WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing finely divided

  1. Finely divided, irradiated tetrafluorethylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; Rodway, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Dry non-sticky fine lubricant powders are made by γ-irradiation of unsintered coagulated dispersion grade tetrafluoroethylene polymers. These powders may also be dispersed in an organic medium for lubricating purposes

  2. Improved process for contacting finely divided solid particles with gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-07-30

    A process of contacting solids and gases of the type in which finely divided solids are maintained in a dense fluidized state in a treating zone by means of an upflowing gaseous fluidizing medium wherein solid packing in the form of a body static contiguous elements is maintained in the treating zone. The size, shape, and arrangement of the elements constituting the packing being such as to define a labyrinth of passageways in which the finely divided solids are maintained in a fluidized state, and the finely divided solids are adapted to flow freely downwardly through the passageways in the absence of a gaseous fluidizing medium.

  3. Improved process for heating finely divided carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-08-01

    A process for heating finely divided carbonaceous particles by burning a proportion of the carbon consists of passing the carbonaceous material at a temperature above 800/sup 0/F into an upwardly disposed, slender, combustion zone, suspending the particles in an upwardly-moving gas containing free oxygen so that the suspension has a density from 0.1 to 5.0 lb/cu. ft., passing the suspension upwardly through the combustion zone at a velocity of from 5 to 100 ft./sec., and injecting at least one stream of a second gas containing free oxygen at a point in the combustion zone such that at least 50% of the oxygen in the first gas has been consumed by the time the suspension reaches this point. The total quantity of oxygen is chosen so that the finely divided carbonaceous material is heated to a temperature of not less than 1,050/sup 0/F.

  4. Charge state of finely divided conducting systems in dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Yu.V.; Grishin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the high statistic sum Z of the charged metal granules in the dielectric matrix is carried out with an account of the excess number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the granules. Application of a microscopic Hamiltonian for the energy of electrostatic interaction between the charge densities in the system makes it possible to accomplish these calculations in the average field approximation. The effect of the number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the charge state of the finely divided granules in the dielectric matrix is studied. It is supposed that the charge exchange between the composite metal elements occurs on the account of the electron overbarrier heat transfer. It is followed from the system high statistic sum calculation results that the i-granule medium charge is connected by the nonlinear ratio with the conductors V i potentials [ru

  5. Using environment friendly finely divided materials in brittle matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, S.A.; Ahmad, H.

    2005-01-01

    Material engineers the world over are increasingly recommending the use of environment friendly efficient construction materials, which otherwise would have been classed as waste materials for improving the durability of concrete. Pakistan has been blessed by nature with huge natural resources of lime, and fly-ash is also becoming increasingly available with the induction of thermal power generation plants. To introduce the benefits of such concrete modifying materials to the engineering community in our country, an investigation has been carried out on the use of locally available powdered hydrated lime, fly-ash and their combinations in making concretes with a view to evaluate their strength, workability, durability and cost effectiveness. As such there is no documented data of local materials available on the topic in Pakistan. ACI mentions powdered hydrated lime and fly-ash as finely divided admixtures which can be used to improve concrete properties at microstructure level. It is commonly believed by the engineers that the use of such materials is especially desirable for durability purposes. Moreover, lime when added in concrete absorbs CO/sub 2/ from the environment thus making it friendly flexible material. he results of investigation are encouraging especially when the two were used in combination as some weight fraction of cement to make quality and environment friendly concrete. (author)

  6. Process and apparatus for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A

    1933-09-18

    A process is described for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid and semi-solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils, whereby the mixture is first heated to a high temperature; the heated products are introduced into a coking zone, where vapors are separated from nonvaporous residue afterwards to be cracked and condensed, characterized in that the mixture is heated to a high temperature under substantially noncoking conditions and that nonvaporous residue obtained in the coking zone is coked as a relatively thin layer on an externally intensely heated surface, preferably of heat-conducting, fireproof material, such as carborundum, fused-aluminum oxide, or clay.

  7. Method of distilling machine-cut peat and other finely divided material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-03-03

    Apparatus arrangement is given for dry distillation of machine-cut peat and similar materials in particle or powder form, consisting of a tunnel oven through which the material is led and in which it is heated by help of the gases generated in the process. These gases are brought to circulate through the interior of the oven and heat exchangers installed outside the oven, are flushed by hot combustion gases. Through the tunnel oven a mounted turnable shaft is provided with paddles which lift the material and let it fall to make the particles of material get good contact with the circulating gases without offering too much resistance to the flow of the gases.

  8. Contribution to the study of the production and properties of finely divided solids, prepared in a flame reactor (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuer, J.P.

    1960-04-01

    Sufficiently fine particles cannot be obtained by the grinding of crystals. It is therefore logical to adopt a method whereby the solid is formed from a compound in the vapour phase notable amongst such compounds, volatile at moderate temperatures, are certain organic derivatives of metals and the metallic halides. Formation of the solid from its gaseous derivative should be possible by hydrolysis or oxidation without the dispersion of the reaction medium being modified. The simplest method seems to be to obtain the reaction in an oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe. When the gases in the blow-pipe contain a volatile metallic compound, precipitation of finely divided solid in the form of oxide is produced in the flame at high temperature. Aluminium, titanium, iron and zirconium oxides and silica, the particles of which are spherical and very homogeneous in diameter, have been prepared in this way. The specific surfaces calculated from the diameters on electron microscope photographs are in agreement with those measured by adsorption of nitrogen at 195 deg. C. The oxides thus prepared are therefore not intensely porous. The properties and size of the oxide particles are studied as a function of various operational parameters, such as flame temperature and concentration of volatile metal derivative in the reactive gases. When the blow-pipe is supplied with oxide particles of small diameter, a very marked increase in size is observed. The properties of these preparations are also examined. (author) [fr

  9. Anthropic Reasoning about Fine-Tuning, and Neoclassical Cosmology: Providence, Omnipresence, and Observation Selection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropic reasoning about observation selection effects upon the appearance of cosmic providential fine-tuning (fine-tuning that provides for life) is often motivated by a desire to avoid theological implications (implications favoring the idea of a divine cosmic provider) without appealing to sheer lucky-for-us-cosmic-jackpot happenstance and coincidence. Cosmic coincidence can be rendered less incredible by appealing to a multiverse context. Cosmic providence can be rendered non-theological by appealing to an agent-less providential purpose, or by appealing to less-than-omnipresent/local providers, such as alien intelligences creating life- providing baby universes. Instead of choosing either cosmic coincidence or cosmic providence, as though they were mutually exclusive; it is better to accept both. Neoclassical thought accepts coincidence and providence, plus many local providers and one omnipresent provider. Moreover, fundamental observation selection theory should distinguish the many local observers of some events from the one omnipresent observer of all events. Accepting both coincidence and providence avoids classical theology (providence without coincidence) and classical atheism (coincidence without providence), but not neoclassical theology (providence with coincidence). Cosmology cannot avoid the idea of an all-inclusive omnipresent providential dice-throwing living-creative whole of reality, an idea essential to neoclassical theology, and to neoclassical cosmology.

  10. Uranium resources in fine-grained carbonaceous rocks of the Great Divide Basin, south-central Wyoming. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.A.; Roe, L.M. II; Hacke, C.M.; Mosher, M.M.

    1982-11-01

    The uranium resources of the fine-grained carbonaceous rocks of the Great Divide Basin in southern Wyoming were assessed. The assessment was based primarily on data from some 600 boreholes. The data included information from geophysical logs, lithologic logs and cores, and drill cuttings. The cores and cuttings were analyzed for chemical U 3 O 8 , radiometric U, Th and trace elements. Selected samples were examined by thin section, sieve analysis, x-ray, SEM, ion probe, and alpha track methods. The uranium is associated with fine-grained carbonaceous shales, siltstones, mudstones, and coals in radioactive zones 5 to 50 ft thick that are continuous over broad areas. These rocks have a limited stratigraphic range between the Red Desert tongue of the Wasatch Formation and the lower part of the Tipton tongue of the Green River Formation. Most of this uranium is syngenetic in origin, in part from the chelation of the uranium by organic material in lake-side swamps and in part as uranium in very fine detrital heavy minerals. The uraniferous fine-grained carbonaceous rocks that exceed a cutoff grade of 100 ppM eU 3 O 8 extend over an area of 542 mi 2 and locally to a depth of approximately 2000 ft. The uraniferous area is roughly ellipical and embraces the zone of change between the piedmont and alluvial-fan facies and the lacustrine facies of the intertonguing Battle Spring, Wasatch, and Green River Formations. About 1.05 x 10 6 tons U 3 O 8 , based on gross-gamma logs not corrected for thorium, are assigned to the area in the first 500 ft; an estimated 3.49 x 10 6 tons are assigned to a depth of 1000 ft. These units also contain a substantial thorium resource that is also associated with fine-grained rocks. The thorium-to-uranium ratio generally ranges between 1 and 4. A thorium resource of 3.43 x 10 6 tons to a depth of 500 ft is estimated for the assessment area. 5 figures, 3 tables

  11. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  12. Rational diversification of a promoter providing fine-tuned expression and orthogonal regulation for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin A; Weenink, Tim; Vasylechko, Serge; Ellis, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an ideal organism for the development and application of synthetic biology, yet there remain relatively few well-characterised biological parts suitable for precise engineering of this chassis. In order to address this current need, we present here a strategy that takes a single biological part, a promoter, and re-engineers it to produce a fine-graded output range promoter library and new regulated promoters desirable for orthogonal synthetic biology applications. A highly constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoter, PFY1p, was identified by bioinformatic approaches, characterised in vivo and diversified at its core sequence to create a 36-member promoter library. TetR regulation was introduced into PFY1p to create a synthetic inducible promoter (iPFY1p) that functions in an inverter device. Orthogonal and scalable regulation of synthetic promoters was then demonstrated for the first time using customisable Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) modified and designed to act as orthogonal repressors for specific PFY1-based promoters. The ability to diversify a promoter at its core sequences and then independently target Transcription Activator-Like Orthogonal Repressors (TALORs) to virtually any of these sequences shows great promise toward the design and construction of future synthetic gene networks that encode complex "multi-wire" logic functions.

  13. Rational Diversification of a Promoter Providing Fine-Tuned Expression and Orthogonal Regulation for Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin A.; Weenink, Tim; Vasylechko, Serge; Ellis, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an ideal organism for the development and application of synthetic biology, yet there remain relatively few well-characterised biological parts suitable for precise engineering of this chassis. In order to address this current need, we present here a strategy that takes a single biological part, a promoter, and re-engineers it to produce a fine-graded output range promoter library and new regulated promoters desirable for orthogonal synthetic biology applications. A highly constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoter, PFY1p, was identified by bioinformatic approaches, characterised in vivo and diversified at its core sequence to create a 36-member promoter library. TetR regulation was introduced into PFY1p to create a synthetic inducible promoter (iPFY1p) that functions in an inverter device. Orthogonal and scalable regulation of synthetic promoters was then demonstrated for the first time using customisable Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) modified and designed to act as orthogonal repressors for specific PFY1-based promoters. The ability to diversify a promoter at its core sequences and then independently target Transcription Activator-Like Orthogonal Repressors (TALORs) to virtually any of these sequences shows great promise toward the design and construction of future synthetic gene networks that encode complex “multi-wire” logic functions. PMID:22442681

  14. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...

  15. Timing divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  16. Utilization of heat of finely divided solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-11-05

    A method pr preconditioning subdivided solids subjected to a high-temperature treatment in a high-temperature treating zone, comprises transferring a portion of the sensible heat of hot, subdivided, treated solids withdrawn from said treating zone, at a relatively high temperature level to said subdivided solids to be preconditioned, transferring another portion of said sensible heat at a relatively low temperature level to a material vaporizable at said low temperature level to generate a fluidizing medium and fluidizing said subdivided withdrawn solids by means of said fluidizing medium to improve the heat-transfer characteristics of said withdrawn solids.

  17. Quantum-chemical study of the geometric and electronic structure of the chromate anion CrO42- and a chromate group on the surface of finely divided silica by the CNDO/2 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyuto, I.V.; Shpak, A.P.; Plyuto, Yu.V.; Chuiko, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study of the geometric and electronic structure of the chromate anion CrO 4 2- and a chromate group on the surface of finely divided silica (≡Si-O) 2 - CrO 2 , which was simulated by a CrO 9 Si 6 H 12 cluster, has been carried out by the SCF-MO-LCAO method in the all-valence-electron CNDO/2 approximation. The data obtained on the equilibrium geometry of the chromate group attest to the formation of a double bond between the Cr atom and each O atom (which is not bonded to Si). It has been shown that the support has a significant stabilizing in fluence on the energy of the MO's of the chromate group. The chromate group on an SiO 2 surface is characterized by partial delocalization of the frontier MO's among the skeletal bonds; however, the dominant contribution to the HOMO is made by the 2p AO of the oxygen atoms in the coordination shell of the Cr atom (∼70%), and the dominant contribution to the LUMO is made by the 3d AO of the chromium atom (∼50%). The positions and composition of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals point out the possibility of the display of electron-acceptor properties by a chromate group of an SiO 2 surface

  18. The Great Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    Steps away from where a concrete wall once divided this city east from west, a group of Muslim 1st graders at E.O. Plauen Elementary School sing a phrase that is unfamiliar to most German ears. Though the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have long provided voluntary religion classes in Berlin schools, only recently have the courts allowed an…

  19. Trust and Exchange : Effects of TemporalTrust and Exchange : Effects of Temporal Embeddedness and Network Embeddedness on Providing and Dividing a Surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautschi, T.

    2002-01-01

    Mutually profitable cooperation is characterized by the fact that the combined efforts of the cooperating parties generate a certain surplus. The first part of the book studies the production of a surplus as a trust problem between two actors. Should an actor provide resources if the other actor

  20. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  1. Facial primer provides immediate and long-term improvements in mild-to-moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines associated with photoaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts WE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wendy E Roberts,1 Lily I Jiang,2 James H Herndon Jr3 1Generational and Cosmetic Dermatology, Rancho Mirage, CA, 2Thomas J Stephens and Associates, Richardson, 3Dermatology Center of Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA Background: Photoaged skin results from various environmental factors, most importantly chronic sun exposure. Dyschromia and fine lines/wrinkles are common clinical manifestations of photodamaged skin. Purpose: This single-center clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a new multifunctional facial primer (camouflage, broad-spectrum SPF 50, and a treatment for hyperpigmentation when used by females with mild-to-moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines due to photoaging over a course of 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Subjects were provided test material (Even Up-Clinical Pigment Perfector and supporting products to use on their face and neck. Products were used according to specific application instructions. Clinical grading for efficacy and tolerability assessments were performed by an expert grader at baseline, baseline (post-application primer, week 4, week 8, week 12, and week 12 (post-application primer. Standardized digital photographs were taken, and self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. Results: Twenty-eight female subjects completed the 12-week trial. The facial primer improved scores for the appearance of hyperpigmentation and other photoaging parameters immediately after the first application. The treatment also showed a progressive improvement in the clinical assessment of hyperpigmentation and other photoaging parameters over the 12-week trial. These long-term benefits can be attributed to an improvement in the underlying skin condition. The facial primer was well tolerated. Subject questionnaires showed that the product was highly rated at all visits. Conclusion: The facial primer was shown to be effective and well tolerated for immediate and long-term improvement in the appearance

  2. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  3. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  4. A Town Divided

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Lucas H

    2018-01-01

    Residents of rural Patagonia, AZ are bitterly divided over mining. Half of the town supports Arizona Mining Inc., a Canadian mining company that bought up land near town for vast exploratory drilling. The other half of the town is fighting the mining company at every turn, seeking to preserve the region's unique wildlife and steer the economy toward environmental restoration.

  5. Rheological Properties of Rubber Compounds with Finely Divided Carbon Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashok, Zh. S.; Prokopchuk, N. R.; Vishnevskii, K. V.; Krauklis, A. V.; Borisevich, K. O.; Borisevich, I. O.

    2018-01-01

    A study has been made of the influence of three different nanomaterials: of the starting material, and also of those functionalized by amine and oxygen-containing groups, on the properties of elastomer compositions based on rubbers for special purposes. As the elastomer matrix, use was made in one case of a rubber compound based on BNKS-18 butadiene-nitrile rubber and in the other, of a combination of two grades of butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNKS-18 + BNKS-28 in a 50:50 ratio), which differed by the amount of the bound nitrile of acrylic acid. To determine the degree of interaction between the additives and the elastomer matrix, the authors carried out multiple tests of the rubber compounds. The indices of plastoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and the qualitative characteristics of distribution of the filler (elastic modulus at small deformation amplitudes and the shear modulus under large deformation) and the difference in these indices (complex dynamic modulus) alike have been determined.

  6. Facebook's gender divide

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Kassa, Yonas Mitike; Cuevas, Angel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Rahwan, Iyad; Cuevas, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Online social media are information resources that can have a transformative power in society. While the Web was envisioned as an equalizing force that allows everyone to access information, the digital divide prevents large amounts of people from being present online. Online social media in particular are prone to gender inequality, an important issue given the link between social media use and employment. Understanding gender inequality in social media is a challenging task due to the neces...

  7. Monitoring the digital divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Matthews, W.; Cottrell, R.L.

    2003-05-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low-bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste - a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent 'Recommendations of Trieste' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work. (author)

  8. Monitoring the Digital Divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent ''Recommendations of Trieste'' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work

  9. Bridging the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    The article concerns the digital divide, meaning the social inequity in the access and the opportunities for gaining competencies with ICT (information and communication technologies). Problematic issues are highlighted in relation to experiences during visits to several Computer Clubhouses......, a network of multimedia workshops for youth in the USA. There are references to the learning philosophy Constructionism, which originates from MIT Media Lab and is the basis for the Computer Clubhouse project. Abstract : The consortium for Math and Science at Learning Lab Denmark and the Ministry...... of Education have published the white book 'Life of Science - White Book on Educational Initiatives in the Natural Sciences and Technology', inconnection with a conference for EIST (Initiatives in Science and Technology). The purpose of the EIST project is to make a qualitative overview of a number...

  10. Why do bacteria divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic

    2015-01-01

    The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium (E) and non-equilibrium (NE) cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias ‘hyperstructures.’ The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of E material and the intensity of use of NE material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics to the cell cycle itself. PMID

  11. Calcination and solid state reaction of ceramic-forming components to provide single-phase superconducting materials having fine particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Emerson, James E.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved method for the preparation of single phase, fine grained ceramic materials from precursor powder mixtures where at least one of the components of the mixture is an alkali earth carbonate. The process consists of heating the precursor powders in a partial vacuum under flowing oxygen and under conditions where the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 evolved during the calcination is kept to a very low level relative to the oxygen. The process has been found particularly suitable for the preparation of high temperature copper oxide superconducting materials such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x "123" and YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.8 "124".

  12. Tackling Africa's digital divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Martin P. J.; Abadi, Mojtaba Mansour; Bauer, Ralf; Brambilla, Gilberto; Cheng, Ling; Cox, Mitchell A.; Dudley, Angela; Ellis, Andrew D.; Fontaine, Nicolas K.; Kelly, Anthony E.; Marquardt, Christoph; Matlhane, Selaelo; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Petruccione, Francesco; Slavík, Radan; Romanato, Filippo; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Roux, Filippus S.; Roux, Kobus; Wang, Jian; Forbes, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Innovations in `sustainable' photonics technologies such as free-space optical links and solar-powered equipment provide developing countries with new cost-effective opportunities for deploying future-proof telecommunication networks.

  13. Contribution to the study of the production and properties of finely divided solids, prepared in a flame reactor (1960); Contribution a l'etude de procedes d'obtention et des proprietes des solides finement divises elabores dans un reacteur a flamme (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuer, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-04-15

    Sufficiently fine particles cannot be obtained by the grinding of crystals. It is therefore logical to adopt a method whereby the solid is formed from a compound in the vapour phase notable amongst such compounds, volatile at moderate temperatures, are certain organic derivatives of metals and the metallic halides. Formation of the solid from its gaseous derivative should be possible by hydrolysis or oxidation without the dispersion of the reaction medium being modified. The simplest method seems to be to obtain the reaction in an oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe. When the gases in the blow-pipe contain a volatile metallic compound, precipitation of finely divided solid in the form of oxide is produced in the flame at high temperature. Aluminium, titanium, iron and zirconium oxides and silica, the particles of which are spherical and very homogeneous in diameter, have been prepared in this way. The specific surfaces calculated from the diameters on electron microscope photographs are in agreement with those measured by adsorption of nitrogen at 195 deg. C. The oxides thus prepared are therefore not intensely porous. The properties and size of the oxide particles are studied as a function of various operational parameters, such as flame temperature and concentration of volatile metal derivative in the reactive gases. When the blow-pipe is supplied with oxide particles of small diameter, a very marked increase in size is observed. The properties of these preparations are also examined. (author) [French] Les procedes de broyage des cristaux ne conduisent pas a des particules suffisamment fines. Aussi, il est logique de s'adresser a un procede de formation du solide a partir d'un compose se trouvant en phase vapeur. De tels composes, volatils a des temperatures moderees, sont notamment certains derives organiques des metaux et les halogenures metalliques. La formation du solide a partir de son derive gazeux doit pouvoir etre effectuee par l'hydrolyse ou l'oxydation, sans que la

  14. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    colonization in tomato roots, indicating that, besides hormonal interactions, a fine-tuning of each hormone level is required for AM development.

  15. The electronic health record: a digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2007-10-01

    The gap between EHR adoption among larger providers versus adoption by smaller or rural providers has caused a "digital divide" that could threaten smaller providers' survival in the years ahead. Closing this gap will require the collective action of providers, payers, and government.

  16. Anne Fine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Anne Fine with an introduction and aside on the role of children’s literature in our lives and development, and our adult perceptions of the suitability of childhood reading material. Since graduating from Warwick in 1968 with a BA in Politics and History, Anne Fine has written over fifty books for children and eight for adults, won the Carnegie Medal twice (for Goggle-Eyes in 1989 and Flour Babies in 1992, been a highly commended runner-up three times (for Bill’s New Frock in 1989, The Tulip Touch in 1996, and Up on Cloud Nine in 2002, been shortlisted for the Hans Christian Andersen Award (the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books, 1998, undertaken the positon of Children’s Laureate (2001-2003, and been awarded an OBE for her services to literature (2003. Warwick presented Fine with an Honorary Doctorate in 2005. Philip Gaydon’s interview with Anne Fine was recorded as part of the ‘Voices of the University’ oral history project, co-ordinated by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

  17. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  18. Essays on the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Belal M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The digital divide is a phenomenon that is globally persistent, despite rapidly decreasing costs in technology. While much of the variance in the adoption and use of information communication technology (ICT) that defines the digital divide can be explained by socioeconomic and demographic variables, there is still significant unaccounted variance…

  19. First unitary, then divided: the temporal dynamics of dividing attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Witt, Joseph B

    2018-04-24

    Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets. One aspect of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, has been shown to occur only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By presenting the second target pair at various spatial locations and assessing the magnitude of Lag-1 sparing, we probed the spatial distribution of attention. By systematically manipulating the stimulus-onset-asynchrony between the targets, we also tracked changes to the spatial distribution of attention over time. The results showed that even under conditions which encourage the division of attention, the attentional focus is first deployed in unitary form before being divided. It is then maintained in divided form only briefly before settling on a single location.

  20. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  1. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  2. Getting Past the "Digital Divide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, "digital divide" has become a catchphrase for the stubborn disparity in IT resources between communities, especially in regard to education. Low-income, rural and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots." This article presents success stories of educators who can work around obstacles…

  3. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  4. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  5. Smoking improves divided attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Eike; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Goudarzi, Elnaz; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, and there is evidence for beneficial effects on neurocognition. Smoking is therefore hypothesized a self-medication in schizophrenia. Although much effort is devoted to characterize those cognitive domains that potentially benefit from smoking, divided attention has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactional effects of diagnosis of schizophrenia and smoking history on divided attention. We investigated behavioral measures of divided attention in a sample of 48 schizophrenic patients and 48 controls (24 current smokers and non-smokers each) carefully matched for age, sex, education, verbal IQ, and smoking status with general linear models. Most important within the scope of this study, significant interactions were found for valid reactions and errors of omission: Performance substantially increased in smoking schizophrenic patients, but not in controls. Further, these interactions were modified by sex, driven by female schizophrenic patients who showed a significant behavioral advantage of smokers over non-smokers, other than male schizophrenic patients or healthy controls who did not express this sex-specific pattern. Results suggest a positive effect of smoking history on divided attention in schizophrenic patients. This study provides first evidence that the complex attention domain of divided attention is improved by smoking, which further substantiates the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia, although this has been shown mainly for sustained and selective attention. Gender-specific effects on cognition need to be further investigated.

  6. A low-power digital frequency divider for system-on-a-chip applications

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an idea for a new frequency divider architecture is proposed. The divider is based on a coarse-fine architecture. The coarse block operates at a low frequency to save power consumption and it selectively enables the fine block which operates at the high input frequency. The proposed divider has the advantages of synchronous divider, but with lower power consumption and higher operation speed. The design can achieve a wide division range with a minor effect on power consumption and speed. The architecture was implemented on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to verify its operation. Experimental measurements validate system operation with power reduction greater than 40%. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...... welfare state does not seem to foster agreement among the public, either. These findings have important policy implications for advanced welfare states, including a renewed emphasis on ‘predistribution’ (i.e., policies that influence the primary distribution of income) in order to avoid the scenario...

  8. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  9. Fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memišević Haris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (ID, we examined these skills in children with Down syndrome. The sample for this study comprised 90 children with ID, aged 7-15, who were divided in three etiological groups: 1. Down syndrome, 2. Organic/other genetic cause of ID and 3. Unknown etiology of ID. Fine motor skills were assessed by the Purdue Pegboard Test. The results of this study indicate that children with Down syndrome did not differ statistically significantly from the other two etiological groups. On the other hand, children with unknown etiology of ID performed statistically better than children with organic/other genetic cause of ID. An additional goal was to examine fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome in relation to the child's sex. There were no statistically significant differences in fine motor skills between girls and boys with Down syndrome. It is important to provide children with Down syndrome, and all other children with ID, with early (rehabilitation programs for the improvement of their fine motor skills. Special educators and rehabilitators should play a crucial role in the assessment and in creating programs for the development of these skills.

  10. The effects of divided attention at study and reporting procedure on regulation and monitoring for episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, James; Hope, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Eyewitnesses regulate the level of detail (grain size) reported to balance competing demands for informativeness and accuracy. However, research to date has predominantly examined metacognitive monitoring for semantic memory tasks, and used relatively artificial phased reporting procedures. Further, although the established role of confidence in this regulation process may affect the confidence-accuracy relation for volunteered responses in predictable ways, previous investigations of the confidence-accuracy relation for eyewitness recall have largely overlooked the regulation of response granularity. Using a non-phased paradigm, Experiment 1 compared reporting and monitoring following optimal and sub-optimal (divided attention) encoding conditions. Participants showed evidence of sacrificing accuracy for informativeness, even when memory quality was relatively weak. Participants in the divided (cf. full) attention condition showed reduced accuracy for fine- but not coarse-grained responses. However, indices of discrimination and confidence diagnosticity showed no effect of divided attention. Experiment 2 compared the effects of divided attention at encoding on reporting and monitoring using both non-phased and 2-phase procedures. Divided attention effects were consistent with Experiment 1. However, compared to those in the non-phased condition, participants in the 2-phase condition displayed a more conservative control strategy, and confidence ratings were less diagnostic of accuracy. When memory quality was reduced, although attempts to balance informativeness and accuracy increased the chance of fine-grained response errors, confidence provided an index of the likely accuracy of volunteered fine-grained responses for both condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environment, information divide and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Design of human environment is to be made with understanding human-human and human-environment relations and environmental behaviors of human beings, artifacts and natural things and overcoming their differences and contradictions. Information divide exists naturally due to various differences of human beings. Many problems in the area of nuclear energy seem to be derived from various differences and contradictions in central-local interests, between the particles concerned and unconcerned and also in human being-artifacts relations. In order to harmonize nuclear energy with the society, it is necessary to vanish differences and solve contradictions with redesigning environments of those problems in their context. Case studies are highly recommended with continuous efforts to develop more universal design methodology. Open access to information and data in science and technology is encouraged in the area of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  12. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  13. One Nation, Divided: Culture, Civic Institutions, and the Marriage Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford; Wolfinger, Nicholas H.; Stokes, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic retreat from marriage, marked by divorce, cohabitation, single parenthood, and lower overall marriage rates. Marriage is now less likely to anchor adults' lives or provide a stable framework for childrearing, especially among poor and working-class Americans. Much research on the retreat…

  14. The Digital Divide in Health Education: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don

    2008-01-01

    Although e-health interventions provide new opportunities for health education, there has been cause for concern regarding the purported information technology gap between those who have access to digital applications and those who do not--termed the "digital divide." The literature suggests, however, that this divide may now be illusory, driven…

  15. A pulse amplitude dividing circuit for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediss, C.; McQuarrie, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulse dividing circuit has been developed to provide analogue and digital outputs proportional to the ratio of the amplitudes of two nuclear pulses. Input pulses ranging from 200 mV to 10 V may be processed by the device. The pulse dividing circuit has been successfully incorporated as part of a small gamma camera. (orig.)

  16. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  17. Tech, Teachers & Teens: Bridging the Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuht, Amy Colcord; Colcord, Cean

    2011-01-01

    In past decades, the "digital divide" referred to the gap between those who could afford access to technology and those who could not. The divide has shifted in recent years to reflect the growing technological chasm between teachers and their students: today's schools and teenagers' worlds. The digital divide is widening and deepening…

  18. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  19. NGST fine guidance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Neil; Hutchings, John; Murowinski, Richard G.; Alexander, Russ

    2003-03-01

    Instrumentation for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is currently in the Phase A definition stage. We have developed a concept for the NGST Fine Guidance Sensor or FGS. The FGS is a detector array based imager which resides in the NGST focal plane. We report here on tradeoff studies aimed at defining an overall configuration of the FGS which will meet the performance and interface requirements. A key performance requirement is a noise equivalent angle of 3 milli-arcseconds to be achieved with 95% probability for any pointing of the observatory in the celestial sphere. A key interface requirement is compatibility with the architecture of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The concept developed consists of two independent and redundant FGS modules, each with a 4' x 2' field of view covered by two 2048 x 2048 infrared detector arrays, providing 60 milli-arcsecond sampling. Performance modeling supporting the choice of this architecture and the trade space considered is presented. Each module has a set of readout electronics which perform star detection, pixel-by-pixel correction, and in fine guiding mode, centroid calculation. These readout electronics communicate with the ISIM Command &Data Handling Units where the FGS control software is based. Rationale for this choice of architecture is also presented.

  20. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  1. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  2. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  3. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  4. 47 CFR 76.943 - Fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.943 Fines. (a) A franchising authority may impose fines or... specifically at the cable operator, provided the franchising authority has such power under state or local laws. (b) If a cable operator willfully fails to comply with the terms of any franchising authority's order...

  5. Afterword. Internet Freedom, Nuanced Digital Divide, and the Internet Craftsman

    OpenAIRE

    Meinrath, Sascha D; Losey, James; Lennett, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth comparative analysis of inequality and the stratification of the digital sphere. Grounded in classical sociological theories of inequality, as well as empirical evidence, this book defines 'the digital divide' as the unequal access and utility of internet communications technologies and explores how it has the potential to replicate existing social inequalities, as well as create new forms of stratification. The Digital Divide examines how various demographic an...

  6. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  7. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  8. The Digital Divide Revisited: What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    As soon as the Internet came into existence and the World Wide Web was introduced to make Internet utilization much easier, leaders have been worried about the "digital divide." The digital divide refers to the inequality of access to information services. There has been marked improvements over the last 20 years, however the poorest…

  9. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and

  10. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-03-10

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  11. Fine Arts Database (FAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  12. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  13. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabloff, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics

  14. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  15. Radioactivity in fine papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)

  16. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  17. Numerical modeling of fine particle fractal aggregates in turbulent flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Feifeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for prediction of fine particle transport in a turbulent flow is proposed, the interaction between particles and fluid is studied numerically, and fractal agglomerate of fine particles is analyzed using Taylor-expansion moment method. The paper provides a better understanding of fine particle dynamics in the evolved flows.

  18. Temporal dynamics of divided spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Garcia, Javier O; Serences, John T

    2013-05-01

    In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ∼350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function.

  19. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernovae data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state $w$ crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in the gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. So...

  20. Fine structure studies of terbium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhay Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Krishnanath; Niraj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Terbium (Z = 65) is a typical rare-earth element. Fine structure of spectural lines of terbium (Tb) are presented using the laser optogalvanic spectroscopic technique. Altogether eighty transitions in the 5686-6367 A range have been observed in the fine structure spectrum of 159 Tb. Wavelengths of all the observed transitions have been determined. Out of 80 transitions of Tb, a total of 59 transitions are being reported for the first time. Classifications of 39 new transitions have been provided using the known energy levels, Doppler-limited optogalvanic spectroscopic technique is employed to study the fine structure (fs) 159 Tb. (author)

  1. From Fundamentalists to Structuralists: Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide information about several ICT initiatives undertaken in education on a global basis in order to overcome the digital divide and summarise the findings of these initiatives. Due to the limited scope of the study, the bulk of the review mainly concerns initiatives undertaken in secondary schools,…

  2. Impact of usability on efforts to bridge the digital divide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebesin, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available in these types of development projects, the dream of the providing effective access may remain just that – a dream. This paper highlights the important role that usability plays in the drive towards narrowing the digital divide. We report on the outcome of a...

  3. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  4. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  5. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of

  6. The Testing Effect under Divided Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchin, Zachary L.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2017-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances later memory compared with restudying (i.e., the testing effect), indicating that retrieval does not simply reveal but also modifies memory representations. Dividing attention (DA) during encoding greatly disrupts later memory performance while DA during retrieval typically has modest effects--but what of the…

  7. Acoustic tool for leak inspections in steam generator divider plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Maak, P.; Colbert, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cross flow leakage through divider plates in the primary head of steam generators, may be a contributor to RIHT rise which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick and reliable inspection of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping make timely and effective maintenance decisions. A novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in drained steam generators during shutdowns has been developed by OH Technologies and successfully demonstrated in a field application. The technique, referred as ALIS (acoustic leak inspection system), performs a scan of the divider plate face and presents a graphic image of the leakage paths and an estimate of the total leakage area. (author)

  8. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-11-01

    Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives. Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country. Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society. Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  9. A fine art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, G.; Raaff, T. [Andritz AG (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    The paper describes a new dewatering system for coal fines which challenges established processes by using screenbowl centrifuge and hyperbaric filter combinations. Company acquisitions over the past three to four years enabled Andritz AG to develop a new system combining two technologies. The article describes the benefits of the combination process and explains the basic operation of these machines. 4 figs.

  10. Fine 5 lavastab Venemaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tantsuteatru Fine 5 koreograafid Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik toovad Jekaterinburgis välja lavastuse "... and Red", esitajaks Venemaa nimekas nüüdistantsutrupp Provintsialnõje Tantsõ. Lavastuses kõlab Taavo Remmeli kontrabassiimprovisatsioon "12.12.2006"

  11. Imeilus Fine 5

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Vaba Lava teatrikeskuse laval esineb Fine 5 oma lavastusega "Imeilus". Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik, tantsulavastuse autorid on koreograafid, õppejõud, lavastajad ja kogemustega tantsijad. 29. jaanuaril korraldavad Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik Tallinna Ülikoolis kaasaegse liikumismõtlemise töötoa, mis on pühendatud lavastusele "Imeilus"

  12. Splicing the Divide: A Review of Research on the Evolving Digital Divide among K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The digital divide has narrowed with regard to one definition of access to technology--the binary view of the "haves" and "have-nots." However, use of technology at home and in school is not equitable for all students. According to recent literature, a broader and more nuanced definition of the technological divide is necessary…

  13. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  14. The Digital Divide: A Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoko, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Huge progress was made in bridging the digital divide in first decade of 21^st century. This was largely due to the explosive growth of mobile, which saw numbers rise from under 500 million to over five billion mobile cellular subscriptions in just ten years. With household mobile penetration rates of over 50% even in rural areas of developing countries, we have achieved the dream of bringing all the world's people within reach of communications technology. We must now, however, replicate the mobile miracle for the Internet, and especially broadband, if we are to avoid creating a new broadband breach to replace the digital divide. Three things need to happen for this to be achieved: firstly, broadband needs to be brought to the top of the development agenda; secondly, broadband needs to become much more affordable and thirdly, security needs to be part of the strategy.

  15. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  16. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernova data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state w crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of the Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. Some analytical solutions with w -1 are obtained. A minimally coupled scalar with different potentials, including quadratic, cubic, quantic, exponential and logarithmic potentials are investigated via numerical methods, respectively. All these potentials lead to the crossing behavior. We show that it is a robust result which is hardly dependent on the concrete form of the potential of the scalar. (orig.)

  17. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  18. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  19. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, C; Berthelon, C; Bastien-Toniazzo, M; Gineyt, G

    2014-06-01

    The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to divided attention task and alcohol and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L, and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identification. Driving performance, response time and accuracy on the additional task were measured. ANOVA showed a driving impairment and a decrease in additional task performance from a BAC of 0.5 g/L, particularly for novice drivers. Indeed, the latter adopt more risky behavior such as tailgating. In the divided attention task, driving impairment was found for all drivers and impairment on information processing accuracy was highlighted, notably in peripheral vision. The divided attention task used here provides a relevant method for identifying the effects of alcohol on cognitive functions and could be used in psychopharmacological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microwave power divider with arbitrary distribution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengda; Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Syratchev, I.

    2004-01-01

    As is well known, the EM field of TE11 mode at the wall of the circular waveguide changes as sine (or cosine) function azimuthally. So when we attach two perpendicular waveguides to the wall of the circular waveguide and rotate them around the axis of the waveguide, authors can distribute the input power between the two waveguides with arbitrary distribution proportion. The authors have designed a new power divider following this idea. The 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS is used in the design. And a new type circular TE11 mode launcher is developed. (author)

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in providing a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i1.15 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  2. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  3. Media Literacy in Times of Media Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Žuran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a post-modern society, an information society, a society based around knowledge and participation, and above all in a media society. In a media culture where media holds a dominant position, we cannot overlook the emerging idea of a ‘media divide’ within the frame of media education, media literate individuals and the expansion of the traditional concept of media literacy. Firstly, we are in an era of technological revolution, and it is time to consider the meaning and function of media and how we experience it in our everyday life. Secondly, as a society we are subject to intense media invasion and we all need to learn how to use it to our benefit and apply a critical and autonomous perspective towards selecting media content. Otherwise the media divide between the media literate and illiterate will widen; but is there even a chance to overcome the supposed divide between those who are formally media educated and those who are not?

  4. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.

  5. Divider plate leak inspections using an acoustic tool 'ALIS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Colbert, M.

    1998-01-01

    Divider plate leakage in the primary head of steam generators may be a contributor to high Reactor Inlet Header Temperature (RIHT) which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick information of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping operators to make timely and cost effective repair and maintenance decisions. As part of a CANDU Owners Group (COG) funded program, a novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in empty steam generators during a shutdown has been developed and successfully demonstrated by Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT). The basic principle of this technique utilizes sound transmission through the leakage paths of a divider plate assembly for creating a graphic image which reveals the locations and relative sizes of leaks. This is accomplished by injecting one side of the primary head with a series of airborne, ultrasonic sound bursts while scanning the divider plates from the opposite side and collecting transmitted sound pressure levels. Once a scan is completed the results are processed and displayed graphically as a color mapping of the entire divider plate assembly showing an image of the leakage locations and relative severity. The special transducers of the acoustic leak inspection system (ALIS) are installed through the manways of the steam generator at both sides of the primary head. These are clamped to the tube sheet and operated from a convenient remote location within the containment building. This process minimizes radiation exposure of the workers, as well, it reduces risk of contamination of the ALIS equipment. The current version of this tool performs the scans by remote manual control. (author)

  6. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  7. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  8. The New Digital Divide For Digital BioMarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Rodriguez, Jorge; Powell, Adam

    2017-09-01

    As smartphone and sensors continue to become more ubiquitous across the world, digital biomarkers have emerged as a scalable and practical tool to explore disease states and advance health. But as the digital divide of access and ownership begins to fade, a new digital divide is emerging. Who are the types of people that own smartphones or smart watches, who are the types of people that download health apps or partake in digital biomarker studies, and who are the types of people that are actually active with digital biomarkers apps and sensors - the people providing the high quality and longitudinal data that this field is being founded upon? Understanding the people behind digital biomarkers, the very people this emerging field aims to help, may actually be the real challenge as well as opportunity for digital biomarkers.

  9. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  10. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  11. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  12. Radiology and fine art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  13. Trust and Exchange : Effects of Temporal Embeddedness and Network Embeddedness on Providing and Dividing a Surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautschi, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dissertation of the University of Utrecht Mutually profitable cooperation is characterized by the fact that the combined efforts of the cooperating parties generate a certain surplus. The first part of the book studies the production of a surplus as a trust problem between two actors. Should an

  14. Divide by 4 the emissions: the Negatep scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Negatep scenario is proposed in the framework of the french energy policy, aiming to divide by 4 the CO 2 emissions for 2050. After an evaluation of the today situation concerning the energy consumption and needs, the scenario proposes some ways of energy conservation in different sectors, other energy sources in place of the fossil fuels, the energy needs by sectors. The last part of the document provides the main consumption posts, the CO 2 releases and the approach. (A.L.B.)

  15. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  16. Fine Arts Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Fine Arts Standards of Learning in this publication represent a major development in public education in Virginia, emphasizing the importance of instruction in the fine arts (dance arts, music, theatre arts, and visual arts) as an important part of Virginia's efforts to provide challenging educational programs in the public schools. Knowledge…

  17. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  18. Understanding the Complex Dimensions of the Digital Divide: Lessons Learned in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2007-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of Inupiat Eskimo in the Alaskan Arctic has provided insights into the complex nature of the sociological issues surrounding equitable access to technology tools and skills, which are referred to as the digital divide. These people can overcome the digital divide if they get the basic ready access to hardware and…

  19. Process of briquetting fine shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, J

    1943-05-05

    A process is described for the preparation of briquetts of fine bituminous shale, so-called Mansfield copper shale, without addition of binding material, characterized in that the fine shale is warmed to about 100/sup 0/C and concurrently briquetted in a high-pressure rolling press or piece press under a pressure of 300 to 800 kg/cm/sup 2/.

  20. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  1. Dense cermets containing fine grained ceramics and their manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method of producing a ceramic-metal composite (cermet) containing boride-oxide ceramic having components of a first metal boride and a second metal oxide, which ceramic is in mixture in the cermet with elemental metal of the second metal, wherein the cermet is produced by sintering a reaction mixture of the first metal oxide, boron oxide and the elemental second metal. The improvement consists of: combining for the reaction mixture; A. (a) first metal oxide; (b) boron oxide; (c) ceramic component in very finely divided form; and (d) elemental second metal in very finely divided form and in an amount of at least a 100 percent molar excess beyond that amount stoichiometrically required to produce the second metal oxide during sintering; and B. sintering the reaction mixture in inert gas atmosphere

  2. Uneven Distribution of Microgranules in Divided Lansoprazole Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Gillian A; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor commonly used in children lansoprazole-containing microgranules within each half of a divided tablet. Clinicians must determine whether this difference is clinically relevant when prescribing "divided" medication to children.

  3. Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; telecommunications constraints; lack of investment in ICT infrastructure, etc. Benefits derivable from bridging the digital divide such ...

  4. Divided Attention Abilities in Young and Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somberg, Benjamin L.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments on divided attention and adult aging are reported that take into account age differences in single-task performance and that measure divided attention independently of resource allocation strategies. No significant age difference in divided attention ability independent of single-task performance level was found in either…

  5. Design of shielded voltage divider for impulse voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Kouno, Teruya; Maruyama, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Koji.

    1976-01-01

    The dividers used for the study of the insulation and electric discharge phenomena in high voltage equipments have the problems of the change of response characteristics owing to adjacent bodies and of induced noise. To improve the characteristics, the enclosed type divider shielded with metal has been investigated, and the divider of excellent response has been obtained by adopting the frequency-separating divider system, which is divided into two parts, resistance divider (lower frequency region) and capacitance divider (higher frequency region), for avoiding to degrade the response. Theoretical analysis was carried out in the cases that residual inductance can be neglected or can not be neglected in the small capacitance divider, and that the connecting wires are added. Next, the structure of the divider and the design of the electric field for the divider manufactured on the basis of the theory are described. The response characteristics were measured. The results show that 1 MV impulse voltage can be measured within the response time of 10 ns. Though this divider aims at the impulse voltage, the duration time of which is about that of standard lightning impulse, in view of the heat capacity because of the input resistance of 10.5 kΩ, it is expected that the divider can be applied to the voltage of longer duration time by increasing the input resistance in future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among

  7. 5 CFR 838.303 - Expressly dividing employee annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expressly dividing employee annuity. 838... Employee Annuities § 838.303 Expressly dividing employee annuity. (a) A court order directed at employee annuity is not a court order acceptable for processing unless it expressly divides the employee annuity as...

  8. Physician executives straddle the digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coile, R C

    2001-01-01

    e-Health is here to stay and experts predict that the Internet will become the hub of health care. Rapid advancements in biotechnology and medical research, increasingly curious patients who surf the Internet for medical information, and pressures from managed care companies to contain costs and speed treatments are the central components driving e-health. Despite physician reluctance to embrace the e-revolution, many hospitals and medical groups are employing the Internet and information technology to improve their customer interface, as well as to reduce business costs. This article offers seven e-strategies for health care performance improvement: (1) Supply chain management; (2) e-transactions; (3) care management; (4) improving quality; (5) boosting revenues; (6) outsourcing; and (7) provider networks (Intranets). By helping to incorporate these key e-solutions, physician executives can position their organizations for success in the new millennium.

  9. Bombs and reactors: the nuclear divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikle, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    Many nations now possess, although few have used, the materials and technology to build nuclear weapons. One can wonder how rapidly and how far this awesomely destructive potential would have spread, had nuclear technology offered no peaceful applications. The author feels it is quite likely that such a situation would have made little difference to the four powers that followed the US in acquiring a substantial nuclear arsenal - the USSR, UK, France, and China. But beyond these nations, the diffusion of the knowhow and means to make the bomb would have been substantially slower. It can now be seen that projects for peaceful applications of nuclear technology provided the essential expeditor, or necessary cover, for gaining capabilities to make the bomb. Development of nuclear power in the US and globally is discussed for peaceful uses and for nuclear weapons. The fragility of the present restraints against nuclear proliferation is only partly to be blamed on the conflicting broad objectives in US foreign policy. Much damage has been caused by mistaken approaches to technical and organizational issues. The principal culprit, the author indicates, was the Atoms for Peace program, and it was not so much the idea that caused harm as the way in which it was executed

  10. Digital Divide in India: Measurement, Determinants and Policy for Addressing the Challenges in Bridging the Digital Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies of the digital divide reveals the gap that exists between those who have access to ICTs and those who do not create exclusion, endanger social integration and hamper economic growth. The digital divide has many dimensions and can be categorized as global, regional and national. At national level, there is no single divide, but multiple divides: for instance, within countries, between men and women, young and elderly, rich and poor and most importantly rural and urban. The pre...

  11. Measure theory and fine properties of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence Craig

    2015-01-01

    Measure Theory and Fine Properties of Functions, Revised Edition provides a detailed examination of the central assertions of measure theory in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The book emphasizes the roles of Hausdorff measure and capacity in characterizing the fine properties of sets and functions. Topics covered include a quick review of abstract measure theory, theorems and differentiation in ℝn, Hausdorff measures, area and coarea formulas for Lipschitz mappings and related change-of-variable formulas, and Sobolev functions as well as functions of bounded variation.The text provides complete proofs of many key results omitted from other books, including Besicovitch's covering theorem, Rademacher's theorem (on the differentiability a.e. of Lipschitz functions), area and coarea formulas, the precise structure of Sobolev and BV functions, the precise structure of sets of finite perimeter, and Aleksandrov's theorem (on the twice differentiability a.e. of convex functions).This revised edition includes countl...

  12. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  13. Fine 5 kolib Kumu lavale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kumu kunstimuuseumi auditooriumis toimub 21. veebruaril Fine 5 kaasaegse tantsu etendus "Panus". Esinevad Tiina Ollesk, Irina Pähn, žonglöör Dimitri Kruus, disainer Rain Saukas ja muusik Mattias Siitan

  14. Layer dividing and zone dividing of physical property of crust and deep structure in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Yang Yaxin; Gong Yuling; Huang Linping

    2001-01-01

    On the base of summing experiences both at home and abroad, the Bugar gravitative anomalies are studied by major means of data processing. According to the anomalous character, three layer crust models (surface layer, middle layer in region and material layer under crust) are built up, depth of upper and bottom surfaces for every layer is calculated quantitatively, their varied characters of depth are studied and deep geological tectonics are outlined. The 'density' and 'mass' of every layer are calculated, and according to these two parameters, the shallow geological tectonics are researched. The relation-factor R between the surface altitude and Bugar gravitative anomalies are calculated and the stable or unstable crust zones are divided. The favorable mine zones for uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are outlined

  15. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  16. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  17. Divided attention in computer game play: analysis utilizing unobtrusive health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKanna, James A; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha

    2009-01-01

    Divided attention is a vital cognitive ability used in important daily activities (e.g., driving), which tends to deteriorate with age. As with Alzheimer's and other neural degenerative conditions, treatment for divided attention problems is likely to be more effective the earlier it is detected. Thus, it is important that a method be found to detect changes in divided attention early on in the process, for both safety and health care reasons. We present here a new method for detecting divided attention unobtrusively, using performance on a computer game designed to force players to attend to different dimensions simultaneously in order to succeed. Should this model prove to predict scores on a standard test for divided attention, it could help to detect cognitive decline earlier in our increasingly computer-involved aging population, providing treatment efficacy benefits to those who will experience cognitive decline.

  18. Innovations in the flotation of fine and coarse particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D.; Filippov, L. O.

    2017-07-01

    Research on the mechanisms of particle-bubble interaction has provided valuable information on how to improve the flotation of fine (100 µm) with novel flotation machines which provide higher collision and attachment efficiencies of fine particles with bubbles and lower detachment of the coarse particles. Also, new grinding methods and technologies have reduced energy consumption in mining and produced better mineral liberation and therefore flotation performance.

  19. Fine uniform filament superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Li, Qi; Roberts, Peter R.; Antaya, Peter D.; Seuntjens, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Steven; DeMoranville, Kenneth L.; Christopherson, Craig J.; Garrant, Jennifer H.; Craven, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    A multifilamentary superconductor composite having a high fill factor is formed from a plurality of stacked monofilament precursor elements, each of which includes a low density superconductor precursor monofilament. The precursor elements all have substantially the same dimensions and characteristics, and are stacked in a rectilinear configuration and consolidated to provide a multifilamentary precursor composite. The composite is thereafter thermomechanically processed to provide a superconductor composite in which each monofilament is less than about 50 microns thick.

  20. Shock fabrics in fine-grained micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, M. D.; Genge, M. J.; Russell, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The orientations of dehydration cracks and fracture networks in fine-grained, unmelted micrometeorites were analyzed using rose diagrams and entropy calculations. As cracks exploit pre-existing anisotropies, analysis of their orientation provides a mechanism with which to study the subtle petrofabrics preserved within fine-grained and amorphous materials. Both uniaxial and biaxial fabrics are discovered, often with a relatively wide spread in orientations (40°-60°). Brittle deformation cataclasis and rotated olivine grains are reported from a single micrometeorite. This paper provides the first evidence for impact-induced shock deformation in fine-grained micrometeorites. The presence of pervasive, low-grade shock features in CM chondrites and CM-like dust, anomalously low-density measurements for C-type asteroids, and impact experiments which suggest CM chondrites are highly prone to disruption all imply that CM parent bodies are unlikely to have remained intact and instead exist as a collection of loosely aggregated rubble-pile asteroids, composed of primitive shocked clasts.

  1. The Apply of Frequency Divider Circuit in Nuclear Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU Hefan; Zeng Bing; Zhang Ziliang; Ge Liangquan

    2009-01-01

    Different components in a digital system often need different working frequencies, the way we often used is clock division from the system clock. Through the analysis of frequency divider principle, a applied integer frequency dividing circuit with SE120A is proposed. It can divide the frequency multiple from 2 to 64. It's usually used in nuclear electronics. It's testing and analysis is displayed that it has no noise, good frequency division effect and stability. (authors)

  2. Usage of Crushed Concrete Fines in Decorative Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Anton; Bazhenova, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    the crushed concrete fines were provided. It is shown that the admixture of the crushed concrete fines has little effect on the colour characteristics of the decorative concrete products. The preferred options to improve the surfaces of decorative concrete are also proposed.

  3. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  4. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    Because of a change in underground mining methods that caused a considerable increase in the amount of fine sizes in the raw coal, Sahara Coal Co. designed and constructed a unique and simple fine coal system at their Harrisburg, IL prep plant. Before the new system was built, the overload of the fine coal circuit created a cost crunch due to loss of salable coal to slurry ponds, slurry pond cleaning costs, and operating and maintenance costs--each and every one excessive. Motivated by these problems, Sahara designed a prototype system to dewater the minus 28 mesh refuse. The success of the idea permitted fine refuse to be loaded onto the coarse refuse belt. Sahara also realized a large reduction in pond cleaning costs. After a period of testing, an expanded version of the refuse system was installed to dewater and dry the 28 mesh X 0 clean coal. Clean coal output increased about 30 tph. Cost savings justified the expenditures for the refuse and clean coal systems. These benefits, combined with increased coal sales revenue, paid back the project costs in less than a year.

  5. Coping with divided attention: the advantage of familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, S W; Brockmark, S; Höjesjö, J; Johnsson, J I

    2004-04-07

    The ability of an animal to perform a task successfully is limited by the amount of attention being simultaneously focused on other activities. One way in which individuals might reduce the cost of divided attention is by preferentially focusing on the most beneficial tasks. In territorial animals where aggression is lower among familiar individuals, the decision to associate preferentially with familiar conspecifics may therefore confer advantages by allowing attention to be switched from aggression to predator vigilance and feeding. Wild juvenile brown trout were used to test the prediction that familiar fishes respond more quickly than unfamiliar fishes to a simulated predator attack. Our results confirm this prediction by demonstrating that familiar trout respond 14% faster than unfamiliar individuals to a predator attack. The results also show that familiar fishes consume a greater number of food items, foraging at more than twice the rate of unfamiliar conspecifics. To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that familiarity-biased association confers advantages through the immediate fitness benefits afforded by faster predator-evasion responses and the long-term benefits provided by increased feeding opportunities.

  6. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  7. Bridging the Digital Divide--An Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the lack of access to information and communication technology (ICT) or the "digital divide" severely limits education, employment and economic prospects. This paper reports on the evaluation of a project that aims to bridge the digital divide. In particular, the case study data has been used to bring to…

  8. Evaluation of Fatih Project in the Frame of Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research realized at the general survey model is to evaluate "FATIH Project" in the frame of digital divide by determining the effects of the distributed tablets to the students being educated at K-12 schools on digital divide. Sample is taking from the 9th grade students in Sakarya city in the 2013-2014 academic session.…

  9. Negotiating Digital Divides: Perspectives from the New Zealand Schooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Louise; Sylvester, Allan; Johnstone, David

    2017-01-01

    This article explores digital divides identified in research literature and considers educational policy directions that may mitigate or enhance future inequities. A review of literature identified three categories of digital divides in society; access, capability, and participation. To explore the strategic focus in schooling, data were gathered…

  10. Confronting the Digital Divide: Debunking Brave New World Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Morrell, Ernest; Alvermann, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    There is far more to the digital divide than meets the eye. In this article, the authors consolidate existing research on the digital divide to offer some tangible ways for educators to bridge the gap between the haves and have-nots, or the cans and cannots. Drawing on Aldous Huxley's notion of a "brave new world," some digital divide…

  11. A Divided Attention Experiment with Pervasively Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Task performance of 12 pervasive hyperactives and controls (ages 8-13) was studied in a divided attention reaction time experiment. Hyperactives were slower than controls, had more variable reaction times, and made more frequent errors. Task inefficiency in hyperactives could not be explained by a divided attention deficiency or impulsive…

  12. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  13. Connecting across Many Divides: Digital, Racial, and Socio-Economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Janice; Daniel, Cathy

    As Internet usage increases nationally, it becomes more apparent that the Digital Divide (the gap between those who have information access and those who do not) is related to demographics. Although the number of low income and ethnic households that have Internet access is increasing, the Digital Divide is expected to widen because access…

  14. The potential of space exploration for the fine arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1993-01-01

    Art provides an integrating function between the 'upper' and 'lower' centers of the human psyche. The nature of this function can be made more specific through the triune model of the brain. The evolution of the fine arts - painting, drawing, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, dance, and drama, plus cinema and mathematics-as-a-fine-art - are examined in the context of their probable stimulations by space exploration: near term and long term.

  15. The New Frontier of Digital Inequality. The Participatory Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Robles Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between digital participation and the digital participation divide. The first concept refers to the use of the Internet to produce cultural goods that are subsequently shared on a global scale; the latter, refers to the inequalities generated by the uneven distribution of these creative uses of the Internet in a given population. Empirically, our work focuses on the role of digital skills and sociopolitical attitudes toward the Internet in explaining the digital participation divide, as they are considered precursors of digital participation. Results suggest that the same mechanisms that previously sustained digital divide are now fostering digital participation divide; however, we argue that the negative social consequences of this divide exceed those of its predecessor.

  16. Prospective memory: effects of divided attention on spontaneous retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler L; Mullet, Hillary G; Whiffen, Katie N; Ousterhout, Hunter; Einstein, Gilles O

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of divided attention on the spontaneous retrieval of a prospective memory intention. Participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task with an embedded prospective memory demand, and also performed a divided-attention task during some segments of lexical decision trials. In all experiments, monitoring was highly discouraged, and we observed no evidence that participants engaged monitoring processes. In Experiment 1, performing a moderately demanding divided-attention task (a digit detection task) did not affect prospective memory performance. In Experiment 2, performing a more challenging divided-attention task (random number generation) impaired prospective memory. Experiment 3 showed that this impairment was eliminated when the prospective memory cue was perceptually salient. Taken together, the results indicate that spontaneous retrieval is not automatic and that challenging divided-attention tasks interfere with spontaneous retrieval and not with the execution of a retrieved intention.

  17. [Fine root dynamics and its relationship with soil fertility in tropical rainforests of Chocó].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Harley; Caicedo, Haylin; Thelis Perez, May; Moreno, Flavio

    2016-12-01

    The fine roots play an important role in the acquisition of water and minerals from the soil, the global carbon balance and mitigation of climate change. The dynamics (productivity and turnover) of fine roots is essential for nutrient cycling and carbon balance of forest ecosystems. The availability of soil water and nutrients has significantly determined the productivity and turnover of fine roots. It has been hypothesized that fine roots dynamics increases with the availability of soil resources in tropical forest ecosystems. To test this hypothesis in tropical rainforests of Chocó (ecosystems with the highest rainfall in the world), five one-ha permanent plots were established in the localities of Opogodó and Pacurita, where the productivity and turnover of fine roots were measured at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. The measurement of the fine root production was realized by the Ingrowth core method. The fine root turnover was measured like fine roots production divided mean annual biomass. In addition, soil fertility parameters (pH, nutrients, and texture) were measured and their association with productivity and turnover of fine roots was evaluated. It was found that the sites had nutrient-poor soils. The localities also differ in soil; Opogodó has sandy soils and flat topography, and Pacurita has clay soils, rich in aluminum and mountainous topography. In Opogodó fine root production was 6.50 ± 2.62 t/ha.yr (mean ± SD). In Pacurita, fine root production was 3.61 ± 0.88 t/ha.yr. Also in Opogodó, the fine root turnover was higher than in Pacurita (1.17 /y and 0.62 /y, respectively). Fine root turnover and production in the upper soil layers (10 cm upper soil) was considerably higher. Productivity and turnover of fine roots showed positive correlation with pH and contents of organic matter, total N, K, Mg, and sand; whereas correlations were negative with ECEC and contents of Al, silt, and clay. The percentage of sand was the parameter that best explained

  18. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960

  19. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.

  20. Unobtrusive monitoring of divided attention in a cognitive health coaching intervention for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKanna, James A; Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly

    2010-11-13

    Assessment of cognitive functionality is an important aspect of care for elders. Unfortunately, few tools exist to measure divided attention, the ability to allocate attention to different aspects of tasks. An accurate determination of divided attention would allow inference of generalized cognitive decline, as well as providing a quantifiable indicator of an important component of driving skill. We propose a new method for determining relative divided attention ability through unobtrusive monitoring of computer use. Specifically, we measure performance on a dual-task cognitive computer exercise as part of a health coaching intervention. This metric indicates whether the user has the ability to pay attention to both tasks at once, or is primarily attending to one task at a time (sacrificing optimal performance). The monitoring of divided attention in a home environment is a key component of both the early detection of cognitive problems and for assessing the efficacy of coaching interventions.

  1. A note on crossing the phantom divide in hybrid dark energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao; Cai Ronggen

    2006-01-01

    Recently a lot of attention has been given to building dark energy models in which the equation-of-state parameter w can cross the phantom divide w=-1. However, to our knowledge, these models with crossing the phantom divide only provide the possibility that w can cross -1. They do not answer another question: why crossing phantom divide occurs recently? Since in many existing models whose equation-of-state parameter can cross the phantom divide, w undulates around -1 randomly, why are we living in an epochw<-1? This can be regarded as the second cosmological coincidence problem. In this Letter, we propose a possible approach to alleviate this problem within a hybrid dark energy model

  2. "Is There a Second Level Divide in Student’s Internet Skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna; Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a digital divide has moved beyond only physical disparities in technology usage and now also encompasses issues impeding access such as human social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies. This paper focuses on students......’ insufficient skill levels in making the best use of available Internet technology, discussing students in higher education in scenarios in Denmark and India. The paper emphasizes the reflective and conceptual issues which the students face in retrieving information from the Internet, which result in a second......-level divide. Through a cross-national comparison, the paper hopes to contribute to the literature through experiences of students in the two countries, providing researchers with insights into the digital divide. This divide in Internet skills is illuminated from different perspectives in the context of two...

  3. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  4. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among different categories of income, employment, education, age, and ethnicity can be proved to have existed in the 1980s and 1990s according to official American and Dutch statistics. If only by effects of sat...

  5. Responsible, Inclusive Innovation and the Nano-Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Doris; Dalton-Brown, Sally; Schrempf, Benjamin; Kaplan, David

    Policy makers from around the world are trying to emulate successful innovation systems in order to support economic growth. At the same time, innovation governance systems are being put in place to ensure a better integration of stakeholder views into the research and development process. In Europe, one of the most prominent and newly emerging governance frameworks is called Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This article aims to substantiate the following points: (1) The concept of RRI and the concept of justice can be used to derive similar ethical positions on the nano-divide. (2) Given the ambitious policy aims of RRI (e.g. economic competitiveness enhancer), the concept may be better suited to push for ethical outcomes on access to nanotechnology and its products rather than debates based on justice issues alone. It may thus serve as a mediator concept between those who push solely for competitiveness considerations and those who push solely for justice considerations in nano-technology debates. (3) The descriptive, non-normative Systems of Innovation approaches (see below) should be linked into RRI debates to provide more evidence on whether the approach advocated to achieve responsible and ethical governance of research and innovation (R&I) can indeed deliver on competitiveness (in nano-technology and other fields).

  6. Examination of the fine interstitial changes of pneumoconiosis with high resolution computed tomography (HR-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Masamitsu; Miyazaki, Nobuyoshi; Harada, Susumu; Nakata, Hajime

    1986-01-01

    High resolution CT was performed in 14 patients with fine interstitial changes of pneumoconiosis and Review image was evaluated for the diagnostic accuracy as compared with conventional chest roentgenogram. Of the 14 Patients in the study, 7 were divided category 1 by the ILO U/C classification, 4 were category 2, 3 were category 3. Studies of lung function showed obstructive ventilatory disturbance characterized by moderate reduction in FEV 1.0% (58.6 ± 16.5 %) and V25/H (0.34 ± 0.24 l/sec/m). HR-CT defined more sensitive in the presence of fine lung nodules than conventional X-p, and showed high contrast interfaces provided by the aerated lung. HR-CT was also of value in detecting bulla, bleb, peripleural changes and hilar lymphadenopathy. Radiologic-pathologic correlation was examined on tne specimens of transbronchial lung biopsy in 4 patients, and revealed the diagnostic usefullness of HR-CT. (author)

  7. A correlation study of diagnostic fine-needle aspiration with histologic diagnosis in cystic neck lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatamed, Neda A; Naini, Bita V; Fathizadeh, Payman; Estrella, Julie; Apple, Sophia K

    2009-10-01

    The clinical diagnosis of a mass in the neck region encompasses a wide spectrum of differential diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration is a quick and safe technique, which can provide useful information for initial assessment and further therapeutic measures. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in cystic neck lesions. Of 142 patients with FNA for cystic neck masses during 2002-2007, 92 cases were selected with a follow-up histologic diagnosis, excluding the cystic colloid nodule of the thyroid. The cases were divided into salivary gland cystic neck (37 patients) and non-salivary cystic neck (55 patients) mass groups. False-positive and false-negative diagnoses were applied only to the malignant lesions after confirmation by histopathology. In the first group, nine malignant and 28 benign diagnoses were made by FNA; of which three were false-negative. In the second group, there were nine malignant and 46 benign diagnoses with three false negatives. The overall performance of the FNA showed 76% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In conclusion, FNA of the cystic neck lesions offers an invaluable and highly specific initial diagnostic approach for the management of the patients. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  9. Soft sensor for real-time cement fineness estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić, Darko; Jorgovanović, Nikola; Popov, Nikola; Čongradac, Velimir

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of soft sensors to estimate cement fineness. Soft sensors are mathematical models that use available data to provide real-time information on process variables when the information, for whatever reason, is not available by direct measurement. In this application, soft sensors are used to provide information on process variable normally provided by off-line laboratory tests performed at large time intervals. Cement fineness is one of the crucial parameters that define the quality of produced cement. Providing real-time information on cement fineness using soft sensors can overcome limitations and problems that originate from a lack of information between two laboratory tests. The model inputs were selected from candidate process variables using an information theoretic approach. Models based on multi-layer perceptrons were developed, and their ability to estimate cement fineness of laboratory samples was analyzed. Models that had the best performance, and capacity to adopt changes in the cement grinding circuit were selected to implement soft sensors. Soft sensors were tested using data from a continuous cement production to demonstrate their use in real-time fineness estimation. Their performance was highly satisfactory, and the sensors proved to be capable of providing valuable information on cement grinding circuit performance. After successful off-line tests, soft sensors were implemented and installed in the control room of a cement factory. Results on the site confirm results obtained by tests conducted during soft sensor development. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ... to critically examining the gender-specific aspects of ICT use and its impact on development in ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  11. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold

    2013-10-01

    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  12. Evaluation of the divided attention condition during functional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Harper, Jill M; Querim, Angie C

    2013-01-01

    A common condition included in most functional analyses (FAs) is the attention condition, in which the therapist ignores the client by engaging in a solitary activity (antecedent event) but delivers attention to the client contingent on problem behavior (consequent event). The divided attention condition is similar, except that the antecedent event consists of the therapist conversing with an adult confederate. We compared the typical and divided attention conditions to determine whether behavior in general (Study 1) and problem behavior in particular (Study 2) were more sensitive to one of the test conditions. Results showed that the divided attention condition resulted in faster acquisition or more efficient FA results for 2 of 9 subjects, suggesting that the divided attention condition could be considered a preferred condition when resources are available. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  14. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan; Doghri, Ali; Wu, Ke; Shamim, Atif

    2013-01-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics

  15. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly a...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh.......Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...

  16. Geology of photo linear elements, Great Divide Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground examination of photo linear elements in the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming indicates little if any tectonic control. Aeolian aspects are more widespread and pervasive than previously considered.

  17. Divided attention deficits in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S; Fantie, B; Straus, S F; Grafman, J

    2001-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients and controls were compared on a variety of mood state, personality, and neuropsychological measures, including memory, word finding, and attentional tasks that required participants to focus, sustain, or divide their attention, or to perform a combination of these functions. CFS patients demonstrated a selective deficit on 3 measures of divided attention. Their performance on the other neuropsychological tests of intelligence, fluency, and memory was no different than that of normal controls despite their reports of generally diminished cognitive capacity. There was an inverse relation between CFS patient fatigue severity and performance on 1 of the divided attention measures. Given these findings, it is probable that CFS patients will report more cognitive difficulties in real-life situations that cause them to divide their effort or rapidly reallocate cognitive resources between 2 response channels (vision and audition).

  18. The contribution of working memory to divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that increasing working memory (WM) load can affect the attentional selection of signals originating from one object/location. Here we assessed whether WM load affects also the selection of multiple objects/locations (divided attention). Participants monitored either two object-categories (vs. one category; object-based divided attention) or two locations (vs. one location; space-based divided attention) while maintaining in WM either a variable number of objects (object-based WM load) or locations (space-based WM load). Behavioural results showed that WM load affected attentional performance irrespective of divided or focused attention. However, fMRI results showed that the activity associated with object-based divided attention increased linearly with increasing object-based WM load in the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS); while, in the same areas, activity associated with space-based divided attention was not affected by any type of WM load. These findings support the hypothesis that WM contributes to the maintenance of resource-demanding attentional sets in a domain-specific manner. Moreover, the dissociable impact of WM load on performance and brain activity suggests that increased IPS activation reflects a recruitment of additional, domain-specific processing resources that enable dual-task performance under conditions of high WM load and high attentional demand. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Modulation of early cortical processing during divided attention to non-contiguous locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Hans-Peter; Schmid, Anita M; Murphy, Jeremy W; Molholm, Sophie; Lalor, Edmund C; Foxe, John J

    2014-05-01

    We often face the challenge of simultaneously attending to multiple non-contiguous regions of space. There is ongoing debate as to how spatial attention is divided under these situations. Whereas, for several years, the predominant view was that humans could divide the attentional spotlight, several recent studies argue in favor of a unitary spotlight that rhythmically samples relevant locations. Here, this issue was addressed by the use of high-density electrophysiology in concert with the multifocal m-sequence technique to examine visual evoked responses to multiple simultaneous streams of stimulation. Concurrently, we assayed the topographic distribution of alpha-band oscillatory mechanisms, a measure of attentional suppression. Participants performed a difficult detection task that required simultaneous attention to two stimuli in contiguous (undivided) or non-contiguous parts of space. In the undivided condition, the classic pattern of attentional modulation was observed, with increased amplitude of the early visual evoked response and increased alpha amplitude ipsilateral to the attended hemifield. For the divided condition, early visual responses to attended stimuli were also enhanced, and the observed multifocal topographic distribution of alpha suppression was in line with the divided attention hypothesis. These results support the existence of divided attentional spotlights, providing evidence that the corresponding modulation occurs during initial sensory processing time-frames in hierarchically early visual regions, and that suppressive mechanisms of visual attention selectively target distracter locations during divided spatial attention. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Berry's Phase and Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    Irrational numbers can be assigned to physical entities based on iterative processes of geometric objects. It is likely that iterative round trips of vector signals include a geometric phase component. If so, this component will couple back to the round trip frequency or path length generating an non-linear feedback loop (i.e. induced by precession). In this paper such a quantum feedback mechanism is defined including generalized fine structure constants in accordance with the fundamental gravitomagnetic relation of spin-orbit coupling. Supported by measurements, the general relativistic and topological background allows to propose, that the deviation of the fine structure constant from 1/137 could be assigned to Berry's phase. The interpretation is straightforward: spacetime curvature effects can be greatly amplified by non-linear phase-locked feedback-loops adjusted to single-valued phase relationships in the quantum regime.

  1. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  2. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  3. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  4. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  5. Acoustic fine structure may encode biologically relevant information for zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Nora H; Smith, Edward; Lawson, Shelby; Ball, Gregory F; Dooling, Robert J

    2018-04-18

    The ability to discriminate changes in the fine structure of complex sounds is well developed in birds. However, the precise limit of this discrimination ability and how it is used in the context of natural communication remains unclear. Here we describe natural variability in acoustic fine structure of male and female zebra finch calls. Results from psychoacoustic experiments demonstrate that zebra finches are able to discriminate extremely small differences in fine structure, which are on the order of the variation in acoustic fine structure that is present in their vocal signals. Results from signal analysis methods also suggest that acoustic fine structure may carry information that distinguishes between biologically relevant categories including sex, call type and individual identity. Combined, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that zebra finches can encode biologically relevant information within the fine structure of their calls. This study provides a foundation for our understanding of how acoustic fine structure may be involved in animal communication.

  6. [Promoting nursing competitiveness: introduction to the digital divide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly sophisticated information technology (IT) has widened the gap (the so-called "digital divide") between those with effective access to IT resources and those without. Problems related to the digital divide exist in every country. In addition to level of familiarity with technology, the divide can also be influenced by factors of race, gender, age, education, economic status and area of residence. The digital divide may be ameliorated through technology innovations in terms of access to information, information application and information literacy. As IT is an increasingly significant component of modern healthcare, it may be expected that the "width" of the potential gap widens as IT applications increase in sophistication. Nursing professionals must keep abreast of advancing technologies in order to narrow the digital divide. To cope with this challenge, nursing professionals should enhance their understanding of new technologies beyond what is taught in formal education curricula. This knowledge enhancement may be attained through self learning or on-the-job training in nursing informatics. Content could cover hospital information system (IS) usage, security, applications and web access. This will improve the ability of nursing staff to face the current IT challenge.

  7. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Fang, Eric; Gooley, Joshua J

    2017-01-01

    Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1) performed alone (single task); 2) performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task); and 3) performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task). Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  8. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.

  9. Investigation on Locking and Pulling Modes in Analog Frequency Dividers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Buonomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the main analytical results available to estimate the locking range, which is the key figure-of-merit of LC frequency dividers based on the injection locking phenomenon. Starting from the classical result by Adler concerning injection-locked oscillators, we elucidate the merits and the shortcomings of the different approaches to study injection-locked frequency dividers, with particular emphasis on divider-by-2. In particular, we show the potential of a perturbation approach which enables a more complete analysis of frequency dividers, making it possible to calculate not only the amplitude and the phase of the locked oscillation, but also the region where it exists and is stable, which defines the locking region. Finally, we analyze the dynamical behaviour of the dividers in the vicinity of the boundary of the locking region, showing that there exists a border region where the occurrence of the locking or the pulling operation mode is possible, depending on the initial conditions of the system.

  10. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chern-Pin Chua

    Full Text Available Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1 performed alone (single task; 2 performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task; and 3 performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task. Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  11. Digital Divide Measurement in Lembata Regency Using SIBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Cecilia Dai Payon Binti; Setyohadi, Djoko Budiyanto; Suyoto

    2018-02-01

    Along with technological development in Indonesia, digital divide occurs in various regions, which were behind in terms of information on how to use, access and utilize ICT in collecting information from internet. One of the regions is Lembata Regency in East Nusa Tenggara, where digital divide among the people should be measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of digital divide among the people of Lembata Regency. To determine the level of digital divide, we used SIBIS GPS (General Population Survey) method, which consisted of several indicators or aspect, i.e. internet usage behavior, internet utilization, and e-government. We also performed two tests, i.e. validity test and reliability test to obtain value of index of digital divide measurement among the people of Lembata Regency. The results of validity test which is processed using SPSS program are categorized valid for each variable indicator and the reliability test results show reliable status. According to the test results on digital discrepancy in Lembata people, the internet usage attitude indicator is categorized low which is 63.1%, the internet usage function indicator is categorized low which is 64%, and the digital discrepancy of e-government indicator is categorized medium which is 40.4%. Therefore, the result of this study because consideration for the government of Lembata Regency in improving ICT services in e-government and in distributing ICT access and ability equally to the people.

  12. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  13. Considering Fine Art and Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a close association between picturebook illustrations and works of fine art since the picturebook was first conceived, and many ways these associations among works of fine art and picturebook illustrations and design play out. To make sense of all the various ways picturebook illustrations are associated with works of fine art,…

  14. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a reasonable...

  15. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.This book discusses how educational technology can be used to transform education and assist developing communities to close the knowledge divide. Its broader audience is anyone who is interested in educational technology for development. In the book you can find best practices and case studies especially from countries in Africa.The book is edited by Stewart Marshall, Wanjira Kinuthia, Wallace Taylor. Professor Stewart Marshall, PhD, is the director of the Academic Division of the University of the West Indies Open Campus (UWIOC and holds the UNESCO Chair in Educational Technologies.Dr. Wanjira Kinuthia is assistant professor of Learning Technologies at Georgia State University. She works as an instructional designer in higher education and business and industry for several years. Professor Wallace Taylor, PhD, is a founding director of The Information Society Institute (TISI, a non-profit academic, research, and policy development organization based in South Africa.The book is consisted of 433 pages (+xxxv covering 24 articles divided into four sections and provides information about flexible learning for empowerment, managing and communicating knowledge, flexible delivery in higher education and preparing teacher using flexible approaches.Topics covered in the book are as follows

  16. Bridging the Digital Divide for urban seniors: community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults resources for improving health. For many older adults, the "Digital Divide" (the social, economic, and demographic factors that exist between individuals who use computers and those who do not) is a barrier to taking advantage of these resources. Bridging the Digital Divide by making computers and the Internet more accessible and making online health information more usable for older adults has the potential to improve health of older adults. This article describes a strategy for closing the Digital Divide for urban seniors through the formation of a community- university partnership with the goal of improving health and well-being through the use of online health information. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dividing traffic cluster into parts by signal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.

  18. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  19. Crossing the phantom divide: Dark energy internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy constraints have forced viable alternatives that differ substantially from a cosmological constant Λ to have an equation of state w that evolves across the phantom divide set by Λ. Naively, crossing this divide makes the dark energy gravitationally unstable, a problem that is typically finessed by unphysically ignoring the perturbations. While this procedure does not affect constraints near the favored cosmological constant model it can artificially enhance the confidence with which alternative models are rejected. Similar to the general problem of stability for w<0, the solution lies in the internal degrees of freedom in the dark energy sector. We explicitly show how to construct a two scalar field model that crosses the phantom divide and mimics the single field behavior on either side to substantially better than 1% in all observables. It is representative of models where the internal degrees of freedom keep the dark energy smooth out to the horizon scale independently of the equation of state

  20. Bruce NGS A Unit 4 preheater divider plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landridge, M.; McInnes, D.

    1995-01-01

    On May 19, 1995, without any prior operational indications, Bruce A discovered preheater divider plate damage in Unit 4 that had the potential to have a major impact on the continued safe operation of the station. Further investigations indicated that Unit 4 may have been operating with this damage for as long as ten years. In the two months following the discovery, Bruce A has procured and replaced the 4 divider plates, located most of the missing pieces, retrieved pieces from the PHT system, investigated historical operational information, performed detailed analytical investigations, investigated root cause, performed in-situ and mock-up testing, updated operational procedures and installed DP monitoring equipment

  1. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    FREYDIER, Chloé; BERTHELON, Catherine; BASTIEN-TONIAZZO, Mireille; GINEYT, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to two crashes factors, divided attention task and alcohol, and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Method: Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identif...

  2. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  3. Internet on the outstation : the digital divide and remote aboriginal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennie, E.; Hogan, E.; Gregory, R.; Crouch, A.; Wright, A.; Thomas, J.; Rasch, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Internet on the Outstation provides a new take on the digital divide. Why do whole communities choose to go without the internet when the infrastructure for access is in place? Through an in-depth exploration of the digital practices occurring in Aboriginal households in remote central Australia,

  4. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  5. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  6. Divided attention and driving: a pilot study using virtual reality technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengenfelder, Jean; Schultheis, Maria T; Al-Shihabi, Talal; Mourant, Ronald; DeLuca, John

    2002-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR) was used to investigate the influence of divided attention (simple versus complex) on driving performance (speed control). Three individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and three healthy controls (HC), matched for age, education, and gender, were examined. Preliminary results revealed no differences on driving speed between TBI and HC. In contrast, TBI subjects demonstrated a greater number of errors on a secondary task performed while driving. The findings suggest that VR may provide an innovative medium for direct evaluation of basic cognitive functions (ie, divided attention) and its impact on everyday tasks (ie, driving) not previously available through traditional neuropsychological measures.

  7. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  8. The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence for the digital divide based on gender. An overview of research published in the last 20 years draws to the conclusion that females are at a disadvantage relative to men when learning about computers or learning other material with the aid of computer-assisted software. The evidence shows that the digital divide…

  9. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some global and local developments in information access and the Open Access movement are highlighted, and the National Library of South Africa\\'s interim strategies to bridge the information and digital divide are identified. However, it becomes evident that unless librarians, information consumers, publishers, ...

  10. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  12. The new technology of dividing wall in stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    The author analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the ordinary separating methods between stopes at deep mine, points out the main problems of the original projects constructing dividing wall, presents an idea of new technology which can overcome the main problems, predicts effect adopting the new technology, and analyzes that feasibility applying the new technology to construct mortar pad in stope and dyke-dam

  13. Divided dreamworlds? The cultural cold war in East and West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, P.; Scott-Smith, G.; Segal, J.

    2012-01-01

    While the divide between capitalism and communism, embodied in the image of the Iron Curtain, seemed to be as wide and definitive as any cultural rift, Giles Scott-Smith, Joes Segal, and Peter Romijn have compiled a selection of essays on how culture contributed to the blurring of ideological

  14. Microcanonical rates, gap times, and phase space dividing surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezra, Gregory S.; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The general approach to classical unimolecular reaction rates due to Thiele is revisited in light of recent advances in the phase space formulation of transition state theory for multidimensional systems. Key concepts, such as the phase space dividing surface separating reactants from products, the

  15. Lost in the Great Divide: Motivation in Religious Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Emily O.

    2018-01-01

    One of the most illuminating finds in Barbara E. Walvoord's "Teaching and Learning in College Introductory Religion Courses" (2008) is what she calls "the great divide," a mismatch between instructors' goals for their courses, which are academic, and the students' reasons for taking them, which relate to their personal…

  16. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature…

  17. Loop versus divided colostomy for the management of anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Omar; Davies, Dafydd; Colapinto, Kimberly; Gerstle, J Ted

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of loop and divided colostomies in patients with anorectal malformations (ARM). We performed a retrospective cohort study reviewing the medical records of all patients with ARM managed with diverting colostomies between 2000 and 2010 at our institution. Independent variables and outcomes of stoma complications were analyzed by parametric measures and logistic regression. One hundred forty-four patients managed with a colostomy for ARM were evaluated (37.5% females, 50.7% loop, 49.3% divided). The incidence of patients with loop and divided colostomies who developed stoma-related complications was 31.5 and 15.5%, respectively (p=0.031). The incidence of prolapse was 17.8 and 2.8%, respectively (p=0.005). Multivariable-logistic regression controlling for other significant independent variables found loop colostomies to be positively associated with the development of a stoma complication (OR 3.13, 95%CI (1.09, 8.96), p=0.033). When individual complications were evaluated, it was only stoma prolapse that was more likely in patients with loop colostomies (OR 8.75, 95%CI (1.74, 44.16), p=0.009). Because of the higher incidence of prolapse, loop colostomies were found to be associated with a higher total incidence of complications than divided stomas. The development of other complications, including urinary tract infections (UTIs) and megarectum, were independent of the type of colostomy performed. © 2014.

  18. Communication in a Divided World: Opportunities and Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Harold

    Communication systems in a divided world can perpetuate tension and violence or can be instrumental in developing unity. In response to this power, communicators must focus on generating worldwide recognition of interdependence in the shaping and sharing of values. Likewise, a responsible communication policy must stimulate the invention and…

  19. Simulation of Material Flow Through a Sample Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Rozbroj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The prerequisite for a modern approach to innovative procedures of the development of current or even newly created equipment for the transport of particulate materials is the utilization of simulation methods, such as the Discrete Element Method (DEM. This article focuses on the basic, or initial, validation of movement of material through the sample divider. The mechanical-physical properties of brown coal were measured. Based on these parameters the preliminary input values for EDEM Academic were selected, and a simulation of the dividing process was run. The key monitored parameters included density and friction coefficient. Experiments on a realistic model of the equipment were performed and assessed. The total weights of brown coal at the exit from the divider were determined for a specific speed of the divider. The aim of this task was to simulate the realistically determined weight division of the brown coal sample. The result from the DEM was compared with the results of measurement on a realistic model.

  20. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  1. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  2. Competing discourses on Europe: the divided case of Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Historical and cultural context and individual experience are likely to influence the ‘imagination of Europe’. Such discourses exist according to specific social patterns that may critically divide societies into different and competing social constructions of Europe. Is there a transnational

  3. Design of Compact Wilkinson Power Divider with Harmonic Suppression using T-Shaped Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahkamari, Hesam; Yasoubi, Zahra; Jahanbakhshi, Maryam; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Siahkamari, Payam; Nouri, Mohammad Ehsan; Azami, Sajad; Azadi, Rasoul

    2018-04-01

    A novel scheme of a shrunken Wilkinson power divider with harmonic suppression, using two identical resonators in the conventional Wilkinson power divider is designed. Moreover, the LC equivalent circuit and its relevant formulas are provided. To substantiate the functionality and soundness of design, a microstrip implementation of this design operating at 1 GHz with the second to eighth harmonic suppression, is developed. The proposed circuit is relatively smaller than the conventional circuit, (roughly 55% of the conventional circuit). Simulation and measurement results for the proposed scheme, which are highly consistent with one another, indicate a good insertion loss about 3.1 dB, input return loss of 20 dB and isolation of 20 dB, while sustaining high-power handling capability over the Wilkinson power divider.

  4. The relationship between divided attention and implicit memory: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2011-03-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis comparing the size of repetition priming in full and divided-attention (DA) conditions. The main analysis included 38 effect sizes (ES) extracted from 21 empirical studies, for a total of 2074 (full-attention) and 2148 (divided-attention) participants. The mean weighted ES was 0.357 (95% CI=0.278-0.435), indicating that divided attention produced a small, but significant, negative effect on implicit memory. Overall, the distinction between identification and production priming provided the best fit to empirical data (with the effect of DA being greater for production tests), whereas there was no significant difference between perceptual and conceptual priming. A series of focused contrasts suggested that word-stem completion might be influenced by lexical-conceptual processes, and that perceptual identification might involve a productive component. Implications for current theories of implicit memory are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Generation of five phase-locked harmonics by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Nurul Sheeda; Ohae, Chiaki; Gavara, Trivikramarao; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-12-15

    We report the generation of five phase-locked harmonics, f₁:2403  nm, f₂:1201  nm, f₃:801  nm, f₄:600  nm, and f₅:480  nm with an exact frequency ratio of 1:2:3:4:5 by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider in the high harmonic generation process. All five harmonics are generated coaxially with high phase coherence in time and space, which are applicable for various practical uses.

  6. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  7. Ignition probability of fine dead surface fuels in native Patagonia forests of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L.; Defosse, G. E.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) is being implemented all over the world. This index is being adapted to the Argentinean ecosystems since the year 2000. With the objective of calibrating the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) of the FWI system to Patagonian forests, we studied the relationship between ignition probability and fine dead surface fuel moisture content (MC) as an indicator of potential fire ignition. Area of study: The study area is located in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, and comprised two main forest types (cypress and nire) grown under a Mediterranean climate, with a dry summer and precipitations during winter and autumn ({approx}500-800 mm per year). Material and methods: We conducted lab ignition tests fires to determine the threshold of fine dead fuel ignition at different MC levels. Moisture content of dead fine surface fuels in the field was measured every 10-15 days from November to March for three seasons. We calculated the FFMC during these seasons and correlated it with the measured MC by applying a logistic regression model. We combined the results of the ignition tests and of the regressions to suggest FFMC categories for estimating fire danger in Patagonian forests. Main results: The ignition threshold occurred at MC values of 21.5 and 25.0% for cypress and nire sites, respectively. The MC measured varied from 7.3 to 129.6%, and the calculated FFMC varied between 13.4 and 92.6. Highly significant regressions resulted when FFMC was related to MC. The ignition threshold corresponded to a FFMC = 85. We proposed to divide the FFMC scale in three fire danger categories: Low (FFMC {<=} 85), High (85 < FFMC{<=}89) and Extreme (FFMC > 89). Research highlights: Our results provide a useful tool for predicting fire danger in these ecosystems, and are a contribution to the development of the Argentinean Fire Danger Rating and a reference for similar studies in other countries where the FWI is being implemented. (Author)

  8. Ignition probability of fine dead surface fuels of native Patagonian forests or Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas O. Bianchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI is being implemented all over the world. This index is being adapted to the Argentinean ecosystems since the year 2000. With the objective of calibrating the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC of the FWI system to Patagonian forests, we studied the relationship between ignition probability and fine dead surface fuel moisture content (MC as an indicator of potential fire ignition.Area of study: The study area is located in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, and comprised two main forest types (cypress and ñire grown under a Mediterranean climate, with a dry summer and precipitations during winter and autumn (~500-800 mm per year.Material and Methods: We conducted lab ignition tests fires to determine the threshold of fine dead fuel ignition at different MC levels. Moisture content of dead fine surface fuels in the field was measured every 10-15 days from November to March for three seasons. We calculated the FFMC during these seasons and correlated it with the measured MC by applying a logistic regression model. We combined the results of the ignition tests and of the regressions to suggest FFMC categories for estimating fire danger in Patagonian forests.Main results: The ignition threshold occurred at MC values of 21.5 and 25.0% for cypress and ñire sites, respectively. The MC measured varied from 7.3 to 129.6%, and the calculated FFMC varied between 13.4 and 92.6. Highly significant regressions resulted when FFMC was related to MC. The ignition threshold corresponded to a FFMC=85. We proposed to divide the FFMC scale in three fire danger categories: Low (FFMC≤85, High (8589.Research highlights: Our results provide a useful tool for predicting fire danger in these ecosystems, and are a contribution to the development of the Argentinean Fire Danger Rating and a reference for similar studies in other countries where the FWI is being implemented

  9. Envisioning the Future: Working toward Sustainability in Fine Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela; Hulbert, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Fine art education provides students with opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills to respond creatively to their experience of society and culture. Fostering creative ways of knowing, thinking and doing requires studio learning conditions that promote the exploration of embodied perceptions, material sensibilities and conceptual ideas that…

  10. MRL and SuperFine+MRL: new supertree methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Supertree methods combine trees on subsets of the full taxon set together to produce a tree on the entire set of taxa. Of the many supertree methods, the most popular is MRP (Matrix Representation with Parsimony), a method that operates by first encoding the input set of source trees by a large matrix (the "MRP matrix") over {0,1, ?}, and then running maximum parsimony heuristics on the MRP matrix. Experimental studies evaluating MRP in comparison to other supertree methods have established that for large datasets, MRP generally produces trees of equal or greater accuracy than other methods, and can run on larger datasets. A recent development in supertree methods is SuperFine+MRP, a method that combines MRP with a divide-and-conquer approach, and produces more accurate trees in less time than MRP. In this paper we consider a new approach for supertree estimation, called MRL (Matrix Representation with Likelihood). MRL begins with the same MRP matrix, but then analyzes the MRP matrix using heuristics (such as RAxML) for 2-state Maximum Likelihood. Results We compared MRP and SuperFine+MRP with MRL and SuperFine+MRL on simulated and biological datasets. We examined the MRP and MRL scores of each method on a wide range of datasets, as well as the resulting topological accuracy of the trees. Our experimental results show that MRL, coupled with a very good ML heuristic such as RAxML, produced more accurate trees than MRP, and MRL scores were more strongly correlated with topological accuracy than MRP scores. Conclusions SuperFine+MRP, when based upon a good MP heuristic, such as TNT, produces among the best scores for both MRP and MRL, and is generally faster and more topologically accurate than other supertree methods we tested. PMID:22280525

  11. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  12. Divided attention interferes with fulfilling activity-based intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Ball, B Hunter; Knight, Justin B; Dewitt, Michael R; Marsh, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of divided attention on activity-based prospective memory. After establishing a goal to fulfill an intention upon completion of an ongoing activity, successful completion of the intention generally suffered when attention was being devoted to an additional task (Experiment 1). Forming an implementation intention at encoding ameliorated the negative effects of divided attention (Experiment 2). The results from the present experiments demonstrate that activity-based prospective memory is susceptible to distraction and that implementing encoding strategies that enhance prospective memory performance can reduce this interference. The current work raises interesting questions about the similarities and differences between event- and activity-based prospective memories. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Climate Change and North-South Divide. Between and Within

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The traditional North-South divide has persisted through out the negotiations on climate change. Divergent state interests made striking a right balance between development and environmental protection an elusive endeavor as negotiators were striving to adopt a global climate regime. Four principles of international environmental law are of particular concern: the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the principle of equity, the precautionary principle, and the principle of sustainable development. With economic development being the overriding priority in developing countries, the negotiations leading to the Kyoto Protocol tend to prove that principles could be interpreted in different ways to fit particular interests. This study explains the confrontations between the North and the South and argues that climate change has by far strengthened the North-South divide both between and within. Accordingly, it concludes that there is a need to devise new principles

  14. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restifo, Linda L; Phelan, Gerald R

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this 'cultural divide'. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  15. Design and analysis of unequal split Bagley power dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Alnadi, Omar; Dib, Nihad; Al-Shamaileh, Khair; Sheta, Abdelfattah

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we propose a general design procedure to develop unequal split Bagley power dividers (BPDs). Based on the mathematical approach carried out in the insight of simple circuit and transmission line theories, exact design equations for 3-way and 5-way BPDs are derived. Utilising the developed equations leads to power dividers with the ability of offering different output power ratios through a suitable choice of the characteristic impedances of the interconnecting transmission lines. For verification purposes, a 1:2:1 3-way, 1:2:1:2:1 5-way and 1:3:1:3:1 5-way BPDs are designed and fabricated. The experimental and full-wave simulation results prove the validity of the designed unequal split BPDs.

  16. Full versus divided attention and implicit memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, G; Prinsen, A

    1997-11-01

    Effects of full and divided attention during study on explicit and implicit memory performance were investigated in two experiments. Study time was manipulated in a third experiment. Experiment 1 showed that both similar and dissociative effects can be found in the two kinds of memory test, depending on the difficulty of the concurrent tasks used in the divided-attention condition. In this experiment, however, standard implicit memory tests were used and contamination by explicit memory influences cannot be ruled out. Therefore, in Experiments 2 and 3 the process dissociation procedure was applied. Manipulations of attention during study and of study time clearly affected the controlled (explicit) memory component, but had no effect on the automatic (implicit) memory component. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan

    2013-06-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Function spaces with uniform, fine and graph topologies

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Robert A; Jindal, Varun

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive account of the theory of spaces of continuous functions under uniform, fine and graph topologies. Besides giving full details of known results, an attempt is made to give generalizations wherever possible, enriching the existing literature. The goal of this monograph is to provide an extensive study of the uniform, fine and graph topologies on the space C(X,Y) of all continuous functions from a Tychonoff space X to a metric space (Y,d); and the uniform and fine topologies on the space H(X) of all self-homeomorphisms on a metric space (X,d). The subject matter of this monograph is significant from the theoretical viewpoint, but also has applications in areas such as analysis, approximation theory and differential topology. Written in an accessible style, this book will be of interest to researchers as well as graduate students in this vibrant research area.

  19. Fine Tuning Mission to reach those influenced by Darwinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientifically aware section of the South African population is increasing. Many are being exposed to the concept of Darwinian evolution. Exposure has generated a religious sub �people group� who have problems with Christianity because they have been influenced by the naturalistic element in Darwinian philosophy. Christian antagonism towards evolution has often prejudiced them unfavourably towards the gospel. Recent discoveries concerning the fine-tuning of the universe have now presented a window of opportunity for overcoming this. It may enable the church to �fine-tune� its missionary approach to present them with the gospel in a more acceptable manner. It is suggested that Paul�s Areopagus speech provides a model for such cross-cultural evangelism. A section is included at the end, describing some objections that have been raised against the cosmological fine-tuning apologetic.

  20. Finding effective responses against cyber attacks for divided nations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Min

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There can be hostile relations between nations that are divided politically or ideologically, and there are threats in cyberspace as well as physical space. Although every cyber threat, like a physical threat, has countermeasures, this can be hard because of the complexity of cyberspace and the ethics in cyberspace. This study tries to find effective countermeasures for South Korea in cyberspace against North Korea’s continuing cyber a...

  1. Divided versus selective attention: evidence for common processing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Ross, Thomas J; Myers, Carol S; Heishman, Stephen J; Stein, Dan J; Kurup, Pradeep K; Stein, Elliot A

    2008-06-18

    The current study revisited the question of whether there are brain mechanisms specific to divided attention that differ from those used in selective attention. Increased neuronal activity required to simultaneously process two stimulus dimensions as compared with each separate dimension has often been observed, but rarely has activity induced by a divided attention condition exceeded the sum of activity induced by the component tasks. Healthy participants performed a selective-divided attention paradigm while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The task required participants to make a same-different judgment about either one of two simultaneously presented stimulus dimensions, or about both dimensions. Performance accuracy was equated between tasks by dynamically adjusting the stimulus display time. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal differences between tasks were identified by whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons and by region-specific analyses of all areas modulated by the divided attention task (DIV). No region displayed greater activation or deactivation by DIV than the sum of signal change by the two selective attention tasks. Instead, regional activity followed the tasks' processing demands as reflected by reaction time. Only a left cerebellar region displayed a correlation between participants' BOLD signal intensity and reaction time that was selective for DIV. The correlation was positive, reflecting slower responding with greater activation. Overall, the findings do not support the existence of functional brain activity specific to DIV. Increased activity appears to reflect additional processing demands by introducing a secondary task, but those demands do not appear to qualitatively differ from processes of selective attention.

  2. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  3. Job quality in Europe: the North-South divide

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeira, Maria da Conceição; Kovács, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the job quality in Europe. It is based on the results of the Fourth European Foundation Survey on working conditions covering different dimensions including work organisation, job content, autonomy at work, aspects of worker dignity, working time and work-life balance, working conditions and safety in the workplace. The results point to the existence of great diversity in the job quality across Europe and the north-south divide. The job quality differences are related to t...

  4. Coping with divided attention: the advantage of familiarity.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, S. W.; Brockmark, S.; Höjesjö, J.; Johnsson, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of an animal to perform a task successfully is limited by the amount of attention being simultaneously focused on other activities. One way in which individuals might reduce the cost of divided attention is by preferentially focusing on the most beneficial tasks. In territorial animals where aggression is lower among familiar individuals, the decision to associate preferentially with familiar conspecifics may therefore confer advantages by allowing attention to be switched from ag...

  5. Pseudodifference operators and uniform convergence of divided differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifanov, I K; Poltavskii, L N

    2002-01-01

    The concept of pseudodifference operator is introduced. The properties of a class of pseudodifference operators in spaces of fractional quotients are studied. A local theorem on the uniform convergence of divided differences of arbitrary order for an approximate solution is established. In particular, the local infinite differentiability of a precise solution of operator equations of elliptic type with locally infinitely differentiable right-hand side is proved on the basis of a numerical method. Examples related to applications are presented

  6. Abelianization of the F-divided fundamental group scheme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS

    Abelianization of the F-divided fundamental group scheme. 283. Restrict the Poincaré bundle to X × Pic0 red(X). Viewing this restriction as a line bundle on Pic0 red(X) parametrized by X, we ... which gives rise to an exact sequence of the projective systems considered in Definition. 2.3. Applying the projective limit functor ...

  7. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Prull, Matthew W.; Lawless, Courtney; Marshall, Helen M.; Sherman, Annabella T. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (Experiments 1 and 3), or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2), both of which are conceptually-driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA) conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting...

  8. Reconciling Ethnic and National Identities in a Divided Society: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reconciling Ethnic and National Identities in a Divided Society: The Nigerian Dilemma of Nation-State Building. Abu Bakarr Bah. Abstract. « Réconcilier les Identités Ethniques et Nationales dans une Société Divisée: Le Dilemme Nigérian de la Construction de l\\'Etat-Nation ». Résumé Il s\\'agit ici d\\'une analyse théorique et ...

  9. Contact-free Stress Monitoring for User's Divided Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Dvijesh; Wesley, Avinash; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This research work demonstrates the feasibility of stress quantification in situations where the attention of the user is divided. Psychologically kosher (i.e., unobtrusive) quantification of stress and its correlation to user performance and emotion are of singular importance in man-machine interaction. We have also proved that talking on a cell phone during simulated driving increases the supraorbital skin temperature significantly. This finding clearly demonstrates that concurrent performa...

  10. Is the digital divide between young and elderly people increasing?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Gerd; Stegbauer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Elderly people still play a minor role in research on information needs and usage patterns of Internet users. Online research and advocacy groups look optimistically at the (economic and social) potential of the active and technology–skilled elderly; other approaches dealing with the social appropriation of technology see obstacles and stress the dangers of an increasing digital divide between generations. Our objective is to refer to taken for granted normative assumptions of the digital div...

  11. Measuring the Digital Divide with PingER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the PingER project/toolkit and show its relevance to monitoring sites in developing countries. We then show results from PingER that illustrate the extent of the Digital Divide in terms of Internet performance between developed and developing regions, which developing regions are catching up, keeping up, or falling behind and the magnitude of the differences in performance between developed regions and developing regions.

  12. Subjective cognitive impairment: functional MRI during a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, J; Dannhauser, T; Cutinha, D J; Shergill, S S; Walker, Z

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) have persistent memory complaints but normal neurocognitive performance. For some, this may represent a pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that attentional deficits and associated brain activation changes are present early in the course of AD, we aimed to determine whether SCI is associated with brain activation changes during attentional processing. Eleven SCI subjects and 10 controls completed a divided attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. SCI and control groups did not differ in sociodemographic, neurocognitive or behavioural measures. When group activation during the divided attention task was compared, the SCI group demonstrated increased activation in left medial temporal lobe, bilateral thalamus, posterior cingulate and caudate. This pattern of increased activation is similar to the pattern of decreased activation reported during divided attention in AD and may indicate compensatory changes. These findings suggest the presence of early functional changes in SCI; longitudinal studies will help to further elucidate the relationship between SCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of divided attention on auditory priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Duke, Marquinn; Cooper, Angela W

    2007-09-01

    Traditional theorizing stresses the importance of attentional state during encoding for later memory, based primarily on research with explicit memory. Recent research has begun to investigate the role of attention in implicit memory but has focused almost exclusively on priming in the visual modality. The present experiments examined the effect of divided attention on auditory implicit memory, using auditory perceptual identification, word-stem completion and word-fragment completion. Participants heard study words under full attention conditions or while simultaneously carrying out a distractor task (the divided attention condition). In Experiment 1, a distractor task with low response frequency failed to disrupt later auditory priming (but diminished explicit memory as assessed with auditory recognition). In Experiment 2, a distractor task with greater response frequency disrupted priming on all three of the auditory priming tasks as well as the explicit test. These results imply that although auditory priming is less reliant on attention than explicit memory, it is still greatly affected by at least some divided-attention manipulations. These results are consistent with research using visual priming tasks and have relevance for hypotheses regarding attention and auditory priming.

  14. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  15. Remelting of metallurgical fines using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L.C.; Neto F, J.B.F.; Bender, O.W.; Collares, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma furnace was developed for remelting of ferro alloys and silicon fines. The furnace capacity was about 4 Kg of silicon and power about 50 kW. The fine (20 to 100 mesh) was fed into the furnace directly at the high temperature zone. This system was tested for remelting silicon fines and the results in the recovery of silicon was about 95% and it took place a refine of aluminium and calcium. (author)

  16. A study of human DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    height and ripple prevalence. Temporary changes of the DPOAE fine structure are analyzed by measuring DPOAE both before and after exposing some of the subjects to an intense sound. The characteristic patterns of fine structure can be found in the DPOAE of all subjects, though they are individual and vary...... fine structures are obtained from 74 normalhearing humans using primary levels of L1/L2=65/45 dB. The subjects belong to groups with different age and exposure history. A classification algorithm is developed, which quantifies the fine structure by the parameters ripple place, ripple width, ripple...

  17. On Basu's proposal: Fines affect bribes

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    I model the connection between the equilibrium bribe amount and the fines imposed on both bribe-taker and bribe-payer. I show that Basu's (2011) proposal to lower the fines imposed on bribe-payers in order to induce more whistleblowing and increase the probability of penalizing corrupt government officials might instead increase bribe amounts. Higher expected fines on bribe-takers will make them charge larger bribes; at the same time, lowering fines for bribe-paying might increase bribe-payer...

  18. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were

  19. Preferential processing of tactile events under conditions of divided attention: Effects of divided attention on reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, James V. M.; Whitaker, David; Heron, James

    2009-01-01

    Differences in transduction and transmission latencies of visual, auditory and tactile events cause corresponding differences in simple reaction time. As reaction time is usually measured in unimodal blocks, it is unclear whether such latency differences also apply when observers monitor multiple sensory channels. We investigate this by comparing reaction time when attention is focussed on a single modality, and when attention is divided between multiple modalities. Results show that tactile ...

  20. Impact of WOWW's Fine Arts Enriched Education Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Laurie A.; Tiegs, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Learning through the fine arts possesses many benefits, yet efforts to address the arts within public schools, particularly rural schools, are insufficient. In an effort to support rural public schools in Texas, Window On a Wider World (WOWW) began providing fine arts enriched education programming in 2006 to area partner schools that serve…

  1. METHODS OF RECEIVING OF FINE-GRAINED STRUCTURE OF CASTINGS AT CRYSTALLIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tolochko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for fine-grained structure of ingots during crystallization depending on the used foundry technologies. It is shown that by using modern scientific and technological advances may improve the traditional and the development of new casting processes, providing production of cast parts with over fine-grained structure and enhanced properties.

  2. Auditory-Motor Control of Vocal Production during Divided Attention: Behavioral and ERP Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Fan, Hao; Li, Jingting; Jones, Jeffery A; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Baofeng; Liu, Hanjun

    2018-01-01

    When people hear unexpected perturbations in auditory feedback, they produce rapid compensatory adjustments of their vocal behavior. Recent evidence has shown enhanced vocal compensations and cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to attended pitch feedback perturbations, suggesting that this reflex-like behavior is influenced by selective attention. Less is known, however, about auditory-motor integration for voice control during divided attention. The present cross-modal study investigated the behavioral and ERP correlates of auditory feedback control of vocal pitch production during divided attention. During the production of sustained vowels, 32 young adults were instructed to simultaneously attend to both pitch feedback perturbations they heard and flashing red lights they saw. The presentation rate of the visual stimuli was varied to produce a low, intermediate, and high attentional load. The behavioral results showed that the low-load condition elicited significantly smaller vocal compensations for pitch perturbations than the intermediate-load and high-load conditions. As well, the cortical processing of vocal pitch feedback was also modulated as a function of divided attention. When compared to the low-load and intermediate-load conditions, the high-load condition elicited significantly larger N1 responses and smaller P2 responses to pitch perturbations. These findings provide the first neurobehavioral evidence that divided attention can modulate auditory feedback control of vocal pitch production.

  3. A prototype splitter apparatus for dividing large catches of small fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Edwards, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to financial and time constraints, it is often necessary in fisheries studies to divide large samples of fish and estimate total catch from the subsample. The subsampling procedure may involve potential human biases or may be difficult to perform in rough conditions. We present a prototype gravity-fed splitter apparatus for dividing large samples of small fish (30–100 mm TL). The apparatus features a tapered hopper with a sliding and removable shutter. The apparatus provides a comparatively stable platform for objectively obtaining subsamples, and it can be modified to accommodate different sizes of fish and different sample volumes. The apparatus is easy to build, inexpensive, and convenient to use in the field. To illustrate the performance of the apparatus, we divided three samples (total N = 2,000 fish) composed of four fish species. Our results indicated no significant bias in estimating either the number or proportion of each species from the subsample. Use of this apparatus or a similar apparatus can help to standardize subsampling procedures in large surveys of fish. The apparatus could be used for other applications that require dividing a large amount of material into one or more smaller subsamples.

  4. Quantifying and Mapping the Digital Divide from an Internet Point of View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; /SLAC; Khan, Shahryar; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Williams, Jerrod; /SLAC; Mehdi, Akbar; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi

    2008-09-18

    Quantitative knowledge of the magnitude, extent and trends of the Digital Divide are critical to understand and identify the regions most in need of help, to make rational decisions on how to address the problems and to make cases for executives, funding agencies and politicians. We report on a project (PingER) to measure the Digital Divide from the point of view of Internet performance. The PingER project has been measuring Internet performance since 1995 and with the increased emphasis on measuring and tracking the Digital Divide, it now covers over 700 hosts in over 150 countries that between them contain over 99% of the world's Internet connected population. In this paper we will describe the how PingER works, it deployment, the data analysis, and presentation. We also introduce a new PingER visualization tool (ViPER) that provides a more appealing interactive visualization of the PingER data and also works on mobile PDAs. We will also show results from PingER that illustrate the magnitude, extent and trends for the Digital Divide, and also compare PingER results with some human development and technology indices.

  5. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.

    2017-11-01

    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.

  6. The NCI Digital Divide Pilot Projects: implications for cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Gustafson, David; Salovey, Peter; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Wilbright, Wayne; Bright, Mary Anne; Muha, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported four innovative demonstration research projects, "The Digital Divide Pilot Projects," to test new strategies for disseminating health information via computer to vulnerable consumers. These projects involved active research collaborations between the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and regional cancer control researchers to field test new approaches for enhancing cancer communication in vulnerable communities. The projects were able to use computers to successfully disseminate relevant cancer information to vulnerable populations. These demonstration research projects suggested effective new strategies for using communication technologies to educate underserved populations about cancer prevention, control, and care.

  7. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  8. Charge dividing mechanism in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-01-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistances and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C)/sup 1/2), where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  9. Divide and conquer approach to quantum Hamiltonian simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Stuart; Papageorgiou, Anargyros

    2018-04-01

    We show a divide and conquer approach for simulating quantum mechanical systems on quantum computers. We can obtain fast simulation algorithms using Hamiltonian structure. Considering a sum of Hamiltonians we split them into groups, simulate each group separately, and combine the partial results. Simulation is customized to take advantage of the properties of each group, and hence yield refined bounds to the overall simulation cost. We illustrate our results using the electronic structure problem of quantum chemistry, where we obtain significantly improved cost estimates under very mild assumptions.

  10. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  11. Hand/Eye Coordination For Fine Robotic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Anatole M.

    1992-01-01

    Fine motions of robotic manipulator controlled with help of visual feedback by new method reducing position errors by order of magnitude. Robotic vision subsystem includes five cameras: three stationary ones providing wide-angle views of workspace and two mounted on wrist of auxiliary robot arm. Stereoscopic cameras on arm give close-up views of object and end effector. Cameras measure errors between commanded and actual positions and/or provide data for mapping between visual and manipulator-joint-angle coordinates.

  12. Fine Structure of Plasmaspheric Hiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Omura, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss plays a key role in controlling the structure and dynamics of Earth's radiation belts.The quiet time slot region between the inner and outer belts can be explained as a steady-state balance between earthward radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering loss of energetic electrons to the atmosphere induced by plasmaspheric hiss. Plasmaspheric hiss can also induce gradual precipitation loss of MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt. Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband,structureless,incoherent emission. Here, by examining burst-mode vector waveform data from the EMFISIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission,we show that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Specifically, plasmaspheric hiss appears as discrete rising tone and falling tone elements. By means of waveform analysis we identify typical amplitudes,phase profiles,and sweep rates of the rising and falling tone elements. The new observations reported here can be expected to fuel a re-examination of the properties of plasmaspheric hiss, including a further re-analysis of the generation mechanism for hiss.

  13. Fine structure of cluster decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, O.

    1993-07-01

    Within the one level R-matrix approach the hindrance factors of the radioactive decays in which are emitted α and 14 C - nuclei are calculated. The generalization to radioactive decays in which are emitted heavier clusters such as e.g. 20 O, 24 Ne, 25 Ne, 28 Mg. 30 Mg, 32 Si and 34 Si is straightforward. The interior wave functions are supposed to be given by the shell model with effective residual interactions (e.g. the large scale shell model code-OXBASH - in the Michigan State University version for nearly spherical nuclei or by the enlarged superfluid model - ESM - recently proposed for deformed nuclei). The exterior wave functions are calculated from a cluster - nucleus double - folding model potential obtained with the M3Y interaction. As examples of the cluster decay fine structure we analyzed the particular cases of α - decay of 241 Am and 14 C -decay of 233 Ra. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained. (author). 78 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Autonomous patterning of cells on microstructured fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Iwori; Kawanabe, Masato; Kaneko, Arata

    2015-01-01

    Regularly patterned cells can clarify cellular function and are required in some biochip applications. This study examines cell patterning along microstructures and the effect of microstructural geometry on selective cellular adhesion. Particles can be autonomously assembled on a soda-lime glass substrate that is chemically patterned by immersion in a suspension of fine particles. By adopting various sizes of fine particles, we can control the geometry of the microstructure. Cells adhere more readily to microstructured fine particles than to flat glass substrate. Silica particles hexagonally packed in 5–40 μm line and space microstructures provide an effective cell scaffold on the glass substrate. Cultured cells tend to attach and proliferate along the microstructured region while avoiding the flat region. The difference in cell adhesion is attributed to their geometries, as both of the silica particles and soda-lime glass are hydrophilic related with cell adhesiveness. After cell seeding, cells adhered to the flat region migrated toward the microstructured region. For most of the cells to assemble on the scaffold, the scaffolding microstructures must be spaced by at most 65 μm. - Highlights: • PS and SiO 2 particles provide effective scaffolds for cells. • Cells that adhere to microstructured particles successfully proliferate and differentiate. • Selective adhesion and growth along the scaffold can be achieved by patterning the fine particle microstructure. • Cells adhered to flat regions migrate toward microstructured regions. • Selective adhesion by cells depends on the microstructural geometry; specifically, on the inter-line spacing

  15. Flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang; Wang, Chong-qing

    2018-01-01

    The flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils were investigated through microflotation test, turbidity measurements, infrared spectroscopy, and interfacial interaction calculations. The results of the flotation test show that at pH 2-11, the floatability of molybdenite fines in the presence of transformer oil is markedly better than that in the presence of kerosene and diesel oil. The addition of transformer oil, which enhances the floatability of molybdenite fines, promotes the aggregation of molybdenite particles. Fourier transform infrared measurements illustrate that physical interaction dominates the adsorption mechanism of neutral oil on molybdenite. Interfacial interaction calculations indicate that hydrophobic attraction is the crucial force that acts among the oil collector, water, and molybdenite. Strong hydrophobic attraction between the oily collector and water provides the strong dispersion capability of the collector in water. Furthermore, the dispersion capability of the collector, not the interaction strength between the oily collectors and molybdenite, has a highly significant role in the flotation system of molybdenite fines. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of molybdenite flotation.

  16. Get out of Fines Free: Recruiting Student Usability Testers via Fine Waivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Benjamin; Blackburn, Kourtney

    2016-01-01

    St. John Fisher College's Lavery Library's Access Services and Systems departments began a pilot project in which students with overdue fines tested usability of library Web sites in exchange for fine waivers. Circulation staff promoted the program and redeemed fine waiver vouchers at the Checkout Desk, while Systems staff administered testing and…

  17. Broadband Millimeter-Wave In-Phase and Out-of-Phase Waveguide Dividers with High Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Liu, Yu; Yang, Ziqiang; Peng, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, two novel broadband in-phase and out-of-phase waveguide power dividers with high isolation are presented. Based on the substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) divider and SIW-to-waveguide transition circuit, two kinds of E-plane waveguide dividers have been implemented. Due to the features of in-phase and out-of-phase performances, the proposed waveguide dividers can provide much more flexibilities than that of conventional E-plane waveguide T-junction. A broadband phase and amplitude performances are achieved across the whole Ka-band owing to the wideband characteristic of the SIW divider and transition circuits. To minimize the size and loss of the divider, a compact and low-loss SIW-to-waveguide transition circuit has been developed using the antisymmetric tapered probes. Two prototypes of the Ka-band waveguide dividers, including the in-phase and out-of-phase types, have been fabricated and measured. Measured results show that the isolation, input return loss, output return loss, amplitude imbalance, and phase imbalance of the in-phase divider are better than 15.5, 13.1, 10.8, 0.4 dB, and 3.50, while those of the out-of-phase divider are better than 15.0, 13.4, 10.4, 0.5 dB, and 3.60, respectively, over the frequency range from 26.5 to 40 GHz. The measured results agree well with the simulated ones. Considering their wide bandwidth, high isolation, good port matching performance, and compact configuration, the two types of waveguide dividers can be good candidates for broadband applications in millimeter-wave waveguide systems.

  18. Divided attention selectively impairs memory for self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, David J; Brady-van den Bos, Mirjam; Collard, Philip; Gillespie-Smith, Karri; Conway, Martin A; Cunningham, Sheila J

    2013-05-01

    Information that is relevant to oneself tends to be remembered more than information that relates to other people, but the role of attention in eliciting this "self-reference effect" is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the importance of attention in self-referential encoding using an ownership paradigm, which required participants to encode items under conditions of imagined ownership by themselves or by another person. Previous work has established that this paradigm elicits a robust self-reference effect, with more "self-owned" items being remembered than "other-owned" items. Access to attentional resources was manipulated using divided-attention tasks at encoding. A significant self-reference effect emerged under full-attention conditions and was related to an increase in episodic recollection for self-owned items, but dividing attention eliminated this memory advantage. These findings are discussed in relation to the nature of self-referential cognition and the importance of attentional resources at encoding in the manifestation of the self-reference effect in memory.

  19. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Moroz, Irene M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling's interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling's interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling's interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2012-03-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling\\'s interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling\\'s interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling\\'s interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Kinga Bettina; Lőrincz, András

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs. PMID:29621292

  2. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Adrian Rill

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs.

  3. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rill, Róbert Adrian; Faragó, Kinga Bettina; Lőrincz, András

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs.

  4. Embodied ideas and divided selves: revisiting Laing via Bakhtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Ian; Sullivan, Paul

    2009-09-01

    In this article, we apply Mikhail Bakhtin's model of a 'divided self' to R.D. Laing's eponymous work on the lived experience of divided selves in 'psychosis'. Both of these authors offer intriguing insights into the fracturing of self through its social relationships (including the 'micro-dialogues' staged for oneself) but from uniquely different perspectives. Bakhtin (1984) uses Dostoevsky's novels as his material for a theory of self, centrally concerned with moments of split identity, crisis, and personal transformation, while Laing relies on his patient's accounts of 'psychosis'. We will outline how two key Bakhtinian divisions of the self (spirit/soul and authoritative/internally persuasive discourse) help to make sense of Laing's descriptions of his patient's experiences and micro-dialogues. Conversely, when refracted through Laing's phenomenology Bakhtin's account of the self becomes richer and somewhat darkened in terms of a double-edged ontology, which describes a maximally open self but one that is consumed by ideas, unable to manage their contradictions. The implications of this for managing the dilemmas of self-identity will be drawn out.

  5. A global Fine-Root Ecology Database to address below-ground challenges in plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Colleen M; McCormack, M Luke; Powell, A Shafer; Blackwood, Christopher B; Freschet, Grégoire T; Kattge, Jens; Roumet, Catherine; Stover, Daniel B; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; van Bodegom, Peter M; Violle, Cyrille

    2017-07-01

    Variation and tradeoffs within and among plant traits are increasingly being harnessed by empiricists and modelers to understand and predict ecosystem processes under changing environmental conditions. While fine roots play an important role in ecosystem functioning, fine-root traits are underrepresented in global trait databases. This has hindered efforts to analyze fine-root trait variation and link it with plant function and environmental conditions at a global scale. This Viewpoint addresses the need for a centralized fine-root trait database, and introduces the Fine-Root Ecology Database (FRED, http://roots.ornl.gov) which so far includes > 70 000 observations encompassing a broad range of root traits and also includes associated environmental data. FRED represents a critical step toward improving our understanding of below-ground plant ecology. For example, FRED facilitates the quantification of variation in fine-root traits across root orders, species, biomes, and environmental gradients while also providing a platform for assessments of covariation among root, leaf, and wood traits, the role of fine roots in ecosystem functioning, and the representation of fine roots in terrestrial biosphere models. Continued input of observations into FRED to fill gaps in trait coverage will improve our understanding of changes in fine-root traits across space and time. © 2017 UT-Battelle LLC. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp

    2017-03-11

    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  7. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  8. NARSTO fine-particle and ozone assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, Jeremy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NARSTO ozone and fine-particle assessments compile and present policy-relevant scientific information. - NARSTO, a tri-national North American consortium for applied tropospheric pollution research, conducts periodic assessments of air-pollution behavior to provide an information interface between the research community and individuals working in policy analysis and air-quality management. The first of these, entitled An Assessment of Tropospheric Ozone Pollution-A North American Perspective, appeared in late 2000 and has been circulated widely throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and South America. The second (currently) entitled NARSTO Assessment of the Atmospheric Science on Particulate Matter, is presently in its third-draft phase and is available for general review. A fourth draft, incorporating comments from the current review stage, will be submitted in January 2002 to a tri-national review committee composed of the Canadian Royal Society, the US National Academy of Sciences, and the Mexican Red de Desarrollo e Investigacion de la Calidad del Aire en Grandes Ciudades. Finalization of the document will follow this review, which will conclude in July 2000. Publication is expected in December 2002. These two assessments contain substantial amounts of policy-relevant information, which is of interest to the research community as well as those working in policy analysis and air-quality management. This presentation provides a brief overview of features and findings of the two documents

  9. Bifurcation in asymmetric plasma divided by a magnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohi, K.; Naitou, H.; Tauchi, Y.; Fukumasa, O.

    2001-05-01

    A magnetic filter (MF) reflecting electrons from both sides can separate a low-temperature and low-density subplasma from a high-temperature and high-density main plasma. The one-dimensional numerical simulation by the particle-in-cell code revealed that, depending on the asymmetry, the plasma divided by the MF behaves dynamically or statically [K. Ohi et al., Physics of Plasmas 8, 23 (2001)]. The transition between the two bifurcated states is discontinuous. In the dynamic state, the autonomous potential oscillation in the subplasma is synchronized with the passage of the shock wave structure generated by the modulated ion beam from the main plasma. The stationary phase of the dynamic state appears after the amplitude of the potential oscillation in the subplasma grows exponentially from the thermal noise. In the static state, the system is stable to the growth of the potential oscillation in the subplasma. (author)

  10. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A

    2011-05-01

    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  11. Divided Saddle Theory: A New Idea for Rate Constant Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, János; Stirling, András

    2014-03-11

    We present a theory of rare events and derive an algorithm to obtain rates from postprocessing the numerical data of a free energy calculation and the corresponding committor analysis. The formalism is based on the division of the saddle region of the free energy profile of the rare event into two adjacent segments called saddle domains. The method is built on sampling the dynamics within these regions: auxiliary rate constants are defined for the saddle domains and the absolute forward and backward rates are obtained by proper reweighting. We call our approach divided saddle theory (DST). An important advantage of our approach is that it requires only standard computational techniques which are available in most molecular dynamics codes. We demonstrate the potential of DST numerically on two examples: rearrangement of alanine-dipeptide (CH3CO-Ala-NHCH3) conformers and the intramolecular Cope reaction of the fluxional barbaralane molecule.

  12. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Restifo

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  13. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  14. Size and emotion averaging: costs of dividing attention after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John; Oriet, Chris; Tottenham, Laurie Sykes

    2012-03-01

    Perceptual averaging is a process by which sets of similar items are represented by summary statistics such as their average size, luminance, or orientation. Researchers have argued that this process is automatic, able to be carried out without interference from concurrent processing. Here, we challenge this conclusion and demonstrate a reliable cost of computing the mean size of circles distinguished by colour (Experiments 1 and 2) and the mean emotionality of faces distinguished by sex (Experiment 3). We also test the viability of two strategies that could have allowed observers to guess the correct response without computing the average size or emotionality of both sets concurrently. We conclude that although two means can be computed concurrently, doing so incurs a cost of dividing attention.

  15. Community Informatics: Challenges in Bridging the Digital Divide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Songan, Peter; Hamid, Khairuddin A; Yeo, Alvin; Gnaniah, Jayapragas; Zen, Hushairi

    2004-01-01

    ...) provides a context to demonstrate how information and communication technologies (ICTs) can provide opportunities for remote and rural communities to develop socially, culturally, and economically...

  16. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  19. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  20. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Closing the divide: Can the IAEA make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the world has seen many fundamental changes in the way countries interact. It is seen today in how business is conducted, how fast travel and super-fast communications have opened up the world into almost one huge market and how news of break-through technological innovations appear almost weekly in the media. Yet the world still lives with a vast divide between rich and poor and, from many perspectives, this divide appears to be increasing. The world's development programmes have thus been increasingly scrutinized for their effectiveness and efficiency. The aim is to ensure that the planned benefits reach the end-beneficiaries in a manner that adequately addresses the socio-economic needs of the recipient society. Against this background, the IAEA's relatively small but nevertheless significant programme of technical cooperation has had to reform itself. It has gone from a largely 'technology push' focus to adopting a new 'needs driven' strategy. As the world marks 50 years of the 'Atoms for Peace' initiative, the questions must be asked whether the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) really can make a difference? Is this programme correctly positioned to be able to meet these very large global challenges? Must it reform itself further to remain meaningful and relevant? What are the determinants for its success within a highly demanding environment? These are the typical questions that have largely shaped the deliberations between the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department and its Standing Advisory Group, called SAGTAC, since the group of representatives from Member States was formed in the mid- 1990s

  2. Wrong-way driving crashes on French divided roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemel, Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of divided roads is to increase users' safety by posting unidirectional traffic flows. It happens however that drivers proceed in the wrong direction, endangering themselves as well as other users. The crashes caused by wrong-way drivers are generally spotlighted by the media and call for public intervention. This paper proposes a characterization of wrong-way driving crashes occurring on French divided road on the 2008-2012 period. The objective is to identify the factors that delineate between wrong-way driving crashes and other crashes. Building on the national injury road crash database, 266 crashes involving a wrong-way driver were identified. Their characteristics (related to timing, location, vehicle and driver) are compared to those of the 22,120 other crashes that occurred on the same roads over the same period. The comparison relies on descriptive statistics, completed by a logistic regression. Wrong-way driving crashes are rare but severe. They are more likely to occur during night hours and on non-freeway roads than other crashes. Wrong-way drivers are older, more likely to be intoxicated, to be locals, to drive older vehicles, mainly passenger cars without passengers, than other drivers. The differences observed across networks can help prioritizing public intervention. Most of the identified WW-driving factors deal with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the specific countermeasures such as alternative road signs should be designed for and tested on cognitively impaired drivers. Nevertheless, WW-driving factors are also risk factors for other types of crashes (e.g. elderly driving, drunk driving and age of the vehicle). This suggests that, instead of (or in addition to) developing WW-driving specific countermeasures, managing these risk factors would help reducing a larger number of crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Fine Motor Skill on Accuracy of Measurements Using a Handheld Sliding Caliper at Adolescents Group Aged 19-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Petr; Hojk, Vladimír; Hrubý, Jiří; Pilc, Jozef

    2017-10-01

    This innovate ve interdisciplinary study deals with influence of fine motor skill level (finger dexterity) of individual on his measurement results in metrology practice. The main objective of this study was determinate fine motor skill level of individuals using a motor test. Further determinate the potential effect of different fine motor skill levels on accuracy of measuring using a mechanical handheld sliding caliper. Fine motor skill test and metrological test were implemented. Pursuant the results of fine motor skill test were probands divided into 2 groups. The groups are significantly different on accuracy of measurement (p=0,006). Pearson coefficient shows a significant correlation r = - 0.66 between the Purdue Pegboard test and a measurement error. Results confirmed that the fine motor skill of the upper limbs (especially finger coordination) significantly influence accuracy of measurement using a mechanical handheld sliding caliper.

  4. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  5. Lipid droplet organelle distribution in populations of dividing cells studied by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhaimer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    One of the key questions in cell biology is how organelles are passed from parent to daughter cells. To help address this question, I used Brownian dynamics to simulate lipid droplets as model organelles in populations of dividing cells. Lipid droplets are dynamic bodies that can form both de novo and by fission, they can also be depleted. The quantitative interplay among these three events is unknown but would seem crucial for controlling droplet distribution in populations of dividing cells. Surprisingly, of the three main events studied: biogenesis, fission, and depletion, the third played the key role in maintaining droplet organelle number—and to a lesser extent volume—in populations of dividing cells where formation events would have seemed paramount. In the case of lipid droplets, this provides computational evidence that they must be sustained, most likely through contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings also agree with video microscopy experiments over much shorter timescales where droplet depletion in fission yeast cells was not observed. In general, this work shows that organelle maintenance is invaluable and lack thereof cannot necessarily be compensated for by organelle formation. This study provides a time-accurate, physical-based template for long-term cell division studies. (paper)

  6. Lipid droplet organelle distribution in populations of dividing cells studied by simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhaimer, Paul

    2013-06-01

    One of the key questions in cell biology is how organelles are passed from parent to daughter cells. To help address this question, I used Brownian dynamics to simulate lipid droplets as model organelles in populations of dividing cells. Lipid droplets are dynamic bodies that can form both de novo and by fission, they can also be depleted. The quantitative interplay among these three events is unknown but would seem crucial for controlling droplet distribution in populations of dividing cells. Surprisingly, of the three main events studied: biogenesis, fission, and depletion, the third played the key role in maintaining droplet organelle number—and to a lesser extent volume—in populations of dividing cells where formation events would have seemed paramount. In the case of lipid droplets, this provides computational evidence that they must be sustained, most likely through contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings also agree with video microscopy experiments over much shorter timescales where droplet depletion in fission yeast cells was not observed. In general, this work shows that organelle maintenance is invaluable and lack thereof cannot necessarily be compensated for by organelle formation. This study provides a time-accurate, physical-based template for long-term cell division studies.

  7. R.D. Laing and theology: the influence of Christian existentialism on "The Divided Self".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin

    2009-04-01

    The radical psychiatrist R.D. Laing's first book, "The Divided Self" (1960), is informed by the work of Christian thinkers on scriptural interpretation -- an intellectual genealogy apparent in Laing's comparison of Karl Jaspers's symptomatology with the theological tradition of "form criticism." Rudolf Bultmann's theology, which was being enthusiastically promoted in 1950s Scotland, is particularly influential upon Laing. It furnishes him with the notion that schizophrenic speech expresses existential truths as if they were statements about the physical and organic world. It also provides him with a model of the schizoid position as a form of modern-day Stoicism. Such theological recontextualization of "The Divided Self" illuminates continuities in Laing's own work, and also indicates his relationship to a wider British context, such as the work of the "clinical theologian" Frank Lake.

  8. The quantum divide why Schrödinger's cat is either dead or alive

    CERN Document Server

    Gerry, Christopher C

    2013-01-01

    Using a selection of key experiments performed over the past 30 years or so, we present a discussion of the strikingly counter-intuitive phenomena of the quantum world that defy explanation in terms of everyday "common sense" reasoning, and we provide the corresponding quantum mechanical explanations with a very elementary use of associated formalism. Most, but certainly not all, of the experiments we describe are optical experiments involving a very small number of photons (particles of light). We begin with experiments on the wave-particle duality of electrons, proceed to experiments on the particle nature of light and single photon interference, delayed choice experiments and interaction-free detection, then go on to experiments involving the interference of two photons, quantum entanglement and Bell's Theorem, quantum teleportation, large-scale quantum effects and the divide between the classical and quantum worlds, addressing the question as to whether or not there is such a divide.

  9. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  10. FINE PORE DIFFUSER SYSTEM EVALUATION FOR THE GREEN BAY METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District retrofitted two quadrants of their activated sludge aeration system with ceramic and membrane fine pore diffusers to provide savings in energy usage compared to the sparged turbine aerators originally installed. Because significant di...

  11. "Let the "Orientales" Be as Enlightened as They Are Brave": The Digital Divide in the Context of Uruguay's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Rafael; Rodríguez Fleitas, Maximiliano

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present two recent information literacy and access initiatives in Uruguay and their necessary historical antecedents, and analyze them from a phenomenological perspective to provide commentary on current philosophical discussions about information and the digital divide. To provide historical context we present a brief history of…

  12. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  13. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervicofacial actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kusuma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as a fixed jaw swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration, along with a review of the relevant literature. A 60 year-old man presented with a gradually increasing 6 x 5 cm swelling in the left side of his jaw. The swelling was fixed, without any apparent sinus or abscess. Fine needle aspiration was diagnostic as it revealed colonies of actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs and chronic inflammatory cells. The histopathological study of the excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. Fine needle aspiration is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis although its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the fine needle aspiration technique.

  15. The Execution of Criminal Fine Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Peneoașu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at dissecting the criminal provisions on criminal enforcement of fines in current Romanian criminal law with the goal of highlighting the new penal policy stated in the larger field of criminal penalties. In the new Criminal Code the fine penalty experience a new regulation, but also a wider scope compared to the Criminal Code from 1968, with an exponential growth of the number of offenses or variations of them, for which a fine may be imposed as a unique punishment, but, especially, as an alternative punishment to imprisonment. Consequently, to ensure the efficiency of this punishment, the effective enforcement manner of the fine takes a new dimension. The study aims both students and academics or practitioners in the making. Furthermore, throughout the approach of this scientific research, new matters that new criminal legislation brings, are emphasized regarding this institution, both in a positive, and especially under a critical manner.

  16. The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life has received a great deal of attention in recent years, both in the philosophical and scientific literature. The claim is that in the space of possible physical laws, parameters and initial conditions, the set that permits the evolution of intelligent life is very small. I present here a review of the scientific literature, outlining cases of fine-tuning in the classic works of Carter, Carr and Rees, and Barrow and Tipler, as well as more recent work. To sharpen the discussion, the role of the antagonist will be played by Victor Stenger's recent book The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. Stenger claims that all known fine-tuning cases can be explained without the need for a multiverse. Many of Stenger's claims will be found to be highly problematic. We will touch on such issues as the logical necessity of the laws of nature; objectivity, invariance and symmetry; theoretical physics and possible universes; entropy in cosmology; cosmic inflation and initial conditions; galaxy formation; the cosmological constant; stars and their formation; the properties of elementary particles and their effect on chemistry and the macroscopic world; the origin of mass; grand unified theories; and the dimensionality of space and time. I also provide an assessment of the multiverse, noting the significant challenges that it must face. I do not attempt to defend any conclusion based on the fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life. This paper can be viewed as a critique of Stenger's book, or read independently.

  17. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine tuning power diodes with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarneja, K.S.; Bartko, J.; Johnson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Diodes of a particular type are fine tuned with irradiation to optimize the reverse recovery time while minimizing forward voltage drop and providing more uniform electrical characcteristics. The initial and desired minority carrier lifetimes in the anode region of the type are determined as a function of forward voltage drop and reverse recovery time, and the minority carrier radiation damage factor is determined for a desired type of diode and radiation source. The radiation dosage to achieve the desired carrier lifetime with the radiation source is thereafter determined from the function 1/tau = 1/tau 0 + K phi, where tau is the desired minority carrier lifetime, tau 0 is the initial minority carrier lifetime, K is the determined minority carrier radiation damage factor and phi is the radiation dosage. A major surface and preferably the major surface adjoining the anode region of the diodes is then irradiated with the radiation source to the determined radiation dosage. Preferably, the radiation dosage is between about 1 X 10 12 and 5 X 10 13 e/cm 2 , with electron radiation of intensity between 1 and 3 MeV

  19. Probing fine magnetic particles with neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Because thermal neutrons are scattered both by nuclei and by unpaired electrons, they provide an ideal probe for studying the atomic and magnetic structures of fine-grained magnetic materials, including nanocrystalline solids, thin epitaxial layers, and colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, known as ferrofluids. Diffraction, surface reflection, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are the techniques used. With the exception of surface reflection, these methods are described in this article. The combination of SANS with refractive-index matching and neutron polarisation analysis is particularly powerful because it allows the magnetic and atomic structures to be determined independently. This technique has been used to study both dilute and concentrated ferrofluid suspensions of relatively monodisperse cobalt particles, subjected to a series of applied magnetic fields. The size of the cobalt particle core and the surrounding surfactant layer were determined. The measured interparticle structure factor agrees well with a recent theory that allows correlations in binary mixtures of magnetic particles to be calculated in the case of complete magnetic alignment. When one of the species in such a binary mixture is a nonmagnetic, cyclindrical macromolecule, application of a magnetic field leads to some degree of alignment of the nonmagnetic species. This result has been demonstrated with tobacco mosaic virus suspended in a water-based ferrofluid

  20. Fine 5 Eesti tantsuväljal / Iiris Viirpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viirpalu, Iiris, 1992-

    2017-01-01

    Nüüdistantsuteatril Fine 5 täitub tänavu 25. tegutsemisaasta. Fine 5 käekirjast. Vestlusest Fine 5 tantsuteatri ja -kooli kauaaegsete kunstiliste juhtide Renee Nõmmiku ja Tiina Olleskiga Eesti tantsukunstist

  1. Fine topology and locally Minkowskian manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Gunjan; Sinha, Soami Pyari

    2018-05-01

    Fine topology is one of the several well-known topologies of physical and mathematical relevance. In the present paper, it is obtained that the nonempty open sets of different dimensional Minkowski spaces with the fine topology are not homeomorphic. This leads to the introduction of a new class of manifolds. It turns out that the technique developed here is also applicable to some other topologies, namely, the s-topology, space topology, f-topology, and A-topology.

  2. Fine sediment erodibility in Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Hwang, Kyu-Nam

    1989-01-01

    The critical need to predict the turbidity in water due to fine-grained sediment suspension under wave action over mud deposits for sedimentation and erosion studies, as well as sorbed contaminant transport, is well known. Since fall velocities of fine sediment particles are very small, they can be easily transported by hydrodynamic flows such as waves and currents. The presence of these particles in the water column affects accoustic transmission, heat absorption and depth of ...

  3. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  4. Divided attention limits perception of 3-D object shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Alec; Palmer, John; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Can one perceive multiple object shapes at once? We tested two benchmark models of object shape perception under divided attention: an unlimited-capacity and a fixed-capacity model. Under unlimited-capacity models, shapes are analyzed independently and in parallel. Under fixed-capacity models, shapes are processed at a fixed rate (as in a serial model). To distinguish these models, we compared conditions in which observers were presented with simultaneous or sequential presentations of a fixed number of objects (The extended simultaneous-sequential method: Scharff, Palmer, & Moore, 2011a, 2011b). We used novel physical objects as stimuli, minimizing the role of semantic categorization in the task. Observers searched for a specific object among similar objects. We ensured that non-shape stimulus properties such as color and texture could not be used to complete the task. Unpredictable viewing angles were used to preclude image-matching strategies. The results rejected unlimited-capacity models for object shape perception and were consistent with the predictions of a fixed-capacity model. In contrast, a task that required observers to recognize 2-D shapes with predictable viewing angles yielded an unlimited capacity result. Further experiments ruled out alternative explanations for the capacity limit, leading us to conclude that there is a fixed-capacity limit on the ability to perceive 3-D object shapes. PMID:23404158

  5. Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Davidson, Thomas J; Nakajima, Miho; Deisseroth, Karl; Halassa, Michael M

    2015-10-29

    How the brain selects appropriate sensory inputs and suppresses distractors is unknown. Given the well-established role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive function, its interactions with sensory cortical areas during attention have been hypothesized to control sensory selection. To test this idea and, more generally, dissect the circuits underlying sensory selection, we developed a cross-modal divided-attention task in mice that allowed genetic access to this cognitive process. By optogenetically perturbing PFC function in a temporally precise window, the ability of mice to select appropriately between conflicting visual and auditory stimuli was diminished. Equivalent sensory thalamocortical manipulations showed that behaviour was causally dependent on PFC interactions with the sensory thalamus, not sensory cortex. Consistent with this notion, we found neurons of the visual thalamic reticular nucleus (visTRN) to exhibit PFC-dependent changes in firing rate predictive of the modality selected. visTRN activity was causal to performance as confirmed by bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this subnetwork. Using a combination of electrophysiology and intracellular chloride photometry, we demonstrated that visTRN dynamically controls visual thalamic gain through feedforward inhibition. Our experiments introduce a new subcortical model of sensory selection, in which the PFC biases thalamic reticular subnetworks to control thalamic sensory gain, selecting appropriate inputs for further processing.

  6. Informaticiens Sans Frontieres: Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    ISF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry. ISF est né comme un club du CERN, en 2003, pendant le Sommet Mondiale de la Société de l'information à Genève. Aujourd'hui nous participons à plusieurs projets avec le but d'aider l'Afrique à reduire la Fracture Numérique, ou de fournir de la puissance de calcul (BOINC) à la recherche contre le Paludisme, ou en créant des GRIDs qui pourra...

  7. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2018-05-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  8. Divided we fall... or rise? Tajikistan–Kyrgyzstan border dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matveeva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border remains one of the last undefined frontiers in the Commonwealth of Independent States, where the governments are reluctant to act against the wishes of their border communities and force delimitation solutions that may cause social protests. Uncertainty of territorial arrangements persists; however, the era of commonality and interdependence may be at its end due to the establishment of a border as a means of spatial control. Border drawing reflects the divergent development trajectories of the new states, seeking to break out of an interdependence pattern. Borderlands’ interactions become more conflictual. Generation change and a loss of common language work to widen the inter-communal gap. Ethnicity and identity factors grew in significance as association with the nation-states increased, and a border expresses a symbol of nationhood in this paradigm. Crucially, a border justifies a security regime, reinforced by international assistance policies, to project power over the territory. Actions of security structures cause grievances but also signify a protective arm of the state, a role that the border communities appreciate, themselves acting as a collective border guard and projecting their fears of encroachment onto the borders. The expansion of the Eurasian Economic Union became a new factor that could have served to alleviate the pressure to divide territory and assets, but this could work only if two countries joined it at the same period. With this option unavailable, a territorial impasse has been reached.

  9. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2017-06-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  10. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  11. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteroo, P A; Bluemink, J G; Dictus, W J; van Zoelen, E J; de Laat, S W

    1984-07-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xenopus laevis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein ("HEDAF") and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein ("TEDAF") as probes. The preexisting plasma membrane of the animal side showed an inhomogeneous, dotted fluorescence pattern after labeling and the lateral mobility of both probes used was below the detection limits of the FPR method (D much less than 10(-10) cm2/sec). In contrast, the preexisting plasma membrane of the vegetal side exhibited homogeneous fluorescence and the lateral diffusion coefficient of both probes used was relatively high (HEDAF, D = 2.8 X 10(-8) cm2/sec; TEDAF, D = 2.4 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). In the cleaving egg visible transfer of HEDAF or TEDAF from prelabeled plasma membrane to the new membrane in the furrow did not occur, even on the vegetal side. Upon labeling during cleavage, however, the new membrane was uniformly labeled and both probes were mobile, as in the vegetal preexisting plasma membrane. These data show that the membrane of the dividing Xenopus egg comprises three macrodomains: (i) the animal preexisting plasma membrane; (ii) the vegetal preexisting plasma membrane; (iii) the new furrow membrane.

  12. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Matthew W; Lawless, Courtney; Marshall, Helen M; Sherman, Annabella T K

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (CEG; Experiments 1 and 3), or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2), both of which are conceptually driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA) conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting task was either syllable judgments (dissimilar processes), or semantic judgments (similar processes) on unrelated words. Compared to full attention (FA) in which no distracting task was performed, DA had no effect on CEG priming overall, but reduced category-cued recall similarly regardless of distractor task. Analyses of distractor task performance also revealed differences between implicit and explicit memory retrieval. The evidence suggests that, whereas explicit memory retrieval requires attentional resources and is disrupted by semantic and phonological distracting tasks, conceptual implicit memory is automatic and unaffected even when distractor and memory tasks involve similar processes.

  13. Effects of Divided Attention at Retrieval on Conceptual Implicit Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Prull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether conceptual implicit memory is sensitive to process-specific interference at the time of retrieval. Participants performed the implicit memory test of category exemplar generation (Experiments 1 and 3, or the matched explicit memory test of category-cued recall (Experiment 2, both of which are conceptually-driven memory tasks, under one of two divided attention (DA conditions in which participants simultaneously performed a distracting task. The distracting task was either syllable judgments (dissimilar processes, or semantic judgments (similar processes on unrelated words. Compared to full attention (FA in which no distracting task was performed, DA had no effect on category exemplar generation priming overall, but reduced category-cued recall similarly regardless of distractor task. Analyses of distractor task performance also revealed differences between implicit and explicit memory retrieval. The evidence suggests that, whereas explicit memory retrieval requires attentional resources and is disrupted by semantic and phonological distracting tasks, conceptual implicit memory is automatic and unaffected even when distractor and memory tasks involve similar processes.

  14. Divided attention and mental effort after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouvi, Philippe; Couillet, Josette; Leclercq, Michel; Martin, Yves; Asloun, Sybille; Rousseaux, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dual-task performance in TBI patients, under different experimental conditions, with or without explicit emphasis on one of two tasks. Results were compared with measurement of the subjective mental effort required to perform each task. Forty-three severe TBI patients at the subacute or chronic phase performed two tasks under single- and dual-task conditions: (a) random generation; (b) visual go-no go reaction time task. Three dual-task conditions were given, requiring either to consider both tasks as equally important or to focus preferentially on one of them. Patients were compared to matched controls. Subjective mental effort was rated on a visual analogic scale. TBI patients showed a disproportionate increase in reaction time in the go-no go task under the dual-task condition. However, they were just as able as controls to adapt performance to the specific instructions about the task to be emphasised. Patients reported significantly higher subjective mental effort, but the variation of mental effort according to task condition was similar to that of controls. These results suggest that the divided attention deficit of TBI patients is related to a reduction in available processing resources rather than an impairment of strategic processes responsible for attentional allocation and switching. The higher level of subjective mental effort may explain why TBI patients frequently complain of mental fatigue, although this subjective complaint seems to be relatively independent of cognitive impairment.

  15. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2018-05-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  16. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Laser characterization of fine aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to establish the feasibility of using a laser monitoring system to provide real-time data to characterize aggregate properties in a laboratory or field environment. This was accomplished by using...

  18. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Graham G. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2017-03-06

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ∼20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  19. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Graham G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik

    2017-03-15

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ∝20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  20. Differential reinforcement and resistance to change of divided-attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Thrailkill, Eric; Shahan, Timothy A

    2012-06-01

    Behavioral momentum theory provides a framework for understanding how conditions of reinforcement influence instrumental response strength under conditions of disruption (i.e., resistance to change). The present experiment examined resistance to change of divided-attention performance when different overall probabilities of reinforcement were arranged across two components of a multiple schedule. Pigeons responded in a delayed-matching-to-sample procedure with compound samples (color + line orientation) and element comparisons (two colors or two line orientations). Reinforcement ratios of 1:9, 1:1, and 9:1 for accurate matches on the two types of comparison trials were examined across conditions using reinforcement probabilities (color/lines) of .9/.1, .5/.5, and .1/.9 in the rich component and .18/.02, .1/.1, and .02/.18 in the lean component. Relative accuracy with color and line comparisons was an orderly function of relative reinforcement, but this relation did not depend on the overall rate of reinforcement between components. The resistance to change of divided-attention performance was greater for both trial types in the rich component with presession feeding and extinction, but not with decreases in sample duration. These findings suggest promise for the applicability of quantitative models of operant behavior to divided-attention performance, but they highlight the need to further explore conditions impacting the resistance to change of attending.

  1. The digital health divide: evaluating online health information access and use among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W

    2015-04-01

    Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide debate. This study evaluated the potential digital health divide in relation to characteristic and belief differences between older adult users and nonusers of online health information sources. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted using a random sample of older adults. A total of 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9 years, SD = 10.4) participated in the study. Seventy-six percent of all respondents had Internet access. Users and nonusers of online health information differed significantly on age (M = 66.29 vs. M = 71.13), education, and previous experience with the health care system. Users and nonusers of online health information also differed significantly on Internet and technology access, however, a large percentage of nonusers had Internet access (56.3%), desktop computers (55.9%), and laptop computers or netbooks (43.2%). Users of online health information had higher mean scores on the Computer Self-Efficacy Measure than nonusers, t(159) = -7.29, p information. Findings suggest strategies for reducing this divide and implications for health education programs to promote HIT use among older adults. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor

  3. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  4. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Huijing; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-01

    Speakers rapidly adjust their ongoing vocal productions to compensate for errors they hear in their auditory feedback. It is currently unclear what role attention plays in these vocal compensations. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback regarding ongoing vocalisations. During the production of a sustained vowel, participants briefly heard their vocal pitch shifted up two semitones while they actively attended to auditory or visual events (selective attention), or both auditory and visual events (divided attention), or were not told to attend to either modality (control condition). The behavioral results showed that attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations than attending to the visual stimuli. Moreover, ERPs were likewise sensitive to the attentional manipulations: P2 responses to pitch perturbations were larger when participants attended to the auditory stimuli compared to when they attended to the visual stimuli, and compared to when they were not explicitly told to attend to either the visual or auditory stimuli. By contrast, dividing attention between the auditory and visual modalities caused suppressed P2 responses relative to all the other conditions and caused enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the influence of attention on the mechanisms underlying the auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. In addition, selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of pitch feedback errors in different ways. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Parental health information seeking and re-exploration of the 'digital divide'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Mary; While, Alison; Roberts, Julia

    2014-04-01

    To describe patterns of 'online' and 'offline' health information seeking in families with children under five years of age and living in five socially, economically and culturally disparate local authority (LA) wards in one inner-city area. Earlier work analysed data from the five LA wards merged as one data set. A 'digital divide' in health information seeking was identified between parents who actively sought information from both internet websites and from 14 other health information sources (online health information seekers), and those who acquired information from a more limited range of sources excluding the internet. Of the two groups, the online health information seekers had higher levels of computer ownership and, therefore, internet access within the home. Re-analysis of data (questionnaires n = 224; five focus groups; two interviews with service providers; two opportunistic conversations with service providers). Additional data were retrieved after the original data analysis and between 2005 and 2007. These data were from service user-led discussions (n = 30) held with parents in child health clinics, informal interviews (n = 11) with health visitors and semi-structured interviews (n = 2) with health visitors. Information was also retrieved from the Office for National Statistics data set. In the re-analysis, data were disaggregated at LA ward level in order to explore local influences on patterns of health information seeking. Multiple layers of influence upon parental health information seeking emerged and revealed a non-digital second divide, which was independent of computer ownership and home internet access. This divide was based on preference for use of certain health information sources, which might be either 'online' or 'offline'. A spatial patterning of both digital and preferential divides was identified with an association between each of these and features of the physical, social, cultural and psychosocial environment, one of which was

  6. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  7. Bridging the transatlantic climate divide. Final project paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, W.C.; Zoeteman, B.C.J.

    2005-10-01

    International climate change policy is presently dominated by the different visions of two major blocks, the USA and EU. It is not always realized that a part of these differences is more fundamental than one may expect in view of the historical connections between the populations of the two continents. Socio-cultural aspects like the role of government, the value of individual liberty and the consequences of population density are different in both regions and play an important role in determining what is acceptable policy-wise. Despite the apparent stalemate in formal positions, signs have been detected that indicate that the 'transatlantic divide' on this issue is (slowly) closing. One cause is that bottom-up momentum is building up in the USA, which can eventually push the federal level to initiate a more active policy. Another cause is the finding in the EU that it turns out to be difficult to reach the Kyoto-targets, which results in the development of policy instruments that could be attractive for the USA to endorse or even participate in. Such instruments could have similarities with the Kyoto Protocol. To obtain more insight in the driving forces behind such changes and why they lead to higher or lower acceptability of certain policy instruments, it makes sense to identify attitudinal indicators that signify such changes. By regularly monitoring these attitudinal indicators, e.g., concrete behavior of companies, proportional media attention, formal political statements, and relating the value of these indicators to a corresponding set of policy instruments, policy makers at both sides of the Atlantic Ocean have an extra tool at their disposal to frame the issue and identify joint solutions in a way that is acceptable to the other party. This project makes a first attempt to design such a method (dynamic analytic model). It holds promises, and it is recommended to develop this model further in order to support the effectiveness of the climate negotiations

  8. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.

    2013-10-15

    the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in the cold season. Especially in the residential areas local wood combustion emissions were occasionally substantial. A notable contribution of particles originating from wood combustion was detected both at suburban and urban areas caused by emissions that were distributed regionally or they were long-range transported. In addition to the wood combustion emissions, transported smokes from open-land fires in Russia and the Baltic countries affected the air quality in Helsinki in the warm season. Source-specific tracer compounds were used in the thesis for identifying the biomass burning source of fine particles. The most used tracer compounds were anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan) that originate specifically in the pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, the main components of plant biomass. In summary, the sampling and analytical methods needed for the online chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning were developed in order to provide precise and prompt high-time-resolution information on biomass burning emissions. The results and the implications of this thesis provide new information on the concentrations and sources of fine particles in the boreal region. (orig.)

  9. Evidence of an emerging digital divide among hospitals that care for the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish K; DesRoches, Catherine M; Shields, Alexandra E; Miralles, Paola D; Zheng, Jie; Rosenbaum, Sara; Campbell, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Some hospitals that disproportionately care for poor patients are falling behind in adopting electronic health records (EHRs). Data from a national survey indicate early evidence of an emerging digital divide: U.S. hospitals that provide care to large numbers of poor patients also had minimal use of EHRs. These same hospitals lagged others in quality performance as well, but those with EHR systems seemed to have eliminated the quality gap. These findings suggest that adopting EHRs should be a major policy goal of health reform measures targeting hospitals that serve large populations of poor patients.

  10. Divide by 4 the emissions: the Negatep scenario; Diviser par 4 nos rejets: le scenario Negatep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P

    2007-01-15

    The Negatep scenario is proposed in the framework of the french energy policy, aiming to divide by 4 the CO{sub 2} emissions for 2050. After an evaluation of the today situation concerning the energy consumption and needs, the scenario proposes some ways of energy conservation in different sectors, other energy sources in place of the fossil fuels, the energy needs by sectors. The last part of the document provides the main consumption posts, the CO{sub 2} releases and the approach. (A.L.B.)

  11. Classification of lung sounds using higher-order statistics: A divide-and-conquer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Raphael; Barbosa, Bruno H G; Ferreira, Danton D

    2016-06-01

    Lung sound auscultation is one of the most commonly used methods to evaluate respiratory diseases. However, the effectiveness of this method depends on the physician's training. If the physician does not have the proper training, he/she will be unable to distinguish between normal and abnormal sounds generated by the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to implement a pattern recognition system to classify lung sounds. We used a dataset composed of five types of lung sounds: normal, coarse crackle, fine crackle, monophonic and polyphonic wheezes. We used higher-order statistics (HOS) to extract features (second-, third- and fourth-order cumulants), Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Fisher's Discriminant Ratio (FDR) to reduce dimensionality, and k-Nearest Neighbors and Naive Bayes classifiers to recognize the lung sound events in a tree-based system. We used the cross-validation procedure to analyze the classifiers performance and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference criterion to compare the results. Our results showed that the Genetic Algorithms outperformed the Fisher's Discriminant Ratio for feature selection. Moreover, each lung class had a different signature pattern according to their cumulants showing that HOS is a promising feature extraction tool for lung sounds. Besides, the proposed divide-and-conquer approach can accurately classify different types of lung sounds. The classification accuracy obtained by the best tree-based classifier was 98.1% for classification accuracy on training, and 94.6% for validation data. The proposed approach achieved good results even using only one feature extraction tool (higher-order statistics). Additionally, the implementation of the proposed classifier in an embedded system is feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health literacy and the digital divide among older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen; Janke, Alexander T; Langa, Kenneth M

    2015-03-01

    digital divide.

  13. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  14. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    definition of "rigorous scientific research," one that includes both community development and scientific progress as legitimate objectives of genomic research. Innovative translational research is needed to develop practical, mutually acceptable methods for crossing the divide between genomic researchers and indigenous communities. This may mean the difference between success and failure in genomic science, and in improving health for all peoples. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. The fine print on HSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A health savings account (HSA) plan, when properly understood, can be a great tool for managing health care costs for employers. It also can be a great tool for employees who want to save for future medical costs. Unfortunately, most presentations and articles about HSA plans skip the details and there are many administrative and compliance complexities, as would be expected with any plan that involves a tax break. This article provides ten points human resource (HR) and benefit professionals should know when considering whether to add an HSA plan. In this collective learning curve, the more accurately employers address questions, the happier their employees will be with their new plans.

  16. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy: a tool for structural studies in material sciences (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    XAFS spectroscopy has revealed itself as a powerful technique for structural characterization of the local atomic environment of individual atomic species, including bond distances, coordination numbers and type of nearest neighbors surrounding the central atom. This technique is particularly useful for materials that show considerable structural and chemical disorder. XAFS spectroscopy has found extensive applications in determining the local atomic and electronic structure of the absorbing centers (atoms) in the materials science, physics, chemistry, biology and geophysics. X-ray absorption edges contain a variety of information on the chemical state and the local structure of the absorbing atom. On the higher energy side of an absorption edge fine structure is observed due to backscattering of the emitted photoelectron. The post-edge region can be divided into two parts. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) which extends up to 50 eV of an absorption edge, the spectrum is interpreted in terms of the appropriate components of the local density of states, which would be expected to be sensitive to the valence state of the atom. The intensity, shape and location of the absorption edge features provide information on the valence state, electronic structure and coordination geometry of the absorbing atom.The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) region is dominated by the single scattering processes and extends up to 1000 eV above the edge and provides information on the radial distribution (coordination number, radial distance and type of neighboring atoms) around the central atom. The results on perovskite based and spinel ferrites systems will be presented, where valence state and cation distributions are determined; the present study will show focus on SrFeO/sub 3/, MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and Zn/sub 1-x/Ni/sub x/Fe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ materials. (author)

  17. Towards gloss control in fine art reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Teun; Brettel, Hans; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.

    2015-03-01

    The studies regarding fine art reproduction mainly focus on the accuracy of colour and the recreation of surface texture properties. Since reflection properties other than colour are neglected, important details of the artwork are lost. For instance, gloss properties, often characteristic to painters and particular movements in the history of art, are not well reproduced. The inadequate reproduction of the different gloss levels of a piece of fine art leads to a specular reflection mismatch in printed copies with respect to the original works that affects the perceptual quality of the printout. We used different print parameters of a 3D high resolution printing setup to control the gloss level on a printout locally. Our method can be used to control gloss automatically and in crucial applications such as fine art reproduction.

  18. New methods and standards for fine dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, Juergen; Hartstock, Stefan; Grimm, Hans

    2009-01-01

    There seems to be common agreement that PM10 is a suboptimal quantity for the quantification of potential dangers from fine dust due to a number of reasons, notably because the chemical composition of the particles is not considered, because the size distribution is disregarded, and because of sampling artefacts. In a first step for improving the particle measurements, the European Community has published new directives for ambient air in June 2008 (EU 2008), which as a main part included new regulations for PM2.5 measurements, in addition to the further on valid regulations for PM10. The comparison of PM2.5 and PM10 may allow a source apportionment and a better assessment of the influence of fine dust on human health. The source apportionment may allow more effective fine dust reduction strategies.

  19. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  20. Project for an analogue divider using electronic counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novat, J.

    1964-01-01

    The apparatus which has been developed is designed to give the reciprocal of a number between 10 3 and 10 7 . In practice this number can be the pulse count provided during a given time by a detector of the BF 3 type during a criticality experiment. The apparatus is made up of two parts: one provides, by means of relays, a voltage proportional to the reciprocal required, the other is a numeric voltmeter measuring this voltage between 0.1 and 1 volt. The relative error of the result is under 5 per cent. (author) [fr

  1. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Study of fine structure of deformed hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskresenskaya, L.A.; Petukhova, A.S.; Kovalev, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the hafnium fine structure following the cold plastic deformation have been studied. The fine structure condition has been studied through the harmonic analysis of the profile of the X-ray diffraction line, obtained at the DRON-I installation. Received has been the dependence of the crystal lattice microdistortions value on the deformation extent for hafnium. This dependence is compared with the corresponding one for zirconium. It is found out that at all the deformations the microdistortion distribution is uniform. The microdistortion value grows with the increase in the compression. During the mechanical impact higher microdistortions of the crystal lattice occur in the hafnium rather than in zirconium

  3. The role of health education in addressing the health divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with opportunit...

  4. The Great American Divide: The Military-Civilian Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, and Joseph J. Thorndike provide a historical account of America’s war-time fiscal policies for the major American wars...accessed January 16, 2012). 63 Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, Joseph J. Thorndike , War and Taxes (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 2008

  5. A divide-down RF source generation system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Lenkszus, F.; Laird, R.

    1997-01-01

    A divide-down rf source system has been designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory to provide harmonically-related and phase-locked rf source signals between the APS 352-MHz storage ring and booster synchrotron rf systems and the 9.77-MHz and 117-MHz positron accumulator ring rf systems. The design provides rapid switching capability back to individual rf synthesizers for each one. The system also contains a digital bucket phase shifter for injection bucket selection. Input 352-MHz rf from a master synthesizer is supplied to a VXI-based ECL divider board which produces 117-MHz and 9.77-MHz square-wave outputs. These outputs are passed through low-pass filters to produce pure signals at the required fundamental frequencies. These signals, plus signals at the same frequencies from independent synthesizers, are fed to an interface chassis where source selection is made via local/remote control of coaxial relays. This chassis also produces buffered outputs at each frequency for monitoring and synchronization of ancillary equipment

  6. Magnetic resonance separation imaging using a divided inversion recovery technique (DIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, James W

    2010-04-01

    The divided inversion recovery technique is an MRI separation method based on tissue T(1) relaxation differences. When tissue T(1) relaxation times are longer than the time between inversion pulses in a segmented inversion recovery pulse sequence, longitudinal magnetization does not pass through the null point. Prior to additional inversion pulses, longitudinal magnetization may have an opposite polarity. Spatial displacement of tissues in inversion recovery balanced steady-state free-precession imaging has been shown to be due to this magnetization phase change resulting from incomplete magnetization recovery. In this paper, it is shown how this phase change can be used to provide image separation. A pulse sequence parameter, the time between inversion pulses (T180), can be adjusted to provide water-fat or fluid separation. Example water-fat and fluid separation images of the head, heart, and abdomen are presented. The water-fat separation performance was investigated by comparing image intensities in short-axis divided inversion recovery technique images of the heart. Fat, blood, and fluid signal was suppressed to the background noise level. Additionally, the separation performance was not affected by main magnetic field inhomogeneities.

  7. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monozon, B.S., E-mail: borismonozon@mail.ru [Physics Department, Marine Technical University, 3 Lotsmanskaya Str., 190008 St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  8. Treatment of oil sands mature fine tailings with silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffett, R.H. [DuPont Canada Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of treating mature fine tailings (MFT) with silica. Rheology modifications with silica treatments were examined. Experimental studies demonstrated a significant slump at 30 minutes after mixing. Flow properties were studied at a 2 degree angle. The MFT thin lift evaporative drying procedure was used to determine the effects of the silica treatments. Methods of using pressure to dewater MFTs were reviewed. The results of a field test conducted to determine the flow behaviour of MFTs treated with low dose silica were presented. Drying characteristics and strength gains were also evaluated. Results of the study showed that the MFTs had a tendency to channel at discharge points. After a 15 day period that included a freeze-thaw the MFTs had cracks that continued to enlarge, full depth cracking, and fine cracking. The field tests demonstrated that in-situ polymerization of silica within the water phase of fluid fine tails provides significant modifications to rheological properties, and that the onset of rheological modification can be controlled over a range of conditions and times. tabs., figs.

  9. Fine--Mesh Photodetectors for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bajanov, N A; Golubev, Nikolai; Gusev, Yuri; Kachanov, Vassili; Klechneva, T Y; Kovalev, A I; Levtchenko, L A; Lukyanov, Valery; Mamaeva, Galina; Moroz, Feodor; Prilutskaya, D M; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Blinnikov, Yuri

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of fine-mesh vacuum phototetrodes and phototriodes ( VPTs) in an axial magnetic field of ( 0 -- 4)T has been investigated. The measured VPT parameters are: fine-mesh cell dimensions, the photocathode sensitivity and its homogenity, the gain in zero and 4T magnetic field at tilt angles corresponding to the rapidity range of CMS ECAL Endcap 1.479 -- 3.0 and excess noise factor. Measurements have been performed on 21 and 30 mm diameter photodetectors with different fine-mesh structures: 30, 60 and 100 lines per mm under different types of photocathode illumination by green LED. Phototriodes with 30 or 60 lines per mm and an external diameter of 21 mm are found to be the best candidates for the CMS environment with the initial size of PWO crystals proposed to be used in the Endcap, by comparison with phototetrodes. They provide a gain of the order of 6 -- 8 in 4T magnetic field and an excess noise factor of 2 under full photocathode illumination.

  10. Fine-mesh photodetectors for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bajanov, N A; Gusev, Yu I; Klechneva, T Yu; Kovalev, A I; Levtchenko, L A; Moroz, F V; Seliverstov, D M; Kachanov, V A; Golubev, N A; Frolov, V A; Lukyanov, V N; Mamaeva, G A; Prilutskaya, D M

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of fine-mesh vacuum phototriodes (VPTs) with the external diameters of 21 and 35 mm has been investigated in an axial magnetic field up to 4 T in view of their applications as readout devices for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The measured VPT parameters are: the photocathode's sensitivity and its homogeneity, the gain in zero and 4 T magnetic field at tilt angles corresponding to the pseudorapidity range of CMS ECAL Endcap 1.48-3.0 as a function of fine-mesh cell dimensions, excess noise factor and the stability of the photocathode response under the illumination by light emission diodes (LED) and the irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. Phototriodes with 100 lines per mm fine-mesh and 25 mm external diameter are found to be the best candidates for coupling with rear PbWO/sub 4/ crystals by dimensions of 30*30 mm, proposed to be used in CMS ECAL Endcaps. VPTs provide a gain of the order (6-8) in a 4 T magnetic field and an excess noise factor of 2-2.5 under illumination of a full photocatho...

  11. Contribution to the study of porous or very finely divided alumina; Contribution a l'etude des alumines poreuses ou tres finement divisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juillet, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-12-15

    An amorphous porous alumina having a large surface area can be made non-stoichiometric by a treatment at 500 - 700 deg C in a vacuum. The oxygen deficit after a treatment at 500 deg C, and the aluminium deficit after a treatment at 700 deg C, give rise to semiconductor properties successively of type n and of the type p. A crystallized {delta}-alumina in the form of non-porous spherical grains compressed at a pressure of 1 to 5 metric tons/cm{sup 2} is also non-stoichiometric with a deficit of oxygen or of aluminium. None of these phenomena could be observed with a sample which had not been compressed. The favorable influence of oxygen on the recrystallization process of amorphous alumina, and on the {delta}-{alpha}, transformation of crystallized alumina has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the strains produced by the compression of the {delta}-alumina make possible its transformation in air into a at a temperature lower than the temperature necessary to observe this phenomenon with non-compressed {delta}-alumina. Amorphous alumina undergoes an intergranular sintering at 500 deg C and an intergranular sintering at 1 000 deg C. Only the latter occurs in the case of spherical alumina grains. For these, the strains brought about by the compression cause a lowering of 100 deg C in the threshold sintering temperature, with respect to the temperature required to produce the phenomena in a non-compressed sample. The amount of sintering in a crystallized alumina pellet depends, as well, on the rate of rise of temperature. This study tends to show that new properties, or at least unusual solid-state properties, can be observed on disorganised solids or on solids which are crystallized but which have a large surface area and a certain amount of strain. (author) [French] Une alumine poreuse amorphe de grande surface specifique peut etre rendue non-stoechiometrique par traitement sous vide pousse a 500-700 deg C. Le deficit en oxygene apres chauffage a 500 deg C, puis le deficit en aluminium apres traitement a 700 deg C entrainant l'apparition des proprietes de semi-conducteur n puis p. Une alumine cristallisee delta sous forme do grains spheriques non poreux soumise a une compression de 1 a 5 t/cm{sup 2} presente egalement une non-stoechiometrie a deficit d'oxygene ou d'aluminium. Aucun de ces phenomenes n'a pu etre enregistre avec l'echantillon non soumis a la compression. L'influence favorable de l'oxygene dans le processus de recristallisation de l'alumine amorphe et dans la transformation delta-alpha de l'alumine cristallisee a ete mise en evidence, De plus, les contraintes developpees par compression de l'alumine delta permettent sa transformation en phase alpha dans l'air a une temperature inferieure a celle necessaire pour observer le meme phenomene dans l'alumine delta non comprimee. L'afumine amorphe subit un frittage intragranulaire des 500 deg C et un frittage intergranulaire a 1 000 deg C. Seul ce dernier s'observe pour l'alumine en grains spheriques. Pour cette derniere les contraintes developpees par la compression abaissent de 100 deg C le seuil de ce frittage par rapport a la temperature necessaire pour observer ce phenomene avec l'echantillon non comprime. Le taux de frittage d'un comprime d'alumine cristallisee depend, en plus, de la vitesse de la mise en temperature. L'ensemble de cette etude tend a montrer que des proprietes nouvelles, ou du moins inhabituelles de l'etat solide peuvent etre observees s'il est fait appel a des solides desorganises ou encore cristallises mais dotes d'une importante surface specifique et soumis a des contraintes. (auteur)

  12. Contribution to the study of the sintering of finely divided alumina; Contribution a l'etude du frittage de l'alumine finement divisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergnon, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Two crystalline forms of alumina, delta and alpha, were used to prepare compacts. The shrinkage of these compacts was investigated at different temperatures. The samples of alumina are composed of non porous, spherical particles, of a very high purity. Their mean diameter varies between 160 and 1 200 Angstrom for the delta alumina samples and between 400 and 1 200 Angstrom for the alpha alumina samples. The shrinkage of compacts, heated at a linearly increasing temperature (300 deg. C/h, slow heating) was studied in a A.D.A.M.E.L. dilatometer, modified to be used as a retractometer. The kinetics of the isothermal shrinkage of compacts after their rapid introduction (a few seconds, flash heating) in the high temperature zone of the furnace were followed with a photographic technique. It is shown that the heating rate influences the shrinkage of the compacts when they are heated at temperatures over 1 000 deg. C. The kinetics of the isothermal shrinkage, at temperature between 1000 deg. C and 1600 deg. C were thoroughly studied. Values of the apparent activation energy for the different classes of compacts are given. An interpretation of the results is proposed. It takes into account two different but interdependent mechanisms of sintering: the disappearance of porosity as a result of vacancy diffusion and the grain growth as a result of boundary migration. (author) [French] Deux formes cristallines de l'alumine, la forme delta et la forme alpha, ont ete utilisees pour confectionner des comprimes en vue d'une etude cinetique du frittage. Ces alumines d'une tres grande purete sont constituees de particules spheriques non poreuses, sensiblement homodispersees dont le diametre moyen varie entre 160 et 1200 Angstrom pour les echantillons de l'alumine delta et entre 400 et 1200 Angstrom pour ceux de l'alumine alpha. Le retrait des comprimes chauffes a temperature linerairement croissante (300 deg. C/h: chauffage lent) a ete suivi a l'aide du dilotometre A.D.A.M.E.L., modifie afin de pouvoir etre utilise en retractometre. La technique de prises de vues photographiques du comprime place dans un four a permis de suivre la cinetique du retrait isotherme apres l'introduction rapide (quelques secondes: chauffage 'eclair') du comprime dans la zone de haute temperature du four. L'influence de le vitesse de chauffage sur le retrait des comprimes, lorsqu'ils sont portes a des temperatures superieures a 1000 deg. C, a ete mise en evidence. L'etude cinetique isotherme du retrait des comprimes entre 1000 et 1600 deg. C a fait l'objet de determinations poussees conduisant notamment a l'attribution de valeurs d'energies apparentes d'activation pour les differentes classes de comprimes. Une interpretation des resultats a ete donnee en s'appuyant sur le role de deux phenomenes differents, mais interdependants: l'elimination de la porosite par migration des lacunes et le grossissement des grains par deplacement des joints de grains. (auteur)

  13. Contribution to the study of the sintering of finely divided alumina; Contribution a l'etude du frittage de l'alumine finement divisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergnon, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Two crystalline forms of alumina, delta and alpha, were used to prepare compacts. The shrinkage of these compacts was investigated at different temperatures. The samples of alumina are composed of non porous, spherical particles, of a very high purity. Their mean diameter varies between 160 and 1 200 Angstrom for the delta alumina samples and between 400 and 1 200 Angstrom for the alpha alumina samples. The shrinkage of compacts, heated at a linearly increasing temperature (300 deg. C/h, slow heating) was studied in a A.D.A.M.E.L. dilatometer, modified to be used as a retractometer. The kinetics of the isothermal shrinkage of compacts after their rapid introduction (a few seconds, flash heating) in the high temperature zone of the furnace were followed with a photographic technique. It is shown that the heating rate influences the shrinkage of the compacts when they are heated at temperatures over 1 000 deg. C. The kinetics of the isothermal shrinkage, at temperature between 1000 deg. C and 1600 deg. C were thoroughly studied. Values of the apparent activation energy for the different classes of compacts are given. An interpretation of the results is proposed. It takes into account two different but interdependent mechanisms of sintering: the disappearance of porosity as a result of vacancy diffusion and the grain growth as a result of boundary migration. (author) [French] Deux formes cristallines de l'alumine, la forme delta et la forme alpha, ont ete utilisees pour confectionner des comprimes en vue d'une etude cinetique du frittage. Ces alumines d'une tres grande purete sont constituees de particules spheriques non poreuses, sensiblement homodispersees dont le diametre moyen varie entre 160 et 1200 Angstrom pour les echantillons de l'alumine delta et entre 400 et 1200 Angstrom pour ceux de l'alumine alpha. Le retrait des comprimes chauffes a temperature linerairement croissante (300 deg. C/h: chauffage lent) a ete suivi a l'aide du dilotometre A.D.A.M.E.L., modifie afin de pouvoir etre utilise en retractometre. La technique de prises de vues photographiques du comprime place dans un four a permis de suivre la cinetique du retrait isotherme apres l'introduction rapide (quelques secondes: chauffage 'eclair') du comprime dans la zone de haute temperature du four. L'influence de le vitesse de chauffage sur le retrait des comprimes, lorsqu'ils sont portes a des temperatures superieures a 1000 deg. C, a ete mise en evidence. L'etude cinetique isotherme du retrait des comprimes entre 1000 et 1600 deg. C a fait l'objet de determinations poussees conduisant notamment a l'attribution de valeurs d'energies apparentes d'activation pour les differentes classes de comprimes. Une interpretation des resultats a ete donnee en s'appuyant sur le role de deux phenomenes differents, mais interdependants: l'elimination de la porosite par migration des lacunes et le grossissement des grains par deplacement des joints de grains. (auteur)

  14. Divergence of fine and gross motor skills in prelingually deaf children: implications for cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess relations between fine and gross motor development and spoken language processing skills in pediatric cochlear implant users. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant before age 5 and had no known developmental delay or cognitive impairment were included in the study. Fine and gross motor development were assessed before implantation using the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, a standardized parental report of adaptive behavior. Fine and gross motor scores reflected a given child's motor functioning with respect to a normative sample of typically developing, normal-hearing children. Relations between these preimplant scores and postimplant spoken language outcomes were assessed. In general, gross motor scores were found to be positively related to chronologic age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for fine motor scores. Fine motor scores were more strongly correlated with postimplant expressive and receptive language scores than gross motor scores. Our findings suggest a disassociation between fine and gross motor development in prelingually deaf children: fine motor skills, in contrast to gross motor skills, tend to be delayed as the prelingually deaf children get older. These findings provide new knowledge about the links between motor and spoken language development and suggest that auditory deprivation may lead to atypical development of certain motor and language skills that share common cortical processing resources.

  15. Coupling fine particle and bedload transport in gravel-bedded streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsu; Hunt, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Fine particles in the silt- and clay-size range are important determinants of surface water quality. Since fine particle loading rates are not unique functions of stream discharge this limits the utility of the available models for water quality assessment. Data from 38 minimally developed watersheds within the United States Geological Survey stream gauging network in California, USA reveal three lines of evidence that fine particle release is coupled with bedload transport. First, there is a transition in fine particle loading rate as a function of discharge for gravel-bedded sediments that does not appear when the sediment bed is composed of sand, cobbles, boulders, or bedrock. Second, the discharge at the transition in the loading rate is correlated with the initiation of gravel mobilization. Third, high frequency particle concentration and discharge data are dominated by clockwise hysteresis where rising limb discharges generally have higher concentrations than falling limb discharges. These three observations across multiple watersheds lead to a conceptual model that fine particles accumulate within the sediment bed at discharges less than the transition and then the gravel bed fluidizes with fine particle release at discharges above the transition discharge. While these observations were individually recognized in the literature, this analysis provides a consistent conceptual model based on the coupling of fine particle dynamics with filtration at low discharges and gravel bed fluidization at higher discharges.

  16. A global analysis of fine root production as affected by soil nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z Y; Chen, Han Y H

    2012-09-22

    Fine root production is the largest component of belowground production and plays substantial roles in the biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. The increasing availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) due to human activities is expected to increase aboveground net primary production (ANNP), but the response of fine root production to N and P remains unclear. If roots respond to nutrients as ANNP, fine root production is anticipated to increase with increasing soil N and P. Here, by synthesizing data along the nutrient gradient from 410 natural habitats and from 469 N and/or P addition experiments, we showed that fine root production increased in terrestrial ecosystems with an average increase along the natural N gradient of up to 0.5 per cent with increasing soil N. Fine root production also increased with soil P in natural conditions, particularly at P production increased by a global average of 27, 21 and 40 per cent, respectively. However, its responses differed among ecosystems and soil types. The global average increases in fine root production are lower than those of ANNP, indicating that above- and belowground counterparts are coupled, but production allocation shifts more to aboveground with higher soil nutrients. Our results suggest that the increasing fertilizer use and combined N deposition at present and in the future will stimulate fine root production, together with ANPP, probably providing a significant influence on atmospheric CO(2) emissions.

  17. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  18. Light stops and fine-tuning in MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cici, Ali; Kirca, Zerrin; Uen, Cem Salih [Uludag Univ., Department of Physics, Bursa (Turkey)

    2018-01-15

    We discuss the fine-tuning issue within the MSSM framework. Following the idea that the fine-tuning can measure effects of some missing mechanism, we impose non-universal gaugino masses at the GUT scale, and explore the low scale implications. We realize that the fine-tuning parametrized with Δ{sub EW} can be as low as zero. We consider the stop mass with a special importance and focus on the mass scales as m{sub t} ≤ 700 GeV, which are excluded by the current experiments when the stop decays into a neutralino along with a top quark or a chargino along with a bottom quark. We find that the stop mass can be as low as about 250 GeV with Δ{sub EW} ∝ 50. We find that the solutions in this region can be excluded only up to 60% when stop decays into a neutralino-top quark, and 50% when it decays into a chargino-b quark. Setting 65% CL to be potential exclusion and 95% to be pure exclusion limit such solutions will be tested in near future experiments, which are conducted with higher luminosity. In addition to stop, the region with low fine-tuning and light stops predicts masses for the other supersymmetric particles such as m{sub b} >or similar 700 GeV, m{sub τ} >or similar 1 TeV, m{sub χ{sub 1}{sup {sub ±}}} >or similar 120 GeV. The details for the mass scales and decay rates are also provided by tables of benchmark points. (orig.)

  19. Light stops and fine-tuning in MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçi, Ali; Kırca, Zerrin; Ün, Cem Salih

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the fine-tuning issue within the MSSM framework. Following the idea that the fine-tuning can measure effects of some missing mechanism, we impose non-universal gaugino masses at the GUT scale, and explore the low scale implications. We realize that the fine-tuning parametrized with Δ _{EW} can be as low as zero. We consider the stop mass with a special importance and focus on the mass scales as m_{\\tilde{t}} ≤ 700 GeV, which are excluded by the current experiments when the stop decays into a neutralino along with a top quark or a chargino along with a bottom quark. We find that the stop mass can be as low as about 250 GeV with Δ _{EW} ˜ 50. We find that the solutions in this region can be exluded only up to 60% when stop decays into a neutralino-top quark, and 50% when it decays into a chargino-b quark. Setting 65% CL to be potential exclusion and 95% to be pure exclusion limit such solutions will be tested in near future experiments, which are conducted with higher luminosity. In addition to stop, the region with low fine-tuning and light stops predicts masses for the other supersymmetric particles such as m_{\\tilde{b}} ≳ 700 GeV, m_{\\tilde{τ }} ≳ 1 TeV, m_{\\tilde{χ }1^{± }} ≳ 120 GeV. The details for the mass scales and decay rates are also provided by tables of benchmark points.

  20. Ivor Jennings's Constitutional Legacy beyond the Occidental-Oriental Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Malagodi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sir W. Ivor Jennings (1903–1965) was one of Britain's most prominent constitutional law scholars of the twentieth century. He is mostly famed for his work in the 1930s on English Public Law. In 1941, Jennings, however, moved to Sri Lanka, progressively becoming involved in both an academic and professional capacity with constitutional processes across the decolonizing world in the early stages of the Cold War. This article provides an alternative account of Jennings's constitutional legacy to...

  1. Shrinking the Civil-Military Divide: A Military Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    behavior and rights, the values of the military are different and unique. Senior military officers highlight the importance of understanding the...Examples include on-base housing, shopping , schools, children’s sports leagues, and community and social events such as concerts, comedy shows, and movies... mall , a sporting event, or the movies provides a simple, 16 Skelton, “The Civil-Military Gap

  2. The aggregation efficiency of very fine volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bello, E.; Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can discharge large amounts of very small sized pyroclasts (under 0.090 mm) into the atmosphere that may cause problems to people, infrastructures and environment. The transport and deposition of fine ash are ruled by aggregation that causes premature settling of fine ash and, as consequence, significantly reduces the concentration of airborne material over long distances. Parameterizing the aggregation potential of fine ash is then needed to provide accurate modelling of ash transport and deposition from volcanic plumes. Here we present the first results of laboratory experiments investigating the aggregation efficiency of very fine volcanic particles. Previous laboratory experiments have shown that collision kinetic and relative humidity provide the strongest effect on aggregation behaviour but were only limited to particles with size > 0.125 mm. In our work, we focus on natural volcanic ash at ambient humidity with particles size aggregation potential. Two types of ash were used in our experiments: fresh ash, collected during fall-out from a recent plume-forming eruption at Sakurajima (Japan -July 2013) and old ash, collected from fall-out tephra deposits at Campi Flegrei (Italy, ca. 10 ka), to account for the different chemical composition and morphoscopic effects of altered ash on aggregation efficiency. Total samples were hand sieved to obtain three classes with unimodal grain size distributions (sieved from the top of a transparent tank where a fan, placed at the bottom, allows turbulent dispersion of particles. Collision and sticking of particles on a vertical glass slide were filmed with a high speed cameras at 6000 fps. Our lenses arrangement provide high image resolution allowing to capture particles down to 0.005 mm in diameter. Video sequences of particles motion and collision were then processed with image analysis and particle tracking tools to determine i) the particle number density and ii) the grain size distribution

  3. JIGSAW PUZZLE IMPROVE FINE MOTOR ABILITIES OF UPPER EXTREMITIES IN POST-STROKE ISCHEMIC CLIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ischemic stroke is a disease caused by focal cerebral ischemia, where is a decline in blood flow that needed for neuronal metabolism, leading to neurologic deficit include motor deficit such as fine motor skills impairment. Therapy of fine motor skills disorders is to improve motor function, prevent contractures and complications. These study aimed to identify the effect of playing Jigsaw Puzzle on muscle strength, extensive motion, and upper extremity fine motor skills in patients with ischemic stroke at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. Methods: Experimental Quasi pre-posttest one group control. The number of samples were 34 respondents selected using purposive sampling technique. The samples were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was 17 respondents who were given standard treatment hospital and played Jigsaw Puzzle 2 times a day for six days. Control group is one respondent given by hospital standard therapy without given additional Jigsaw Puzzle game. Evaluation of these research is done on the first and seventh day for those groups. Result: The results showed that muscle strength, the range of joint motion and fine motor skills of upper extremities increased (p = 0.001 significantly after being given the Jigsaw Puzzle games. These means playing Jigsaw Puzzle increase muscle strength, the range of joint motion and upper extremity fine motor skill of ischemic stroke patients. Discussion and conclusion: Jigsaw puzzle game administration as additional rehabilitation therapy in upper extremity fine motor to minimize the occurrence of contractures and motor disorders in patients with ischemic stroke. Jigsaw puzzle game therapy capable of creating repetitive motion as a key of neurological rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke. This study recommends using jigsaw puzzle game as one of intervention in the nursing care of Ischemic Stroke patients.

  4. Score of Fine Motor Skill in Children with Down Syndrome using Nintendo Wii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspasari Sinaga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome occurs due to an extra chromosome 21, known as Trisomy 21. In addition to delayed cognitive and speech development, children with Down syndrome may also experience delayed gross and fine motor development. Virtual Reality Therapy, such as Nintendo Wii is a computer-based technology that allows users to interact with a virtual three-dimensional scenario and the most innovative physical rehabilitation method. High scores indicate that the player has a good motor skill. This study aimed to examine the difference between the score of fine motor skill in children with and without Down syndrome. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2015 to 40 children aged between 9–12 years old who came from public primary schools and special needs schools in Bandung, West Java. They were divided into 2 groups using random gender and age pairing; one group was children with Down syndrome and another other group was normal children. The children’ scores of Nintendo Wii game were collected three times. The collected data were statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results: The proportion of children with low-grade fine motor skill in Down syndrome group was larger than those with high-grade fine motor skill. In the other hand, in normal children group, the proportion was reversed compared to Down syndrome group. There was a significant difference in score of fine motor skill between children with Down syndrome and normal children (p=0.000. Conclusions: The fine motor skill of children with Down syndrome is poorer than normal children’s.

  5. Bridging the digital divide in diabetes: family support and implications for health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Lindsay S; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell L; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2011-10-01

    Abstract Background: Patient web portals (PWPs) offer patients remote access to their medical record and communication with providers. Adults with health literacy limitations are less likely to access and use health information technology (HIT), including PWPs. In diabetes, PWP use has been associated with patient satisfaction, patient-provider communication, and glycemic control. Using mixed methods, we explored the relationships between health literacy, numeracy, and computer literacy and the usage of a PWP and HIT. Participants (N=61 adults with type 2 diabetes) attended focus groups and completed surveys, including measures of health literacy, numeracy, and computer anxiety (an indicator of computer literacy) and frequency of PWP and HIT use. Computer literacy was positively associated with health literacy (r=0.41, Pdigital divide" in diabetes by helping adults access a PWP or HIT for diabetes management.

  6. First principles calculations using density matrix divide-and-conquer within the SIESTA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cankurtaran, B O; Gale, J D; Ford, M J

    2008-01-01

    The density matrix divide-and-conquer technique for the solution of Kohn-Sham density functional theory has been implemented within the framework of the SIESTA methodology. Implementation details are provided where the focus is on the scaling of the computation time and memory use, in both serial and parallel versions. We demonstrate the linear-scaling capabilities of the technique by providing ground state calculations of moderately large insulating, semiconducting and (near-) metallic systems. This linear-scaling technique has made it feasible to calculate the ground state properties of quantum systems consisting of tens of thousands of atoms with relatively modest computing resources. A comparison with the existing order-N functional minimization (Kim-Mauri-Galli) method is made between the insulating and semiconducting systems

  7. Development of a new lower hybrid antenna module using a poloidal power divider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, S.; Imai, T.; Seki, M.; Suganuma, K.; Goniche, M.; Bibet, Ph.; Berio, S.; Brossaud, J.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G.

    1997-03-01

    A realistic antenna module using a poloidal divider for lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiment, is modelled and fabricated. In this antenna module test II, three types of poloidal dividers, which split the power in 3, are tested. (author)

  8. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  9. Fine filament NbTi superconductive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.; Grabinsky, G.; Marancik, W.; Pattanayak, D.

    1986-01-01

    The large superconducting magnet for the high energy physics accelerator requires fine filament composite to minimize the field error due to the persistent current in the filaments. New concepts toward the fine filament composite and its cable fabrication are discussed. Two-stage cables of fine wire with intermediate number of filaments were introduced. The first stage was six wires cables around one and in the second stage this was used to produce a Rutherford cable. The advantage of this process is in the ease of billet fabrication since the number of filaments in a single wire is within the range of easy billet fabrication. The disadvantage is in the cable fabrication. One of the major concerns in the fabrication of fine NbTi filaments composite in a copper matrix is the intermetallic compound formation during the extrusion and heat treatment steps. The hard intermetallic particles degrade the uniformity of the filaments and reduce the critical current density. The process of using Nb barrier between the filaments and copper matrix in order to prevent this CuTi intermetallic particle formation is described

  10. Renal fine structures detected by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilch, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    A significantly improved image quality is achieved by the technique described, as compared to the magnetic resonance data obtained so far. The detailed analysis of the kidney goes as deep as into anatomic fine structures, and there is reason to hope for far better diagnostic details. (orig.) [de

  11. Looking inside giant resonance fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Voronov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Microscopic calculations of the fine structure of giant resonances for spherical nuclei are presented. Excited states are treated by wave function which takes into account coupling of simple one-phonon configurations with more complex ones. Nuclear structure calculations are applied to the description of the γ-decay of resonances into the ground and low-lying excited states. 16 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Fine needle aspiration cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: This is a consecutive 9-year analysis of patients with peripheral lymphadenopathy. All the patients had fine needle aspiration. Smears were made, fixed in 95% alcohol and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Zeihl Neelsen stains. Results: 48 patients, 31 males and 17 females, were analyzed.

  13. Local Alignments for Fine-Grained Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavves, E.; Fernando, B.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Tuytelaars, T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is fine-grained categorization without human interaction. Different from prior work, which relies on detectors for specific object parts, we propose to localize distinctive details by roughly aligning the objects using just the overall shape. Then, one may proceed to the

  14. Krypton and xenon in lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J. R.; Dragon, J. C.; Pepin, R. O.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Data from grain-size separates, stepwise-heated fractions, and bulk analyses of 20 samples of fines and breccias from five lunar sites are used to define three-isotope and ordinate intercept correlations in an attempt to resolve the lunar heavy rare gas system in a statistically valid approach. Tables of concentrations and isotope compositions are given.

  15. Testing with fine fragrances in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2001-01-01

    The frequencies of contact allergic reactions to 2 fine fragrances were studied by patch testing. Further, a comparison was made of test results before and after evaporation of the solvent. A total of 480 consecutive eczema patients were included, 100 in the Dortmund clinic and 380 in the Gentoft...

  16. Interaction of fine sediment with alluvial streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Carey, William P.

    1989-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about the physical processes that control the transport of fine sediment moving over an alluvial bed. The knowledge is needed to design rational sampling and monitoring programs that assess the transport and fate of toxic substances in surface waters because the toxics are often associated with silt- and clay-sized particles. This technical note reviews some of the past research in areas that may contribute to an increased understanding of the processes involved. An alluvial streambed can have a large capacity to store fine sediments that are extracted from the flow when instream concentrations are high and it can gradually release fine sediment to the flow when the instream concentrations are low. Several types of storage mechanisms are available depending on the relative size distribution of the suspended load and bed material, as well as the flow hydraulics. Alluvial flow tends to segregate the deposited material according to size and density. Some of the storage locations are temporary, but some can store the fine sediment for very long periods of time.

  17. Derivation of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, A.

    1980-01-01

    The fine-structure constant is derived as a dynamical property of quantum electrodynamics. Single-particle solutions of the coupled Maxwell and Dirac equations have a physical charge spectrum. The solutions are used to construct lepton-and quark-like particles. The strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces are described as the interactions of complex charges in multiple combinations

  18. High Power Combiner/Divider with Coupled Lines for Broadband Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    novel isolation structure will also be presented. I. INTRODUCTION Power divider/combiners are traditionally used in the development of high power ...a novel Gysel divider/combiner structure have been demonstrated. The divider/combiner are applicable to various high- power , broadband radar, EW...Gysel Power Divider With Arbitrary Power Ratios and Filtering Responses Using Coupling Structure ,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Tech., vol

  19. The paradox of pharmacy: A profession's house divided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    To describe the paradox in pharmacy between the vision of patient care and the reality of community pharmacy practice and to explore how integrated reimbursement for the retail prescription and linking cognitive patient care services directly to prescription processing could benefit the profession. A dichotomy exists between what many pharmacists do and what they've been trained to do. Pharmacy leaders have formulated a vision for pharmacists to become more involved in direct patient care. All graduates now receive PharmD-level training, and some leaders call for requirements of postgraduate residency training and board certification for pharmacists who provide patient care. How such requirements would relate to community pharmacy practice is unclear. The retail prescription remains the primary link between the pharmacist and the health care consumer. Cognitive services, such as medication therapy management (MTM), need to be integrated into the standard workflow of community pharmacies so as to become a natural extension of the professional services rendered in the process of filling a prescription. Current prescription fees are not sufficient to support legitimate professional services. A proposed integrated pricing system for retail prescriptions includes a $15 professional fee that is scaled upward for value-added services, such as MTM. Pharmacy includes a diversity of practice that has historically been a source of division. For pharmacists to reach their potential as patient care providers, the various factions within the profession must forge a unified vision of the future that addresses all realms of practice.

  20. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixin; Tian, Ye; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wenliang; Lin, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR) images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3). Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI) yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex) in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI) outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT) in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE) of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable. PMID:27775670

  1. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3. Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable.

  2. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  3. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  4. Analysing the role of ICT in bridging the digital divide amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This digital divide can be seen as an educational divide and thus we examine how ICT is influencing education. We also investigate the nature of this digital divide while focusing on the local perspective. A short pilot study was done at four schools and one adult education centre in South Africa regarding their access to ICT.

  5. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilka, Gila Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  6. Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, H; Flamma, B; Van der Meere, J.J.; van Engeland, H.

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was

  7. Divided Attention Capacity in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogte, Hans; Flamma, Bert; Van Der Meere, Jaap; Van Engeland, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was tested using a computerized variant of a…

  8. Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Soler, J J

    2011-08-01

    Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighbouring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by recolonization. Given that studies have shown significant genetic differentiation and reduced gene flow across migratory divides, we hypothesized that an absence of migratory divides would result in elevated rates of gene flow and hence a reduced level of local adaptation. In a comparative study, species with migratory divides had larger population sizes and population densities and longer dispersal distances than species without migratory divides. Species with migratory divides tended to be habitat generalists. Bird species with migratory divides had higher richness of blood parasites and higher growth rates of Staphylococcus on their eggs during the incubation period. There was weaker cell-mediated immunity in adults and stronger cell lysis in species with migratory divides. These findings may suggest that migratory divides constitute barriers to dispersal with consequences for ecology and evolution of distributions, population sizes, habitats and parasite-host interactions. They also suggest that migratory divides may play a role in local adaptation in host-parasite interactions. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Are changes in the digital divide consistent with global equality or inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    To answer the question in the title, the author divides a sample of developing countries according to whether they have experienced a rise or fall of the (absolute) digital divide in the Internet. He suggests that in countries where the divide is falling, incomes will tend to be relatively high, and

  10. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary - Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R

    2017-07-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010-2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas.

  11. The digital divide in Internet-based patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gordon H

    2012-11-01

    The ubiquity of the Internet has led to the widespread availability of health-related information to the public, and the subsequent empowerment of patients has fundamentally altered the patient-physician relationship. Among several concerns of physicians is the possibility that patients may be misinformed by information obtained from the Internet. One opportunity for health care providers to address this problem exists within Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs). According to recent research in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, IPEMs found within professional otolaryngology websites are written at the 8th- to 18th-grade reading comprehension level, essentially unchanged over the past 3 years. This greatly exceeds the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Benefits, strategies, and challenges to improving the readability of IPEMs are discussed.

  12. eGY-Africa: addressing the digital divide for science in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Paul; Nguno, Anna; Barton, Charles; Amaeshi, Larry; Tenthani, Chifundo; Petitdidier, Monique; Cottrell, Les

    2013-04-01

    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in the development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is still a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this digital divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the digital divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the digital divide - either as a direct policy objective, or indirectly

  13. eGY-Africa: Addressing the Digital Divide for Science in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, C.E.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; /Lab.Phys.Plasmas, Saint Maur des Fosses; Barry, B.; /Assoc.African Univ., Accra; Chukwuma; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Cottrell, R.L.; /SLAC; Kalim, U.; /Pakistan Natl. U.; Mebrahtu, A.; /Mekelle U.; Petitdidier, M.; /Lab. d' Atmos., Velizy; Rabiu, B.; /Federal Tech. U., Akure; Reeves, C.; /Earthworks bv, Delft

    2010-06-16

    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists, and the gap is growing. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is but a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this Digital Divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the Digital Divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the Digital Divide - either as a direct policy

  14. Lost in translation: Cultural divides in communication skills teaching identified in the ICCH 2016 student symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Heather K; Mohamed, Nasteha A; Seegel, Max; Gorina, Kseniya; Silverman, Jonathan; Rosenbaum, Marcy

    2017-11-01

    To provide a platform for learners' voices at an international conference on communication in healthcare. A group of medical students were invited to explore their experiences with communication skills learning at a symposium at the 2016 International Conference on Communication in Healthcare in Heidelberg, DE. Students from the US, Denmark, Germany, and Russia discussed their experiences with communication skills curriculum at their institutions. We identified divides that have challenged our ability to develop and maintain strong communication skills: 1) valuation of communication skills vs. other topics, 2) curricular theory vs. practice, 3) evaluation vs. feedback, 4) preclinical vs. clinical learning, and 5) the medical student vs. practicing clinician role. The points of transition we identified on the road of communication skills teaching highlight opportunities to strengthen the educational experience for students. Without an effort to address these divides, however, our communication skills may be lost in translation. Students value communication skills teaching during their medical education and there are opportunities to translate this to countries that currently lack robust curricula and to the real-life post-graduate setting. Support is necessary from students, teachers, and administrators, and focus on translation of skills during role transitions is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physico-mathematical model of motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Petrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristics are important for ensuring of motor vehicle work process. In providing the traction characteristics the average velocity of mobile energetic transport grows, energy costs for work process execution are uprating and operation costs are reducing. The implementation of traction characteristics is performed by transmission of mobile energetic transport. Aim: The aim of the work is improvement of torque transfer technology from the engine to the wheel driving forces through the establishment of new construction of divided weight vehicle transmission. Materials and Methods: Consider a motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element which performs rotary motions relative to the vehicle frame. Results: It was shown that, the momentum which creates the rotational motion depends on the module and the direction of rotation speed of the unifying energetic element. For the first time, the technology and design of vehicle transmission which differs from previous designs by significant simplifying of the torque transmission from the engine to driving wheels at increased value of efficiency coefficient were proposed.

  16. Power combiners/dividers for loop pickup and kicker arrays for FNAL stochastic cooling rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.K.; Nemetz, R.

    1985-05-01

    The anti-proton accumulator and debuncher at FNAL will use stochastic methods to ''cool'' the beam. Pairs of quarter-wavelength directional-coupler loops are used to detect and kick the beam. The loops are copper plates which are flush with the upper and lower wall of a rectangular beam pipe. The plates, when surrounded by a properly sized pocket, form a 100-ohm transmission-line directional coupler. As the beam passes, a signal which gives position and time information, is induced in the plates. But, because the signal levels are low (<.5 picowatts per pair), a power combiner (usually several primary combiners feeding a secondary combiner) is used to combine the outputs of many loops. Subsequently, the combined signal is amplified, filtered and then fed into a divider, (that is, a combiner operating in reverse). The divider distributes the signal into a different set of loops which modify (kick) the beam's position. Since the loop couplers are arranged linearly, in arrays of various lengths, combiners also provide a convenient method of reducing the number of vacuum feedthroughs and preamplifiers and their related costs in performance and dollars. In this note we describe various stripline combiner systems that add the outputs of 4, 8, 16 or 32 loops

  17. Intrinsic aerobic capacity sets a divide for aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Kemi, Ole J; Qi, Nathan; Leng, Sean X; Bijma, Piter; Gilligan, Lori J; Wilkinson, John E; Wisløff, Helene; Høydal, Morten A; Rolim, Natale; Abadir, Peter M; van Grevenhof, Elizabeth M; Smith, Godfrey L; Burant, Charles F; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Britton, Steven L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2011-10-28

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. Together, these findings suggest a fundamental connection between aerobic capacity and longevity. Through artificial selective breeding, we developed an animal model system to prospectively test the association between aerobic exercise capacity and survivability (aerobic hypothesis). Laboratory rats of widely diverse genetic backgrounds (N:NIH stock) were selectively bred for low or high intrinsic (inborn) treadmill running capacity. Cohorts of male and female rats from generations 14, 15, and 17 of selection were followed for survivability and assessed for age-related declines in cardiovascular fitness including maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), myocardial function, endurance performance, and change in body mass. Median lifespan for low exercise capacity rats was 28% to 45% shorter than high capacity rats (hazard ratio, 0.06; PPhysical activity levels, energy expenditure (Vo(2)), and lean body mass were all better sustained with age in rats bred for high aerobic capacity. These data obtained from a contrasting heterogeneous model system provide strong evidence that genetic segregation for aerobic exercise capacity can be linked with longevity and are useful for deeper mechanistic exploration of aging.

  18. Bridging the divide between neuroprosthetic design, tissue engineering and neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Leach

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic devices have made a major impact in the treatment of a variety of disorders such as paralysis and stroke. However, a major impediment in the advancement of this technology is the challenge of maintaining device performance during chronic implantation (months to years due to complex intrinsic host responses such as gliosis or glial scarring. The objective of this review is to bring together research communities in neurobiology, tissue engineering, and neuroprosthetics to address the major obstacles encountered in the translation of neuroprosthetics technology into long-term clinical use. This article draws connections between specific challenges faced by current neuroprosthetics technology and recent advances in the areas of nerve tissue engineering and neurobiology. Within the context of the device-nervous system interface and central nervous system (CNS implants, areas of synergistic opportunity are discussed, including platforms to present cells with multiple cues, controlled delivery of bioactive factors, three-dimensional constructs and in vitro models of gliosis and brain injury, nerve regeneration strategies, and neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC biology. Finally, recent insights gained from the fields of developmental neurobiology and cancer biology are discussed as examples of exciting new biological knowledge that may provide fresh inspiration towards novel technologies to address the complexities associated with long-term neuroprosthetic device performance.

  19. A house divided: cooperative and competitive recruitment in vital industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, William K; Muslin, Ivan; Timko, Karlyn N

    2016-03-01

    To propose a theoretical based model approach to address the nursing shortage problem of recruiting qualified applicants. Vital industries such as nursing and trucking face a large labour shortage. A literature review focusing on recruitment and realistic job previews examines relevant theories and an indication of the focus of similar research. Game theory illustrates cooperative and competitive recruitment strategies in vital industries. Proposition and model development where cooperative or competitive strategies for recruitment can either increase or decrease the employee applicant pool. Institutional theory states that firms within a population become isomorphic in nature. Firms employing cooperative or competitive strategies for recruitment can change organisational practices through isomorphic processes. Industries facing a labour market shortage using cooperative strategy will use realistic job previews accurately to disseminate information about industry jobs. Realistic job previews will increase the applicant pool through individuals self-selecting into, rather than out of, the applicant pool. Recruitment in the nursing industry has been examined at the individual applicant and organisational level, yet the overall industry has been ignored. As nursing shortages continue, viewing recruitment at the macro level (the overall industry) is appropriate. Game theory as proposed provides opportunities for current research at the industry level. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A novel water resistor divider with a coaxial low-voltage arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chen, Weiqing; Mao, Congguang; Zeng, Jiangtao

    2010-03-01

    A new style high voltage resistor divider made of saline solution has been constructed and tested. A coaxial construction is used on the low-voltage arm, as the signal extraction electrode, which can increase the attenuation ratio of the divider. The time response of divider limited by the stray parameter also can be improved. Comparing the results of calibrated experiment with the commonly used equal size copper sulfate dividers, the new probe has nearly five times increase in the attenuation ratio. The time response of the new style divider in the dimension of 30 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length can reach to 1 ns.

  1. Dividing up the pie: Whales, fish, and humans as competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Steele, John H.; Ballerini, Tosca; Gaichas, Sarah K.; Ainley, David G.

    2013-09-01

    : unassimilated consumption, feces; directed to detritus pools. Metabolism: basal metabolism, specific dynamic action, and activity costs in terms of ammonium excretion NH4+; directed to recycled nutrient pools. Predation: a production term; production directed to grazing or predation by other functional groups. “Other” mortality: a production term; “other” mortality is unconsumed production; principally unconsumed phytoplankton; directed to detritus pools. Export (losses): a production term; export of plankton and pelagic detritus by physical transport; export losses are handled as a reduction of group transfer efficiency (the fraction of consumption that is passed to higher trophic level groups through grazing or predation). “Consumption” for phytoplankton is the uptake of new nitrate NO3- input and recycled ammonium NH4+ produced by consumer metabolism. Nitrate input was rescaled to carbon based upon the Redfield ratio (6.625 mmole C mmole N-1) and to wet weight based upon the estimated carbon content of fish (8.8 mg wet weight mg C-1) (Steele et al., 2007).The E2E trophic network matrices for each region are provided as Supplementary material. The E2E network models for the Northern California Current (NCC), Central Gulf of Alaska (CGoA), and southwestern Antarctic Peninsula (sWAP) ecosystems were derived following the techniques of Steele and Ruzicka (2011) from solutions for biomasses, consumption rates, and predation pressure upon each functional group calculated using ECOPATH algorithms (Christensen and Walters, 2004). The NCC model was modified from Ruzicka et al. (2012), the CGoA model was modified as noted in the Supplementary material from the full Gulf of Alaska model documented in Aydin et al. (2007), and the sWAP model was modified from Ballerini et al. (submitted for publication). A quantitative assessment of the Georges Bank (GB) food web is given in Steele et al. (2007) and Collie et al. (2009). Top predators (seabirds, baleen whales, odontocetes

  2. Capacitive divider for output voltage measurement of intense electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Desheng; Yi Lingzhi; Yu Binxiong; Hong Zhiqiang; Liu Jinliang

    2012-01-01

    A kind of simple-mechanism, easy-disassembly self-integrating capacitive divider used for measuring diode output voltage of intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA) is developed. The structure of the capacitive divider is described, and the capacitance value of the capacitive divider is calculated by theoretical analysis and electromagnetic simulation. The dependence of measurement voltage on electrical parameters such as stray capacitance, earth capacitance of front resistance is obtained by PSpice simulation. Measured waveforms appear overshoot phenomenon when stray capacitance of front resistance is larger, and the wavefront will be affected when earth capacitance of front resistance is larger. The diode output voltage waveforms of intense electron beam accelerator, are measured by capacitive divider and calibrated by water resistance divider, which is accordance with that measured by a resistive divider, the division ratio is about 563007. The designed capacitive divider can be used to measure high-voltage pulse with 100 ns full width at half maximum. (authors)

  3. Customizing digital printing for fine art practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; Thirkell, Paul; Hoskins, Steve; Wang, Hong Qiang; Laidler, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The presentation will demonstrate how through alternative methods of digital print production the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) is developing methodologies for digital printing that attempt to move beyond standard reproductive print methods. Profiling is used for input and output hardware, along with bespoke profiling for fine art printmaking papers. Examples of artist's work, and examples from the Perpetual Portfolio are included - an artist in residence scheme for selected artists wanting to work at the Centre and to make a large-format digital print. Colour is an important issue: colour fidelity, colour density on paper, colour that can be achieved through multiple-pass printing. Research is also underway to test colour shortfalls in the current inkjet ink range, and to extend colour through the use of traditional printing inks.

  4. Sub-stratum injection of fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteren van, W.; Cornelisse, J.; Costello, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experiment conducted to evaluate the sub-stratum injection of oil sands fine tailings. The hydraulic fracturing method was developed as a sub-surface dredging process for mining sand without removing the overburden. Pressure was used to transport the sand-water mixture, and the high pressures used in the process resulted in water losses through the clay-sand interface. The experiment was conducted with soft clay, compacted sand, and an injection feed. Results of the study showed that the injection method may be successful. However, further research is required to characterize the fracture energy of oil sands and the rheology of fine tailings. Horizontal hydraulic fracturing equations were presented. Tensile failures in clay and oil sands were discussed. Fractures were identified by deformation and discharge rates. Crack propagation methods were also studied. tabs., figs.

  5. Older Adults' Internet Use for Health Information: Digital Divide by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri; Vaughan, Phillip W; Garcia, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Building upon literature suggesting low Internet use among racial/ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, this study examined how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the Internet use for health information, addressing both independent and interactive effects. Using data from 17,704 older adults in the California Health Interview Survey, logistic regression models were estimated with race/ethnicity (Whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asians), SES index, and the interaction between race/ethnicity and SES index. Overall, approximately 40% of participants were Internet-users for health information. Direct effects of race/ethnicity and SES-and their interactions-were all found to be significant. Minority status combined with the lowest levels of SES substantially reduced the odds of using Internet for health information. Findings suggest the combination of racial/ethnic minority status and low SES as a source of digital divide, and provide implications for Internet technology training for the target population.

  6. Quantum flesh on classical bones: Semiclassical bridges across the quantum-classical divide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokulich, Alisa [Center for Philosophy and History of Science, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally quantum mechanics is viewed as having made a sharp break from classical mechanics, and the concepts and methods of these two theories are viewed as incommensurable with one another. A closer examination of the history of quantum mechanics, however, reveals that there is a strong sense in which quantum mechanics was built on the backbone of classical mechanics. As a result, there is a considerable structural continuity between these two theories, despite their important differences. These structural continuities provide a ground for semiclassical methods in which classical structures, such as trajectories, are used to investigate and model quantum phenomena. After briefly tracing the history of semiclassical approaches, I show how current research in semiclassical mechanics is revealing new bridges across the quantum-classical divide.

  7. Radiation effects in fine metal media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu. A.; Aliev, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The report discusses condition and perspectives of theoretical and experimental research of metal powder material radiation processing influence on their caking, recrystallization and formation of metal and alloy structure obtained by powder metallurgy methods. Radiation processing of metal powders under determined modes causes forming of homogeneous fine metal structure and helps to considerably improve their running abilities (strength, endurance, corrosion resistance) and caking technological conditions

  8. Device for the analysis of fine dusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, F.; Tausch, W.; Torge, R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention deals with a device that brings graphite bulbs containing samples of fine dusts automatically to the spectrometer for analysis and transports them away afterwards, a great number of individual measurements thus being quickly performed. The device consists of magazines, means of transport for them etc., and, if necessary, also a furnace for thermal preparation of the samples. (RW) 891 RW/RW 892 MKO [de

  9. Fine Structure of 211 Po Alpha Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, a theory based on the Landau-Zener effect was developed intending to describe quantitatively the cluster decay fine structure phenomenon. It was claimed that the same promotion effect can also govern the fine structure in the case of α-decay. This formalism intends to explain the fine structure of α-decay by considering single-particle transitions due to the radial and the rotational couplings. The levels with the same good quantum numbers associated to some symmetries of the system cannot in general intersect, but exhibit quasi-crossings, or pseudo-crossings, or avoided level crossings. The system is characterised by an axial symmetry, therefore the good quantum numbers are the projections of the nucleon spin Ω. The radial coupling causes transitions of the unpaired nucleon near the avoided level crossings. True crossings can also be obtained between levels characterized by different quantum numbers. Generally, the rotational coupling has a maximum strength in the vicinity of the true crossings. Transitions due to both couplings are taken into account in order to explain the excitations of the unpaired nucleon. For a tunnelling velocity of 9 x 10 6 fm/fs, the ratio between the intensity for transitions to the first excited state and to the ground state was found to be 0.0071 and the obtained ratio of the same parameter between the second excited state and the ground state was 0.0062, in good agreement with experimental data. These calculations suggest that the α-decay fine structure phenomenon can be explained quantitatively by describing the decaying system with molecular models and it can be stated that the quantitative characteristics of this phenomenon are ruled by dynamical effects. (author)

  10. BepiColombo fine sun sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslooper, Erik; van der Heiden, Nico; Naron, Daniël.; Schmits, Ruud; van der Velde, Jacob Jan; van Wakeren, Jorrit

    2017-11-01

    Design, development and verification of the passive Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) for the BepiColombo spacecraft is described. Major challenge in the design is to keep the detector at acceptable temperature levels while exposed to a solar flux intensity exceeding 10 times what is experienced in Earth orbit. A mesh type Heat Rejection Filter has been developed. The overall sensor design and its performance verification program is described.

  11. Fractal aggregation and breakup of fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakup may exert a controlling influence on particle size distributions and particles either are fractured or are eroded particle-by-particle through shear. The shear-induced breakage of fine particles in turbulent conditions is investigated using Taylor-expansion moment method. Their equations have been derived in continuous form in terms of the number density function with particle volume. It suitable for future implementation in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  12. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficiation 2010, 4–6 May 2010. 671The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 110 NOVEMBER 2010 L Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant mixed with magnetite in the launder and enters... with production. Plant equipment operational changes Cyclone spigot changes In an attempt to lower the cut-point density, the spigot on the L 672 NOVEMBER 2010 VOLUME 110 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Figure 1...

  13. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  14. Computer games and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.

  15. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction 2 O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ... Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During ...

  17. effect of fines content on the engineering properties of reconstituted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Reconstitution of the natural soil (0% fines content) yielded soil samples having fines content between ... action to different stabilizing agents are better under- .... tion cracking, whereas clay soils with too low plastic limit (PL) ...

  18. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    transportation applications such as structural fill, road base material, and as snow ... normal fine particles resulting in weak porous paste, modulus of elasticity is ..... with the porous structure and high absorptivity of fine particles of bottom ash.

  19. 49 CFR 107.336 - Limitation on fines and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Criminal Penalties § 107.336 Limitation on fines and penalties. If a State or political subdivision or Indian tribe assesses any fine or penalty determined by the...

  20. Flocculation of chromite ore fines suspension using polysaccharide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    liquid separation. Keywords. Flocculation; graft copolymer; mineral industry effluent; chromite ore fines; ... work well as flocculating agent on coal washery effluent, copper and iron ore fines etc (Karmakar et al 1998, 1999;. Tripathy et al 2001).

  1. Fine structure transitions in Fe XIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2013-07-01

    Results are reported for Fe XIV energy levels and transitions obtained from the ab initio relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method. BPRM method developed under the Iron Project is capable of calculating very large number of fine structure energy levels and corresponding transitions. However, unlike in the atomic structure calculations, where levels are identified spectroscopically based on the leading percentage contributions of configurations, BPRM is incapable of such identification of the levels and hence the transitions. The main reason for it is that the percentage contributions can not be determined exactly from the large number of channels in the R-matrix space. The present report describes an identification method that uses considerations of quantum defects of channels, contributions of channel from outer regions, Hund's rule, and angular momenta algebra for addition and completeness of fine structure components. The present calculations are carried out using a close coupling wave function expansion that included 26 core excitations from configurations 2s22p63s2, 2s22p63s3p,2s22p63p2,2s22p63s3d, and 2s22p63p3d. A total of 1002 fine structure levels with n ⩽ 10, l⩽9, and 0.5 ⩽J⩽ 9.5 with even and odd parities and the corresponding 130,520 electric dipole allowed (E1) fine structure transitions, a most complete set for astrophysical modelings of spectral analysis and opacities, is presented. Large number of new energy levels are found and identified. The energies agree very well, mostly in less than 1% with the highest being 1.9%, with the 68 observed fine structure levels. While the high lying levels may have some uncertainty, an overall accuracy of energy levels should be within 10%. BPRM transitions have been benchmarked with the existing most accurate calculated transition probabilities with very good agreement for most cases. Based on the accuracy of the method and comparisons, most of the transitions can be rated with A (⩽10%) to C (

  2. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  3. Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills

    OpenAIRE

    Les, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Title: Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills Objectives: The aim of study is to assess the changes fine motor skills due to hyperbaric environment in preparation for selected tests of fine motor skills. Methods: The first method was used empirically - research. Then the method chosen of compilation of the information obtained. The basic method to work was the experimental measurement method specially constructed tests on fine motor skills. All measured values were statisticall...

  4. Divided Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    institutions. This conceptual stretching takes place at the expense of accuracy and clarity clouding our understanding of the multiple levels involved in trusting. This chapter seeks to clarify this issue conceptually by comparing and developing Niklas Luhmann’s system theoretical investigation of trust......Trust as a concept is inherently intertwined with institutional concepts. Trust, according to contemporary research, may be directed at both people and institutions, trust may in itself be an institution, and the influence of institutions may affect both trust in other people and trust in other...... between trust and confidence – the interpersonal and the institutional – emerges....

  5. Continental divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The historical precedents to the idea of continent-wide diversion of water in North America are reviewed, starting from early perceptions of continental drainage and the era of canal building that reached its peak in the mid-1800s. The attitude that natural landscapes can be rearranged to suit human needs has persisted from that era with the proposal for continent-wide water diversion megaprojects, many involving the movement of water from Canada to the southwestern USA. Over 50 water diversions exist in Canada, with a total diverted flow of 4,400 m 3 /s. The density of interconnected and almost-connected lakes and rivers has favored such diversions. Of these diversions, 95% of their storage capacity and 96% of their flow is for hydroelectric power generation. The number of diversions in the USA is similar but water volumes are only a sixth of those in Canada, and the water is mainly used for irrigation or water supply. Experience in both countries shows that diversions are contained by political boundaries. No large-scale diversion of fresh water across the international boundary has received any government support, and no significant change in this policy is anticipated. In the water-short areas of the USA, conservation and reallocation of water resources are receiving priority. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  7. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments......’ in the everyday life and cast light on how design and ‘materialities of mobilites’ are creating differential mobilities across societies, social networks, and communities of practices.......Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...

  8. Digital divide and digital opportunity: Comparison, analysis and strategies for sustainable development in developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.; Onime, C.

    2007-07-01

    The world is witnessing a new digital economic order which may be quantified by the diffusion of information technology and globalization process. The current information technology gap (digital divide) between developed countries and developing countries is huge. Improvements in information technology (measured by the digital opportunity index) usually open up an opportunity for national/regional growth and development. There is a need for scientific investigation on the digital divide, digital opportunity index and their consequences. This paper presents a critical analysis of existing digital divide and its trends, it also investigates the relationship between the digital divide and the digital opportunity index. A mathematical model based on analysis of the growing digital divide is presented as a possible tool for combating and eradicate the digital divide gap which is only possible if developing and poor nations take advantage of the digital opportunities that can transform them into global competitive partners in digital knowledge economy. (author)

  9. Development and Validation of an Aquatic Fine Sediment Biotic Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Christina D.; Minshall, G. Wayne; Danehy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fine Sediment Biotic Index (FSBI) is a regional, stressor-specific biomonitoring index to assess fine sediment (Plecoptera (5), Trichoptera (3), and Ephemeroptera (2) contained all but one of the species or species groups classified as extremely sensitive. Index validation with an independent data set of 255 streams found FSBI scores to accurately predict both high and low levels of measured fine sediment.

  10. 76 FR 31307 - Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting The next meeting of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts is scheduled for June 16, 2011, at 10 a.m. in the Commission offices at the National Building Museum,Suite 312, Judiciary Square, 401 F Street, NW., Washington, DC, 20001-2728. Items of...

  11. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  12. Glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer thickness loss is associated with slower reaction times under a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Andrew J; Boer, Erwin R; Rosen, Peter N; Della Penna, Mauro; Meira-Freitas, Daniel; Weinreb, Robert N; Zangwill, Linda M; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2014-11-01

    To examine the relationship between glaucomatous structural damage and ability to divide attention during simulated driving. Cross-sectional observational study. Hamilton Glaucoma Center, University of California San Diego. Total of 158 subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study, including 82 with glaucoma and 76 similarly aged controls. Ability to divide attention was investigated by measuring reaction times to peripheral stimuli (at low, medium, or high contrast) while concomitantly performing a central driving task (car following or curve negotiation). All subjects had standard automated perimetry (SAP) and optical coherence tomography was used to measure retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Cognitive ability was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and subjects completed a driving history questionnaire. Reaction times to the driving simulator divided attention task. The mean reaction times to the low-contrast stimulus were 1.05 s and 0.64 s in glaucoma and controls, respectively, during curve negotiation (P divide attention, RNFL thickness measurements provided additional information. Information from structural tests may improve our ability to determine which patients are likely to have problems performing daily activities, such as driving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of divided attention on false memory depends on how memory is tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Barry, Christopher; Swannell, Ellen R.; Holmes, Selina J.; Bathurst, Gemma J.

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the effects of divided attention on false memory, using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied six DRM lists with full attention and six in one of two divided-attention conditions (random number generation or digit monitoring). Both divided-attention conditions increased false recall of related words (Experiment 1) but reduced false recognition (Experiment 2). These results were confirmed in Experiment 3,...

  14. Dividing time: Concurrent timing of auditory and visual events by young and elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley, J. Devin; Miller, Jonathan P.; Wang, Mo; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines age differences in individual’s ability to produce the durations of learned auditory and visual target events either in isolation (focused attention) or concurrently (divided attention). Young adults produced learned target durations equally well in focused and divided attention conditions. Older adults in contrast showed an age-related increase in timing variability in divided attention conditions that tended to be more pronounced for visual targets than for auditory ta...

  15. Divided attention and driving. The effects of aging and brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Withaar, Frederiec Kunna

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, divided attention was investigated in four groups of subjects: closed head injury (CHI) patients, young control and healthy older subjects, and older subjects with cognitive impairments. It was studied how diffuse brain injury and normal and abnormal aging affect cognitive processes involved in divided attention tasks. Furthermore, it was investigated how deficits in divided attention relate to performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), with an emphasis on ...

  16. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  17. Dividing time: concurrent timing of auditory and visual events by young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, J Devin; Miller, Jonathan P; Wang, Mo; Pang, Kevin C H

    2010-07-01

    This article examines age differences in individual's ability to produce the durations of learned auditory and visual target events either in isolation (focused attention) or concurrently (divided attention). Young adults produced learned target durations equally well in focused and divided attention conditions. Older adults, in contrast, showed an age-related increase in timing variability in divided attention conditions that tended to be more pronounced for visual targets than for auditory targets. Age-related impairments were associated with a decrease in working memory span; moreover, the relationship between working memory and timing performance was largest for visual targets in divided attention conditions.

  18. Electronic health record adoption in US hospitals: the emergence of a digital "advanced use" divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Holmgren, A Jay; Kralovec, Peter; Worzala, Chantal; Searcy, Talisha; Patel, Vaishali

    2017-11-01

    While most hospitals have adopted electronic health records (EHRs), we know little about whether hospitals use EHRs in advanced ways that are critical to improving outcomes, and whether hospitals with fewer resources - small, rural, safety-net - are keeping up. Using 2008-2015 American Hospital Association Information Technology Supplement survey data, we measured "basic" and "comprehensive" EHR adoption among hospitals to provide the latest national numbers. We then used new supplement questions to assess advanced use of EHRs and EHR data for performance measurement and patient engagement functions. To assess a digital "advanced use" divide, we ran logistic regression models to identify hospital characteristics associated with high adoption in each advanced use domain. We found that 80.5% of hospitals adopted at least a basic EHR system, a 5.3 percentage point increase from 2014. Only 37.5% of hospitals adopted at least 8 (of 10) EHR data for performance measurement functions, and 41.7% of hospitals adopted at least 8 (of 10) patient engagement functions. Critical access hospitals were less likely to have adopted at least 8 performance measurement functions (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; P functions (OR = 0.68; P = 0.02). While the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act resulted in widespread hospital EHR adoption, use of advanced EHR functions lags and a digital divide appears to be emerging, with critical-access hospitals in particular lagging behind. This is concerning, because EHR-enabled performance measurement and patient engagement are key contributors to improving hospital performance. Hospital EHR adoption is widespread and many hospitals are using EHRs to support performance measurement and patient engagement. However, this is not happening across all hospitals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  19. A divide and conquer approach to determine the Pareto frontier for optimization of protein engineering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lu; Friedman, Alan M.; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In developing improved protein variants by site-directed mutagenesis or recombination, there are often competing objectives that must be considered in designing an experiment (selecting mutations or breakpoints): stability vs. novelty, affinity vs. specificity, activity vs. immunogenicity, and so forth. Pareto optimal experimental designs make the best trade-offs between competing objectives. Such designs are not “dominated”; i.e., no other design is better than a Pareto optimal design for one objective without being worse for another objective. Our goal is to produce all the Pareto optimal designs (the Pareto frontier), in order to characterize the trade-offs and suggest designs most worth considering, but to avoid explicitly considering the large number of dominated designs. To do so, we develop a divide-and-conquer algorithm, PEPFR (Protein Engineering Pareto FRontier), that hierarchically subdivides the objective space, employing appropriate dynamic programming or integer programming methods to optimize designs in different regions. This divide-and-conquer approach is efficient in that the number of divisions (and thus calls to the optimizer) is directly proportional to the number of Pareto optimal designs. We demonstrate PEPFR with three protein engineering case studies: site-directed recombination for stability and diversity via dynamic programming, site-directed mutagenesis of interacting proteins for affinity and specificity via integer programming, and site-directed mutagenesis of a therapeutic protein for activity and immunogenicity via integer programming. We show that PEPFR is able to effectively produce all the Pareto optimal designs, discovering many more designs than previous methods. The characterization of the Pareto frontier provides additional insights into the local stability of design choices as well as global trends leading to trade-offs between competing criteria. PMID:22180081

  20. Relations between fine motor skill and parental report of attention in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casnar, Christy L; Janke, Kelly M; van der Fluit, Faye; Brei, Natalie G; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders presenting in approximately 1 in 3,500 live births. NF1 is a highly variable condition with a large number of complications. A common complication is neuropsychological problems, including developmental delays and learning difficulties that affect as many as 60% of patients. Research has suggested that school-aged children with NF1 often have poorer fine motor skills and are at greater risk for attention difficulties than the general population. Thirty-eight children with NF1 and 23 unaffected children between the ages of 4 and 6 years, who are enrolled in a study of early development in NF1, were included in the present study. Varying levels of fine motor functioning were examined (simple to complex fine motor tasks). For children with NF1, significant difficulties were demonstrated on lab-based mid-level and complex fine motor tasks, even after controlling for nonverbal reasoning abilities, but not on simple fine motor tasks. Parental report also indicated difficulties in everyday adaptive fine motor functioning. No significant correlations were found between complex fine motor ability and attention difficulties. This study provides much needed descriptive data on the early emergence of fine motor difficulties and attention difficulties in young children with NF1.

  1. Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrotscher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s Reazione Nera led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as

  2. Fine-grained sheet silicate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-09-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the possibility of using shales as repositories for radioactive waste and a variety of other waste products, and it appears that over the next few years much money and effort will be expended to investigate and test a wide variety of shales. If shales are to be studied in detail by a large number of investigators, it is important that all concerned have the same concept of what constitutes a shale. The term shale and other terms for fine-grained rocks have been used for many years and have been continually redefined. Most definitions predate the development of modern instrumentation and are based on field observations and intuition; however, the main problem is the diversity of definitions. An attempt is made here to develop a simple, rational classification of fine-grained sediments, and it is hoped that this classification will eliminate some of the present ambiguity. In order that the classification be pertinent, mineral composition and textural data were compiled and evaluated. The data on unconsolidated and consolidated sediments were contrasted and the effects of burial diagenesis assessed. It was found necessary to introduce a new term, physil, to describe all sheet silicate minerals. In contrast to the term clay mineral, the term physil has no size connotation. A simple classification is proposed that is based on the percentage of physils and grain size. In Part II the fine-grained physil rocks are classified on the basis of physil type, non-physil minerals, and texture. Formations are listed which have the mineral and textural characteristics of the most important rock types volumetrically. Selected rock types, and the formations in which they can be found, are recommended for laboratory study to determine their suitability for the storage of high-level radioactive waste

  3. CRUQS: A Miniature Fine Sun Sensor for Nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, Scott; Snow, Carl; Santos, Luis

    2013-01-01

    A new miniature fine Sun sensor has been developed that uses a quadrant photodiode and housing to determine the Sun vector. Its size, mass, and power make it especially suited to small satellite applications, especially nanosatellites. Its accuracy is on the order of one arcminute, and it will enable new science in the area of nanosatellites. The motivation for this innovation was the need for high-performance Sun sensors in the nanosatellite category. The design idea comes out of the LISS (Lockheed Intermediate Sun Sensor) used by the sounding rocket program on their solar pointing ACS (Attitude Control System). This system uses photodiodes and a wall between them. The shadow cast by the Sun is used to determine the Sun angle. The new sensor takes this concept and miniaturizes it. A cruciform shaped housing and a surface-mount quadrant photodiode package allow for a two-axis fine Sun sensor to be packaged into a space approx.1.25xl x0.25 in. (approx.3.2x2.5x0.6 cm). The circuitry to read the photodiodes is a simple trans-impedance operational amplifier. This is much less complex than current small Sun sensors for nanosatellites that rely on photo-arrays and processing of images to determine the Sun center. The simplicity of the circuit allows for a low power draw as well. The sensor consists of housing with a cruciform machined in it. The cruciform walls are 0.5-mm thick and the center of the cruciform is situated over the center of the quadrant photodiode sensor. This allows for shadows to be cast on each of the four photodiodes based on the angle of the Sun. A simple operational amplifier circuit is used to read the output of the photodiodes as a voltage. The voltage output of each photodiode is summed based on rows and columns, and then the values of both rows or both columns are differenced and divided by the sum of the voltages for all four photodiodes. The value of both difference over sums for the rows and columns is compared to a table or a polynomial fit

  4. Fine needle diagnosis in lumbar osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, K.B.; Brinker, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Lumbar vertebral body and disk infection, presenting as low back pain, is a relatively uncommon disease but is seen more often in drug addicts. Radiographs show typical changes of infection of the lumbar vertebrae and adjacent disc. Under local anesthesia a fine needle is placed, saline injected, and aspirated. The entire needle-syringe unit is submitted to the bacteriology department. Pseudomonas infection is usually found. This method of diagnosis is simple, cost effective, well accepted by the patients, and can be done on outpatients. (orig.)

  5. Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.

  6. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  7. Relativistic corrections to fine structure of positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Faustov, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the quasipotential method, we have calculated the relativistic corrections in the positronium fine structure intervals 2 3 S 1 -2 3 P J . The contributions of order of mα 6 for the positronium S-levels were obtained from the one-photon, two-photon interactions and the second-order perturbation theory. We have obtained also the contribution of the two-photon annihilation diagrams to the interaction operator of the P-wave positronium. The corrections of order of α 5 R ∞ and α 5 1nαR ∞ to the P-wave energy levels of positronium were calculated

  8. Dark energy with fine redshift sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-03-01

    The cosmological constant and many other possible origins for acceleration of the cosmic expansion possess variations in the dark energy properties slow on the Hubble time scale. Given that models with more rapid variation, or even phase transitions, are possible though, we examine the fineness in redshift with which cosmological probes can realistically be employed, and what constraints this could impose on dark energy behavior. In particular, we discuss various aspects of baryon acoustic oscillations, and their use to measure the Hubble parameter H(z). We find that currently considered cosmological probes have an innate resolution no finer than Δz≈0.2 0.3.

  9. Dark energy with fine redshift sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-01-01

    The cosmological constant and many other possible origins for acceleration of the cosmic expansion possess variations in the dark energy properties slow on the Hubble time scale. Given that models with more rapid variation, or even phase transitions, are possible though, we examine the fineness in redshift with which cosmological probes can realistically be employed, and what constraints this could impose on dark energy behavior. In particular, we discuss various aspects of baryon acoustic oscillations, and their use to measure the Hubble parameter H(z). We find that currently considered cosmological probes have an innate resolution no finer than Δz≅0.2-0.3

  10. Pre - big bang inflation requires fine tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Michael S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Weinberg, Erick J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The pre-big-bang cosmology inspired by superstring theories has been suggested as an alternative to slow-roll inflation. We analyze, in both the Jordan and Einstein frames, the effect of spatial curvature on this scenario and show that too much curvature --- of either sign --- reduces the duration of the inflationary era to such an extent that the flatness and horizon problems are not solved. Hence, a fine-tuning of initial conditions is required to obtain enough inflation to solve the cosmological problems.

  11. Fine structure of 25 extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittels, J.J.; Knight, C.A.; Shapiro, I.I.; Hinteregger, H.F.; Rogers, A.E.E.; Whitney, A.R.; Clark, T.A.; Hutton, L.K.; Marandino, G.E.; Neill, A.E.; Ronnang, B.G.; Rydbeck, O.E.H.; Klemperer, W.K.; Warnock, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    Between 1972 April and 1973 May, 25 extragalactic radio sources were observed interferometrically at 7.8 GHz(lambdaapprox. =3.8 cm) with five pairings of antennas. These sources exhibit a broad variety of fine structures from very simple to complex. Although the structure and the total power of some of these sources have remained unchanged within the sensitivity of our measurements during the year of observations, both the total flux and the correlated flux of others have undergone large changes in a few weeks

  12. Fine structure in deformed proton emitting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; Davids, C. N.; Woods, P. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ressler, J. J.; Schwartz, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Walters, W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In a recent experiment to study the proton radioactivity of the highly deformed 131 Eu nucleus, two proton lines were detected. The higher energy one was assigned to the ground-state to ground-state decay, while the lower energy, to the ground-state to the 2 + state decay. This constitutes the first observation of fine structure in proton radioactivity. With these four measured quantities, proton energies, half-life and branching ratio, it is possible to determine the Nilsson configuration of the ground state of the proton emitting nucleus as well as the 2 + energy and nuclear deformation of the daughter nucleus. These results will be presented and discussed

  13. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  14. Fine-tuning and the stability of recurrent neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David MacNeil

    Full Text Available A central criticism of standard theoretical approaches to constructing stable, recurrent model networks is that the synaptic connection weights need to be finely-tuned. This criticism is severe because proposed rules for learning these weights have been shown to have various limitations to their biological plausibility. Hence it is unlikely that such rules are used to continuously fine-tune the network in vivo. We describe a learning rule that is able to tune synaptic weights in a biologically plausible manner. We demonstrate and test this rule in the context of the oculomotor integrator, showing that only known neural signals are needed to tune the weights. We demonstrate that the rule appropriately accounts for a wide variety of experimental results, and is robust under several kinds of perturbation. Furthermore, we show that the rule is able to achieve stability as good as or better than that provided by the linearly optimal weights often used in recurrent models of the integrator. Finally, we discuss how this rule can be generalized to tune a wide variety of recurrent attractor networks, such as those found in head direction and path integration systems, suggesting that it may be used to tune a wide variety of stable neural systems.

  15. Hearing aid fine-tuning based on Dutch descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielemans, Thijs; Pans, Donné; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to derive an independent fitting assistant based on expert consensus. Two questions were asked: (1) what (Dutch) terms do hearing impaired listeners use nowadays to describe their specific hearing aid fitting problems? (2) What is the expert consensus on how to resolve these complaints by adjusting hearing aid parameters? Hearing aid dispensers provided descriptors that impaired listeners use to describe their reactions to specific hearing aid fitting problems. Hearing aid fitting experts were asked "How would you adjust the hearing aid if its user reports that the aid sounds…?" with the blank filled with each of the 40 most frequently mentioned descriptors. 112 hearing aid dispensers and 15 hearing aid experts. The expert solution with the highest weight value was considered the best solution for that descriptor. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify a factor structure in fitting problems. Nine fitting problems could be identified resulting in an expert-based, hearing aid manufacturer independent, fine-tuning fitting assistant for clinical use. The construction of an expert-based, hearing aid manufacturer independent, fine-tuning fitting assistant to be used as an additional tool in the iterative fitting process is feasible.

  16. Modern Cosmology and Anthropic Fine-Tuning: Three approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robin

    The anthropic fine-tuning of the cosmos refers to the claim that the laws of nature, the constants of physics, and the initial conditions of the universe must be set to an enormous degree of precision for embodied conscious agents to exist. Three major responses have been offered to this fine-tuning: the multiverse explanation; theism; and the claim that it is just a brute fact that requires no further explanation. In this chapter, I will consider each explanation in turn, and provide some novel arguments for the superiority of a theistic or related explanation. In the last section, I will show how whether or not one adopts a theistic or related explanation can significantly influence what features of the universe one considers in need of further scientific explanation, and the type of scientific explanation that one should find satisfactory. In particular, I will argue that in some cases atheism, not theism, serves as a science stopper in discouraging a search for deeper scientific explanations of phenomena.

  17. Rotating drum tests of particle suspensions within a fines dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Gollin, Devis; Kaitna, Roland; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Natural flows like mudflows, debris flow, and hyperconcentrated flows are commonly composed by a matrix of particles suspended in a viscous fluid. The nature of the interactions between particles immersed in a fluid is related to its size. While coarse particles (sand, gravel, and boulders) interact with each other or with the surrounding fluid, a dispersion of fine particles interacts with each other through colloidal forces or Brownian motion effects (Coussot and Piau, 1995, and Ancey and Jorrot, 2001). The predominance of one of the previous interactions defines the rheology of the flow. On this sense, experimental insight is required to validate the limits where the rheology of a dispersion of fines is valid. For this purpose, an experimental program in a rotating drum is performed over samples of sand, loess, and kaolin. The solid concentration and angular velocity of the rotating drum are varied. Height and normal loads are measured during flow. High-speed videos are performed to obtain the flow patterns of the mixtures. The experiments provide new laboratory evidence of granular mixture behaviour within an increased viscous fluid phase and its characterization. The results show an apparent threshold in terms of solid concentration, in which the mixtures started to behave as a shear-dependent material.

  18. Optical versus radiographic magnification for fine-detail skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genant, H.K.; Doi, K.; Mall, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Fine detail radiographic techniques for peripheral skeletal imaging have gained wide clinical acceptance. In this study, the imaging properties and clinical applications of the optical magnification technique, which employs fine-grain industrial film and a large focal spot, have been compared quantitatively and qualitatively with those of three slow screen-film techniques, namely, contact exposure with a large focal spot, 2X radiographic magnification with a 0.3 mm focal spot, and 4X radiographic magnification with a 50 μ focal spot. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of the recording systems and focal spots have been obtained and film sensitometry has been performed. Clinical comparisons for patients with metabolic, arthritic, and neoplastic skeletal disorders have been made. The results illustrate the superiority of the optical magnification technique over contact or 2X magnification techniques using slow screen-film systems. If a microfocus tube is used, however, direct radiographic magnification may provide images comparable in resolution, noise, and contrast to those made with the optical magnification technique, and at lower radiation exposure to the patient. (U.S.)

  19. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  20. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions – commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change – and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions. PMID:28690374

  1. Exploring Social Justice in Mixed/Divided Cities: From Local to Global Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shdaimah, Corey; Lipscomb, Jane; Strier, Roni; Postan-Aizik, Dassi; Leviton, Susan; Olsen, Jody

    University of Haifa and the University of Maryland, Baltimore faculty developed a parallel binational, interprofessional American-Israeli course which explores social justice in the context of increasing urban, local, and global inequities. This article describes the course's innovative approach to critically examine how social justice is framed in mixed/divided cities from different professional perspectives (social work, health, law). Participatory methods such as photo-voice, experiential learning, and theatre of the oppressed provide students with a shared language and multiple media to express and problematize their own and others' understanding of social (in)justice and to imagine social change. Much learning about "self" takes place in an immersion experience with "others." Crucial conversations about "the other" and social justice can occur more easily within the intercultural context. In these conversations, students and faculty experience culture as diverse, complex, and personal. Students and faculty alike found the course personally and professionally transformative. Examination of social justice in Haifa and Baltimore strengthened our appreciation for the importance of context and the value of global learning to provide insights on local challenges and opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of IT Literacy in Defining Digital Divide Policy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Enrico; Helbig, Natalie C.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This article expands our current understanding of the digital divide by examining differences in individuals' IT skills acquisition. In the last two decades scholars have gradually refined the conceptualization of the digital divide, moving from a dichotomous model mainly based on access, to a multidimensional model accounting for differences in…

  3. Essays on the Digital Divide--Explorations through Global, National and Individual Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaletsky, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Divide has emerged as an important research and policy issue during the past thirty years. The divide exists at different levels, such as global, regional and individual levels. While extensive research already exists on this subject, the complexity of the issue presents opportunities for further research. In particular, there is ample…

  4. A digital divider with extension bits for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Digitizing errors produced in a digital divider for position-sensitive detectors have been reduced by adding extension bits to data bits. A relation between the extension bits and the data bits to obtain perfect position uniformity is also given. A digital divider employing 10 bit ADCs and 6 bit extension circuits has been constructed. (orig.)

  5. The ICT development index and the digital divide : How are they related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital preparedness and the digital divide are two ways of measuring ICT performance across countries. Recently, the ITU has proposed that a new index of preparedness be used to measure the divide. My goal is to investigate the validity of this suggestion. I have argued that the ICT Development

  6. Computer and Video Games in Family Life: The Digital Divide as a Resource in Intergenerational Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsand, Pal Andre

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…

  7. Dynamic crossmodal links revealed by steady-state responses in auditory-visual divided attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Ritske; Toffanin, Paolo; Harbers, Marten; Martens, Sander

    Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were

  8. Combination N-Way Power Divider/Combiner and Noninvasive Reflected Power Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An N-way RF/microwave power divider/combiner utilizes one input and N outputs, or conversely N inputs and one output to divide (or combine) RF/microwave power while...

  9. Great Divides: The Cultural, Cognitive, and Social Bases of the Global Subordination of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs

    2007-01-01

    Categorization based on sex is the most basic social divide. It is the organizational basis of most major institutions, including the division of labor in the home, the workforce, politics, and religion. Globally, women's gendered roles are regarded as subordinate to men's. The gender divide enforces women's roles in reproduction and support…

  10. Landslide-driven drainage divide migration and quantifying progress toward topographic steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    Drainage divide migration is a critical process in landscape evolution. It reorganizes river basins, redistributing fluvial erosive energy to facilitate mass balance, and contributes to feedbacks between tectonics, erosion, and climate. However, it leaves little straightforward evidence in the geologic or geomorphic record, and has been subject to minimal field study, hampering understanding its role in landscape evolution. Landslides link river channels, hillslopes, and ridges in steep landscapes, and thus play a central role in divide migration. In this study, we examine landslides triggered by three events: the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in central China, the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal, and the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in southern Taiwan, seeking new insight into the controls on divide migration. Of the 100,000 landslides triggered, we mapped 367 which caused a divide to migrate, resulting in a total exchange of about 2 km2 between basins. We use this database of divide migrations to explore relationships between the geometry of rivers and the exchange of drainage area, comparing metrics which have been proposed as indicators of divide stability across mobile divides. We find that upstream-averaged local relief and upstream-averaged channel gradient predict the We propose a new metric to describe divide mobility and the overall influence of a reorganizing event on a landscape, using it to estimate the impact of events similar to the 2009 Typhoon Morakot on the progress of Taiwan's Central Range toward topographic steady state.

  11. Statistical and numerical methods to improve the transient divided bar method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    The divided bar method is a commonly used method to measure thermal conductivity of rock samples in laboratory. We present improvements to this method that allows for simultaneous measurements of both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The divided bar setup is run in a transient mode...

  12. Poverty, Literacy, and Social Transformation: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Amy J.; Wolfson, Todd; Crowell, Jessica K.

    2018-01-01

    Harnessing scholarship focused on literacy and poverty, in this article we aim to complicate the common understanding of the digital divide. First, we argue that the dominant literature on the digital divide misses broader connections between technological exclusion and broader forms of economic and social exclusion. Accordingly, and following…

  13. Healing the Physical/Spiritual Divide through a Holistic and Hermeneutic Approach to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this special edition of the journal, attention is being given to the two dimensions of spirituality and physicality. In this particular paper I argue that there is an unhelpful divide that is often assumed to exist between these two dimensions and that this divide can be transcended or "healed" through a holistic and hermeneutic approach to…

  14. Examining the University-Profession Divide: An Inquiry into a Teacher Education Program's Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivia, Awneet; MacMath, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the divide between the university as a site of teacher education and the profession of practicing teachers. We employed a theoretical inquiry methodology on a singular case study which included formulating questions about the phenomena of the university-profession divide (UPD), analysing constituents of the UPD, and…

  15. A Nation under Joint Custody: How Conflicting Family Models Divide US Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Eva Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Across the globe and throughout history, politics are regularly divided into "left-leaning" and "right-leaning" camps. Explaining the sources of this conservative-liberal divide has become a major quest in the cognitive and social sciences. Early attempts have focused on self-interest as a possible explanation. However, as the…

  16. Picobubble column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Samuel Yu; Xiaohua Zhou; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh (0.6 mm) or -100 mesh (0.15 mm) fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range, nominally 10-100 {mu}m, beyond which the flotation efficiency drops sharply. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. Experimental results have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 5-cm diameter column flotation increased the combustible recovery of a highly floatable coal by up to 10% and that of a poorly floatable coal by up to 40%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. 14 refs.

  17. Extramedullary plasmacytoma. Fine needle aspiration findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P V; Owji, S M; Talei, A R; Malekhusseini, S A

    1997-01-01

    To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma. The study group consisted of 13 patients with palpable masses at various sites. The tumors were aspirated for cytologic study. The smears revealed groups of mature and immature plasma cells at various stages of maturation. Mature plasma cells showed an eccentric nucleus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with a paranuclear halo. Plasmablasts (immature plasma cells) showed a prominent, eccentric nucleus with single, large nucleolus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with no paranuclear halo. Binucleate and multinucleate forms were also seen quite often. The tumors were excised, and the histologic sections confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. All the patients received radiotherapy. One patient (18 years old) developed recurrence and died due to extensive infiltration into the maxilla and mandible. Two patients (57 and 62 years) developed multiple myeloma one to two years after the excision of tumors, and both died two to three months later. The remaining 10 patients were alive and well at this writing. The smears from all 13 patients were diagnosed as extramedullary plasmacytomas by fine needle aspiration cytology.

  18. Communication Optimizations for Fine-Grained UPCApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Iancu, Costin; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-07-08

    Global address space languages like UPC exhibit high performance and portability on a broad class of shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. The most scalable applications use bulk memory copies rather than individual reads and writes to the shared space, but finer-grained sharing can be useful for scenarios such as dynamic load balancing, event signaling, and distributed hash tables. In this paper we present three optimization techniques for global address space programs with fine-grained communication: redundancy elimination, use of split-phase communication, and communication coalescing. Parallel UPC programs are analyzed using static single assignment form and a data flow graph, which are extended to handle the various shared and private pointer types that are available in UPC. The optimizations also take advantage of UPC's relaxed memory consistency model, which reduces the need for cross thread analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the analysis and optimizations using several benchmarks, which were chosen to reflect the kinds of fine-grained, communication-intensive phases that exist in some larger applications. The optimizations show speedups of up to 70 percent on three parallel systems, which represent three different types of cluster network technologies.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parapharyngeal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Palash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties due to their location and plethora of presentations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the occurrence in the population and to evaluate the exact nature by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Materials and Methods: A total of five hundred and six cases of lateral neck lesions were studied over three and half years. Of these 56 suspected parapharyngeal masses were selected by clinical and radiological methods. Cytopathology evaluation was done by fine needle aspiration cytology with computed tomography and ultrasonography guidance wherever necessary. Histopathology confirmation was available in all the cases. Results: On FNAC diagnosis could be established in 54 cases while in two cases the material was insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The tumors encountered were, pleomorphic adenoma (33, schwannoma (3, neurofibroma (11, paraganglioma (5, angiofibroma (1 and adenoid cystic carcinoma (1. Four false positives and two false negative cases were encountered. Overall sensitivity was 96%, with specificity of 99% and accuracy being 98.8%. Conclusions: With proper clinical and radiological assessment, FNAC can be extremely useful in diagnosing most of these lesions except a few which need histopathological and even immunohistochemical confirmation.

  20. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.