1. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations. (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène


    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM10) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5)), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM2.5 (Peffect, was estimated at 13.5 µg/m3. We found an association between daily asthma exacerbation in paediatric visits to the ED and fine particulate air pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Extramedullary plasmacytoma. Fine needle aspiration findings. (United States)

    Kumar, P V; Owji, S M; Talei, A R; Malekhusseini, S A


    To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma. The study group consisted of 13 patients with palpable masses at various sites. The tumors were aspirated for cytologic study. The smears revealed groups of mature and immature plasma cells at various stages of maturation. Mature plasma cells showed an eccentric nucleus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with a paranuclear halo. Plasmablasts (immature plasma cells) showed a prominent, eccentric nucleus with single, large nucleolus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with no paranuclear halo. Binucleate and multinucleate forms were also seen quite often. The tumors were excised, and the histologic sections confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. All the patients received radiotherapy. One patient (18 years old) developed recurrence and died due to extensive infiltration into the maxilla and mandible. Two patients (57 and 62 years) developed multiple myeloma one to two years after the excision of tumors, and both died two to three months later. The remaining 10 patients were alive and well at this writing. The smears from all 13 patients were diagnosed as extramedullary plasmacytomas by fine needle aspiration cytology.

  3. Non-uniqueness of quantum transition state theory and general dividing surfaces in the path integral space. (United States)

    Jang, Seogjoo; Voth, Gregory A


    Despite the fact that quantum mechanical principles do not allow the establishment of an exact quantum analogue of the classical transition state theory (TST), the development of a quantum TST (QTST) with a proper dynamical justification, while recovering the TST in the classical limit, has been a long standing theoretical challenge in chemical physics. One of the most recent efforts of this kind was put forth by Hele and Althorpe (HA) [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 084108 (2013)], which can be specified for any cyclically invariant dividing surface defined in the space of the imaginary time path integral. The present work revisits the issue of the non-uniqueness of QTST and provides a detailed theoretical analysis of HA-QTST for a general class of such path integral dividing surfaces. While we confirm that HA-QTST reproduces the result based on the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory for dividing surfaces containing only a quadratic form of low frequency Fourier modes, we find that it produces different results for those containing higher frequency imaginary time paths which accommodate greater quantum fluctuations. This result confirms the assessment made in our previous work [Jang and Voth, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084110 (2016)] that HA-QTST does not provide a derivation of RPMD-TST in general and points to a new ambiguity of HA-QTST with respect to its justification for general cyclically invariant dividing surfaces defined in the space of imaginary time path integrals. Our analysis also offers new insights into similar path integral based QTST approaches.

  4. Observations of coastal sediment dynamics of the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project, Imperial Beach, California (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lam, Angela; Ferreiera, Joanne; Miller, Ian M.; Rippy, Meg; Svejkovsky, Jan; Mustain, Neomi


    Coastal restoration and management must address the presence, use, and transportation of fine sediment, yet little information exists on the patterns and/or processes of fine-sediment transport and deposition for these systems. To fill this information gap, a number of State of California, Federal, and private industry partners developed the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project ("Demonstration Project") with the purpose of monitoring the transport, fate, and impacts of fine sediment from beach-sediment nourishments in 2008 and 2009 near the Tijuana River estuary, Imperial Beach, California. The primary purpose of the Demonstration Project was to collect and provide information about the directions, rates, and processes of fine-sediment transport along and across a California beach and nearshore setting. To achieve these goals, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored water, beach, and seafloor properties during the 2008–2009 Demonstration Project. The project utilized sediment with ~40 percent fine sediment by mass so that the dispersal and transport of fine sediment would be easily recognizable. The purpose of this report is to present and disseminate the data collected during the physical monitoring of the Demonstration Project. These data are available online at the links noted in the "Additional Digital Information" section. Synthesis of these data and results will be provided in subsequent publications.

  5. Fining of glass melts: what we know about fining processes today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.


    The paper addresses the mechanisms of fining (removal of gases from melt) and the effect of batch composition, oxidation state of the melt and furnace atmosphere on bubble removal processes for commercial glass types, such as float glass and container glass compositions. The mechanisms of the

  6. Acclimation of fine root respiration to soil warming involves starch deposition in very fine and fine roots: a case study in Fagus sylvatica saplings. (United States)

    Di Iorio, Antonino; Giacomuzzi, Valentino; Chiatante, Donato


    Root activities in terms of respiration and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage and mobilization have been suggested as major physiological roles in fine root lifespan. As more frequent heat waves and drought periods within the next decades are expected, to what extent does thermal acclimation in fine roots represent a mechanism to cope with such upcoming climatic conditions? In this study, the possible changes in very fine (diameter Fagus sylvatica saplings subjected to a simulated long-lasting heat wave event and to co-occurring soil drying. For both very fine and fine roots, soil temperature (ST) resulted inversely correlated with specific root length, respiration rates and SSs concentration, but directly correlated with root mass, root tissue density and starch concentration. In particular, starch concentration increased under 28 °C for successively decreasing under 21 °C ST. These findings showed that thermal acclimation in very fine and fine roots due to 24 days exposure to high ST (∼ 28 °C), induced starch accumulation. Such 'carbon-savings strategy' should bear the maintenance costs associated to the recovery process in case of restored favorable environmental conditions, such as those occurring at the end of a heat wave event. Drought condition seems to affect the fine root vitality much more under moderate than high temperature condition, making the temporary exposure to high ST less threatening to root vitality than expected. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Digital divide: a national security argumentative analysis within a South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, J


    Full Text Available . This is followed by an analysis of the digital divide framed within the determinants of national power as embedded in the National Security definition. It is within this analysis that the five mostly argued dimensions of the digital divide are contrasted against... and the Determinants of National Power In this section we perform an analysis of the digital divide framed within the determinants of national power as embedded in the National Security definition. It is within this analysis that the five mostly argued dimensions...

  8. A case against a divide and conquer approach to the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessup, E.R.


    Divide and conquer techniques based on rank-one updating have proven fast, accurate, and efficient in parallel for the real symmetric tridiagonal and unitary eigenvalue problems and for the bidiagonal singular value problem. Although the divide and conquer mechanism can also be adapted to the real nonsymmetric eigenproblem in a straightforward way, most of the desirable characteristics of the other algorithms are lost. In this paper, we examine the problems of accuracy and efficiency that can stand in the way of a nonsymmetric divide and conquer eigensolver based on low-rank updating. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Illusory recollection in older adults and younger adults under divided attention. (United States)

    Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A


    The authors investigated the effect of divided attention, study-list repetition, and age on recollection and familiarity. Older and younger adults under full attention and younger adults under divided attention at study viewed word lists highly associated with a single unstudied word (critical lure) once or three times, and subsequently performed a remember-know recognition test. Younger adults made fewer false remember responses to critical lures from repeated study lists, whereas younger adults under divided attention and older adults both showed an increase with repetition. Findings suggest older adults' susceptibility to illusory memories is related to a deficit in available attention during encoding.

  10. Transition state theory for solvated reactions beyond recrossing-free dividing surfaces. (United States)

    Revuelta, F; Bartsch, Thomas; Garcia-Muller, P L; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Benito, R M; Borondo, F


    The accuracy of rate constants calculated using transition state theory depends crucially on the correct identification of a recrossing-free dividing surface. We show here that it is possible to define such optimal dividing surface in systems with non-Markovian friction. However, a more direct approach to rate calculation is based on invariant manifolds and avoids the use of a dividing surface altogether, Using that method we obtain an explicit expression for the rate of crossing an anharmonic potential barrier. The excellent performance of our method is illustrated with an application to a realistic model for LiNC⇌LiCN isomerization.

  11. The potential, limitations, and challenges of divide and conquer quantum electronic structure calculations on energetic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Jon R.; Magyar, Rudolph J.


    High explosives are an important class of energetic materials used in many weapons applications. Even with modern computers, the simulation of the dynamic chemical reactions and energy release is exceedingly challenging. While the scale of the detonation process may be macroscopic, the dynamic bond breaking responsible for the explosive release of energy is fundamentally quantum mechanical. Thus, any method that does not adequately describe bonding is destined to lack predictive capability on some level. Performing quantum mechanics calculations on systems with more than dozens of atoms is a gargantuan task, and severe approximation schemes must be employed in practical calculations. We have developed and tested a divide and conquer (DnC) scheme to obtain total energies, forces, and harmonic frequencies within semi-empirical quantum mechanics. The method is intended as an approximate but faster solution to the full problem and is possible due to the sparsity of the density matrix in many applications. The resulting total energy calculation scales linearly as the number of subsystems, and the method provides a path-forward to quantum mechanical simulations of millions of atoms.

  12. Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan African Universities: Recommendations and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Boubakar; /Assoc. Afr. Univ.; Chukwuma, Victor; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Petitdidier, Monique; /CEPT, Velizy; Cottrell, Les; /SLAC; Bartons, Charles; /Australian Natl. U., RSES


    The Digital Divide prevents Africa from taking advantages of new information technologies. One of the most urgent priorities is to bring the Internet in African Universities, Research, and Learning Centers to the level of other regions of the world. eGY-Africa, and the Sharing Knowledge Foundation are two bottom-up initiatives by scientists to secure better cyber-infrastructure and Internet facilities in Africa. Recommendations by the present scientific communities are being formulated at national, regional and international levels. The Internet capabilities are well documented at country level overall, but this is not the case at the University level. The snapshot of the Internet status in universities in 17 African countries, obtained by a questionnaire survey, is consistent with measures of Internet penetration in the corresponding country. The monitoring of Internet performance has been proposed to those African universities to provide an information base for arguing the need to improve the coverage for Africa. A pilot program is recommended that will start scientific collaboration with Europe in western Africa using ICT. The program will lay the foundations for the arrival of new technologies like Grids.

  13. Group counseling and psychotherapy across the cultural divide: the case of Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel. (United States)

    BenEzer, Gadi


    Effective counseling across a cultural divide depends on adaptations or changes of technique to suit the particular intercultural circumstances. The concept of mutual creative space provides a guiding principle for therapists who wish to make such changes. This space is 'negotiated' between the therapist/counselor coming from the 'dominant/mainstream' group within society, and the group participants who arrive from another culture. Mutual creative space consists of the negotiation of power and a process of mutual invention, incorporating the creation, by therapist and participants, of something new that did not exist in either of their cultures of origin. A meaningful encounter and effective group counseling can take place following the negotiation of such a creative space. This is illustrated by the example of intercultural group work with Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel, including an analysis of cultural characteristics of the Ethiopian group and specific ways of negotiating mutual creative space in this case. Issues discussed include: establishing trust in the cross cultural context; the use of body language and its interpretation; the psychologist as an authority figure; active participation vs. hidden learning; and working with dreams in such groups.

  14. Crossing the digital divide: an interoperable solution for sharing time series and coverages in Earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Salas


    Full Text Available In a world driven by the Internet and the readily accessible information it provides, there exists a high demand to easily discover and collect vast amounts of data available over several scientific domains and numerous data types. To add to the complexity, data is not only available through a plethora of data sources within disparate systems but also represents differing scales of space and time. One clear divide that exists in the world of information science and technology is the disjoint relationship between hydrologic and atmospheric science information. These worlds have long been split between observed time series at discrete geographical features in hydrologic science and modeled or remotely sensed coverages or grids over continuous space and time domains in atmospheric science. As more information becomes widely available through the Web, data are being served and published as Web services using standardized implementations and encodings. This paper illustrates a framework that utilizes Sensor Observation Services, Web Feature Services, Web Coverage Services, Catalog Services for the Web and GI-cat Services to index and discover data offered through different classes of information. This services infrastructure supports multiple servers of time series and gridded information, which can be searched through multiple portals, using a common set of time, space and concept query filters.

  15. Decision-centric adaptation appraisal for water management across Colorado’s Continental Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Yates


    Full Text Available A multi-step decision support process was developed and applied to the physically and legally complex case of water diversions from the Upper Colorado River across the Continental Divide to serve cities and farms along Colorado’s Front Range. We illustrate our approach by simulating the performance of an existing drought-response measure, the Shoshone Call Relaxation Agreement (SCRA [the adaptation measure], using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool [the hydrologic cycle and water systems model]; and the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM-DC [the stochastic climate scenario generator]. Scenarios relevant to the decision community were analyzed and results indicate that this drought management measure would provide only a small storage benefit in offsetting the impacts of a shift to a warmer and drier future climate coupled with related environmental changes. The analysis demonstrates the importance of engaging water managers in the development of credible and computationally efficient decision support tools that accurately capture the physical, legal and contractual dimensions of their climate risk management problems.

  16. Effects of long-term temperature and nutrient manipulation on Norway spruce fine roots and mycelia production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppälammi-Kujansuu, J.; Ostonen, I.; Strömgren, M.


    Aims and methods The effects of changing climate on ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fine roots were studied in northern Sweden by manipulating soil temperature for 14 years and/or by fertilizing for 22 years. Fine root biomass, necromass, EcM root tip biomass, morphology and number as well as mycelia....... Significantly higher specific root length of EcM root tips indicated an increased need for nutrients in warmed and in unfertilized plots. Better nutrient supply and warmer soil temperature provide a potential to increase the flow of carbon into the soil via increased fine root biomass, but the carbon balance...

  17. Fostering Creativity: A Multiple Intelligences Approach to Designing Learning in Undergraduate Fine Art (United States)

    Clarke, Angela; Cripps, Peter


    Curriculum and pedagogy in undergraduate fine art can promote an approach to learning creativity that is more about being an artist than knowing about art. Lecturers can provide a road map for developing particular dispositions, in relation to student ideas and perceptions, to foster personalised creativity. This requires that lecturers have an…

  18. Fine-scale habitat characteristics related to occupancy of the Yosemite Toad, Anaxyrus canorus (United States)

    Christina T. Liang; Robert L. Grasso; Julie J. Nelson-Paul; Kim E. Vincent; Amy J. Lind


    Fine-scale habitat information can provide insight into species occupancy and persistence that is not apparent at the landscape-scale. Such information is particularly important for rare species that are experiencing population declines, such as the threatened Yosemite Toad (Anaxyrus canorus). Our study examined differences in physical...

  19. Spatial Downscaling of TRMM Precipitation Using Geostatistics and Fine Scale Environmental Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    No-Wook Park


    Full Text Available A geostatistical downscaling scheme is presented and can generate fine scale precipitation information from coarse scale Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. Within the geostatistical framework, the TRMM precipitation data are first decomposed into trend and residual components. Quantitative relationships between coarse scale TRMM data and environmental variables are then estimated via regression analysis and used to derive trend components at a fine scale. Next, the residual components, which are the differences between the trend components and the original TRMM data, are then downscaled at a target fine scale via area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components are finally added to generate fine scale precipitation estimates. Stochastic simulation is also applied to the residual components in order to generate multiple alternative realizations and to compute uncertainty measures. From an experiment using a digital elevation model (DEM and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, the geostatistical downscaling scheme generated the downscaling results that reflected detailed characteristics with better predictive performance, when compared with downscaling without the environmental variables. Multiple realizations and uncertainty measures from simulation also provided useful information for interpretations and further environmental modeling.

  20. Can an Eternal Life Start From the Minimal Fine-Tuning for Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Blondé


    Full Text Available Since modern physicists made more and more advances in precisely measuring the fundamental constants in nature, cosmologists have been confronted with this problem: how do we declare that nature’s constants are fine-tuned for the emergence of life? Many cosmologists assume nowadays that the big bang universe originates from a multiverse that consists of very many universes. Some of these must be fine-tuned for life. A fascinating question arises: Would there be any chance on a life after our death in this multiverse? In this paper, I show two things about the multiverse. First, universes in the multiverse acquire an unlimited amount of additional fine-tuning for intelligent life over the course of many universe generations. Such additional fine-tuning may consist of travelling between universes and an afterlife on a distant planet. Second, evolutionary conservation in the evolution of universes in the multiverse provides a declaration why we observe a universe that roughly has the minimal fine-tuning to support intelligent life.

  1. A fortunate universe life in a finely tuned cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geraint F


    Over the last forty years, scientists have uncovered evidence that if the Universe had been forged with even slightly different properties, life as we know it - and life as we can imagine it - would be impossible. Join us on a journey through how we understand the Universe, from its most basic particles and forces, to planets, stars and galaxies, and back through cosmic history to the birth of the cosmos. Conflicting notions about our place in the Universe are defined, defended and critiqued from scientific, philosophical and religious viewpoints. The authors' engaging and witty style addresses what fine-tuning might mean for the future of physics and the search for the ultimate laws of nature. Tackling difficult questions and providing thought-provoking answers, this volumes challenges us to consider our place in the cosmos, regardless of our initial convictions.

  2. Imaging spectroscopy of solar radio burst fine structures. (United States)

    Kontar, E P; Yu, S; Kuznetsov, A A; Emslie, A G; Alcock, B; Jeffrey, N L S; Melnik, V N; Bian, N H; Subramanian, P


    Solar radio observations provide a unique diagnostic of the outer solar atmosphere. However, the inhomogeneous turbulent corona strongly affects the propagation of the emitted radio waves, so decoupling the intrinsic properties of the emitting source from the effects of radio wave propagation has long been a major challenge in solar physics. Here we report quantitative spatial and frequency characterization of solar radio burst fine structures observed with the Low Frequency Array, an instrument with high-time resolution that also permits imaging at scales much shorter than those corresponding to radio wave propagation in the corona. The observations demonstrate that radio wave propagation effects, and not the properties of the intrinsic emission source, dominate the observed spatial characteristics of radio burst images. These results permit more accurate estimates of source brightness temperatures, and open opportunities for quantitative study of the mechanisms that create the turbulent coronal medium through which the emitted radiation propagates.

  3. Review: Funston, John (ed. (2009, Divided Over Thaksin: Thailand’s Coup and Problematic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chambers


    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Funston, John (ed. (2009, Divided Over Thaksin: Thailand’s Coup and Problematic Transition, Chiangmai: Silkworm Books, Singapore: ISEAS. ISBN 978-981-230-961-7, 203 pages.

  4. Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2017 April thru June (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.


    Lightcurves for 31 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2017 April thru June were analyzed for rotation period and signs of satellites or tumbling.

  5. Ultra-trace Measurements in the WAIS Divide 06A Ice Core, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data contain the results of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of 207 samples from the WAIS Divide 06A ice core. The trace gases found in...

  6. WAIS Divide Microparticle Concentration and Size Distribution, 0-2400 ka, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes raw dust microparticle data for the WAIS Divide deep core, WDC06A, from the surface to 577 m. Data were collected in 2010 using a Klotz Abakus...

  7. Definig the Paradigm of ICTs and its dialogue with Global Digital Divide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Pinto da Silva


    ...) and the advent of the informational economy have unleashed changes in economic relations that were not uniform across the globe and lead these phenomena to a direct dialogue with the effects of Global Digital Divide...

  8. Poor need knowledge not only technology to bridge digital divide: experts

    CERN Multimedia


    "Developing countries need to gain knowledge rather than technology to latch onto the booming information society, experts said Monday ahead of a major conference on bridging the digital divide between rich and poor" (1/2 page).

  9. A Fast Divide-and-Conquer Algorithm for Indexing Human Genome Sequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LOH, Woong-Kee; MOON, Yang-Sae; LEE, Wookey


    .... Moreover, they do not fully utilize the recent CPUs with multiple cores. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm based on 'divide-and-conquer' strategy for indexing the human genome sequences...

  10. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization (United States)

    Serres, Nicolas


    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  11. "Divide and conquer" semiclassical molecular dynamics: A practical method for spectroscopic calculations of high dimensional molecular systems. (United States)

    Di Liberto, Giovanni; Conte, Riccardo; Ceotto, Michele


    We extensively describe our recently established "divide-and-conquer" semiclassical method [M. Ceotto, G. Di Liberto, and R. Conte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 010401 (2017)] and propose a new implementation of it to increase the accuracy of results. The technique permits us to perform spectroscopic calculations of high-dimensional systems by dividing the full-dimensional problem into a set of smaller dimensional ones. The partition procedure, originally based on a dynamical analysis of the Hessian matrix, is here more rigorously achieved through a hierarchical subspace-separation criterion based on Liouville's theorem. Comparisons of calculated vibrational frequencies to exact quantum ones for a set of molecules including benzene show that the new implementation performs better than the original one and that, on average, the loss in accuracy with respect to full-dimensional semiclassical calculations is reduced to only 10 wavenumbers. Furthermore, by investigating the challenging Zundel cation, we also demonstrate that the "divide-and-conquer" approach allows us to deal with complex strongly anharmonic molecular systems. Overall the method very much helps the assignment and physical interpretation of experimental IR spectra by providing accurate vibrational fundamentals and overtones decomposed into reduced dimensionality spectra.

  12. Automatic Learning of Fine Operating Rules for Online Power System Security Control. (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Weiyong; Guo, Qinglai; Zhang, Boming; Wehenkel, Louis


    Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min.

  13. Some characteristics of fine beryllium particle combustion (United States)

    Davydov, D. A.; Kholopova, O. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.


    Beryllium dust will be produced under plasma interaction with beryllium armor of the first wall in ITER. Exothermal reaction of this dust with water steam or air, which can leak into the reactor vacuum chamber in some accidents, gives concern in respect to reactor safety. Results of studies devoted to combustion of fine beryllium particles are reviewed in the paper. A chemically active medium and elevated temperature are prerequisite to the combustion of beryllium particles. Their ignition is hampered by oxide films, which form a diffusion barrier on the particle surface as a result of pre-flame oxidation. The temperature to initiate combustion of particles depends on flame temperature, particle size, composition of combustible mixture, heating rate and other factors. In mixtures enriched with combustible, the flame temperature necessary to ignite individual particles approaches the beryllium boiling temperature.

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis (United States)

    Tanwar, Pranay; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet


    Fibromatosis form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. The fibromatosis can be localized or infiltrative and multicentric and can involve internal tissues and organs as the mesentery, retroperitoneum, breast, and almost every organ and region of the body, including the bones, the meninges and the central nervous system. We report a case of 37-year-old male who presented with a right supraclavicular mass with superficial infiltrative type of fibromatosis and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. We report this case because of limited literature of FNAC in fibromatosis and quick role of FNAC in the diagnosis of fibromatosis. PMID:22438623

  15. The fine structure of the ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul


    We consider in this note the excitation of ion-acoustic waves by vertical gradients of density in the ionosphere. The conclusion is reached that the fine structure of the ionosphere is probably affected by the resulting instability, as comparison with observations seems to indicate. Recently, Liu...... and Yeh [1966] have examined the excitation of low-frequency imcompressible waves in an inhomogeneous ionosphere. They find that, below the F-region maximum, there may exist instabilities, the growth rate being given approximately by grho'/rhonu, where g is the gravity, rho is the plasma density, rho......' is its height gradients, and nu is the ion-neutral collision frequency. We have examined the stability of the ionosphere against growth of low-frequency quasielectrostatic waves, taking into account the compressibility of the plasma....

  16. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, J.J.


    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.


    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  18. A structuration framework for bridging the macro-micro divide in health-care governance. (United States)

    Bodolica, Virginia; Spraggon, Martin; Tofan, Gabriela


    Extant studies demonstrate that macro (hierarchical) and micro (relational) governance initiatives in health-care settings continue to be developed in isolation rather than interactively. Government-driven hierarchical governance endeavours that guide health-care reforms and medical practice are disconnected from micro-level physician-patient interactions being unable to account for patient preferences in the macro-level policymaking. We undertake a review of the recent literature to couch our argument for a unified governance framework for bridging the macro-micro divide in medical contexts. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach to health-care delivery, we maintain that the (strong) structuration theory provides a fruitful opportunity for narrowing the gap between hierarchical and relational governance. Emphasizing the coexistence of institutional structures and human agency, the (strong) structuration theory elucidates how macro and micro governance devices shape each other's structure via mutually reinforcing cycles of influence. Micro-level encounters between patients and physicians give rise to social structures that constitute the constraining and enabling forces through which macro-level health-care infrastructures are altered and reproduced over time. Permitting to illustrate how patients' agency can effectively emerge from complex networks of clinical trajectories, the advanced structuration framework for macro-micro governance integration avoids the extremes of paternalism and autonomy through a balanced consideration of professional judgement and patient preferences. The macro-micro integration of governance efforts is a critical issue in both high-income states, where medical institutions attempt to deploy substantial realignment efforts, and developing nations, which are lagging behind due to leadership weaknesses and lower levels of governmental investment. A key priority for regulators is the identification of relevant systems to support this

  19. Quasi-resonant converter with divided resonant capacitor on primary and secondary side


    Shiroyama, Hironobu; Matsuo, Hirofumi; Ishizuka, Yoichi


    This paper presents a quasi-resonant converter with divided resonant capacitor on primary and secondary side of the isolation transformer. A conventional quasi-resonant converter using flyback topology can realize soft switching with simple circuit. However, relatively large surge voltage is generated in the switching device. To suppress such surge voltage, resonant capacitor is divided on primary side and secondary side in the proposed converter. In case of prototype 95W converter, the volta...

  20. Outcome of loop versus divided colostomy in the management of anorectal malformations. (United States)

    Almosallam, Osama Ibrahim; Aseeri, Ali; Shanafey, Saud Al


    Colostomy is a common part of the management of high anorectal malformation (ARM) in the pediatric population. To evaluate whether the type of colostomy (loop vs divided) has an impact on outcome in patients with ARM. A retrospective study. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, a tertiary care center. All patients who were managed with colostomy for ARM and had definitive repair during the period of January 2000 to December 2014. Outcomes relative to the type of the colostomy were compared. Morbidities associated with each type of colostomy. There were 104 patients managed for ARM with colostomy as staged procedures, 63 males and 41 females. Patients had a colostomy at a median age of 6 days and were closed at a median of 11 months. Definitive repair was at a median age of 17 months. Type of fistula was 8 perineal, 21 rectovestibular, 35 rectourethral, 11 rectovesical and there were 16 without fistula and 13 cloaca anomalies. There were 55 loop and 49 divided colostomies. There were 91 descending/sigmoid and 13 transverse colostomies. Operative time for loop colostomy closure was shorter than with divided colo6stomy (76 minutes vs 94 minutes, P=.002). Three patients among the divided group had reversed orientation of the colostomy that had affected bowel preparations negatively prior to its repair. There was no differences in complications of creation and closure of loop and divided colostomies except in occurrence of skin excoriation. There was more skin excoriation with divided colostomy compared to loop colostomy (17 vs 10, P=.04). Loop colostomy has a shorter closure operative time and relatively fewer complications compared to the divided colostomy. Our data suggests that loop colostomy may be more favorable than divided colostomy for ARM patients. Retrospective nature of the study and some colostomies performed at other hospitals.

  1. The robotics divide a new frontier in the 21st century?

    CERN Document Server

    López Peláez, Antonio


    Analyzes how robotics will shape our societies in the twenty-first century; a time when industrial and service robotics, particularly for military and aerospace purposes, will become an essential technology Examines an emerging divide: the "robotics divide"; a phenomenon linked to the model to integrate advanced robotics in economic, social and military spheres Focuses on the main technological trends in the field of robotics, and the impact that robotics will have on different facets of social life

  2. 110-KV optical fiber voltage transformer using a porcelain capacitor divider (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Ou, Chaolong; Cui, Ying; Zhou, Jianying; Li, Kaicheng; Chen, Zhiping; Xu, Yan; Luo, Sunan


    In this paper, a new type of optical fiber voltage transformer is introduced, which utilizes new porcelain capacitor divider. The optical; fiber voltage sensor is based on the BGO crystal Pockels effect modulated horizontally, sealed in a glass box with low expansion rate. Both the divider and the sensor are sealed in the compound silicon rubber insulator filled with SF6 gas. It has many advantages such as small volume, light weight, low price and high precision.

  3. Analysis and Design of Ultra-Wideband 3-Way Bagley Power Divider Using Tapered Lines Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khair Al Shamaileh


    Full Text Available An ultra-wideband (UWB modified 3-way Bagley polygon power divider (BPD that operates over a frequency range of 2–16 GHz is presented. To achieve the UWB operation, the conventional quarter-wave transformers in the BPD are substituted by two tapered line transformers. For verification purposes, the proposed divider is simulated, fabricated, and measured. The agreement between the full-wave simulation results and the measurement ones validates the design procedure.

  4. Definig the Paradigm of ICTs and its dialogue with Global Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pinto da Silva


    Full Text Available The paper aims to present how the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the advent of the informational economy have unleashed changes in economic relations that were not uniform across the globe and lead these phenomena to a direct dialogue with the effects of Global Digital Divide. In this regard, the essay has been divided into three parts. On the firs part, after a comparative analysis with other concepts, is presented the concept of Paradigm of ICTs. The second part explores the dialogue between the Paradigm of ICTs and Global Digital Divide and how it allowed a dynamic that activate economically certain places on the planet while leaving others on standby. The third part presents the numbers of the Global Digital Divide based on studies of international institutions to strengthen the argument empirically. The essay concludes that quantitative and qualitative inequality in accessibility, trade and development of ICTs field between the two extremes of the Global Digital Divide indicates the need to change the current standard that divides the world into regions with easy access and developers of advanced ICTs (turn on areas and regions with limited access, intensive manpower at low cost and absent in terms of research for the sector (standby areas.

  5. The Design and Characterization of a Prototype Wideband Voltage Sensor Based on a Resistive Divider. (United States)

    Garnacho, Fernando; Khamlichi, Abderrahim; Rovira, Jorge


    The most important advantage of voltage dividers over traditional voltage transformers is that voltage dividers do not have an iron core with non-linear hysteresis characteristics. The voltage dividers have a linear behavior with respect to over-voltages and a flat frequency response larger frequency range. The weak point of a voltage divider is the influence of external high-voltage (HV) and earth parts in its vicinity. Electrical fields arising from high voltages in neighboring phases and from ground conductors and structures are one of their main sources for systematic measurement errors. This paper describes a shielding voltage divider for a 24 kV medium voltage network insulated in SF6 composed of two resistive-capacitive dividers, one integrated within the other, achieving a flat frequency response up to 10 kHz for ratio error and up to 5 kHz for phase displacement error. The metal shielding improves its immunity against electric and magnetic fields. The characterization performed on the built-in voltage sensor shows an accuracy class of 0.2 for a frequency range from 20 Hz to 5 kHz and a class of 0.5 for 1 Hz up to 20 Hz. A low temperature effect is also achieved for operation conditions of MV power grids.

  6. The Design and Characterization of a Prototype Wideband Voltage Sensor Based on a Resistive Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Garnacho


    Full Text Available The most important advantage of voltage dividers over traditional voltage transformers is that voltage dividers do not have an iron core with non-linear hysteresis characteristics. The voltage dividers have a linear behavior with respect to over-voltages and a flat frequency response larger frequency range. The weak point of a voltage divider is the influence of external high-voltage (HV and earth parts in its vicinity. Electrical fields arising from high voltages in neighboring phases and from ground conductors and structures are one of their main sources for systematic measurement errors. This paper describes a shielding voltage divider for a 24 kV medium voltage network insulated in SF6 composed of two resistive-capacitive dividers, one integrated within the other, achieving a flat frequency response up to 10 kHz for ratio error and up to 5 kHz for phase displacement error. The metal shielding improves its immunity against electric and magnetic fields. The characterization performed on the built-in voltage sensor shows an accuracy class of 0.2 for a frequency range from 20 Hz to 5 kHz and a class of 0.5 for 1 Hz up to 20 Hz. A low temperature effect is also achieved for operation conditions of MV power grids.

  7. Determinants of Internet skills, use and outcomes : A systematic review of the second- and third-level digital divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerder, Anique; van Deursen, Alexander; van Dijk, Jan


    Recently, several digital divide scholars suggested that a shift is needed from a focus on binary Internet access (first-level digital divide) and Internet skills and use (second-level digital divide) to a third-level digital divide in which the tangible outcomes of Internet use are highlighted. A

  8. Preferred provider organizations. (United States)

    Davy, J D


    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bolshakov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Strengthening of fine concrete contact zone by mechanical processing of all components of the concrete mix in a mixer-activator and aggregate application with rough surface. Methodology. Rotary activator PC-06, developed by Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Technology, was used as a mixer-activator to achieve this purpose. Granulated blast furnace slag, having a more developed rough surface than sand, was used as fine aggregate. This apparatus provides intensive homogeneous mixing of concrete mix components, processing of raw materials (purification of their particles from contaminants, and mechanical destruction of granulated blast furnace slag surface layers and other components of the mix. Findings. During the preparation work, experimental research of new formations composition of fine concretes, using differential thermal and x-ray phase analysis methods, and physical-mechanical properties of fine concretes in accordance with the applicable standards of Ukraine, were carried out. It is established that the phase composition of new formations of fine concretes made from activated and non-activated mixes, is not changed. Their main difference is the size of generated effects and temperature intervals of occurrence of these peaks. Thus, in fine concretes made on the basis of the activated mixes, magnitude of effects is less, indicating a higher hydration degree of its components. Besides, TG curves of concrete specimens show that weight loss of gel calcium hydrosilicate of concrete from a mechanically activated mix is 0.5...0.7 % more than of concrete from a non-activated mix, which indicates a larger number of these formations in concrete from activated mixes. In general, concretes of different composition, made from a mix, processed in the mixer-activator, have higher mechanical strength. Originality. Ideas about the influence of mechanical activation of components of fine concrete mixes with forming humidity in a

  10. Cell fine structure and function - Past and present (United States)

    Fernandez-Moran, H.


    Electron microscopic studies of nerve membrane fine structure, discussing cell membrane multienzyme and macromolecular energy and information transduction, protein synthesis and nucleic acids interrelations

  11. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.


    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  12. Fine structure of charge exchange lines observed in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, K.; Nishimura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, K.


    The influence of the fine structure of charge exchange lines appears only at the plasma edge or in the recombining phase where the ion temperature is low enough. The observed spectra in Li III and C VI are consistent with the sum of fine-structure components populated by statistical weights (assuming complete l-mixing) not by direct charge exchange cross sections. Some discrepancy was observed in the intensity ratio of fine-structure components between the observation and calculation for C VI in the recombining phase. The fine-structure of charge exchange lines gives an apparent Doppler shift in plasma rotation velocity measurement using charge exchange spectroscopy. (author)

  13. Sweeping at the Martin boundary of a fine domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Kadiri, Mohamed; Fuglede, Bent


    We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical.......We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical....

  14. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  15. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels


    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  16. Cardiovascular changes in workers exposed to fine particulate dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Bortkiewicz


    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiological studies provide evidence that airborne particulate matter may contribute to the increased incidence and mortality rates due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Only some of them address the problem of occupational exposure to particulate air pollution. The aim of our study was to assess cardiovascular reaction and autonomic regulation in workers exposed to fine particles. Materials and Methods: All workers had medical examination, resting ECG with heart rate variability analysis (HRV, 24-h ECG, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM performed. The subjects were 20 male workers (mean age: 32.14.0 year of a ceramic ware factory exposed to the dust and 20 workers who were not exposed (mean age: 39.4±7.8 year. The period of employment under exposure amounted to 5.6±2.1 year. Dust exposure was measured using individual dosimeters. Results: The geometric mean total dust concentration was 44±1.5 mg/m3 and the FPD (fine particulate dust concentration amounted to 11.5±1.6 mg/m3. No abnormalities were noted in the resting ECG in both groups, in 24-h ECG 2 subjects, both from exposed and control groups, had ventricular heart rhythm and repolarization disturbances. Blood pressure in ABPM, both systolic as well as diastolic, was normal and did not differ between the groups. Resting heart rate in the exposed group was significantly lower (p = 0.038 than in the control group. In the exposed group STD R-R from short-term records was significantly higher (p = 0.01. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis showed that the low frequency power spectrum (LF did not differ in the exposed and the control group, while high frequency (HF was significantly higher in the exposed group. LF/HF ratio was significantly lower in the exposed in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Although we did not reveal significant abnormalities in ECG as well as in ABPM in the exposed group, it seems that neurovegetative disturbances

  17. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; John I. Blake; William T. Crolly


    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuel beds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for...

  18. Isolating dividing neural and brain tumour cells for gene expression profiling. (United States)

    Endaya, Berwini; Cavanagh, Brenton; Alowaidi, Faisal; Walker, Tom; de Pennington, Nicholas; Ng, Jin-Ming A; Lam, Paula Y P; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Neuzil, Jiri; Meedeniya, Adrian C B


    The characterisation of dividing brain cells is fundamental for studies ranging from developmental and stem cell biology, to brain cancers. Whilst there is extensive anatomical data on these dividing cells, limited gene transcription data is available due to technical constraints. We focally isolated dividing cells whilst conserving RNA, from culture, primary neural tissue and xenografted glioma tumours, using a thymidine analogue that enables gene transcription analysis. 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine labels the replicating DNA of dividing cells. Once labelled, cultured cells and tissues were dissociated, fluorescently tagged with a revised click chemistry technique and the dividing cells isolated using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. RNA was extracted and analysed using real time PCR. Proliferation and maturation related gene expression in neurogenic tissues was demonstrated in acutely and 3 day old labelled cells, respectively. An elevated expression of marker and pathway genes was demonstrated in the dividing cells of xenografted brain tumours, with the non-dividing cells showing relatively low levels of expression. BrdU "immune-labelling", the most frequently used protocol for detecting cell proliferation, causes complete denaturation of RNA, precluding gene transcription analysis. This EdU labelling technique, maintained cell integrity during dissociation, minimized copper exposure during labelling and used a cell isolation protocol that avoided cell lysis, thus conserving RNA. The technique conserves RNA, enabling the definition of cell proliferation-related changes in gene transcription of neural and pathological brain cells in cells harvested immediately after division, or following a period of maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What Controls Springtime Fine Dust Variability in the Western United States? Investigating the 2002-2015 Increase in Fine Dust in the U.S. Southwest (United States)

    Achakulwisut, Pattanun; Shen, Lu; Mickley, Loretta J.


    We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to investigate the role of meteorology in controlling the interannual variability of fine dust concentrations in the western United States during 2002-2015 March-May. We then develop a prediction model to explore the causes of an observed increase in fine dust concentrations during March in the Southwest. For each spring month, 54-61% of the total variance in fine dust anomalies can be explained by the first two leading EOF modes, which consist of a coherent pattern of covariability across the West and a dipole northwest-southwest pattern. We identify the key meteorological controlling factors to be regional precipitation, temperature, and soil moisture, which are in turn mostly driven by large-scale changes in sea surface temperature and/or atmospheric circulation patterns, including the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In addition, fluctuations in the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust likely contribute to fine dust variability in March and April. We find that March fine dust concentrations have increased from 2002 to 2015 in the Southwest (0.06 ± 0.04 μg m-3 a-1, p Multiple linear regression analysis suggests that these increases are associated with the following: (1) regionally drier and warmer conditions driven by constructive interference between ENSO and PDO, (2) soil moisture reductions in areas spanning the North American deserts, and (3) enhanced trans-Pacific transport. Our results provide an observational basis for improving dust emission schemes and for assessing future dust activity under climate change.

  20. GRB 060714: No Clear Dividing Line Between Prompt Emission and X-Ray Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimm, Hans A.; /NASA, Goddard /Universities Space Research Assoc.; Granot, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Marshal, F.; /NASA, Goddard; Perri, M.; /ASDC, Frascati; Barthelmy, S.D.; /NASA, Goddard; Burrows, D.N.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Meszaros, P.; Morris, D.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.


    The long gamma-ray burst GRB 060714 was observed to exhibit a series of five X-ray flares beginning {approx} 70 s after the burst trigger T{sub 0} and continuing until {approx} T{sub 0} + 200 s. The first two flares were detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift satellite, before Swift had slewed to the burst location, while the last three flares were strongly detected by the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) but only weakly detected by the BAT. This burst provides an unusual opportunity to track a complete sequence of flares over a wide energy range. The flares were very similar in their light curve morphology, showing power-law rise and fall components, and in most cases significant sub-structure. The flares also showed strong evolution with time, both spectrally and temporally. The small time scale and large amplitude variability observed are incompatible with an external shock origin for the flares, and support instead late time sporadic activity either of the central source or of localized dissipation events within the outflow. We show that the flares in GRB 060714 cannot be the result of internal shocks in which the contrast in the Lorentz factor of the colliding shells is very small, and that this mechanism faces serious difficulties in most Swift GRBs. The morphological similarity of the flares and the prompt emission and the gradual and continual evolution of the flares with time makes it difficult and arbitrary to draw a dividing line between the prompt emission and the flares.

  1. Fine mapping a self-fertility locus in perennial ryegrass. (United States)

    Do Canto, Javier; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula; Lübberstedt, Thomas


    A self-fertility locus was fine mapped to a 1.6 cM region on linkage group 5 in a perennial ryegrass population. This locus was the main determinant of pollen self-compatibility. In grasses, self-incompatibility (SI) is characterized by a two-loci gametophytic (S and Z) mechanism acting together in the recognition and inhibition of self-pollen. Mutations affecting the expression of SI have been reported in a few grass species. In perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), a mutation independent from S and Z, and mapping on linkage group 5 (LG 5), was previously reported to produce self-fertile plants. Here, we describe fine mapping of the self-fertility (SF) gene in a perennial ryegrass population and determine whether there is any effect of other genomic regions on the pollen compatibility. The phenotypic segregation of SF showed a bimodal distribution with one mean at 49% pollen compatibility and the other at 91%. Marker-trait association analysis showed that only markers on LG 5 were significantly associated with the trait. A single gene model explained 82% of the observed variability and no effects of the other regions were detected. Using segregation and linkage analysis, the SF locus was located to a 1.6 cM region on LG 5. The flanking marker sequences were aligned to rice and Brachypodium distachyon reference genomes to estimate the physical distance. We provide markers tightly linked to SF that can be used for introgression of this trait into advanced breeding germplasm. Moreover, our results represent a further step towards the identification of the SF gene in LG 5.

  2. Which tributaries disrupt downstream fining along gravel-bed rivers? (United States)

    Rice, Stephen


    Tributaries and other lateral sediment sources can have a significant impact on river bed sediment texture and, in turn, on channel form. Sufficiently voluminous or distinct sediment inputs redefine the mainstem grain-size distribution, punctuating downstream maturation and isolating a sequence of discrete sedimentary links. Within these links fining processes usually dominate, such that models of sorting and abrasion, when applied to individual links, provide reasonable predictions of grain-size change. Links represent the fundamental natural unit within which fining models can be tested, developed and applied. Identification of significant lateral sources is therefore important, yet, beyond vague references to relative tributary size, sediment load, and sediment calibre, no criteria exist for the a priori discrimination of such sources. In this paper a procedure for identifying significant lateral (tributary) sources, without the benefit of grain-size information, is outlined. A high-resolution characterisation of bed material texture along two Canadian gravel-bed rivers facilitated classification of all their perennial tributaries as either significant or insignificant. Three absolute tributary basin parameters and their relative counterparts, chosen to reflect the likely controls on tributary significance, are then used to develop a discriminant function which isolates a large proportion of significant tributaries while minimising incorrect classifications. Examination of consistently misclassified (anomalous) tributaries reveals the importance of lateral source spacing and of inconsistencies in the geomorphic history of the contributing basins. In turn, a general tributary categorisation procedure is suggested which includes a logistic regression model for attaching probability statements to individual classifications. The generality of the discriminant and logistic functions cannot be assessed because of the lack of other suitable data sets.

  3. Characteristics of Drainage Divide Migration through Coseismic and Storm-Triggered Landslides (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Li, G.


    Drainage basin reorganization is a fundamental but poorly understood process in landscape evolution. Capture and loss of drainage area by rivers redistributes erosive power and can drive the response of a landscape to tectonic/climatic forcing. Evidence of discrete capture of tributaries is widespread and common, but study of gradual migration of divides by hillslope processes (e.g. landsliding) has been minimal. Much scholarship is devoted to the geometric characteristics of rivers as they respond to tectonic forces, and divide migration has been proposed to result from contrasts in fluvial channel form. However, fluvial processes do not extend to basin divides, so fluvial controls on drainage reorganization should be mediated by hillslope processes such as slope failure. Here we explore whether the mediating role of hillslopes can be observed over the timescale of a single earthquake or major storm. We examine landslides in steep landscapes caused by three major events in the past decade: the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China, the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan, and the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal. These events generated landslides that cut off ridges, causing area gain and loss in the drainage basins outlined by those ridges. We compare the location of these ridge-cutting landslides to values of Χ, an integral value of upstream drainage area over the length of a river. Comparing the Χ values of rivers which share a drainage divide is thought to show which river is likely to gain area at the expense of the other as the divide migrates, defining an "aggressor" (smaller Χ at divide) and a "victim" (greater Χ). We compute Χ for the rivers draining ridge-cutting landslides and consider whether landslides favor drainage area gain in basins with lower X values. Our preliminary results suggest that divide migration in areas with small to moderate disparities in Χ appears to be stochastic, with divides frequently migrating in the opposite

  4. Clozapine administration in clinical practice: once-daily versus divided dosing. (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Powell, V; Geisler, S; DeSanti, M; Fervaha, G; Agid, O; Kane, J M; Remington, G


    While it is recommended that clozapine be administered in a divided dosing regimen, it is unclear whether this recommendation is followed in real-world clinical practice. In two large datasets, we examined clozapine dosing frequency and patient characteristics across different dosing regimens. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, collecting data on patients receiving clozapine in August/September 2015 from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Toronto, Canada, and The Zucker Hillside Hospital (ZHH) in New York, United States. Of 676 and 308 patients included in CAMH and ZHH datasets, clozapine was prescribed once daily in 75.1% and 74.4%, even though doses exceeding 200 mg/day were administered in 88.6% and 84.4% of the respective samples. No significant difference was found in the rates of positive symptom remission between once-daily vs. divided dosing (79.7% vs. 80.5%, P = 1.00). Higher clozapine dose and use of anticholinergic medications were significantly associated with divided dosing in both datasets. Older age or male gender was related to divided dosing in CAMH or ZHH dataset respectively. Despite the product monograph recommendation, clozapine is frequently prescribed once daily in North America. Further studies are needed to compare clinical outcomes between once-daily vs. divided clozapine dosing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The morbidity of a divided stoma compared to a loop colostomy in patients with anorectal malformation. (United States)

    Liechty, Shawn T; Barnhart, Douglas C; Huber, Jordan T; Zobell, Sarah; Rollins, Michael D


    Loop colostomies may contaminate the genitourinary (GU) tract in patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) owing to incomplete diversion of stool. Stoma complications are also thought to be higher with a loop versus divided colostomy. We sought to compare the morbidity, including urinary tract infections (UTI), in these two types of colostomies in children with ARM. A review was performed at a children's hospital (1989-2014). Children with ARM who had a colostomy performed were identified. Demographic data and outcome variables were collected. Analyses included Student's t-test, Fischer's exact and logistic regression as appropriate. 171 patients were identified (loop=78; divided=93). Thirty percent of patients with a divided colostomy and 24% with a loop experienced a stoma complication (p=0.5). A subgroup analysis of children with a rectourinary fistula (54 divided, 26 loop) was performed to assess for effect of colostomy type on UTI. After controlling for other UTI risk factors (major GU anomalies, vesicostomy, and prophylactic antibiotics), loop ostomies were not associated with risk of UTI (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.27-2.63). No patient with a loop colostomy developed megarectum. Children with ARM who undergo a loop colostomy are not at a detectable increased risk of experiencing a UTI compared to a divided stoma. The rate of stoma complication is high regardless of the type of stoma created. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider (United States)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.


    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Swanekamp et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)]. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2) with the injected beam current given by Ib = I1 + I2. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total force on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I2-I1) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to Ib. Independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate current-divider geometry. The root-mean-square (RMS) beam emittance (ɛRMS) varies as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. For applications where control of the beam trajectory is desired and the current density at the target is similar to the current density at the entrance foil, there is a modest 20% increase in ɛRMS at the target. For other applications where the beam is pinched to a current density ˜5 times larger at the target, ɛRMS is 2-3 times larger at the target.

  7. Knowledge Reduction Based on Divide and Conquer Method in Rough Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu


    Full Text Available The divide and conquer method is a typical granular computing method using multiple levels of abstraction and granulations. So far, although some achievements based on divided and conquer method in the rough set theory have been acquired, the systematic methods for knowledge reduction based on divide and conquer method are still absent. In this paper, the knowledge reduction approaches based on divide and conquer method, under equivalence relation and under tolerance relation, are presented, respectively. After that, a systematic approach, named as the abstract process for knowledge reduction based on divide and conquer method in rough set theory, is proposed. Based on the presented approach, two algorithms for knowledge reduction, including an algorithm for attribute reduction and an algorithm for attribute value reduction, are presented. Some experimental evaluations are done to test the methods on uci data sets and KDDCUP99 data sets. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed approaches are efficient to process large data sets with good recognition rate, compared with KNN, SVM, C4.5, Naive Bayes, and CART.

  8. The Third Force in Folklore Studies: Gary Alan Fine's Sociological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to offer a critical overview of the theoretical and methodological contribution of micro-sociologist and social psychologist Gary Alan Fine to folklore studies. It begins with a discussion of both the major and most questioned points of his methodology, continues with a consideration of the wider folkloristical framework of his interpretation, and ends with a suggestion for innovation and improvement of Fine's analytical framework for the interpretation of folk narratives. Gary Alan Fine's most significant contribution to folklore studies was research of rumours and urban legends, including their meaning, function, and influence on individual behavior. In a series of papers, apart from offering an interpretation of various urban and corporate legends, he also demonstrated methods and means of connecting social and cultural factors with narrative content, in the context of social and economic structures and relations in post-industrial and late-capitalist global societies. Of special interest are papers in which he analyzes folklore as expressive culture and a form of symbolic communication between small groups, as an important form of selfidentification and behavior strategies both from within and without of the group. Fine makes a point when he diagnoses a lack of analyses of this sort in American folklore studies, wishing there were enough to make a significant turn in contemporary folkloristics. This is why Fine named his new research strategy the "third force". Another dimension of his contribution is the further elaboration of the analytical framework that relies on socio-structural, socio-psychological, symbolical and economical parameters of explanation. For that purpose, he constructed a theoretical and methodogical model called the folklore diamond. With his suggestions and critique of the existing state of folklore studies, Gary Alan Fine provided a very significant contribution to the science of folklore in general.

  9. Constraining fine tuning in composite Higgs models with partially composite leptons (United States)

    Barnard, James; Murnane, Daniel; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.


    Minimal Composite Higgs Models (MCHM) have long provided a solution to the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model, yet suffer from various sources of fine tuning that are becoming increasingly problematic with the lack of new physics observations at the LHC. We develop a new fine tuning measure that accurately counts each contribution to fine tuning (single, double, triple, etc) that can occur in a theory with n p parameters, that must reproduce n o observables. We then use a novel scanning procedure to perform a comprehensive study of three different two-site, 4D, SO(5) → SO(4) MCHMs with all third generation fermions included, distinguished by the choice of the lepton embeddings. These are the MCHM 5 - 5 - 5 5 - 5 - 5 , MCHM 14 - 14 - 10 5 - 5 - 5 and MCHM 14 - 1 - 10 5 - 5 - 5 , where MCHM l - τ - ν q - t - b has the lepton doublet partner in representation l, tau partner in representation τ, and so on. We find that embedding at least one massive lepton in the symmetric 14 of SO(5) moderately reduces the tuning for the case of low top partner masses (in line with previous results), but that this is balanced against the increased complexity of the model when one properly accounts for all sources of fine tuning. We study both the current relative fine-tuning of each scenario, and the future prospects. Noting that the different scenarios behave differently with respect to future improvements in collider measurements, we find that the MCHM 14 - 1 - 10 5 - 5 - 5 enjoys a relatively low increase in fine tuning even for a future lower bound on the top partner masses of 3.4 TeV (or equivalently a maximum Higgs-fermion or Higgs-gluon coupling deviation of 2%).

  10. Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from the burning of five common types of biomass. (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Liwei; Xu, Wenxue; Zhang, Yating; Chen, Bing; Li, Weijun; Xue, Likun; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing


    Nitrated phenols are among the major constituents of brown carbon and affect both climates and ecosystems. However, emissions from biomass burning, which comprise one of the most important primary sources of atmospheric nitrated phenols, are not well understood. In this study, the concentrations and proportions of 10 nitrated phenols, including nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids, and dinitrophenol, in fine particles from biomass smoke were determined under three different burning conditions (flaming, weakly flaming, and smoldering) with five common types of biomass (leaves, branches, corncob, corn stalk, and wheat straw). The total abundances of fine nitrated phenols produced by biomass burning ranged from 2.0 to 99.5 μg m-3. The compositions of nitrated phenols varied with biomass types and burning conditions. 4-nitrocatechol and methyl nitrocatechols were generally most abundant, accounting for up to 88-95% of total nitrated phenols in flaming burning condition. The emission ratios of nitrated phenols to PM2.5 increased with the completeness of combustion and ranged from 7 to 45 ppmm and from 239 to 1081 ppmm for smoldering and flaming burning, respectively. The ratios of fine nitrated phenols to organic matter in biomass burning aerosols were comparable to or lower than those in ambient aerosols affected by biomass burning, indicating that secondary formation contributed to ambient levels of fine nitrated phenols. The emission factors of fine nitrated phenols from flaming biomass burning were estimated based on the measured mass fractions and the PM2.5 emission factors from literature and were approximately 0.75-11.1 mg kg-1. According to calculations based on corn and wheat production in 31 Chinese provinces in 2013, the total estimated emission of fine nitrated phenols from the burning of corncobs, corn stalks, and wheat straw was 670 t. This work highlights the apparent emission of methyl nitrocatechols from biomass burning and provides

  11. Developing a biomonitoring tool for fine sediment (United States)

    Turley, Matt; Bilotta, Gary; Brazier, Richard; Extence, Chris


    Sediment is an essential component of freshwater ecosystems; however anthropogenic activities can lead to elevated sediment delivery which can impact on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of these ecosystems. Ultimately, this can result in a loss of ecosystem services worth more than 1.7 trillion per annum. As such it is important that sediment, which is one of the most commonly attributed causes of water quality impairment globally, is managed in order to minimise these impacts. The current EU environmental quality standard for sediment (monitored in the form of suspended solids) is 25 mg L-1 for all environments. It is widely recognised that this standard is unsuitable and not ecologically relevant. Furthermore, it requires a substantial resource investment to monitor sediment in this form as part of national and international water resource legislation. In recognition of this the development of sediment-specific biomonitoring tools is receiving increasing attention. The Proportion of Sediment-Sensitive Invertebrates (PSI) index is one such tool that is designed to indicate levels of fine sediment (

  12. Interactions between Fine Wood Decomposition and Flammability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhao


    Full Text Available Fire is nearly ubiquitous in the terrestrial biosphere, with profound effects on earth surface carbon storage, climate, and forest functions. Fuel quality is an important parameter determining forest fire behavior, which differs among both tree species and organs. Fuel quality is not static: when dead plant material decomposes, its structural, chemical, and water dynamic properties change, with implications for fuel flammability. However, the interactions between decomposition and flammability are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine decomposition’s effects on fuel quality and how this directly and indirectly affects wood flammability. We did controlled experiments on water dynamics and fire using twigs of four temperate tree species. We found considerable direct and indirect effects of decomposition on twig flammability, particularly on ignitability and burning time, which are important variables for fire spread. More decomposed twigs ignite and burn faster at given water content. Moreover, decomposed twigs dry out faster than fresh twigs, which make them flammable sooner when drying out after rain. Decomposed fine woody litters may promote horizontal fire spread as ground fuels and act as a fuel ladder when staying attached to trees. Our results add an important, previously poorly studied dynamic to our understanding of forest fire spread.

  13. Bandwidth requirements for fine resolution squinted SAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conventional rule-of-thumb for Synthetic Aperture Radar is that an RF bandwidth of c/(2{rho}{sub r}) is required to image a scene at the desired slant-range resolution {rho}{sub r}, and perhaps a little more to account for window functions and sidelobe control. This formulation is based on the notion that the total bandwidth required is the same bandwidth that is required for a single pulse. What is neglected is that efficient processing of an entire synthetic aperture of pulses will often require different frequency content for each of the different pulses that makeup a synthetic aperture. Consequently, the total RF bandwidth required of a Synthetic Aperture Radar may then be substantially wider than the bandwidth of any single pulse. The actual RF bandwidth required depends strongly on flight geometry, owing to the desire for a radar to maintain a constant projection of the Fourier space collection surface onto the {omega}{sub y} axis. Long apertures required for fine azimuth resolution, and severe squint angles with steep depression angles may require total RF bandwidths well beyond the minimum bandwidth required of any single transmitted pulse, perhaps even by a factor of two or more. Accounting for this is crucial to designing efficient versatile high-performance imaging radars. This paper addresses how a data set conducive to efficient processing might increase the total RF bandwidth, and presents examples of how a fixed RF bandwidth might then limit SAR geometries.

  14. Cosmological constant, fine structure constant and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hao; Zou, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze [Beijing Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China)


    In the present work, we consider the cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α{sup -6}, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the hint of varying fine structure constant α was found in 1998. If Λ ∝ α{sup -6} is right, it means that the cosmological constant Λ should also be varying. Here, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant Λ ∝ α{sup -6}, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. Then we consider the observational constraints on these models by using the 293 Δα/α data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the very narrow ranges of O(10{sup -5}) typically. On the other hand, we can also view the varying cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α{sup -6} from another perspective, namely it can be equivalent to a model containing ''dark energy'' and ''warm dark matter'', but there is no interaction between them. We find that this is also fully consistent with the observational constraints on warm dark matter. (orig.)

  15. The fine art of ‘sourcery’

    CERN Multimedia


    The commissioning of the new Linac4 source – first element of the new acceleration chain for the upgrade of the LHC (sLHC) – started at the beginning of July. After years of preparation but after only a few hours of fine-tuning of the numerous parameters involved, the source has delivered its first negative ions. The civil engineering work for the new Linac4 going on near Restaurant 2.While the LHC is preparing for restart, teams of experts involved in the sLHC project are also working on the new facilities that will allow the LHC to run at higher luminosity. The beginning of the new chain of accelerators is Linac4, whose excavation works started October last year. "The particle source that we are commissioning now will be installed at the beginning of the path", explains Maurizio Vretenar, Linac4 project leader. "It is a critical element of the chain as all protons that will circulate in the CERN accelerators will originate from it." The Linac 4 source is differ...

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS


    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  17. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen


    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  18. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hao; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze


    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. We propose two types of models to describe the evolutions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\alpha$. Then, we consider the observational constraints on these models, by using the 293 $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars, and the data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the narrow ranges of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$ t...

  19. Actomyosin-generated tension on cadherin is similar between dividing and non-dividing epithelial cells in early Xenopus laevis embryos (United States)

    Herbomel, Gaëtan; Hatte, Guillaume; Roul, Julien; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Tassan, Jean-Pierre; Tramier, Marc


    Epithelia represent a unique situation where polarized cells must maintain sufficiently strong cell-cell contacts to guarantee the epithelial integrity indispensable for barrier functions. Nevertheless, epithelia must also keep sufficient plasticity which is crucial during development and morphogenesis. Adherens junctions and mechanical forces produced by the actomyosin cytoskeleton are major players for epithelial integrity maintenance and plasticity regulations. To understand how the epithelium is able to meet such a challenge, it is indispensable to determine how cellular junctions and mechanical forces acting at adherens junctions are regulated. Here, we investigate the tensile forces acting on adherens junctions via cadherin during cell division in the Xenopus embryos epithelium. Using the recently developed E-cadherin FRET tension sensor and a fastFLIM prototype microscope, we were able to measure mechanical forces applied on cadherin at cell-cell junctions. We have shown that the Xenopus epithelium is under tension, approximately 3 pN which remains stable, indicating that tensile forces acting on cadherin at the adherens junction are at equilibrium. Unexpectedly, mechanical tension across cadherin was similar between dividing and non-dividing epithelial cells. PMID:28327558

  20. Shrinkage and swelling properties of flocculated mature fine tailings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Vardon, P.J.


    In the atmospheric fines drying technique, mature fine tailings (MFT) are treated with polymers and deposited in thin layers on a sloped surface for sub-aerial drying. During the whole drying period, the tailings deposits can experience rewetting during periods of rainy weather or as result of the

  1. RSW Mixed Element Cell-Centered Fine Mesh (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a RSW mixed-element unstructured fine mesh for cell-centered solvers. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_fine_mixedcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad Surface Faces= 28968 UG3 :...

  2. Production and reproduction norms of fine woolled Merino sheep on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish a fine woolled Merino flock at the Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute in order to evaluate the production and reproduction performance of fine woolled animals against a control line on natural pastures in the Karoo. Data collected from 1989 to 1999 were used to ...

  3. Hydrological modelling of fine sediments in the Odzi River, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, since the empirical model was dependent on monitored runoff and fine sediment concentrations for calibration purposes, a field measurement campaign was conducted to assess the accuracy of observed data at the station studied. The field measurements showed large errors in monitored runoff and fine ...

  4. A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant. J P MBELEK. Service d'Astrophysique, C.E. Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. Abstract. The cosmological variation of the fine structure constant « is explored from an effective theory, under the form of an improved version of the 5D Kaluza-Klein theory.

  5. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities (United States)

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.


    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  6. The Pluri-Fine Topology is Locally Connected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marzguioui, S.; Wiegerinck, J.J.O.O.


    Abstract We prove that the pluri-fine topology on any open set $\\Omega$ in $\\mathbb{C}^{n}$ is locally connected. This answers a question by Fuglede. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) 32U15 - 31C40 Key words Pluri-fine topology - plurisubharmonic functions

  7. 49 CFR 107.336 - Limitation on fines and penalties. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on fines and penalties. 107.336 Section 107.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Criminal Penalties § 107.336 Limitation on fines and penalties. If...

  8. Performance of concrete with partial replacement of fine aggregates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aggregate, both fine and coarse are major components of concrete. The cost of these aggregates is on the increase. There is also a serious environmental concern for the disposal of waste glass world-wide. These factors are major thrusts of this study- the investigation of crushed waste glass as partial replacement of fine ...

  9. Fine root architecture of nine North American trees (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; Jared L. DeForest; Andrew J. Burton; Michael F. Allen; Roger W. Ruess; Ronald L. Hendrick


    The fine roots of trees are concentrated on lateral branches that arise from perennial roots. They are important in the acquisition of water and essential nutrients, and at the ecosystem level, they make a significant contribution to biogeochemical cycling. Fine roots have often been studied according to arbitrary size classes, e.g., all roots less than 1 or 2 mm in...

  10. effect of fines content on the engineering properties of reconstituted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 3, 2012 ... soils to be used as a highway material was investi- gated [12 - 14] but not much work has been done on the effect of fines on reconstituted lateritic soils for use as hydraulic barriers in waste containment sys- tems. Hence, this study was aimed at the evaluation of the effect of fines content on the engineering ...

  11. The Careers of Fine Artists and the Embedded Creative (United States)

    Carey, Charlotte


    While there is a growing body of scholarship on the creative industries and on the career trajectories of graduates from creative industries programmes, there has to date only been a limited amount of research that examines in detail, the careers of fine arts graduates. Fine art is arguably the least "vocational" of creative disciplines,…

  12. InAs Band-Edge Exciton Fine Structure (United States)


    modulated by the excitation rate of the nanocrystals, fine-structure broadening is fundamental to the photophysics of nanocrystals and most likely... CdTe ) exhibited the same effective band-edge fine structure, with similar acoustic phonon energies. These extracted relaxation rates are consistent


    Nasal efficiency for removing fine particles may be affected by developmental changes in nasal structure associated with age. In healthy Caucasian children (age 6-13, n=17) and adults (age 18-28, n=11) we measured the fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (1 and 2um MMAD)...

  14. performance of concrete with partial replacement of fine aggregates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    reactive aggregate particle. Adaway and Wang [6] carried out a study on Recycled glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in structural concrete- Effects on compressive strength. They concluded that compressive strength increased up to a level of 30% replacement of fine aggregate with WG, at which point strength.

  15. Production and reproduction norms of fine woolled Merino sheep on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem J Olivier

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to establish a fine woolled Merino flock at the Grootfontein. Agricultural Development Institute in order to evaluate the production and reproduction performance of fine woolled animals against a control line on natural pastures in the Karoo. Data collected from 1989 to 1999 were used ...

  16. Kinematic Identification of Parallel Mechanisms by a Divide and Conquer Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durango, Sebastian; Restrepo, David; Ruiz, Oscar


    using the inverse calibration method. The identification poses are selected optimizing the observability of the kinematic parameters from a Jacobian identification matrix. With respect to traditional identification methods the main advantages of the proposed Divide and Conquer kinematic identification...... strategy are: (i) reduction of the kinematic identification computational costs, (ii) improvement of the numerical efficiency of the kinematic identification algorithm and, (iii) improvement of the kinematic identification results. The contributions of the paper are: (i) The formalization of the inverse......This paper presents a Divide and Conquer strategy to estimate the kinematic parameters of parallel symmetrical mechanisms. The Divide and Conquer kinematic identification is designed and performed independently for each leg of the mechanism. The estimation of the kinematic parameters is performed...

  17. The effect of divided attention on memory for items and their context. (United States)

    Troyer, A K; Craik, F I


    Memory for context, in comparison to memory for items, is a more demanding task and requires more attentional resources. We examined differences between item and context memory using divided attention at encoding and retrieval. Participants were presented with word lists and were instructed to learn the items (i.e., words), the intrinsic context (i.e., the colour of the cards on which each word was presented), and the extrinsic context (i.e., the temporal order of the words). Among 72 young adults, in comparison to conditions of full attention, divided attention applied at encoding only or retrieval only resulted in equally lower performance on all memory tasks; in contrast, divided attention applied at both encoding and retrieval resulted in lower performance only on memory for temporal order. The findings support the idea that memory for temporal order requires greater attentional resources and strategic processing than memory for items.

  18. Effects of complex terrain on atmospheric flow: dividing streamline observations and quantification (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Fernando, Harindra; di Sabatino, Silvana; Leo, Laura; University of Notre Dame Team


    As part of the MATERHORN field campaign on atmospheric flow in mountainous terrain, the dividing streamline concept for stratified flow over obstacles was investigated using smoke flow visualization and meteorological measurements. At small Froude numbers (Fr tower, while onsite measurements were taken with portable weather stations. Sufficiently strong stratification was developed around 3:00AM GMT, with Froude numbers in the range for dividing streamlines to exist. In the first trial, suitably placed red smoke releases were used and in another trial white smoke was released from a 25 m crane. In both cases well-defined dividing streamlines were observed and its vertical location was at a height about half of the mountain height, which is consistent with theoretical results based on Shepard's formula. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) grant number N00014-11-1-0709.

  19. Enhancement of AC high voltage measurements’ uncertainty using a high voltage divider calibration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Rifaie Ali M.


    Full Text Available This paper discusses enhancing of the measurements’ uncertainty for AC high voltage up to 100 kV. This is achieved by using a high voltage divider calibration method. Voltage measurements have been carried out at the Egyptian national institute for standards (NIS, using a high voltage measuring system (Phenix-KVM100, that consists of a high voltage divider and a voltage display. The voltage divider and display have been calibrated in low and high voltage ranges. Reference standard digital voltmeter and a multifunction calibrator have been used to calibrate the KVM100 for achieving accurate and traceable results. All calibrations have been performed automatically using Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW programs specially designed for this task. Uncertainty budget has been evaluated to get the measurements’ expanded uncertainties.

  20. Are divided attention tasks useful in the assessment and management of sport-related concussion? (United States)

    Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Littleton, Ashley C; Guskiewicz, Kevin M


    This article is a systematic review of the literature on divided attention assessment inclusive of a cognitive and motor task (balance or gait) for use in concussion management. The systematic review drew from published papers listed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases. The search identified 19 empirical research papers meeting the inclusion criteria. Study results were considered for the psychometric properties of the paradigms, the influence of divided attention on measures of cognition and postural control and the comparison of divided attention task outcomes between individuals with concussion and healthy controls (all samples were age 17 years or older). The review highlights that the reliability of the tasks under a divided attention paradigm presented ranges from low to high (ICC: 0.1-0.9); however, only 3/19 articles included psychometric information. Response times are greater, gait strategies are less efficient, and postural control deficits are greater in concussed participants compared with healthy controls both immediately and for some period following concussive injury, specifically under divided attention conditions. Dual task assessments in some cases were more reliable than single task assessments and may be better able to detect lingering effects following concussion. Few of the studies have been replicated and applied across various age groups. A key limitation of these studies is that many include laboratory and time-intensive measures. Future research is needed to refine a time and cost efficient divided attention assessment paradigm, and more work is needed in younger (pre-teens) populations where the application may be of greatest utility.

  1. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka


    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  2. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads (United States)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.


    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  3. A 21 000-year record of fluorescent organic matter markers in the WAIS Divide ice core (United States)

    D'Andrilli, Juliana; Foreman, Christine M.; Sigl, Michael; Priscu, John C.; McConnell, Joseph R.


    Englacial ice contains a significant reservoir of organic material (OM), preserving a chronological record of materials from Earth's past. Here, we investigate if OM composition surveys in ice core research can provide paleoecological information on the dynamic nature of our Earth through time. Temporal trends in OM composition from the early Holocene extending back to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WD) ice core were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Multivariate parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis is widely used to isolate the chemical components that best describe the observed variation across three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation-emission matrices; EEMs) assays. Fluorescent OM markers identified by PARAFAC modeling of the EEMs from the LGM (27.0-18.0 kyr BP; before present 1950) through the last deglaciation (LD; 18.0-11.5 kyr BP), to the mid-Holocene (11.5-6.0 kyr BP) provided evidence of different types of fluorescent OM composition and origin in the WD ice core over 21.0 kyr. Low excitation-emission wavelength fluorescent PARAFAC component one (C1), associated with chemical species similar to simple lignin phenols was the greatest contributor throughout the ice core, suggesting a strong signature of terrestrial OM in all climate periods. The component two (C2) OM marker, encompassed distinct variability in the ice core describing chemical species similar to tannin- and phenylalanine-like material. Component three (C3), associated with humic-like terrestrial material further resistant to biodegradation, was only characteristic of the Holocene, suggesting that more complex organic polymers such as lignins or tannins may be an ecological marker of warmer climates. We suggest that fluorescent OM markers observed during the LGM were the result of greater continental dust loading of lignin precursor (monolignol) material in a drier climate, with lower marine influences when sea ice extent was higher and

  4. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong


    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil "electrical sensitivity." Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems. © ASCE.

  5. Fines classification based on sensitivity to pore-fluid chemistry (United States)

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, J. Carlos


    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil “electrical sensitivity.” Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems.

  6. Magneto-optical photonic crystal 1 × 3 switchable power divider (United States)

    Esmaieli, Ali; Ghayour, Rahim


    Optical power splitter is an important building element in the photonic systems. Here, a 1 × 3 power divider using magneto-optical photonic crystal is proposed. The mechanism of operation is based on spatial field distribution, the mode matching of the fields and the effect of gyrotropy. It has a wide branching angle and the input power can either be switched completely to one of the output ports or divided equally between the three output ports by using an external magneto-static bias signal. A very good power transmission between the input and the output ports is observed.

  7. Provider of Services File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  8. The Provident Principal. (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  9. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  10. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  11. Bridging the Digital Divide Creating Digital Dividend - The Investigation in Guizhou Province and the Analysis of GZNW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbo Jing


    Full Text Available This article begins with attention to the digital divide. It gives a brief overview of the digital divide on a global basis and analyzes specific aspects of the digital divide in our country. It also introduces the informationization construction of Guizhou Province and points out problems with the digital divide in that province. Then it focuses on the practice of Guizhou Province to bridge the digital divide ---- the practice and experience of GZNW. The final section gives a series of policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide, realize digital dividends, and how to build a new socialist countryside.

  12. Internet Medline providers. (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R


    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  13. Stored carbon partly fuels fine-root respiration but is not used for production of new fine roots. (United States)

    Lynch, Douglas J; Matamala, Roser; Iversen, Colleen M; Norby, Richard J; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A


    The relative use of new photosynthate compared to stored carbon (C) for the production and maintenance of fine roots, and the rate of C turnover in heterogeneous fine-root populations, are poorly understood. We followed the relaxation of a (13)C tracer in fine roots in a Liquidambar styraciflua plantation at the conclusion of a free-air CO(2) enrichment experiment. Goals included quantifying the relative fractions of new photosynthate vs stored C used in root growth and root respiration, as well as the turnover rate of fine-root C fixed during [CO(2)] fumigation. New fine-root growth was largely from recent photosynthate, while nearly one-quarter of respired C was from a storage pool. Changes in the isotopic composition of the fine-root population over two full growing seasons indicated heterogeneous C pools; 2 yr. Compared to a one-pool model, a two-pool model for C turnover in fine roots (with 5 and 0.37 yr(-1) turnover times) doubles the fine-root contribution to forest NPP (9-13%) and supports the 50% root-to-soil transfer rate often used in models. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Stored carbon partly fuels fine-root respiration but is not used for production of new fine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Douglas J [ORNL; Matamala-Paradeda, Roser [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Gonzalez-Meler, Miguel A [ORNL


    The relative use of new photosynthate compared to stored C for the production and maintenance of fine roots, and the rate of C turnover in heterogeneous fine-root populations, are poorly understood. We followed the relaxation of a 13C tracer in fine roots in a Liquidambar styraciflua plantation at the conclusion of a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment. Goals included quantifying the relative fractions of new photosynthate versus stored C used in root growth and root respiration, as well as the turnover rate of fine-root C fixed during [CO2] fumigation. New fine-root growth was largely from recent photosynthate, while nearly one-quarter of respired C was from a storage pool. Changes in the isotopic composition of the fine-root population over two full growing seasons indicated heterogeneous C pools; less than 10% of root C had a residence time < 3 months, while a majority of root C had a residence time > 2 years. Compared to a 1-pool model, a 2-pool model for C turnover in fine roots (with 5 and 0.37 yr-1 turnover times) doubles the fine-root contribution to forest NPP (9-13%) and supports the 50% root-to-soil transfer rate often used in models.

  15. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  16. EDITORIAL: Cluster issue on fine particle magnetism (United States)

    Fiorani, D.


    This Cluster issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics arises from the 6th International Conference on Fine Particle Magnetism (ICFPM) held in Rome during 9-12 October 2007 at the headquarters of the National Research Council (NCR). It contains a collection of papers based on both invited and contributed presentations at the meeting. The ICFPM Conferences have previously been held in Rome, Italy (1991), Bangor, UK (1996), Barcelona, Spain (1999), Pittsburgh, USA (2002) and London, UK (2004). The aim of this series of Conferences is to bring together the experts in the field of nanoparticle magnetism at a single forum to discuss recent developments in both theoretical and experimental aspects, and technological applications. The Conference programme included sessions on: new materials, novel synthesis and processing techniques, with special emphasis on self-organized magnetic arrays; theory and modelling; surface and interface properties; transport properties; spin dynamics; magnetization reversal mechanisms; magnetic recording media and permanent magnets; biomedical applications and advanced investigation techniques. I would like to thank the European Physical Society and the Innovative Magnetic and Superconducting Materials and Devices Project of the Materials and Devices Department and the Institute of Structure of Matter (ISM) of CNR for their support. Thanks are also due to the members of the Programme Committee, to the local Organizing Committee, chaired by Elisabetta Agostinelli and to all the Conference participants. I am also indebted to the many scientists who contributed to assuring the high-quality of this Cluster by donating their time to reviewing the manuscripts contained herein. Finally, I'd like to dedicate this issue to the memories of Jean Louis Dormann, a great expert in nanoparticle magnetism, who was one of the promoters and first organizers of this series of Conferences, and of Grazia Ianni, the Conference secretary, who died before her

  17. The third level digital divide: who benefits most from being online?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Helsper, Ellen J.; Robinson, Laura; Cotten, Shelia R.; Schulz, Jeremy


    Purpose Research into the explanations of digital inclusion has moved from investigations of skills and usage to tangible outcomes, what we label here as the third-level digital divide. There is a lack of theoretical development about which types of people are most likely to benefit. Understanding

  18. The leisure divide: Can the 'Third World' come out to play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)


    textabstractAs billions of dollars are invested in mitigating the digital divide, stakes are raised to gain validity for these cost-intensive endeavors, focusing more on online activities that have clear socio-economic outcomes. Hence, farmers in rural India are watched closely to see how they

  19. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2017 July Through October (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.


    Lightcurves for 17 main-belt asteroids were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2017 July through October. All but two of the asteroids were targets of opportunity, i.e., in the field of planned targets, demonstrating a good reason for data mining images.

  20. Digital divide across borders: A cross-national study of adolescents use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.


    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents access and use of

  1. Digital divide across borders : A cross-national study of adolescents’ use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Valkenburg, P.M.


    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents’ access and use of

  2. Understanding Information Inequality: Making Sense of the Literature of the Information and Digital Divides (United States)

    Yu, Liangzhi


    This paper reviews related research since the early 1990s on the information and digital divides. It shows that, despite their shared concerns with illustrating social inequality through the lens of information resource distribution, the two areas in effect represent two overlapping research communities. The research focus and discourse of the…

  3. Narrowing the Digital Divide: "Head Start Teachers Develop Proficiency in Computer Technology" (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; Price, Valerie


    The Digital Divide originates with inequalities in children's access to computers. It is deepened by disparities in teacher readiness to use computers for educational purposes. This article describes a computer training program designed to help Head Start teachers develop attitudes, skills, and practices that maximize the educational benefits…

  4. Social Justice Leadership in Multicultural Schools: The Case of an Ethnically Divided Society (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Iasonos, Sotiroula


    This paper reports on the results of an exploratory study focusing on the perceptions of elementary school principals who espouse a critical multicultural approach and show signs of a social justice leadership style. The study has taken place in an ethnically divided society (Cyprus) in which the political situation seems to influence the ways in…

  5. Toward a Multifaceted Model of Internet Access for Understanding Digital Divides: An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.


    In this investigation, a multifaceted model of Internet appropriation that encompasses four types of access—motivational, material, skills, and usage—is tested with a representative sample of the Dutch population. The analysis indicates that while the digital divide policies' focus has moved to

  6. Balancing Cultural Diversity and Social Cohesion in Education: The Potential of Shared Education in Divided Contexts (United States)

    Loader, Rebecca; Hughes, Joanne


    This article considers how the education systems of divided societies have been shaped in response to the experience of ethnic and religious conflict. The analysis identifies two competing priorities in such contexts--the development of social cohesion and the protection of cultural, ethnic and religious identities--and explores how these may be…

  7. Building Bridging Social Capital in a Divided Society: The Role of Participatory Citizenship Education (United States)

    McMurray, Alan; Niens, Ulrike


    Participatory citizenship education has been highlighted as a strategy to promote social cohesion in divided societies whereby collaborations with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and inter-school links have been proposed as tools to improve social networks between schools and communities. This article explores the role and meaning of…

  8. Gender Divide and Acceptance of Collaborative Web 2.0 Applications for Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hao David; Hood, Denice Ward; Yoo, Sun Joo


    Situated in the gender digital divide framework, this survey study investigated the role of computer anxiety in influencing female college students' perceptions toward Web 2.0 applications for learning. Based on 432 college students' "Web 2.0 for learning" perception ratings collected by relevant categories of "Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use…

  9. Digital Divide in Sub Saharan Africa: Implications for E-governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the digital dividends envisaged is e-governance that would enhance citizens' engagement with their governments, service delivery, transparency, accountability, prudent management of public resources, and overall good governance. It is also expected that by bridging the digital divide, e-government will flourish to ...

  10. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management... (United States)


    ... Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement...

  11. Analysing the role of ICT in bridging the digital divide amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    was done at four schools and one adult education centre in South Africa regarding their access to ICT. The results are used to indicate how and why ICT can be used in South Africa to overcome the digital divide that currently exists between resource-deprived and resource-advantaged learners. In addition, we examine the ...

  12. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)


    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  13. Closing the Digital Divide: Education Telecommunications Systems and Possibilities in Western Australia (United States)

    Trinidad, Sue


    The research reported in this paper considers the current telecommunications network for the three education systems of state, independent and catholic schools in Western Australia as well as drawing on the personal experiences of teachers in these systems as the government attempts to close the digital divide with its Networking the Nation…

  14. Step Up & Lead for Equity: What Higher Education Can Do to Reverse Our Deepening Divides (United States)

    Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2015


    "Step Up & Lead Equity: What Higher Education Can Do to Reverse Our Deepening Divides" makes the case that America's persistent gaps in education, income, and wealth are widening, with the fastest growing segments of our population the least likely to have the opportunities they need to succeed. It argues that, to effectively educate…

  15. Across the Great Divide: The Effects of Technology in Secondary Biology Classrooms (United States)

    Worley, Johnny Howard, II


    This study investigates the relationship between technology use and student achievement in public high school across North Carolina. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in technology utilization based on student demographics of race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and municipality) exists among…

  16. Divided Identity: Part-Time Faculty in Public Colleges and Universities (United States)

    Levin, John S.; Montero Hernandez, Virginia


    This article addresses the identity claims of part-time faculty at three types of higher education institutions. Using culture theory and professional identity theory, the article documents that part-time faculty members across institutions have a divided sense of identity. On the one hand, they perceive themselves as professionals based on their…

  17. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie


    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this article conceptualizes the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality--the household registration system ("hukou") assigns people to a hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution and diverse…

  18. Investigation about decoupling capacitors of PMT voltage divider effects on neutron-gamma discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divani, Nazila, E-mail:; Firoozabadi, Mohammad M. [Dep. Of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayat, Esmail [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Scintillators are almost used in any nuclear laboratory. These detectors combine of scintillation materials, PMT and a voltage divider. Voltage dividers are different in resistive ladder design. But the effect of decoupling capacitors and damping resistors haven’t discussed yet. In this paper at first a good equilibrium circuit designed for PMT, and it was used for investigating about capacitors and resistors in much manner. Results show that decoupling capacitors have great effect on PMT output pulses. In this research, it was tried to investigate the effect of Capacitor’s value and places on PMT voltage divider in Neutron-Gamma discrimination capability. Therefore, the voltage divider circuit for R329-02 Hamamatsu PMT was made and Zero Cross method used for neutron-gamma discrimination. The neutron source was a 20Ci Am-Be. Anode and Dynode pulses and discrimination spectrum were saved. The results showed that the pulse height and discrimination quality change with the value and setting of capacitors.

  19. Spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches in software-defined elastic optical networks (United States)

    Chen, Bowen; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli


    Recently, the architecture of elastic optical network (EON) has been proposed as a candidate solution to accommodate both huge bandwidth requirements and flexible connections in next generation optical networks. In order to improve the spectrum efficiency, we propose different spectrum-space-divided approaches and develop two integer linear programming (ILP) models and several spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection in software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs). Simulation results show that the ILP models achieve better performance in terms of the number of frequency slots and hop counts than the proposed spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection under the static scenario of connection requests. Furthermore, we apply the spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection to reduce the blocking probability and to improve spectrum efficiency under the dynamic connection requests compared to the traditional first-fit spectrum allocation approach in SD-EONs.

  20. Are We Addressing the Digital Divide? Issues, Access, and Real Commitment (United States)

    DiBello, Lilia C.


    The term "digital divide" emerged in the mid-1990s (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004) to describe "the gap between those who have "ever" and those who have "never" used a computer or the Internet" (p. 1). In time, this term has evolved, and become even more relevant, as more school sites, libraries, and public places gain access to the Internet. The…