Sample records for providing fine-grained measures

  1. Texture measurements in fine grained polyphase aggregates (United States)

    Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.


    When analyzing natural and experimental microstructures, we routinely use the two methods for orientation imaging and texture measurements: (a) the computer-integrated polarization microscopy (CIP, Panozzo Heilbronner & Pauli, 1993) and (b) the electron back scatter diffractometry (EBSD, e.g. Kunze et al., 1994). The CIP method yields orientation maps and pole figures of c-axes (of uni-axial materials), while the EBSD method yields complete textural data for all crystallographic orientations. In order to compare the orientation images the Euler maps (obtained from EBSD) are recalculated and presented with the more intuitive colour look-up tables (CLUTs) of the CIP method. In this contribution we compare and contrast the results achieved by these two methods using two different samples taken from a metagranodiorite (Kilian et al., 2009): (1) a coarse grained mylonitic rock with polycrystalline quartz aggregates and (2) a very fine grained ultramylonitic rock with single quartz grains dispersed in a polymineralic matrix. For the coarse grained sample (1) both methods yield the same (strong) c-axis pole figure: the geometry of the c-axis polefigure as well as the texture intensity (maximum of polefigure) are identical. The texture of sample (2) - where small quartz grains are dispersed in the polymineralic matrix - is very weak to random. The CIP and EBSD c-axis pole figures are different and - as noted previously - these differences arise from a machine specific bias of the EBSD (Schmocker 2002). In addition to texture analysis, both methods are capable of image segmentation (identification and separation of individual grains in the orientation image) as well as shape and grain size analysis. However due to the entirely different approach taken, the results may differ significantly. For example, when deriving the grain size distribution for sample (2) EBSD (combined with with the OIM® analysis software) yields a positively skewed histogram (with the mode occurring

  2. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig


    lab with Sedflume, an apparatus for measuring sediment erosion-parameters. In this report, we present results of the characterization of fine-grained sediment erodibility within Capitol Lake. The erodibility data were incorporated into the previously developed hydrodynamic and sediment transport model. Model simulations using the measured erodibility parameters were conducted to provide more robust estimates of the overall magnitudes and spatial patterns of sediment transport resulting from restoration of the Deschutes Estuary.

  3. Dense, finely, grained composite materials (United States)

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Holt, Joseph B.; Kingman, Donald D.; Munir, Zuhair A.


    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  4. Measuring and Explaining Cognitive Load During Design Activities: A fine-grained approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Barbara; Neurauter, Manuel; Burattin, Andrea


    Recent advances in neuro–physiological measurements resulted in reliable and objective measures of Cognitive Load (CL), e.g., using pupillary responses. However, continuous measurement of CL in software design activities, e.g., conceptual modeling, has received little attention. In this paper, we...... present the progress of our work intended to close this gap by continuously measuring cognitive load during design activities. This work aims at advancing our understanding of WHEN and WHY designers face challenges. For this, we attempt to explore and explain the occurrence of CL using fine–granular units...

  5. A Raspberry Pi Cluster Instrumented for Fine-Grained Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Cloutier


    Full Text Available Power consumption has become an increasingly important metric when building large supercomputing clusters. One way to reduce power usage in large clusters is to use low-power embedded processors rather than the more typical high-end server CPUs (central processing units. We investigate various power-related metrics for seventeen different embedded ARM development boards in order to judge the appropriateness of using them in a computing cluster. We then build a custom cluster out of Raspberry Pi boards, which is specially designed for per-node detailed power measurement. In addition to serving as an embedded cluster testbed, our cluster’s power measurement, visualization and thermal features make it an excellent low-cost platform for education and experimentation.

  6. Fine-Grained Concrete of Composite Binder (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Pak, A.; Kuzmin, D.


    The article is devoted to the application of industrial wastes for the production of high-quality concretes with specified characteristics. The composite binders with low water demand (BLW) have been developed. Their strength is approximately twice the strength of the initial cement, and dilute BLW with 50 - 70% of the ground slag or quartz sand in their composition provide the same strength as the original Portland cement. It was proved that the quartzite sand screening can be used as a filler in the preparation of fine-grained concretes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tolochko


    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for fine-grained structure of ingots during crystallization depending on the used foundry technologies. It is shown that by using modern scientific and technological advances may improve the traditional and the development of new casting processes, providing production of cast parts with over fine-grained structure and enhanced properties.

  8. Ultra-Fine Grained Dual-Phase Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Militzer


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on obtaining low-carbon ultra-fine grained dual-phase steels through rapid intercritical annealing of cold-rolled sheet as improved materials for automotive applications. A laboratory processing route was designed that involves cold-rolling of a tempered martensite structure followed by a second tempering step to produce a fine grained aggregate of ferrite and carbides as the initial microstructure for rapid intercritical annealing. The intercritical annealing step was performed with heating and cooling rates of at least 100 °C/s and a holding time of 30 s. The intercritical temperature was selected to result in 20- 35% martensite in the final microstructures for C-Mn steels with carbon contents of 0.06, 0.12 and 0.17 wt%, respectively. The proposed processing routes produced an ultra-fine grained ferrite-martensite structure withgrain sizes of approximately 1 ?m for all three steels. The tensile strength of these ultra-fine grained dualphase steels can be increased by up to 200 MPa as compared to coarse-grained dual-phase steels while maintaining uniform elongation values. The rather narrow processing window necessary to obtain these properties was evaluated by determining the effect of intercritical annealing conditions on microstructure evolution. Further, the experimental results were confirmed with phase field simulations of austenite formation indicating that rapid heat treatment cycles are essential to obtain fine grained intercritical austenite that leads to martensite islands with sizes of 1 ?m and below in the final microstructure.

  9. Local Alignments for Fine-Grained Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavves, E.; Fernando, B.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Tuytelaars, T.


    The aim of this paper is fine-grained categorization without human interaction. Different from prior work, which relies on detectors for specific object parts, we propose to localize distinctive details by roughly aligning the objects using just the overall shape. Then, one may proceed to the

  10. Fine-grained Dutch named entity recognition


    Desmet, Bart; Hoste, Veronique


    This paper describes the creation of a fine-grained named entity annotation scheme and corpus for Dutch, and experiments on automatic main type and subtype named entity recognition. We give an overview of existing named entity annotation schemes, and motivate our own, which describes six main types (persons, organizations, locations, products, events and miscellaneous named entities) and finer-grained information on subtypes and metonymic usage. This was applied to a one-million-word subset o...

  11. Communication Optimizations for Fine-Grained UPCApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Iancu, Costin; Yelick, Katherine


    Global address space languages like UPC exhibit high performance and portability on a broad class of shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. The most scalable applications use bulk memory copies rather than individual reads and writes to the shared space, but finer-grained sharing can be useful for scenarios such as dynamic load balancing, event signaling, and distributed hash tables. In this paper we present three optimization techniques for global address space programs with fine-grained communication: redundancy elimination, use of split-phase communication, and communication coalescing. Parallel UPC programs are analyzed using static single assignment form and a data flow graph, which are extended to handle the various shared and private pointer types that are available in UPC. The optimizations also take advantage of UPC's relaxed memory consistency model, which reduces the need for cross thread analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the analysis and optimizations using several benchmarks, which were chosen to reflect the kinds of fine-grained, communication-intensive phases that exist in some larger applications. The optimizations show speedups of up to 70 percent on three parallel systems, which represent three different types of cluster network technologies.

  12. A More Fine-Grained Measure of Students' Acceptance of Evolution: Development of the Inventory of Student Evolution Acceptance—I-SEA (United States)

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Southerland, Sherry


    The potential influences of affective perceptions on cognitive engagement in learning, particularly with emotionally charged topics such as evolution, provide justification for acknowledging and assessing learners' attitudes toward content. One approach to determining students' attitudes toward a construct is to explicitly ask them to what degree they accept the related content. This was the approach we took as we developed the Inventory of Student Evolution Acceptance. Our goal was to make a finer-grained instrument that would assess acceptance on three evolution subscales: microevolution, macroevolution, and human evolution. Further, we sought to not conflate understanding with acceptance of the constructs. We began our instrument development with a series of interviews and open-ended questionnaires to determine students' perceptions of evolution acceptance. Based on the responses we developed and field tested a 49-item Likert scale instrument with stems distributed across our three targeted subscales. Using the data from our field test, we reduced the instrument to 24 items evenly distributed across the three subscales, and the revised instrument was again field tested with high school and undergraduate college students. The final instrument has an internal reliability of Cronbach's alpha of 0.96 and the items loaded onto three components that reflect documented evolution acceptance conditions. The instrument development, implications, and applications are discussed.

  13. Self-compacting fine-grained concretes with compensated shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov Lev


    Full Text Available This paper substantiates the efficiency of application of fine-grained concrete for erection of cast-in-place concrete and reinforced concrete structures of different purpose. On the basis of analysis of experimental research results it was established that the introduction of microfillers with expansion effect to composite binder allows not only improving the rheological properties of fine-grained concrete, but also decreasing of value of shrinkage strain and improving of concrete crack resistance and durability. The analysis of the results of industrial use of fine-grained concretes with compensated shrinkage is given.

  14. Fine-Grained Energy Modeling for the Source Code of a Mobile Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick


    . Using the model we observed several counter-intuitive effects, e.g., in a common game scenario, control flow operations consume around 38% of the total CPU energy use, while arithmetic operations consume only 6%. Our model is being integrated into a source-level energy-optimization approach, which we......The goal of an energy model for source code is to lay a foundation for the application of energy-aware programming techniques. State of the art solutions are based on source-line energy information. In this paper, we present an approach to constructing a fine-grained energy model which is able...... to provide operation-related information that is more valuable for guiding code-optimization than source-line information. The modeling is enabled by a set of novel and practical techniques such as source-level operation identification, block-varied execution-case design and measurement variability control...

  15. Studying of influence of fiber reinforcing at fine-grained concrete applying in transport construction (United States)

    Begunov, Oleg; Alexandrova, Olga; Solovyov, Vadim


    We observed causes of using fiber in nowadays construction industry and its influence on a final product properties, where the fine-grained concrete basing of repairing dry construction mix was used as a base. However, in Russia we do not have such experience. If we’re talking about changes occurring in the fine-grained concrete all of its are known about it, either in concrete, but in dry-construction mixes changes may have another purpose. Advantages and disadvantages of using fiber were oblieved also in that article. The main subject of this research is the influence of fiber on a mechanical properties of fine-grained concrete. The most attention is paid to estimate the influence of a concrete’s properties by metal fibers: casting time (initial and final), workability and strength (tensile strength and compressive strength) in this article. The most popular different type of metal fiber compares for its length and width and the optimum quantity of metal component chooses, which will indicate the maximum possible affirmative result of its using. Dependences comparing properties of fine-grained properties with fiber’s type, measurements and quantity which show the evident result of researching are discussed.

  16. Fine-grained sediment dispersal along the California coast (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Storlazzi, Curt D.


    Fine-grained sediment (silt and clay) enters coastal waters from rivers, eroding coastal bluffs, resuspension of seabed sediment, and human activities such as dredging and beach nourishment. The amount of sediment in coastal waters is an important factor in ocean ecosystem health, but little information exists on both the natural and human-driven magnitudes of fine-grained sediment delivery to the coastal zone, its residence time there, and its transport out of the system—information upon which to base environmental assessments. To help fill these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with Federal, State, and local agencies to monitor fine-grained sediment dispersal patterns and fate in the coastal regions of California. Results of these studies suggest that the waves and currents of many of the nearshore coastal settings of California are adequately energetic to transport fine-grained sediment quickly through coastal systems. These findings will help with the management and regulation of fine-grained sediment along the U.S. west coast.

  17. Exploiting fine-grain parallelism in recursive LU factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Dongarra, Jack


    The LU factorization is an important numerical algorithm for solving system of linear equations. This paper proposes a novel approach for computing the LU factorization in parallel on multicore architectures. It improves the overall performance and also achieves the numerical quality of the standard LU factorization with partial pivoting. While the update of the trailing submatrix is computationally intensive and highly parallel, the inherently problematic portion of the LU factorization is the panel factorization due to its memory-bound characteristic and the atomicity of selecting the appropriate pivots. We remedy this in our new approach to LU factorization of (narrow and tall) panel submatrices. We use a parallel fine-grained recursive formulation of the factorization. It is based on conflict-free partitioning of the data and lock-less synchronization mechanisms. Our implementation lets the overall computation naturally flow with limited contention. Our recursive panel factorization provides the necessary performance increase for the inherently problematic portion of the LU factorization of square matrices. A large panel width results in larger Amdahl\\'s fraction as our experiments have revealed which is consistent with related efforts. The performance results of our implementation reveal superlinear speedup and far exceed what can be achieved with equivalent MKL and/or LAPACK routines. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems (United States)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  19. Facilitating Fine Grained Data Provenance using Temporal Data Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, M.R.; Wombacher, Andreas; Apers, Peter M.G.


    E-science applications use fine grained data provenance to maintain the reproducibility of scientific results, i.e., for each processed data tuple, the source data used to process the tuple as well as the used approach is documented. Since most of the e-science applications perform on-line

  20. Fine-Grained Forward-Secure Signature Schemes without Random Oracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camenisch, Jan; Koprowski, Maciej


    We propose the concept of fine-grained forward-secure signature schemes. Such signature schemes not only provide nonrepudiation w.r.t. past time periods the way ordinary forward-secure signature schemes do but, in addition, allow the signer to specify which signatures of the current time period...... remain valid when revoking the public key. This is an important advantage if the signer produces many signatures per time period as otherwise the signer would have to re-issue those signatures (and possibly re-negotiate the respective messages) with a new key.Apart from a formal model for fine......-grained forward-secure signature schemes, we present practical schemes and prove them secure under the strong RSA assumption only, i.e., we do not resort to the random oracle model to prove security. As a side-result, we provide an ordinary forward-secure scheme whose key-update time is significantly smaller than...

  1. The dynamics of fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Conaway, Christopher H.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Lescinski, Jamie; Harden, E. Lynne; Lacy, Jessica R.; Tonnon, Pieter K.


    In the fall and early winter of 2009, a demonstration project was done at Santa Cruz Harbor, California, to determine if 450 m3/day of predominantly (71 percent) mud-sized sediment could be dredged from the inner portion of the harbor and discharged to the coastal ocean without significant impacts to the beach and inner shelf. During the project, more than 7600 m3 of sediment (~5400 m3 of fine-grain material) was dredged during 17 days and discharged approximately 60 m offshore of the harbor at a depth of 2 m on the inner shelf. The U.S. Geological Survey's Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center was funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Santa Cruz Port District to do an integrated mapping and process study to investigate the fate of the mud-sized sediment dredged from the inner portion of Santa Cruz Harbor and to determine if any of the fine-grain material settled out on the shoreline and/or inner shelf during the fall and early winter of 2009. This was done by collecting highresolution oceanographic and sediment geochemical measurements along the shoreline and on the continental shelf of northern Monterey Bay to monitor the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and discharged onto the inner shelf. These in place measurements, in conjunction with beach, water column, and seabed surveys, were used as boundary and calibration information for a three-dimensional numerical circulation and sediment dynamics model to better understand the fate of the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and the potential consequences of disposing this type of material on the beach and on the northern Monterey Bay continental shelf.

  2. Detection and fine-grained classification of cyberbullying events


    Van Hee, Cynthia; Lefever, Els; Verhoeven, Ben; Mennes, Julie; Desmet, Bart; De Pauw, Guy; Daelemans, Walter; Hoste, Veronique


    In the current era of online interactions, both positive and negative experiences are abundant on the Web. As in real life, negative experiences can have a serious impact on youngsters. Recent studies have reported cybervictimization rates among teenagers that vary between 20% and 40%. In this paper, we focus on cyberbullying as a particular form of cybervictimization and explore its automatic detection and fine-grained classification. Data containing cyberbullying was collected from the soci...

  3. Process for preparing fine-grain metal carbide powder (United States)

    Kennedy, C.R.; Jeffers, F.P.

    Fine-grain metal carbide powder suitable for use in the fabrication of heat resistant products is prepared by coating bituminous pitch on SiO/sub 2/ or Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ particles, heating the coated particles to convert the bituminous pitch to coke, and then heating the particles to a higher temperature to convert the particles to a carbide by reaction of said coke therewith.

  4. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection (United States)


    on-line advertising rm DoubleClick and consumer data company Abacus Direct was \\the most danger- ous assault against anonymity on the Internet since...registrations and ecommerce trans- Preprint - 2 Stuart G. Stubblebine, and Paul F. Syverson. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection...Brother, Big `Fun’ at Amazon", Wired News, Aug. 25, 1999. business /story/21417.html [18] David Mazieres and M. Frans Kaashoek. \\The

  5. Anomalous permittivity in fine-grain barium titanate (United States)

    Ostrander, Steven Paul

    Fine-grain barium titanate capacitors exhibit anomalously large permittivity. It is often observed that these materials will double or quadruple the room temperature permittivity of a coarse-grain counterpart. However, aside from a general consensus on this permittivity enhancement, the properties of the fine-grain material are poorly understood. This thesis examines the effect of grain size on dielectric properties of a self-consistent set of high density undoped barium titanate capacitors. This set included samples with grain sizes ranging from submicron to ˜20 microns, and with densities generally above 95% of the theoretical. A single batch of well characterized powder was milled, dry-pressed then isostatically-pressed. Compacts were fast-fired, but sintering temperature alone was used to control the grain size. With this approach, the extrinsic influences are minimized within the set of samples, but more importantly, they are normalized between samples. That is, with a single batch of powder and with identical green processing, uniform impurity concentration is expected. The fine-grain capacitors exhibited a room temperature permittivity of ˜5500 and dielectric losses of ˜2%. The Curie-temperature decreased by {˜}5sp°C from that of the coarse-grain material, and the two ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperatures increased by {˜}10sp°C. The grain size induced permittivity enhancement was only active in the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases. Strong dielectric anomalies were observed in samples with grain size as small as {˜}0.4\\ mum. It is suggested that the strong first-order character observed in the present data is related to control of microstructure and stoichiometry. Grain size effects on conductivity losses, ferroelectric losses, ferroelectric dispersion, Maxwell-Wagner dispersion, and dielectric aging of permittivity and loss were observed. For the fine-grain material, these observations suggest the suppression of domain wall

  6. Fine-Grained Turbidites: Facies, Attributes and Process Implications (United States)

    Stow, Dorrik; Omoniyi, Bayonle


    Within turbidite systems, fine-grained sediments are still the poor relation and sport several contrasting facies models linked to process of deposition. These are volumetrically the dominant facies in deepwater and, from a resource perspective, they form important marginal and tight reservoirs, and have great potential for unconventional shale gas, source rocks and seals. They are also significant hosts of metals and rare earth elements. Based on a large number of studies of modern, ancient and subsurface systems, including 1000s of metres of section logging, we define the principal genetic elements of fine-grained deepwater facies, present a new synthesis of facies models and their sedimentary attributes. The principal architectural elements include: non-channelised slope-aprons, channel-fill, channel levee and overbank, turbidite lobes, mass-transport deposits, contourite drifts, basin sheets and drapes. These comprise a variable intercalation of fine-grained facies - thin-bedded and very thin-bedded turbidites, contourites, hemipelagites and pelagites - and associated coarse-grained facies. Characteristic attributes used to discriminate between these different elements are: facies and facies associations; sand-shale ratio, sand and shale geometry and dimensions, sand connectivity; sediment texture and small-scale sedimentary structures; sediment fabric and microfabric; and small-scale vertical sequences of bed thickness. To some extent, we can relate facies and attribute characteristics to different depositional environments. We identify four distinct facies models: (a) silt-laminated mud turbidites, (b) siliciclastic mud turbidites, (c) carbonate mud turbidites, (d) disorganized silty-mud turbidites, and (e) hemiturbidites. Within the grainsize-velocity matrix turbidite plot, these all fall within the region of mean size < 0.063mm, maximum grainsize (one percentile) <0.2mm, and depositional velocity 0.1-0.5 m/s. Silt-laminated turbidites and many mud

  7. Permeability Enhancement in Fine-Grained Sediments by Chemically Induced Clay Fabric Shrinkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A M; Kansa, E J; Viani, B E; Blake, R G; Roberts, J J; Huber, R D


    The National Research Council [1] identified the entrapment of contaminants in fine-grained clay-bearing soils as a major impediment to the timely and cost-effective remediation of groundwater to regulatory standards. Contaminants trapped in low-permeability, low-diffusivity, high-sorptivity clays are not accessible to advective flushing by treatment fluids from permeable zones, and slowly diffuse out to recontaminate previously cleaned permeable strata. We propose to overcome this barrier to effective remediation by exploiting the ability of certain nontoxic EPA-approved chemicals (e.g., ethanol) to shrink and alter the fabric of clays, and thereby create macro-porosity and crack networks in fine-grained sediments. This would significantly reduce the distance and time scales of diffusive mass transport to advectively flushed boundaries, to yield orders of magnitude reduction in the time required to complete remediation. Given that effective solutions to this central problem of subsurface remediation do not yet exist, the cost and time benefits of successful deployment of this novel concept, both as a stand-alone technology and as an enabling pre-treatment for other remedial technologies that rely on advective delivery, is likely to be very large. This project, funded as a 1-year feasibility study by LLNL's LDRD Program, is a multi-directorate, multi-disciplinary effort that leverages expertise from the Energy & Environment Directorate, the Environmental Restoration Division, and the Manufacturing & Materials Evaluation Division of Mechanical Engineering. In this feasibility study, a ''proof-of-principle'' experiment was performed to answer the central question: ''Can clay shrinkage induced by ethanol in clay-bearing sediments overcome realistic confining stresses, crack clay, and increase its effective permeability by orders of magnitude within a time that is much smaller than the time required for diffusive mass transport of

  8. Electrochemical properties of fine-grained AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzima, Branislav; Bukovina, Michal [Univ. of Zilina (Slovakia). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Janecek, Milos; Kral, Robert [Charles Univ., Dept. of Physics of Materials, Prague (Czech Republic)


    The influence of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the microstructure changes of magnesium alloy AZ31 was investigated. The microstructure changes were correlated with electrochemical characteristics of the surface. Eight passes of ECAP resulted in significant grain refinement (factor 100) of the initial squeeze-cast (SC) alloy. The influence of microstructure changes on electrochemical properties of the surface was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The variation of electrochemical characteristics of the surface of the SC and ECAP alloy was determined after 3 and 7-day exposure in the corrosion solution of 0.1 M NaCl. The fine-grained deformed structure after ECAP was found to have significantly higher charge transfer resistance as compared to the squeeze-cast material. (orig.)

  9. Metadata for fine-grained processing at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cranshaw, Jack; The ATLAS collaboration


    High energy physics experiments are implementing highly parallel solutions for event processing on resources that support concurrency at multiple levels. These range from the inherent large-scale parallelism of HPC resources to the multiprocessing and multithreading needed for effective use of multi-core and GPU-augmented nodes. Such modes of processing, and the efficient opportunistic use of transiently-available resources, lead to finer-grained processing of event data. Previously metadata systems were tailored to jobs that were atomic and processed large, well-defined units of data. The new environment requires a more fine-grained approach to metadata handling, especially with regard to bookkeeping. For opportunistic resources metadata propagation needs to work even if individual jobs are not finalized. This contribution describes ATLAS solutions to this problem in the context of the multiprocessing framework currently in use for LHC Run 2, development underway for the ATLAS multithreaded framework (Athena...

  10. Mining massive fine-grained behavior data to improve predictive analytics


    Martens, David; Provost, Foster; Clark, Jessica; Junqué de Fortuny, Enric


    Abstract: Organizations increasingly have access to massive, fine-grained data on consumer behavior. Despite the hype over "big data," and the success of predictive analytics, only a few organizations have incorporated such fine-grained data in a non-aggregated manner into their predictive analytics. This paper examines the use of massive, fine-grained data on consumer behavior-specifically payments to a very large set of particular merchants-to improve predictive models for targeted marketin...

  11. Fine-grained Database Field Search Using Attribute-Based Encryption for E-Healthcare Clouds. (United States)

    Guo, Cheng; Zhuang, Ruhan; Jie, Yingmo; Ren, Yizhi; Wu, Ting; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond


    An effectively designed e-healthcare system can significantly enhance the quality of access and experience of healthcare users, including facilitating medical and healthcare providers in ensuring a smooth delivery of services. Ensuring the security of patients' electronic health records (EHRs) in the e-healthcare system is an active research area. EHRs may be outsourced to a third-party, such as a community healthcare cloud service provider for storage due to cost-saving measures. Generally, encrypting the EHRs when they are stored in the system (i.e. data-at-rest) or prior to outsourcing the data is used to ensure data confidentiality. Searchable encryption (SE) scheme is a promising technique that can ensure the protection of private information without compromising on performance. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for controlling access to EHRs stored in semi-trusted cloud servers (e.g. a private cloud or a community cloud). To achieve fine-grained access control for EHRs, we leverage the ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) technique to encrypt tables published by hospitals, including patients' EHRs, and the table is stored in the database with the primary key being the patient's unique identity. Our framework can enable different users with different privileges to search on different database fields. Differ from previous attempts to secure outsourcing of data, we emphasize the control of the searches of the fields within the database. We demonstrate the utility of the scheme by evaluating the scheme using datasets from the University of California, Irvine.

  12. Fine-grained parallel RNAalifold algorithm for RNA secondary structure prediction on FPGA. (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Dou, Yong; Zhou, Xingming; Yang, Xuejun; Xu, Jiaqing; Zhang, Yang


    In the field of RNA secondary structure prediction, the RNAalifold algorithm is one of the most popular methods using free energy minimization. However, general-purpose computers including parallel computers or multi-core computers exhibit parallel efficiency of no more than 50%. Field Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA) chips provide a new approach to accelerate RNAalifold by exploiting fine-grained custom design. RNAalifold shows complicated data dependences, in which the dependence distance is variable, and the dependence direction is also across two dimensions. We propose a systolic array structure including one master Processing Element (PE) and multiple slave PEs for fine grain hardware implementation on FPGA. We exploit data reuse schemes to reduce the need to load energy matrices from external memory. We also propose several methods to reduce energy table parameter size by 80%. To our knowledge, our implementation with 16 PEs is the only FPGA accelerator implementing the complete RNAalifold algorithm. The experimental results show a factor of 12.2 speedup over the RNAalifold (ViennaPackage - 1.6.5) software for a group of aligned RNA sequences with 2981-residue running on a Personal Computer (PC) platform with Pentium 4 2.6 GHz CPU.

  13. A Hybrid Scheme for Fine-Grained Search and Access Authorization in Fog Computing Environment. (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Xuejiao; Jiang, Mingda


    In the fog computing environment, the encrypted sensitive data may be transferred to multiple fog nodes on the edge of a network for low latency; thus, fog nodes need to implement a search over encrypted data as a cloud server. Since the fog nodes tend to provide service for IoT applications often running on resource-constrained end devices, it is necessary to design lightweight solutions. At present, there is little research on this issue. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained owner-forced data search and access authorization scheme spanning user-fog-cloud for resource constrained end users. Compared to existing schemes only supporting either index encryption with search ability or data encryption with fine-grained access control ability, the proposed hybrid scheme supports both abilities simultaneously, and index ciphertext and data ciphertext are constructed based on a single ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE) primitive and share the same key pair, thus the data access efficiency is significantly improved and the cost of key management is greatly reduced. Moreover, in the proposed scheme, the resource constrained end devices are allowed to rapidly assemble ciphertexts online and securely outsource most of decryption task to fog nodes, and mediated encryption mechanism is also adopted to achieve instantaneous user revocation instead of re-encrypting ciphertexts with many copies in many fog nodes. The security and the performance analysis show that our scheme is suitable for a fog computing environment.

  14. A Hybrid Scheme for Fine-Grained Search and Access Authorization in Fog Computing Environment (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Xuejiao; Jiang, Mingda


    In the fog computing environment, the encrypted sensitive data may be transferred to multiple fog nodes on the edge of a network for low latency; thus, fog nodes need to implement a search over encrypted data as a cloud server. Since the fog nodes tend to provide service for IoT applications often running on resource-constrained end devices, it is necessary to design lightweight solutions. At present, there is little research on this issue. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained owner-forced data search and access authorization scheme spanning user-fog-cloud for resource constrained end users. Compared to existing schemes only supporting either index encryption with search ability or data encryption with fine-grained access control ability, the proposed hybrid scheme supports both abilities simultaneously, and index ciphertext and data ciphertext are constructed based on a single ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE) primitive and share the same key pair, thus the data access efficiency is significantly improved and the cost of key management is greatly reduced. Moreover, in the proposed scheme, the resource constrained end devices are allowed to rapidly assemble ciphertexts online and securely outsource most of decryption task to fog nodes, and mediated encryption mechanism is also adopted to achieve instantaneous user revocation instead of re-encrypting ciphertexts with many copies in many fog nodes. The security and the performance analysis show that our scheme is suitable for a fog computing environment. PMID:28629131

  15. The influence of grain size, grain color, and suspended-sediment concentration on light attenuation: why fine-grained terrestrial sediment is bad for coral reef ecosystems (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; Norris, Benjamin; Rosenberger, Kurt


    Sediment has been shown to be a major stressor to coral reefs globally. Although many researchers have tested the impact of sedimentation on coral reef ecosystems in both the laboratory and the field and some have measured the impact of suspended sediment on the photosynthetic response of corals, there has yet to be a detailed investigation on how properties of the sediment itself can affect light availability for photosynthesis. We show that finer-grained and darker-colored sediment at higher suspended-sediment concentrations attenuates photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) significantly more than coarser, lighter-colored sediment at lower concentrations and provide PAR attenuation coefficients for various grain sizes, colors, and suspended-sediment concentrations that are needed for biophysical modeling. Because finer-grained sediment particles settle more slowly and are more susceptible to resuspension, they remain in the water column longer, thus causing greater net impact by reducing light essential for photosynthesis over a greater duration. This indicates that coral reef monitoring studies investigating sediment impacts should concentrate on measuring fine-grained lateritic and volcanic soils, as opposed to coarser-grained siliceous and carbonate sediment. Similarly, coastal restoration efforts and engineering solutions addressing long-term coral reef ecosystem health should focus on preferentially retaining those fine-grained soils rather than coarse silt and sand particles.

  16. The T2K fine-grained detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaudruz, P.-A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Barbi, M. [University of Regina, Physics Department, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bishop, D. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Braam, N. [University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Brook-Roberge, D.G. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Giffin, S. [University of Regina, Physics Department, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Gomi, S. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Gumplinger, P.; Hamano, K. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hastings, N.C. [University of Regina, Physics Department, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Hastings, S. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Helmer, R.L., E-mail: [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Henderson, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ieki, K. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Jamieson, B. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kato, I.; Khan, N. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kim, J.; Kirby, B. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kitching, P. [University of Alberta, Centre for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); and others


    T2K is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment searching for {nu}{sub e} appearance in a {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. The beam is produced at the J-PARC accelerator complex in Tokai, Japan, and the neutrinos are detected by the Super-Kamiokande detector located 295 km away in Kamioka. A suite of near detectors (ND280) located 280 m downstream of the production target is used to characterize the components of the beam before they have had a chance to oscillate and to better understand various neutrino interactions on several nuclei. This paper describes the design and construction of two massive fine-grained detectors (FGDs) that serve as active targets in the ND280 tracker. One FGD is composed solely of scintillator bars while the other is partly scintillator and partly water. Each element of the FGDs is described, including the wavelength shifting fiber and Multi-Pixel Photon Counter used to collect the light signals, the readout electronics, and the calibration system. Initial tests and in situ results of the FGDs' performance are also presented.

  17. Study of a Fine Grained Threaded Framework Design

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Christopher


    Traditionally, HEP experiments exploit the multiple cores in a CPU by having each core process one event. However, future PC designs are expected to use CPUs which double the number of processing cores at the same rate as the cost of memory falls by a factor of two. This effectively means the amount of memory per processing core will remain constant. This is a major challenge for LHC processing frameworks since the LHC is expected to deliver more complex events (e.g. greater pileup events) in the coming years while the LHC experiment's frameworks are already memory constrained. Therefore in the not so distant future we may need to be able to efficiently use multiple cores to process one event. In this presentation we will discuss a design for an HEP processing framework which can allow very fine grained parallelization within one event as well as supporting processing multiple events simultaneously while minimizing the memory footprint of the job. The design is built around the libdispatch framework created ...

  18. Deep learning-based fine-grained car make/model classification for visual surveillance (United States)

    Gundogdu, Erhan; Parıldı, Enes Sinan; Solmaz, Berkan; Yücesoy, Veysel; Koç, Aykut


    Fine-grained object recognition is a potential computer vision problem that has been recently addressed by utilizing deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Nevertheless, the main disadvantage of classification methods relying on deep CNN models is the need for considerably large amount of data. In addition, there exists relatively less amount of annotated data for a real world application, such as the recognition of car models in a traffic surveillance system. To this end, we mainly concentrate on the classification of fine-grained car make and/or models for visual scenarios by the help of two different domains. First, a large-scale dataset including approximately 900K images is constructed from a website which includes fine-grained car models. According to their labels, a state-of-the-art CNN model is trained on the constructed dataset. The second domain that is dealt with is the set of images collected from a camera integrated to a traffic surveillance system. These images, which are over 260K, are gathered by a special license plate detection method on top of a motion detection algorithm. An appropriately selected size of the image is cropped from the region of interest provided by the detected license plate location. These sets of images and their provided labels for more than 30 classes are employed to fine-tune the CNN model which is already trained on the large scale dataset described above. To fine-tune the network, the last two fully-connected layers are randomly initialized and the remaining layers are fine-tuned in the second dataset. In this work, the transfer of a learned model on a large dataset to a smaller one has been successfully performed by utilizing both the limited annotated data of the traffic field and a large scale dataset with available annotations. Our experimental results both in the validation dataset and the real field show that the proposed methodology performs favorably against the training of the CNN model from scratch.

  19. Benzene and MTBE Sorption in Fine Grain Sediments (United States)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Lenczewski, M. E.


    The practice of adding methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to gasoline started in the late 1970s and increased dramatically in the 1990s. MTBE first was added as a substitute for tetra-ethyl lead then later as a fuel oxygenate. Although the use of MTBE has resulted in significant reduction in air pollution, it has become a significant groundwater contaminant due to its high solubility in water, high environmental mobility, and low potential for biodegradation. A recent report (1999-2001) by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California in collaboration with United State Geological Survey and the Oregon Health and Science University found that MTBE was the second most frequent detected volatile organic compound in groundwater. In Illinois, MTBE has been found in 26 of the 1,800 public water supplies. MTBE has also been blended in Mexico into two types of gasoline sold in the country by the state oil company (PEMEX) but is not monitored in groundwater at this time. Early research on MTBE considered it unable to adsorb to soils and sediments, however, by increasing the organic matter and decreasing the size of the grains (silts or clays) this may increase sorption. The objective of this study is to determine if fine grained materials have the potential for sorption of MTBE due to its high specific surface area (10-700 m 2/g) and potentially high organic matter (0.5-3.8%). The experiment consisted of sorption isotherms to glacial tills from DeKalb, Illinois and lacustrine clays from Chalco, Mexico. Experiments were performed with various concentrations of MTBE and benzene (10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 ug/L) at 10° C and 25° C. Results showed a range of values for the distribution coefficient (Kd, linear model). At 10° C the Kd value for MTBE was 0.187 mL/g for lacustrine clay while the glacial loess had a value of 0.009 mL/g. The highest Kd values with MTBE were 0.2859 mL/g for organic rich lacustrine clays and 0.014 mL/g for glacial loess at 25° C. The highest

  20. Memory for pitch in congenital amusia: beyond a fine-grained pitch discrimination problem. (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria Jane; Stewart, Lauren


    Congenital amusia is a disorder that affects the perception and production of music. While amusia has been associated with deficits in pitch discrimination, several reports suggest that memory deficits also play a role. The present study investigated short-term memory span for pitch-based and verbal information in 14 individuals with amusia and matched controls. Analogous adaptive-tracking procedures were used to generate tone and digit spans using stimuli that exceeded psychophysically measured pitch perception thresholds. Individuals with amusia had significantly smaller tone spans, whereas their digits spans were a similar size to those of controls. An automated operation span task was used to determine working memory capacity. Working memory deficits were seen in only a small subgroup of individuals with amusia. These findings support the existence of a pitch-specific component within short-term memory and suggest that congenital amusia is more than a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

  1. Fine grained event processing on HPCs with the ATLAS Yoda system

    CERN Document Server

    Calafiura, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration; Guan, Wen; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Wenaus, Torre


    High performance computing facilities present unique challenges and opportunities for HENP event processing. The massive scale of many HPC systems means that fractionally small utilizations can yield large returns in processing throughput. Parallel applications which can dynamically and efficiently fill any scheduling opportunities the resource presents benefit both the facility (maximal utilization) and the (compute-limited) science. The ATLAS Yoda system provides this capability to HENP-like event processing applications by implementing event-level processing in an MPI-based master-client model that integrates seamlessly with the more broadly scoped ATLAS Event Service. Fine grained, event level work assignments are intelligently dispatched to parallel workers to sustain full utilization on all cores, with outputs streamed off to destination object stores in near real time with similarly fine granularity, such that processing can proceed until termination with full utilization. The system offers the efficie...

  2. Optimization of compositions of multicomponent fine-grained fiber concretes modified at different scale levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIZINA Tatyana Anatolevna,


    Full Text Available The paper deals with perspectives of modification of cement composites at different scale levels (nano-, micro-, macro-. Main types of micro- and nanomodifiers used in modern concrete technology are presented. Advantages of fullerene particles applied in nanomodification of cement concretes have been shown. Use of complex modifiers based on dispersed fibers, mineral additives and nanoparticles is proposed. These are the basic components of the fiber fine-grained concretes: cement of class CEM I 42,5R produced by JSC «Mordovcement», river sand of Novostepanovskogo quarry (Smolny settlement, Ichalkovsky district, Republic of Mordovia, densified condensed microsilica (DCM-85 produced by JSC «Kuznetskie Ferrosplavy» (Novokuznetsk, highly active metakaolin white produced by LLC «D-Meta» (Dneprodzerzhinsk, waterproofing additive in concrete mix «Penetron Admix» produced by LLC «Waterproofing materials plant «Penetron» (Ekaterinburg, polycarboxylate superplasticizer Melflux 1641 F (Construction Polymers BASF, Germany. Dispersed reinforcement of concretes was provided by injection of the fibers of three types: polypropylene multifilament fiber with cutting length of 12 mm, polyacrylonitrile synthetic fiber FibARM Fiber WВ with cutting length of 12 mm and basalt microfiber «Astroflex-MBM» modified by astralene with length about 100÷500 microns. Analysis of results of the study focused on saturated D-optimal plan was carried out by polynomial models «mixture I, mixture II, technology – properties» that considers the impact of six variable factors. Optimum fields of variation of fine-grained modified fiber concrete components have been identified by the method of experimental-statistical modeling. Polygons of distribution levels of factors of modified cement fiber concretes are constructed, that allowed tracing changes in fields of tensile in compressive strength and tensile strength in bending at age of 28 days depending on target

  3. Fine-grained semantic categorization across the abstract and concrete domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ghio

    Full Text Available A consolidated approach to the study of the mental representation of word meanings has consisted in contrasting different domains of knowledge, broadly reflecting the abstract-concrete dichotomy. More fine-grained semantic distinctions have emerged in neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience work, reflecting semantic category specificity, but almost exclusively within the concrete domain. Theoretical advances, particularly within the area of embodied cognition, have more recently put forward the idea that distributed neural representations tied to the kinds of experience maintained with the concepts' referents might distinguish conceptual meanings with a high degree of specificity, including those within the abstract domain. Here we report the results of two psycholinguistic rating studies incorporating such theoretical advances with two main objectives: first, to provide empirical evidence of fine-grained distinctions within both the abstract and the concrete semantic domains with respect to relevant psycholinguistic dimensions; second, to develop a carefully controlled linguistic stimulus set that may be used for auditory as well as visual neuroimaging studies focusing on the parametrization of the semantic space beyond the abstract-concrete dichotomy. Ninety-six participants rated a set of 210 sentences across pre-selected concrete (mouth, hand, or leg action-related and abstract (mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-related categories, with respect either to different semantic domain-related scales (rating study 1, or to concreteness, familiarity, and context availability (rating study 2. Inferential statistics and correspondence analyses highlighted distinguishing semantic and psycholinguistic traits for each of the pre-selected categories, indicating that a simple abstract-concrete dichotomy is not sufficient to account for the entire semantic variability within either domains.

  4. Synergistic Instance-Level Subspace Alignment for Fine-Grained Sketch-Based Image Retrieval. (United States)

    Li, Ke; Pang, Kaiyue; Song, Yi-Zhe; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Zhang, Honggang


    We study the problem of fine-grained sketch-based image retrieval. By performing instance-level (rather than category-level) retrieval, it embodies a timely and practical application, particularly with the ubiquitous availability of touchscreens. Three factors contribute to the challenging nature of the problem: (i) free-hand sketches are inherently abstract and iconic, making visual comparisons with photos difficult, (ii) sketches and photos are in two different visual domains, i.e. black and white lines vs. color pixels, and (iii) fine-grained distinctions are especially challenging when executed across domain and abstraction-level. To address these challenges, we propose to bridge the image-sketch gap both at the high-level via parts and attributes, as well as at the low-level, via introducing a new domain alignment method. More specifically, (i) we contribute a dataset with 304 photos and 912 sketches, where each sketch and image is annotated with its semantic parts and associated part-level attributes. With the help of this dataset, we investigate (ii) how strongly-supervised deformable part-based models can be learned that subsequently enable automatic detection of part-level attributes, and provide pose-aligned sketch-image comparisons. To reduce the sketch-image gap when comparing low-level features, we also (iii) propose a novel method for instance-level domain-alignment, that exploits both subspace and instance-level cues to better align the domains. Finally (iv) these are combined in a matching framework integrating aligned low-level features, mid-level geometric structure and high-level semantic attributes. Extensive experiments conducted on our new dataset demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Heart rate variability metrics for fine-grained stress level assessment. (United States)

    Pereira, Tânia; Almeida, Pedro R; Cunha, João P S; Aguiar, Ana


    In spite of the existence of a multitude of techniques that allow the estimation of stress from physiological indexes, its fine-grained assessment is still a challenge for biomedical engineering. The short-term assessment of stress condition overcomes the limits to stress characterization with long blocks of time and allows to evaluate the behaviour change in real-world settings and also the stress level dynamics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate time and frequency domain and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics for stress level assessment using a short-time window. The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal from 14 volunteers was monitored using the Vital JacketTM while they performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) which is a standardized stress-inducing protocol. Window lengths from 220 s to 50 s for HRV analysis were tested in order to evaluate which metrics could be used to monitor stress levels in an almost continuous way. A sub-set of HRV metrics (AVNN, rMSSD, SDNN and pNN20) showed consistent differences between stress and non-stress phases, and showed to be reliable parameters for the assessment of stress levels in short-term analysis. The AVNN metric, using 50 s of window length analysis, showed that it is the most reliable metric to recognize stress level across the four phases of TSST and allows a fine-grained analysis of stress effect as an index of psychological stress and provides an insight into the reaction of the autonomic nervous system to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuring, Philipp [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Collins, Adrian L. [Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Rode, Michael [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany)


    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (< 10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km{sup 2} Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (> 0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. - Highlights: • Applied statistical approach for selecting composite fingerprints in Mongolia. • Geochemical fingerprinting for the definition of source areas in semiarid catchment. • Test of applicability of sediment sourcing in large scale semi-arid catchments

  7. A Fine-Grained Data Access Control System in Wireless Sensor Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boniface K. Alese; Sylvester O. Olatunji; Oluwatoyin C. Agbonifo; Aderonke F. Thompson


    .... Consequently, data insecurity becomes a big concern. This study, therefore, proposes a fine-grained access control system which only requires the right set of users to access a particular data, based on their access privileges in the sensor networks...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dzugulov


    Full Text Available The compositions of fine-grained concrete with the application of volcanic ash are developed. Are investigated compositions and properties of fine-grained fiber concrete with the volcanic ash with the application of methods of the mathematical planning of experiment. It is revealed, that the reinforcement of finegrained concrete by basaltic fibers substantially increases their strength with the bend. 

  9. Crystallization and flexural strength optimization of fine-grained leucite glass-ceramics for dentistry. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohui; Chadwick, Thomas C; Wilson, Rory M; Hill, Robert G; Cattell, Michael J


    Leucite glass-ceramics with fine-grained leucite crystals promote improved mechanical strength and increased translucency. The objectives of the study were to optimize the microstructure of a fine-grained leucite glass-ceramic in order to increase its flexural strength and reliability as measured by its Weibull modulus. Glass was prepared by a melt-derived method and ground into a powder (M1A). The glass crystallization kinetics were investigated using high temperature XRD and DSC. A series of two-step heat treatments with different nucleation/crystal growth temperatures and holds were carried out to establish the optimized crystallization heat treatment. Glass-ceramics were characterized using XRD, SEM and dilatometry. The glass-ceramic heat treated at the optimized crystallization parameters (M1A(opt)) was both sintered (SM1A(opt)) and heat extruded (EM1A(opt)) into discs and tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. High temperature XRD suggested leucite and sanidine crystallization at different temperatures. Optimized crystallization resulted in an even distribution of fine leucite crystals (0.15 (0.09) μm(2)) in the glassy matrix, with no signs of microcracking. Glass-ceramic M1A(opt) showed BFS values of [mean (SD), MPa]: SM1A(opt)=252.4 (38.7); and EM1A(opt)=245.0 (24.3). Weibull results were: SM1A(opt); m=8.7 (C.I.=7.5-10.1) and EM1A(opt); m=11.9 (C.I.=9.3-15.1). Both experimental groups had a significantly higher BFS and characteristic strength than the IPS Empress Esthetic glass-ceramic, with a higher m value for the EM1A(opt) material (pglass-ceramic with high flexural strength and improved reliability was the outcome of this study. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization. (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi


    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  11. Many-body dissipative particle dynamics modeling of fluid flow in fine-grained nanoporous shales (United States)

    Xia, Yidong; Goral, Jan; Huang, Hai; Miskovic, Ilija; Meakin, Paul; Deo, Milind


    A many-body dissipative particle dynamics model, namely, MDPD, is applied for simulation of pore-scale, multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in fine-grained, nanoporous shales. Since this model is able to simultaneously capture the discrete features of fluid molecules in nanometer size pores and continuum fluid dynamics in larger pores, and is relatively easy to parameterize, it has been recognized as being particularly suitable for simulating complex fluid flow in multi-length-scale nanopore networks of shales. A remarkable feature of this work is the integration of a high-resolution FIB-SEM (focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy) digital imaging technique to the MDPD model for providing 3D voxel data that contain the invaluable geometrical and compositional information of shale samples. This is the first time that FIB-SEM is seamlessly linked to a Lagrangian model like MDPD for fluid flow simulation, which offers a robust approach to bridging gaps between the molecular- and continuum-scales, since the relevant spatial and temporal scales are too big for molecular dynamics, and too small for computational fluid dynamics with known constitutive models. Simulations ranging from a number of benchmark problems to a forced two-fluid flow in a Woodford shale sample are presented. Results indicate that this model can be used to deliver reasonable simulations for multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in arbitrarily complex pore networks in shales.

  12. Study on effect of Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitates on strength of fine grained soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Sharma


    Full Text Available For construction purposes, it is very essential to provide a strong foundation for the structure. If required, the suitability of soil has to be improved; this process of improving properties of soil is called Soil Stabilisation. This study intends to experimentally analyse the effectiveness of use of an unorthodox liquid soil stabiliser, Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitates (MICP for improving the shear strength parameters of two different types of fine grained soils. For this process, a species of Bacillus group, B. pastuerii was used to activate and catalyse the calcite precipitation caused by reaction between urea and calcium chloride. Two types of soils, i.e. intermediate compressible clay and highly compressible clay were used for the study. Parameters included concentration of B. pasteurii, concentration of the cementation reagent and duration of treatment. These parameters were applied on both the soils in a specified range in order to optimise their usage. The results proved that with the use of MICP, there was a noticeable improvement (1.5–2.9 times in the unconfined compressive strength of both type of soils. It was also found that the strength increased with an increase in duration of treatment. Based on this study, optimum quantity and concentration of liquid additive to be added for different soil types for better strength increments were established.

  13. Privacy Protection in Participatory Sensing Applications Requiring Fine-Grained Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Kai; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping


    The emerging participatory sensing applications have brought a privacy risk where users expose their location information. Most of the existing solutions preserve location privacy by generalizing a precise user location to a coarse-grained location, and hence they cannot be applied in those...... applications requiring fine-grained location information. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a novel method to preserve location privacy by anonymizing coarse-grained locations and retaining fine-grained locations using Attribute Based Encryption (ABE). In addition, we do not assume the service...

  14. Lime Stabilization of Fine-Grained Greenlandic Sediments in Relation to Construction Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Hans Rasmus


    Thick deposits of fine-grained marine sediments exist in large areas of western Greenland. Many places these sediments are located above sea-level, and now complicate construction projects in urban areas. The mineralogy of the sediments is very different from that of European sediments, mainly due...... to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability of the fine-grained sediments. This presentation will include results of laboratory studies of lime stabilization on a clay soil from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The result includes tests...

  15. Age, Gender, and Fine-Grained Ethnicity Prediction using Convolutional Neural Networks for the East Asian Face Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, Nisha [ORNL; Rose, Derek C [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahalingam, Gayathri [ORNL; Atwal, Harleen [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL


    This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.

  16. A Fine-Grained and Privacy-Preserving Query Scheme for Fog Computing-Enhanced Location-Based Service. (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Yin, Fan; Tang, Xiaohu


    Location-based services (LBS), as one of the most popular location-awareness applications, has been further developed to achieve low-latency with the assistance of fog computing. However, privacy issues remain a research challenge in the context of fog computing. Therefore, in this paper, we present a fine-grained and privacy-preserving query scheme for fog computing-enhanced location-based services, hereafter referred to as FGPQ. In particular, mobile users can obtain the fine-grained searching result satisfying not only the given spatial range but also the searching content. Detailed privacy analysis shows that our proposed scheme indeed achieves the privacy preservation for the LBS provider and mobile users. In addition, extensive performance analyses and experiments demonstrate that the FGPQ scheme can significantly reduce computational and communication overheads and ensure the low-latency, which outperforms existing state-of-the art schemes. Hence, our proposed scheme is more suitable for real-time LBS searching.

  17. F2AC: A Lightweight, Fine-Grained, and Flexible Access Control Scheme for File Storage in Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren


    Full Text Available Current file storage service models for cloud servers assume that users either belong to single layer with different privileges or cannot authorize privileges iteratively. Thus, the access control is not fine-grained and flexible. Besides, most access control methods at cloud servers mainly rely on computationally intensive cryptographic algorithms and, especially, may not be able to support highly dynamic ad hoc groups with addition and removal of group members. In this paper, we propose a scheme called F2AC, which is a lightweight, fine-grained, and flexible access control scheme for file storage in mobile cloud computing. F2AC can not only achieve iterative authorization, authentication with tailored policies, and access control for dynamically changing accessing groups, but also provide access privilege transition and revocation. A new access control model called directed tree with linked leaf model is proposed for further implementations in data structures and algorithms. The extensive analysis is given for justifying the soundness and completeness of F2AC.

  18. A Fine-Grained and Privacy-Preserving Query Scheme for Fog Computing-Enhanced Location-Based Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang


    Full Text Available Location-based services (LBS, as one of the most popular location-awareness applications, has been further developed to achieve low-latency with the assistance of fog computing. However, privacy issues remain a research challenge in the context of fog computing. Therefore, in this paper, we present a fine-grained and privacy-preserving query scheme for fog computing-enhanced location-based services, hereafter referred to as FGPQ. In particular, mobile users can obtain the fine-grained searching result satisfying not only the given spatial range but also the searching content. Detailed privacy analysis shows that our proposed scheme indeed achieves the privacy preservation for the LBS provider and mobile users. In addition, extensive performance analyses and experiments demonstrate that the FGPQ scheme can significantly reduce computational and communication overheads and ensure the low-latency, which outperforms existing state-of-the art schemes. Hence, our proposed scheme is more suitable for real-time LBS searching.

  19. Fine-grained sediment dynamics during a strong storm event in the inner-shelf of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean) (United States)

    Ferré, B.; Guizien, K.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.; Guillén, J.; Grémare, A.


    A 1-month survey, comprising moored instruments and high-frequency sampling, was carried out in a shallow Mediterranean embayment during the autumn of 1999, to assess the effect of strong and unpredictable meteorological events on the near-bed, fine-grained sediment dynamics. A 1DV Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model for the wave-current boundary layer [Guizien et al., 2003. 1DV bottom boundary layer modeling under combined wave and current: turbulent separation and phase lag effects. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(C1), 3016] is tested, against the recorded suspended sediment concentration data (SSC); it is used then to determine the sediment resuspension and flux in the embayment. A strong southeasterly storm occurred on November 12, 1999, which generated a large swell ( H=7m, T=10s), a sea surface rise of about 0.5 m and near-bottom currents of up to 35 cm s -1. During the storm, the SSC increased throughout the whole of the water column and reached 70 mg l -1, at 25.8 m (0.5 m above the bottom). Numerical computations of SSC profiles, based upon local sandy sediment grain size distribution, are in good agreement with the measured SSC profiles during the onset of the storm over the first 2 h. These observations confirm that the measured SSC profiles, during the storm, resulted from the resuspension of the fine-grained fraction (<60 μm); that is consistent with the grain size of material collected in sediment traps. Following the first 2 h, numerical simulations suggest that bed armouring occurred, after the surficial fine-grained fraction was winnowed. Computations of mud fraction SSC, along a cross-shore transect, which displays a seaward-fining texture of the sediment, indicate that strong resuspension during this severe storm event only affected water depths shallower than 35 m. This water depth coincides approximately with the transition from sand to mud, on the Gulf of Lion shelf, which is located around 30 m. Computations of the horizontal

  20. Characterizing bulk modulus of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available correlation models for the soil sample tested. These models can be used for evaluating the impact of moisture on bulk modulus of fine-grained soils with similar characteristics for their sustainable use in foundation applications under off-road construction...

  1. Inferring Fine-Grained Data Provenance in Stream Data Processing: Reduced Storage Cost, High Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, M.R.; Wombacher, Andreas; Apers, Peter M.G.; Hameurlain, Abdelkader; Liddle, Stephen W.; Schewe, Klaus-Dieter; Zhou, Xiaofang

    Fine-grained data provenance ensures reproducibility of results in decision making, process control and e-science applications. However, maintaining this provenance is challenging in stream data processing because of its massive storage consumption, especially with large overlapping sliding windows.

  2. Some rockmagnetic parameters for natural goethite, pyrrhotite and fine-grained hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073463744


    The increasing importance of sediments for paleomagnetic research prompted a study of rockmagnetic parameters of natural goethite, pyrrhotite and hematite. Grain-size dependent behaviour of such parameters is poorly known for goethite and pyrrhotite as well as for fine-grained hematite. Data of

  3. Some rockmagnetic parameters for natural goethite, pyrrhotite and fine-grained hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.


    The increasing importance of sediments for paleomagnetic research prompted a study of rockmagnetic parameters of natural goethite, pyrrhotite and hematite. Grain-size dependent behaviour of such parameters is poorly known for goethite and pyrrhotite as well as for fine-grained hematite. Data of

  4. Modelling fine-grained sediment transport in the Mahakam land–sea continuum, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van, Chien; Gourgue, Olivier; Sassi, Maximiliano; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Deleersnijder, E.L.C.; Soares-Frazão, Sandra


    SLIM is an unstructured mesh, finite element model of environmental and geophysical fluid flows, which is being improved to simulate fine-grained sediment transport in riverine and marine water systems. A 2D depth-averaged version of the model is applied to the Mahakam Delta (Borneo, Indonesia), the

  5. On the formation of ultra-fine grained Fe-base alloys via phase transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chezan, AR; Craus, CB; Chechenin, NG; Vystavel, T; Niesen, L; De Hosson, JTM; Boerma, DO


    This paper concentrates on the formation of ultra-fine grained Fe-base alloys via phase transformations. In particular the manipulation of the microstructure of Fe-Ni-Ti and Fe-Ni-Cr alloys via phase cycling in the Fe-N system was investigated. Transitions between bcc (alpha-Fe), fee (gamma'-Fe4N)

  6. Fine-grained vehicle type recognition based on deep convolution neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcai CHEN


    Full Text Available Public security and traffic department put forward higher requirements for real-time performance and accuracy of vehicle type recognition in complex traffic scenes. Aiming at the problems of great plice forces occupation, low retrieval efficiency, and lacking of intelligence for dealing with false license, fake plate vehicles and vehicles without plates, this paper proposes a vehicle type fine-grained recognition method based GoogleNet deep convolution neural networks. The filter size and numbers of convolution neural network are designed, the activation function and vehicle type classifier are optimally selected, and a new network framework is constructed for vehicle type fine-grained recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method has 97% accuracy for vehicle type fine-grained recognition and has greater improvement than the original GoogleNet model. Moreover, the new model effectively reduces the number of training parameters, and saves computer memory. Fine-grained vehicle type recognition can be used in intelligent traffic management area, and has important theoretical research value and practical significance.

  7. A fine-grained debugger for aspect-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Haihan; Bockisch, Christoph; Aksit, Mehmet


    To increase modularity, aspect-oriented programming provides a mechanism based on implicit invocation: An aspect can influence runtime behavior of other modules without the need that these modules refer to the aspect. Recent studies show that a significant part of reported bugs in aspect-oriented

  8. Discovering Fine-grained Sentiment in Suicide Notes. (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Lu; Tan, Ming; Wang, Shaojun; Sheth, Amit P


    This paper presents our solution for the i2b2 sentiment classification challenge. Our hybrid system consists of machine learning and rule-based classifiers. For the machine learning classifier, we investigate a variety of lexical, syntactic and knowledge-based features, and show how much these features contribute to the performance of the classifier through experiments. For the rule-based classifier, we propose an algorithm to automatically extract effective syntactic and lexical patterns from training examples. The experimental results show that the rule-based classifier outperforms the baseline machine learning classifier using unigram features. By combining the machine learning classifier and the rule-based classifier, the hybrid system gains a better trade-off between precision and recall, and yields the highest micro-averaged F-measure (0.5038), which is better than the mean (0.4875) and median (0.5027) micro-average F-measures among all participating teams.

  9. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials (United States)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.


    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  10. Fine-grained Information Flow for Concurrent Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng

    is an important approach to the protection of systems against such threats. Notable examples include tainting analyses in languages such as Javascript, and program transformations on cryptographic algorithms to avoid information leakage through running time. A wide variety of techniques, including type systems......” and “what” into consideration, emphasizing the importance of the integrity case where the former is more sensitive than the latter. This case captures the effect of Message Authentication Codes (MAC) and the consequence of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. It is also proved that the property degenerates...... recently been studied for sequential programs. We generalize the use and enforcement of content-dependent flow policies to concurrent, communicating processes. A security type system is developed, incorporating a Hoare logic component that provides approximations of the memory contents at different program...

  11. Autonomous Information Unit for Fine-Grain Data Access Control and Information Protection in a Net-Centric System (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Woo, Simon S.; James, Mark; Paloulian, George K.


    As communication and networking technologies advance, networks will become highly complex and heterogeneous, interconnecting different network domains. There is a need to provide user authentication and data protection in order to further facilitate critical mission operations, especially in the tactical and mission-critical net-centric networking environment. The Autonomous Information Unit (AIU) technology was designed to provide the fine-grain data access and user control in a net-centric system-testing environment to meet these objectives. The AIU is a fundamental capability designed to enable fine-grain data access and user control in the cross-domain networking environments, where an AIU is composed of the mission data, metadata, and policy. An AIU provides a mechanism to establish trust among deployed AIUs based on recombining shared secrets, authentication and verify users with a username, X.509 certificate, enclave information, and classification level. AIU achieves data protection through (1) splitting data into multiple information pieces using the Shamir's secret sharing algorithm, (2) encrypting each individual information piece using military-grade AES-256 encryption, and (3) randomizing the position of the encrypted data based on the unbiased and memory efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Therefore, it becomes virtually impossible for attackers to compromise data since attackers need to obtain all distributed information as well as the encryption key and the random seeds to properly arrange the data. In addition, since policy can be associated with data in the AIU, different user access and data control strategies can be included. The AIU technology can greatly enhance information assurance and security management in the bandwidth-limited and ad hoc net-centric environments. In addition, AIU technology can be applicable to general complex network domains and applications where distributed user authentication and data protection are

  12. Fine-grained policy control in U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database (United States)

    Bennett, Kelly; Grueneberg, Keith; Wood, David; Calo, Seraphin


    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Multimodal Signatures Database (MMSDB) consists of a number of colocated relational databases representing a collection of data from various sensors. Role-based access to this data is granted to external organizations such as DoD contractors and other government agencies through a client Web portal. In the current MMSDB system, access control is only at the database and firewall level. In order to offer finer grained security, changes to existing user profile schemas and authentication mechanisms are usually needed. In this paper, we describe a software middleware architecture and implementation that allows fine-grained access control to the MMSDB at a dataset, table, and row level. Result sets from MMSDB queries issued in the client portal are filtered with the use of a policy enforcement proxy, with minimal changes to the existing client software and database. Before resulting data is returned to the client, policies are evaluated to determine if the user or role is authorized to access the data. Policies can be authored to filter data at the row, table or column level of a result set. The system uses various technologies developed in the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Science (ITA) for policy-controlled information sharing and dissemination1. Use of the Policy Management Library provides a mechanism for the management and evaluation of policies to support finer grained access to the data in the MMSDB system. The GaianDB is a policy-enabled, federated database that acts as a proxy between the client application and the MMSDB system.

  13. Fine-Grained, Local Maps and Coarse, Global Representations Support Human Spatial Working Memory (United States)

    Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; d'Avossa, Giovanni


    While sensory processes are tuned to particular features, such as an object's specific location, color or orientation, visual working memory (vWM) is assumed to store information using representations, which generalize over a feature dimension. Additionally, current vWM models presume that different features or objects are stored independently. On the other hand, configurational effects, when observed, are supposed to mainly reflect encoding strategies. We show that the location of the target, relative to the display center and boundaries, and overall memory load influenced recall precision, indicating that, like sensory processes, capacity limited vWM resources are spatially tuned. When recalling one of three memory items the target distance from the display center was overestimated, similar to the error when only one item was memorized, but its distance from the memory items' average position was underestimated, showing that not only individual memory items' position, but also the global configuration of the memory array may be stored. Finally, presenting the non-target items at recall, consequently providing landmarks and configurational information, improved precision and accuracy of target recall. Similarly, when the non-target items were translated at recall, relative to their position in the initial display, a parallel displacement of the recalled target was observed. These findings suggest that fine-grained spatial information in vWM is represented in local maps whose resolution varies with distance from landmarks, such as the display center, while coarse representations are used to store the memory array configuration. Both these representations are updated at the time of recall. PMID:25259601

  14. Vertical migration of fine-grained sediments from interior to surface of seabed driven by seepage flows-`sub-bottom sediment pump action' (United States)

    Zhang, Shaotong; Jia, Yonggang; Wen, Mingzheng; Wang, Zhenhao; Zhang, Yaqi; Zhu, Chaoqi; Li, Bowen; Liu, Xiaolei


    A scientific hypothesis is proposed and preliminarily verified in this paper: under the driving of seepage flows, there might be a vertical migration of fine-grained soil particles from interior to surface of seabed, which is defined as `sub-bottom sediment pump action' in this paper. Field experiments were performed twice on the intertidal flat of the Yellow River delta to study this process via both trapping the pumped materials and recording the pore pressures in the substrate. Experimental results are quite interesting as we did observe yellow slurry which is mainly composed of fine-grained soil particles appearing on the seabed surface; seepage gradients were also detected in the intertidal flat, under the action of tides and small wind waves. Preliminary conclusions are that `sediment pump' occurs when seepage force exceeds a certain threshold: firstly, it is big enough to disconnect the soil particles from the soil skeleton; secondly, the degree of seabed fluidization or bioturbation is big enough to provide preferred paths for the detached materials to migrate upwards. Then they would be firstly pumped from interior to the surface of seabed and then easily re-suspended into overlying water column. Influential factors of `sediment pump' are determined as hydrodynamics (wave energy), degree of consolidation, index of bioturbation (permeability) and content of fine-grained materials (sedimentary age). This new perspective of `sediment pump' may provide some implications for the mechanism interpretation of several unclear geological phenomena in the Yellow River delta area.

  15. An Upper Turonian fine-grained shallow marine stromatolite bed from the Muñecas Formation, Northern Iberian Ranges, Spain (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, M.; Sánchez, F.; Walliser, E. O.; Reitner, J.


    A fine-grained stromatolite bed, laterally continuous on the kilometer scale and with small synoptic relief, crops out in the Muñecas Formation in the Northern Iberian Ranges. The Muñecas Fm. was deposited during the late Turonian on a shallow water platform in the Upper Cretaceous intracratonic Iberian basin. The stromatolite bed has a tabular to domed biostromal macrostructure. Its internal mesostructure consists of planar, wavy to hemispherical stromatoids that display a broad spectrum of microstructures, including dense micrite, bahamite peloids, peloidal to clotted microfabrics, irregular micritic-wall tubes, which are suggestive of algae and filamentous microframeworks, which are suggestive of filamentous cyanobacteria. Various stromatolite growth stages have been linked to the dominance of different accretion processes. The accretion of the entire fine-grained stromatolite involves a complex mosaic of processes: trapping and binding of quartz-silt grains and bahamites, which form the agglutinated parts of some laminae, and microbially induced precipitation, which forms spongiostromic and micritic laminae. Tubiform and filamentous microframeworks resembling porostromatate or skeletal stromatolitic growth were also recognized. Laser ICP-MS measurements of Al, Si, Mg, Mn, Sr, S and Fe were analyzed to detect the influence of siliciclastic inputs and major trends during stromatolite accretion. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions from the stromatolite and associated facies were used to identify possible microbial signatures. These data describes a unique and well-preserved example of a shallow marine Upper Turonian fine-grained stromatolite.

  16. The Laboratory Study of Shear Strength of the Overconsolidated and Quasi - Overconsolidated Fine - Grained Soil (United States)

    Strozyk, Joanna


    The paper presents results of laboratory shear strength test conducted on fine-grained soil samples with different grain size distribution and with different geological age and stress history. The Triaxial Isotopic Consolidation Undrained Tests (TXCIU) were performed under different consolidation stress in normal and overconsolidadion stress state on the samples with natural structure. Soil samples were selected from soil series of different age and geological origins: overconsolidated sensu stricto Miopliocene silty clay (siCl) and quasi overconsolidated Pleistocene clayey silt (clSi). Paper pointed out that overconsolidated sensu stricto and quasi overconsolidated fine-grained soil in same stress and environmental condition could show almost similar behaviour, and in other condition could behave significantly different. The correct evaluation of geotechnical parameters, the possibility of predicting their time-correct ability is only possible with appropriately recognized geological past and past processes that accompanied the soil formation.

  17. A Deployment of Fine-Grained Sensor Network and Empirical Analysis of Urban Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Tobe


    Full Text Available Temperature in an urban area exhibits a complicated pattern due to complexity of infrastructure. Despite geographical proximity, structures of a group of buildings and streets affect changes in temperature. To investigate the pattern of fine-grained distribution of temperature, we installed a densely distributed sensor network called UScan. In this paper, we describe the system architecture of UScan as well as experience learned from installing 200 sensors in downtown Tokyo. The field experiment of UScan system operated for two months to collect long-term urban temperature data. To analyze the collected data in an efficient manner, we propose a lightweight clustering methodology to study the correlation between the pattern of temperature and various environmental factors including the amount of sunshine, the width of streets, and the existence of trees. The analysis reveals meaningful results and asserts the necessity of fine-grained deployment of sensors in an urban area.

  18. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China. (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary


    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.

  19. Microwave resonance thermomagnetic analysis - A new method for characterizing fine-grained ferromagnetic constituents in lunar materials (United States)

    Griscom, D. L.; Marquardt, C. L.; Friebele, E. J.


    Microwave resonance thermomagnetic analysis (MRTA) is the name given to a newly evolved technique for inferring the natures of fine-grained ferromagnetic constituents in lunar materials. Based on standard ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) procedures, the method makes use of the microwave skin effect for diagnosing the presence of metallic iron. Modelling experiments carried out on well-characterized iron and magnetitelike precipitates produced independently in simulated lunar glasses, coupled with published data for magnetite, provide a potential basis for detecting and discriminating between iron metal and ferric iron spinel, even when both are present in an unknown sample. Application of the technique to the lunar samples indicates the possible existence of magnetitelike phases in amounts up to about 0.3 wt% in soils from seven samples regions of the moon. These findings do not require any special geologic processes for their explanation, although some evidence supports the suggestion that fumarolic activity may have occurred in the lunar highlands.

  20. The method for reproducing fine grained HAZ of W strengthened high Cr steel


    Wang, Xue Z.; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Hong-wei; Shang, Wei; Ren, Yao-yao; Yu, Shu-min


    The methods for reproducing fine grained heat affected zone of high Cr steel for creep test were investigated. This research was motivated by the need for reproducing uniform FGHAZ to investigate the creep damage process and untangle the coupling between thermal aging and cavitation (nucleation, growth, and coalesce), and the influence of states of stress. The two methods for producing FGHAZ were weld simulator and heat treatment in furnace. The microstructures, hardness, and creep rupture ti...

  1. Electric dewatering and drying of fine-grained products; Elektrisk afvanding og toerring af finkornede produkter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H.K.; Villumsen, A.


    The aim of the project was to elucidate four aspects related to using electric direct current to find an energy saving alternative to existing methods within dewatering of fine-grained products. The four aspects were a) electrophoresis forced sedimentation of chalk slurry, b) electro osmotic dewatering of chalk slurry, c) electro osmotic dewatering of agricultural chalk and d) electro osmotic dewatering of liquid organic wastes. (EHS)

  2. Effect of zirconia addition on the fatigue behaviour of fine grained ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fatigue behaviour of fine grained Al2O3 and ZrO2 toughened Al2O3 (ZTA) compositions with 15 vol% ZrO2 (3 mol% Y2O3 stabilized: 3Y-TZP) have been investigated by using three different techniques. Primarily 4-point bending load was employed to generate tension–tension fatigue data under both static and cyclic ...

  3. "How May I Help You?": Modeling Twitter Customer Service Conversations Using Fine-Grained Dialogue Acts


    Oraby, Shereen; Gundecha, Pritam; Mahmud, Jalal; Bhuiyan, Mansurul; Akkiraju, Rama


    Given the increasing popularity of customer service dialogue on Twitter, analysis of conversation data is essential to understand trends in customer and agent behavior for the purpose of automating customer service interactions. In this work, we develop a novel taxonomy of fine-grained "dialogue acts" frequently observed in customer service, showcasing acts that are more suited to the domain than the more generic existing taxonomies. Using a sequential SVM-HMM model, we model conversation flo...

  4. Distribution and transport of coal tar-derived PAHs in fine-grained residuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulava, V.M.; Mckay, L.D.; Driese, S.G.; Menn, F.M.; Sayler, G.S. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    We investigated the distribution and transport of coal tar-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine-grained residuum and alluvial floodplain deposits that underlie a former manufactured gas plant. All 16 USEPA priority pollutant PAHs are present at this site and have penetrated the entire 4-5 m thickness of clayey sediments, which unconformably overly limestone bedrock. Concentrations of less hydrophobic PAHs (e.g., naphthalene, 0.011-384 mg kg{sup -1}) were about 10 times higher than those of highly hydrophobic PAHs (e.g., benzo(g, h, i)perylene -0.002 to 56.03 mg kg{sup -1}). Microscopic examination of thin-sections of the clay-rich sediments showed that fractures and rootholes, which can act as pathways for flow, occur throughout the profiles. However, in the vast majority of samples in which PAHs were detected, there was no detectable tar residue, suggesting that much of the transport occurred in the dissolved phase. The widespread distribution of PAHs is most likely due to diffusion-controlled exchange between the fast-flow pathways in the fractures and rootholes and the relatively immobile water in the fine-grained matrix. This implies that fractures and rootholes can play a major role in controlling transport of highly hydrophobic compounds in fine-grained sediments, which would otherwise act as barriers to contaminant migration.

  5. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.


    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  6. Stability of fine-grained TT-OSL and post-IR IRSL signals from a c. 1 Ma sequence of aeolian and lacustrine deposits from the Nihewan Basin (northern China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    We tested the suitability of the fine-grained quartz (4–11 μm) Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and thermally-transferred OSL (TT-OSL), and the fine-grained polymineral (4–11 μm) post-infrared IRSL (post-IR IRSL or pIRIR) signals for dating samples from aeolian-lacustrine deposits from the X...... accurate ones; nevertheless, these ages provide the first long series absolute chronology for study of local palaeolithic and geomorphic evolution history aside from the  magnetostratigraphical results available before this research....

  7. Coarse-grained and fine-grained parallel optimization for real-time en-face OCT imaging (United States)

    Kapinchev, Konstantin; Bradu, Adrian; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian


    This paper presents parallel optimizations in the en-face (C-scan) optical coherence tomography (OCT) display. Compared with the cross-sectional (B-scan) imagery, the production of en-face images is more computationally demanding, due to the increased size of the data handled by the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. A sequential implementation of the DSP leads to a limited number of real-time generated en-face images. There are OCT applications, where simultaneous production of large number of en-face images from multiple depths is required, such as real-time diagnostics and monitoring of surgery and ablation. In sequential computing, this requirement leads to a significant increase of the time to process the data and to generate the images. As a result, the processing time exceeds the acquisition time and the image generation is not in real-time. In these cases, not producing en-face images in real-time makes the OCT system ineffective. Parallel optimization of the DSP algorithms provides a solution to this problem. Coarse-grained central processing unit (CPU) based and fine-grained graphics processing unit (GPU) based parallel implementations of the conventional Fourier domain (CFD) OCT method and the Master-Slave Interferometry (MSI) OCT method are studied. In the coarse-grained CPU implementation, each parallel thread processes the whole OCT frame and generates a single en-face image. The corresponding fine-grained GPU implementation launches one parallel thread for every data point from the OCT frame and thus achieves maximum parallelism. The performance and scalability of the CPU-based and GPU-based parallel approaches are analyzed and compared. The quality and the resolution of the images generated by the CFD method and the MSI method are also discussed and compared.

  8. Fine-grained linings of leveed channels facilitate runout of granular flows (United States)

    Kokelaar, B.P.; Graham, R. L.; Gray, J.M.N.T.; Vallance, James W.


    Catastrophic dense granular flows, such as occur in rock avalanches, debris flows and pyroclastic flows, move as fully shearing mixtures that have approximately 60 vol.% solids and tend to segregate to form coarse-grained fronts and leveed channels. Levees restrict spreading of unconfined flows and form as coarse particles that become concentrated in the top of the flow are transported to the front and then advect to the sides in the flow head. Channels from which most material has drained away down slope are commonly lined with fine-grained deposit, widely thought to remain from the tail of the waning flow. We show how segregation in experimental dense flows of carborundum or sand (300–425 μm) mixed with spherical fine ballotini (150–250 μm), on rough slopes of 27–29°, produces fine-grained channel linings that are deposited with the levees, into which they grade laterally. Maximum runout distance is attained with mixtures containing 30–40% sand, just sufficient to segregate and form levees that are adequately robust to restrict the spreading attributable to the low-friction fines. Resin impregnation and serial sectioning of deliberately arrested experimental flows shows how fines-lined levees form from the flow head; the flows create their own stable ‘conduit’ entirely from the front, which in a geophysical context can play an important mechanistic role in facilitating runout. The flow self-organization ensures that low-friction fines at the base of the segregated channel flow shear over fine-grained substrate in the channel, thus reducing frictional energy losses. We propose that in pyroclastic flows and debris flows, which have considerable mobility attributable to pore-fluid pressures, such fine-grained flow-contact zones form similarly and not only reduce frictional energy losses but also reduce flow–substrate permeability so as to enhance pore-fluid pressure retention. Thus the granular flow self-organization that produces fine-grained

  9. What is this link doing here? Beginning a fine-grained process of identifying reasons for academic hyperlink creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelwall Mike


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to begin a [fine-grained] process of differentiating between creation motivations for links in academic Web sites and citations in journals on the basis that they are very different phenomena.

  10. Clay, Water, and Salt: Controls on the Permeability of Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks. (United States)

    Bourg, Ian C; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B


    The ability to predict the permeability of fine-grained soils, sediments, and sedimentary rocks is a fundamental challenge in the geosciences with potentially transformative implications in subsurface hydrology. In particular, fine-grained sedimentary rocks (shale, mudstone) constitute about two-thirds of the sedimentary rock mass and play important roles in three energy technologies: petroleum geology, geologic carbon sequestration, and radioactive waste management. The problem is a challenging one that requires understanding the properties of complex natural porous media on several length scales. One inherent length scale, referred to hereafter as the mesoscale, is associated with the assemblages of large grains of quartz, feldspar, and carbonates over distances of tens of micrometers. Its importance is highlighted by the existence of a threshold in the core scale mechanical properties and regional scale energy uses of shale formations at a clay content X clay ≈ 1/3, as predicted by an ideal packing model where a fine-grained clay matrix fills the gaps between the larger grains. A second important length scale, referred to hereafter as the nanoscale, is associated with the aggregation and swelling of clay particles (in particular, smectite clay minerals) over distances of tens of nanometers. Mesoscale phenomena that influence permeability are primarily mechanical and include, for example, the ability of contacts between large grains to prevent the compaction of the clay matrix. Nanoscale phenomena that influence permeability tend to be chemomechanical in nature, because they involve strong impacts of aqueous chemistry on clay swelling. The second length scale remains much less well characterized than the first, because of the inherent challenges associated with the study of strongly coupled nanoscale phenomena. Advanced models of the nanoscale properties of fine-grained media rely predominantly on the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, a mean field

  11. An assessment of ultra fine grained 316L stainless steel for implant applications. (United States)

    Muley, Sachin Vijay; Vidvans, Amey N; Chaudhari, Gajanan P; Udainiya, Sumit


    Ultra fine-grained metals obtained by severe plastic deformation exhibit higher specific strength that is useful for many applications and show promise for use as body implants. This work studied the microstructural evolution, mechanical and sliding wear behavior and corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel warm multi axially forged at 600°C. Microstructural evolution studied using electron backscatter diffraction technique and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of ultra fine-grained structure. Average grain size reduced from 30μm to 0.86μm after nine strain steps. A combination of Hall-Petch strengthening and strain hardening increased the hardness. Improved sliding wear resistance is attributed to a transition from micro cutting to wedge-forming mode of abrasive wear. Load-bearing orthopedic implants often fail from pitting initiated corrosion fatigue. Potentiodynamic tests, cyclic polarization, and FeCl3 immersion tests revealed enhanced pitting resistance of forged steel that is confirmed by Mott-Schottky analysis. This is ascribed to an increase in the grain boundary volume, and homogenization of pit inducing impurities and non-metallic phases due to severe deformation, which influenced the passive film properties. These model studies on 316L steel demonstrate that severely deformed ultra fine-grained metals have potential to deliver improved implant performance. This model study on 316L steel demonstrates that severely deformed ultra fine-grained (UFG) metals have potential to deliver improved load-bearing implant performance. It is as interesting as is unclear as to how such severely deformed UFG material behaves electrochemically in the corrosive body fluids. This work is on studying the inter-relationship between structure, and mechanical, wear, and corrosion behavior of warm multiaxially forged (MAFed) UFG 316L stainless steel. Warm MAF is a bulk processing method capable of yielding large volume of UFG material and is an easily

  12. Diffusion creep of fine-grained garnetite: Implications for the flow strength of subducting slabs (United States)

    Wang, Zichao; Ji, Shaocheng


    Creep experiments were performed on synthetic fine-grained garnetite to investigate the flow strength of the Earth's subducting slabs. Experiments were conducted at temperatures (T) of 1373-1543 K and total pressure (P) of 0.1 MPa in controlled atmospheres of fO2 =10-17-10-8 MPa. The mechanical data indicate a grain-size sensitive diffusion flow and the creep behavior can be described by an equation of the form: FD1 ɛ.=(5.32±3.10)×10-6Td2.5±0.3fO20σ1.1±0.2exp(-347±46kJ/molRT) where T in Kelvin, d in meter, σ and fO2 in MPa. Based on the diffusivities (D) calculated from creep and diffusion experiments, we proposed that grain boundary diffusion is the dominant mechanism for high temperature creep of the fine-grained garnetite. Normalized creep strength of the garnetite is found to be comparable to those of feldspar and olivine in diffusion creep regime, suggesting that garnetite may not form a strong layer in the subducted oceanic lithosphere if it deforms by grain boundary diffusion creep.

  13. Webly-supervised Fine-grained Visual Categorization via Deep Domain Adaptation. (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Huang, Shaoli; Zhang, Ya; Tao, Dacheng


    Learning visual representations from web data has recently attracted attention for object recognition. Previous studies have mainly focused on overcoming label noise and data bias and have shown promising results by learning directly from web data. However, we argue that it might be better to transfer knowledge from existing human labeling resources to improve performance at nearly no additional cost. In this paper, we propose a new semi-supervised method for learning via web data. Our method has the unique design of exploiting strong supervision, i.e., in addition to standard image-level labels, our method also utilizes detailed annotations including object bounding boxes and part landmarks. By transferring as much knowledge as possible from existing strongly supervised datasets to weakly supervised web images, our method can benefit from sophisticated object recognition algorithms and overcome several typical problems found in webly-supervised learning. We consider the problem of fine-grained visual categorization, in which existing training resources are scarce, as our main research objective. Comprehensive experimentation and extensive analysis demonstrate encouraging performance of the proposed approach, which, at the same time, delivers a new pipeline for fine-grained visual categorization that is likely to be highly effective for real-world applications.

  14. OSL dating of fine-grained quartz from Holocene Yangtze delta sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugisaki, Saiko; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew


    sediment cores (YD13-G3 and H1) were taken from the Yangtze subaqueous delta to investigate precipitation history. In this study, we investigate the potential of quartz OSL dating of the fine silt fraction (fine-grained quartz; 4-11 μm) from these cores to estimate the depositional age of the sediments. We...... test whether: (1) Yangtze subaqueous delta sediments contain quartz with suitable characteristics for dating, and (2) quartz grains are well-bleached during/before the transportation process, by examining a modern analogue of suspended particulate matter, and by cross-checking with the doses derived...... from infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals (both IR50 and pIRIR160) from feldspar in polymineral fine grains. We find that both the quartz and feldspar luminescence characteristics are satisfactory (quartz dose recovery ratio 1.067 ± 0.004; n = 250, pIRIR160 dose recovery ratio 1.01 ± 0.02; n...

  15. Iron valence state of fine-grained material from the Jupiter family comet 81P/Wild 2 - A coordinated TEM/STEM EDS/STXM study (United States)

    Stodolna, Julien; Gainsforth, Zack; Leroux, Hugues; Butterworth, Anna L.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Jacob, Damien; Westphal, Andrew J.


    ) equal to 0.80 ± 0.10. It appears more oxidized than the average value measured for the comet, when done on larger particles (Westphal et al., 2009). This fine-grained material from Wild 2 does not seem to have sampled reducing environments in the solar nebulae in contrast with the larger particles of Wild 2. This observation confirms the high degree of diversity of materials in Wild 2 and is in good agreement with the dual distribution of high temperature minerals and matrices in carbonaceous chondrites.

  16. Synthesis and Mechanical Characterisation of an Ultra-Fine Grained Ti-Mg Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Alfreider


    Full Text Available The importance of lightweight materials such as titanium and magnesium in various technical applications, for example aerospace, medical implants and lightweight construction is well appreciated. The present study is an attempt to combine and improve the mechanical properties of these two materials by forming an ultra-fine grained composite. The material, with a composition of 75 vol% (88.4 wt% Ti and 25 vol% (11.4 wt% Mg , was synthesized by powder compression and subsequently deformed by high-pressure torsion. Using focused ion beam machining, miniaturised compression samples were prepared and tested in-situ in a scanning electron microscope to gain insights into local deformation behaviour and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. Results show outstanding yield strength of around 1250 MPa, which is roughly 200 to 500 MPa higher than literature reports of similar materials. The failure mode of the samples is accounted for by cracking along the phase boundaries.

  17. Ultrasonic-promoted rapid TLP bonding of fine-grained 7034 high strength aluminum alloys. (United States)

    Guo, Weibing; Leng, Xuesong; Luan, Tianmin; Yan, Jiuchun; He, Jingshan


    High strength aluminum alloys are extremely sensitive to the thermal cycle of welding. An ultrasonic-promoted rapid TLP bonding with an interlayer of pure Zn was developed to join fine-grained 7034 aluminum alloys at the temperature of lower 400°C. The oxide film could be successfully removed with the ultrasonic vibration, and the Al-Zn eutectic liquid phase generated once Al and Zn contacted with each other. Longer ultrasonic time can promote the diffusion of Zn into the base metal, which would shorten the holding time to complete isothermal solidification. The joints with the full solid solution of α-Al can be realized with the ultrasonic action time of 60s and holding time of only 3min at 400°C, and the shear strength of joints could reach 223MPa. The joint formation mechanism and effects of ultrasounds were discussed in details. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Microanalytical (TEM) Study of Fine-grained Chondrule Rims in NWA 5717 (United States)

    Bigolski, J. N.; Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Rahman, Z.


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5717 is a highly primitive ordinary chondrite of petrologic type 3.05 with ubiquitous fine-grained chondrule rims [1, 2]. Rims appear around approximately 60% of chondrules and are comprised of micron-sized mineral and lithic fragments and microchondrules that are embdedded in an FeO-rich submicron groundmass that compositionally resembles fayalitic olivine. Some rim clasts appear overprinted with FeO-rich material, suggesting secondary alteration that postdates rim formation. Here we present a microanalytical (TEM) study of the submicron component (i.e. the groundmass) of the rims in order to determine the crystal structures and compositions of their constituent phases and decipher the accretion and alteration history recorded in rims.

  19. Quicklime (CaO) Stabilization of fine-grained marine sediments in low temperature areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skels, Peteris; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr


    in a soil-CaO mixture was determined using a number of laboratory methods, such as pH test, consistency limit analysis, degree of compaction, and short term California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values. The study also numerically demonstrates a long term strength development of the soil-CaO mixture at 1°C and 10°C...... curing temperatures, comparing stabilization effectiveness between low and normal soil temperature conditions.......This study presents laboratory testing on quicklime (CaO) stabilization of fine-grained marine sediments in low temperature areas. The soil was sampled on the Fossil Plain in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and analyzed in the laboratory at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The optimum CaO content...

  20. Thin-layer heap bioleaching of copper flotation tailings containing high levels of fine grains and microbial community succession analysis (United States)

    Hao, Xiao-dong; Liang, Yi-li; Yin, Hua-qun; Liu, Hong-wei; Zeng, Wei-min; Liu, Xue-duan


    Thin-layer heap bioleaching of copper flotation tailings containing high levels of fine grains was carried out by mixed cultures on a small scale over a period of 210 d. Lump ores as a framework were loaded at the bottom of the ore heap. The overall copper leaching rates of tailings and lump ores were 57.10wt% and 65.52wt%, respectively. The dynamic shifts of microbial community structures about attached microorganisms were determined using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform based on 16S rRNA amplification strategy. The results indicated that chemolithotrophic genera Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum were always detected and dominated the microbial community in the initial and middle stages of the heap bioleaching process; both genera might be responsible for improving the copper extraction. However, Thermogymnomonas and Ferroplasma increased gradually in the final stage. Moreover, the effects of various physicochemical parameters and microbial community shifts on the leaching efficiency were further investigated and these associations provided some important clues for facilitating the effective application of bioleaching.

  1. An Analysis of the Joints’ Properties of Fine-Grained Steel Welded by the MAG and SAW Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk R.


    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of properties of welded joints of fine-grained steel of P460NH type used more and more often in the modern constructions. A process of examining a technology of welding has been carried out on the thick-walled butt joints of sheet metal by two methods of welding namely MAG – 135 and SAW – 121. The article deals with a topic of optimizing a process of welding thick-walled welded joints of fine-grained steel due to their mechanicalproperties and efficiency.

  2. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghose-Hajra


    Full Text Available Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana’s coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana’s disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  3. Microstructural evolution of fine-grained ZA27 alloy during partial remelting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tijun


    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution process of fined-grained ZA27 alloy during partial remelting has been investigated. The relationship between the as-cast and semi-solid microstructures has been discussed in particular. The results indicate that a semi-solid microstructure with small and spheroidal primary particles can be obtained when the ZA27 alloy is partially remelted. The microstructural evolution can be divided into four stages, the initial coarsening of the dendrites due to coalescence of dendrite arms, structural separation resulted from the melting of residual interdendritic eutectic, spheroidization due to the partial melting of solid particles and final coarsening attributed to the coalescence and Ostwald ripening. An equiaxed dendrite in the as-cast microstructure may evolve into one spheroidal particle in the semi-solid microsturucture after being partially remelted. The more equiaxed the dendrites in an as-cast microstructure are, the more spheroidal the solid particles in the semi-solid microstructure will be. Finer primary particles could be obtained if the alloy with finer as-cast microstructure was partially remelted. However, due to the coalescence effect, their sizes cannot be reduced further if the refined as-cast microstructure reached a certain extent.

  4. Development of shrinkage and fracture parameters in selected fine-grained cement-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucharczyková Barbara


    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results of a pilot study aimed at the evaluation of an experimental investigation focused on determination of the material characteristics development of selected fine-grained cement-based composites during their ageing. The composition of composites being investigated differed only in a water to cement (w/c ratio and in amount of superplasticizer. Quite extensive experiments were performed with the aim to determine shrinkage, dynamic a static modulus of elasticity and fracture properties on test specimens exposed to free drying during the whole time of its ageing (including the early stage of setting and hardening. The article presents especially results (including their statistical evaluation of shrinkage and fracture parameters development within 90 days of composites’ ageing. Experimental results show the dependence of the investigated characteristics on the value of w/c ratio. The most visible effect was observed in the case of shrinkage development. The curing conditions were reflected especially in high variability of the test results.

  5. Fine-grained sensitivity to statistical information in adult word learning. (United States)

    Vouloumanos, Athena


    A language learner trying to acquire a new word must often sift through many potential relations between particular words and their possible meanings. In principle, statistical information about the distribution of those mappings could serve as one important source of data, but little is known about whether learners can in fact track multiple word-referent mappings, and, if they do, the precision with which they can represent those statistics. To test this, two experiments contrasted a pair of possibilities: that learners encode the fine-grained statistics of mappings in the input - both high- and low-frequency mappings - or, alternatively, that only high frequency mappings are represented. Participants were briefly trained on novel word-novel object pairs combined with varying frequencies: some objects were paired with one word, other objects with multiple words with differing frequencies (ranging from 10% to 80%). Results showed that participants were exquisitely sensitive to very small statistical differences in mappings. The second experiment showed that word learners' representation of low frequency mappings is modulated as a function of the variability in the environment. Implications for Mutual Exclusivity and Bayesian accounts of word learning are discussed.

  6. Fine-grained parallelism accelerating for RNA secondary structure prediction with pseudoknots based on FPGA. (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Jin, Guoqing


    PKNOTS is a most famous benchmark program and has been widely used to predict RNA secondary structure including pseudoknots. It adopts the standard four-dimensional (4D) dynamic programming (DP) method and is the basis of many variants and improved algorithms. Unfortunately, the O(N(6)) computing requirements and complicated data dependency greatly limits the usefulness of PKNOTS package with the explosion in gene database size. In this paper, we present a fine-grained parallel PKNOTS package and prototype system for accelerating RNA folding application based on FPGA chip. We adopted a series of storage optimization strategies to resolve the "Memory Wall" problem. We aggressively exploit parallel computing strategies to improve computational efficiency. We also propose several methods that collectively reduce the storage requirements for FPGA on-chip memory. To the best of our knowledge, our design is the first FPGA implementation for accelerating 4D DP problem for RNA folding application including pseudoknots. The experimental results show a factor of more than 50x average speedup over the PKNOTS-1.08 software running on a PC platform with Intel Core2 Q9400 Quad CPU for input RNA sequences. However, the power consumption of our FPGA accelerator is only about 50% of the general-purpose micro-processors.

  7. Fine-Grained Object Recognition and Zero-Shot Learning in Remote Sensing Imagery (United States)

    Sumbul, Gencer; Cinbis, Ramazan Gokberk; Aksoy, Selim


    Fine-grained object recognition that aims to identify the type of an object among a large number of subcategories is an emerging application with the increasing resolution that exposes new details in image data. Traditional fully supervised algorithms fail to handle this problem where there is low between-class variance and high within-class variance for the classes of interest with small sample sizes. We study an even more extreme scenario named zero-shot learning (ZSL) in which no training example exists for some of the classes. ZSL aims to build a recognition model for new unseen categories by relating them to seen classes that were previously learned. We establish this relation by learning a compatibility function between image features extracted via a convolutional neural network and auxiliary information that describes the semantics of the classes of interest by using training samples from the seen classes. Then, we show how knowledge transfer can be performed for the unseen classes by maximizing this function during inference. We introduce a new data set that contains 40 different types of street trees in 1-ft spatial resolution aerial data, and evaluate the performance of this model with manually annotated attributes, a natural language model, and a scientific taxonomy as auxiliary information. The experiments show that the proposed model achieves 14.3% recognition accuracy for the classes with no training examples, which is significantly better than a random guess accuracy of 6.3% for 16 test classes, and three other ZSL algorithms.

  8. Insitu remediation of salt impacted fine-grained soil and groundwater at a former battery site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailuck, T.; Sallomy, J.; Swift, B. [Pioneer Professional Services Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This article described a project in which the performance of EK3 electrokinetics and Volker electrodialysis systems was assessed. Both systems were designed for the in situ remediation of salt-impacted soil and groundwater at a battery site in Alberta. The soils consisted of fine-grained clays with sand and gravel lenses. The assessment was part of a multi-stakeholder project to develop sustainable remediation processes for salt-impacted sites. The project assessed the impact of the electrokinetic process on microbial activity and metals and pH in the soils and groundwaters as well as its ability to eliminate target salt ions. Results of the study, which was conducted over a 2-month period, showed that the positive salinity ions moved towards the negative electrodes emitted by the system, while negatively charged salinity ions moved towards the positively charged electrodes. Concentrations of barium, manganese, and sulphur decreased. A set of electromagnetic (EM) surveys demonstrated that the conductivity of the soil had decreased beyond the location of the electrodes. It was concluded that the electrokinetics system will be used as part of a full-scale remediation project. 4 figs.

  9. Remediation of salt impacted fine-grained soil and groundwater at a former battery site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, B.; Michailuck, T. [Pioneer Professional Services Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    A sustainable remedial process that used electrokinetics to remediate salt contaminated sites was presented. Various technologies for remediating salt-impacted fine-grained soils and groundwater were also discussed. The potential impacts of electrokinetics on soil condition and groundwater were also evaluated. The process used 3 different technologies: (1) geophysics and electromagnetic and resistivity imaging; (2) electrokinetic soil and groundwater remediation; and (3) electrodialysis and leachate desalination. The effect of electrokinetics on soil microbes and the electro-migration of dissolved metals was also examined. Field tests were then conducted at a former tank farm and spill area. Baseline soil and groundwater testing was followed by a bench-scale study, remedial system installation, and groundwater and system monitoring. Post soil and groundwater testing was then conducted to analyze results. Results of the study showed that groundwater levels increased during the trial in background and pilot area wells. Electrokinetics had no apparent effect on microbe populations or on pH. Negligible metal changes were observed in the soils. An overall decrease in salinity was observed. It was concluded that pre-treatment is required to remove multi-component impurities in effluent water before using the electrokinetics process. tabs., figs.

  10. Fine-Grained Rate Shaping for Video Streaming over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tsuhan


    Full Text Available Video streaming over wireless networks faces challenges of time-varying packet loss rate and fluctuating bandwidth. In this paper, we focus on streaming precoded video that is both source and channel coded. Dynamic rate shaping has been proposed to “shape” the precompressed video to adapt to the fluctuating bandwidth. In our earlier work, rate shaping was extended to shape the channel coded precompressed video, and to take into account the time-varying packet loss rate as well as the fluctuating bandwidth of the wireless networks. However, prior work on rate shaping can only adjust the rate oarsely. In this paper, we propose “fine-grained rate shaping (FGRS” to allow for bandwidth adaptation over a wide range of bandwidth and packet loss rate in fine granularities. The video is precoded with fine granularity scalability (FGS followed by channel coding. Utilizing the fine granularity property of FGS and channel coding, FGRS selectively drops part of the precoded video and still yields decodable bit-stream at the decoder. Moreover, FGRS optimizes video streaming rather than achieves heuristic objectives as conventional methods. A two-stage rate-distortion (RD optimization algorithm is proposed for FGRS. Promising results of FGRS are shown.

  11. Impact of spiral separator geometrical parameters on the density separation of various fine-grained materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpyrka Jan


    Full Text Available The study aims at the assessment of the impact of geometrical parameters of spiral separators on the efficiency of density separation of fine-grained materials. Experiments were carried out on three spiral separators: Krebs 2.85, Reichert LD-4 and Reichert LG-7. Three materials were used for the tests: raw coal, coal waste and mix of sand and magnetite as the model material. Results of raw coal and coal waste upgrading showed that density separation was most efficient in Reichert LD-4 spiral. This is due to the fact that this device had the highest amount of coils, height of sluice as well as was equipped with additional dense product collector and additional water sluice for transport water. The lower slope of sluice and larger height made separation even more efficient. Analysis of separation of model material, that is the mix of sand and magnetite, showed that in this case the existence of additional water sluice does not have an impact on product separation and best results were obtained in the Reichert LG-7 spiral separator. The shape and width of sluices did not have a significant impact on the separation process.

  12. SOTB Implementation of a Field Programmable Gate Array with Fine-Grained Vt Programmability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Hioki


    Full Text Available Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are one of the most widespread reconfigurable devices in which various functions can be implemented by storing circuit connection information and logic values into configuration memories. One of the most important issues in the modern FPGA is the reduction of its static leakage power consumption. Flex Power FPGA, which has been proposed to overcome this problem, uses a body biasing technique to implement the fine-grained threshold voltage (Vt programmability in the FPGA. A low-Vt state can be assigned only to the component circuits along the critical path of the application design mapped on the FPGA, so that the static leakage power consumption can be reduced drastically. Flex Power FPGA is an important application target for the SOTB (silicon on thin buried oxide device, which features a wide-range body biasing ability and the high sensitivity of Vt variation by body biasing, resulting in a drastic subthreshold leakage current reduction caused by static leakage power. In this paper, the Flex Power FPGA test chip is fabricated in SOTB technology, and the functional test and performance evaluation of a mapped 32-bit binary counter circuit are performed successfully. As a result, a three orders of magnitude static leakage reduction with a bias range of 2.1 V demonstrates the excellent Vt controllability of the SOTB transistors, and the 1.2 V bias difference achieves a 50× leakage reduction without degrading speed.

  13. MROrchestrator: A Fine-Grained Resource Orchestration Framework for MapReduce Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bikash [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Prabhakar, Ramya [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Kandemir, Mahmut [Pennsylvania State University; Das, Chita [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL


    Efficient resource management in data centers and clouds running large distributed data processing frameworks like MapReduce is crucial for enhancing the performance of hosted applications and boosting resource utilization. However, existing resource scheduling schemes in Hadoop MapReduce allocate resources at the granularity of fixed-size, static portions of nodes, called slots. In this work, we show that MapReduce jobs have widely varying demands for multiple resources, making the static and fixed-size slot-level resource allocation a poor choice both from the performance and resource utilization standpoints. Furthermore, lack of co-ordination in the management of mul- tiple resources across nodes prevents dynamic slot reconfigura- tion, and leads to resource contention. Motivated by this, we propose MROrchestrator, a MapReduce resource Orchestrator framework, which can dynamically identify resource bottlenecks, and resolve them through fine-grained, co-ordinated, and on- demand resource allocations. We have implemented MROrches- trator on two 24-node native and virtualized Hadoop clusters. Experimental results with a suite of representative MapReduce benchmarks demonstrate up to 38% reduction in job completion times, and up to 25% increase in resource utilization. We further show how popular resource managers like NGM and Mesos when augmented with MROrchestrator can hike up their performance.

  14. Precipitation Processes during Non-Isothermal Ageing of Fine-Grained 2024 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł J.


    Full Text Available Mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy procedures were used to manufacture very fine-grained bulk material made from chips of the 2024 aluminum alloy. Studies of solution treatment and precipitation hardening of as-received material were based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC tests and TEM/STEM/EDX structural observations. Structural observations complemented by literature data lead to the conclusion that in the case of highly refined structure of commercial 2024 alloys prepared by severe plastic deformation, typical multi-step G-P-B →θ” →θ’ →θ precipitation mechanism accompanied with G-P-B →S” →S’ →S precipitation sequences result in skipping the formation of metastable phases and direct growth of the stable phases. Exothermic effects on DSC characteristics, which are reported for precipitation sequences in commercial materials, were found to be reduced with increased milling time. Moreover, prolonged milling of 2024 chips was found to shift the exothermic peak to lower temperature with respect to the material produced by means of common metallurgy methods. This effect was concluded to result from preferred heterogeneous nucleation of particles at subboundaries and grain boundaries, enhanced by the boundary diffusion in highly refined structures.

  15. Extended Maptree: a Representation of Fine-Grained Topology and Spatial Hierarchy of Bim (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Shang, J.; Hu, X.; Zhou, Z.


    Spatial queries play significant roles in exchanging Building Information Modeling (BIM) data and integrating BIM with indoor spatial information. However, topological operators implemented for BIM spatial queries are limited to qualitative relations (e.g. touching, intersecting). To overcome this limitation, we propose an extended maptree model to represent the fine-grained topology and spatial hierarchy of indoor spaces. The model is based on a maptree which consists of combinatorial maps and an adjacency tree. Topological relations (e.g., adjacency, incidence, and covering) derived from BIM are represented explicitly and formally by extended maptrees, which can facilitate the spatial queries of BIM. To construct an extended maptree, we first use a solid model represented by vertical extrusion and boundary representation to generate the isolated 3-cells of combinatorial maps. Then, the spatial relationships defined in IFC are used to sew them together. Furthermore, the incremental edges of extended maptrees are labeled as removed 2-cells. Based on this, we can merge adjacent 3-cells according to the spatial hierarchy of IFC.

  16. Two-stage agglomeration of fine-grained herbal nettle waste (United States)

    Obidziński, Sławomir; Joka, Magdalena; Fijoł, Olga


    This paper compares the densification work necessary for the pressure agglomeration of fine-grained dusty nettle waste, with the densification work involved in two-stage agglomeration of the same material. In the first stage, the material was pre-densified through coating with a binder material in the form of a 5% potato starch solution, and then subjected to pressure agglomeration. A number of tests were conducted to determine the effect of the moisture content in the nettle waste (15, 18 and 21%), as well as the process temperature (50, 70, 90°C) on the values of densification work and the density of the obtained pellets. For pre-densified pellets from a mixture of nettle waste and a starch solution, the conducted tests determined the effect of pellet particle size (1, 2, and 3 mm) and the process temperature (50, 70, 90°C) on the same values. On the basis of the tests, we concluded that the introduction of a binder material and the use of two-stage agglomeration in nettle waste densification resulted in increased densification work (as compared to the densification of nettle waste alone) and increased pellet density.

  17. cuBLASTP: Fine-Grained Parallelization of Protein Sequence Search on CPU+GPU. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Feng, Wu-Chun


    BLAST, short for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, is a ubiquitous tool used in the life sciences for pairwise sequence search. However, with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), whether at the outset or downstream from NGS, the exponential growth of sequence databases is outstripping our ability to analyze the data. While recent studies have utilized the graphics processing unit (GPU) to speedup the BLAST algorithm for searching protein sequences (i.e., BLASTP), these studies use coarse-grained parallelism, where one sequence alignment is mapped to only one thread. Such an approach does not efficiently utilize the capabilities of a GPU, particularly due to the irregularity of BLASTP in both execution paths and memory-access patterns. To address the above shortcomings, we present a fine-grained approach to parallelize BLASTP, where each individual phase of sequence search is mapped to many threads on a GPU. This approach, which we refer to as cuBLASTP, reorders data-access patterns and reduces divergent branches of the most time-consuming phases (i.e., hit detection and ungapped extension). In addition, cuBLASTP optimizes the remaining phases (i.e., gapped extension and alignment with trace back) on a multicore CPU and overlaps their execution with the phases running on the GPU.

  18. Fine grain separation for the production of biomass fuel from mixed municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Giani, H; Borchers, B; Kaufeld, S; Feil, A; Pretz, T


    The main goal of the project MARSS (Material Advanced Sustainable Systems) is to build a demonstration plant in order to recover a renewable biomass fuel suitable for the use in biomass power plants out of mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). The demonstration plant was constructed in Mertesdorf (Germany), working alongside an existing mechanical-biological treatment plant, where the MMSW is biological dried under aerobe conditions in rotting boxes. The focus of the presented sorting campaign was set on the processing of fine grain particles minor than 11.5mm which have the highest mass content and biogenic energy potential of the utilized grain size fractions. The objective was to produce a biomass fuel with a high calorific value and a low content of fossil (plastic, synthetic) materials while maximizing the mass recovery. Therefore, the biogenic components of the dried MMSW are separated from inert and fossil components through various classification and sifting processes. In three experimental process setups of different processing depths, the grain size fraction 4-11.5mm was sifted by the use of air sifters and air tables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of fine-grained components on concrete properties and structure formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimakova Galina


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of fine-grained components on the synthesis of new formations and structure of cellular concrete. Grain size composition was defined with the aid of a laser diffraction analyzer of particles ANALYSETTE 22 NanoTecplus. The composition of the obtained hydrated phases was studied using electron microscopy and X-ray phase analysis. The introduction of silica and aluminosilicate components with the specific surface area >350 m2/kg enabled to directly influence the mechanism of the hydrated phases formation. Complex hydrated calcium aluminosilicates of the frame structure of zeolite type and non-permanent composition were identified in the hydration products. The formation of the total set of properties is attributed to the morphological features of the hydrated phases, the nature of connections between the crystalline hydrates, and their location in the material structure. X-ray phase analysis showed that ultra-micro-dispersed components have the stimulating impact on the processes of silicate formation. With the increase in the amount of hydrated new formations and decrease in the liquid phase volume the conditions for building of strong crystal intergrowth contacts were created.

  20. Fine-Grained Distribution of a Non-Native Resource Can Alter the Population Dynamics of a Native Consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mifuyu Nakajima

    Full Text Available New interactions with non-native species can alter selection pressures on native species. Here, we examined the effect of the spatial distribution of a non-native species, a factor that determines ecological and evolutionary outcomes but that is poorly understood, particularly on a fine scale. Specifically, we explored a native butterfly population and a non-native plant on which the butterfly oviposits despite the plant's toxicity to larvae. We developed an individual-based model to describe movement and oviposition behaviors of each butterfly, which were determined by plant distribution and the butterfly's host preference genotype. We estimated the parameter values of the model from rich field data. We simulated various patterns of plant distributions and compared the rates of butterfly population growth and changes in the allele frequency of oviposition preference. Neither the number nor mean area of patches of non-native species affected the butterfly population, whereas plant abundance, patch shape, and distance to the nearest native and non-native patches altered both the population dynamics and genetics. Furthermore, we found a dramatic decrease in population growth rates when we reduced the distance to the nearest native patch from 147 m to 136 m. Thus changes in the non-native resource distribution that are critical to the fate of the native herbivore could only be detected at a fine-grained scale that matched the scale of a female butterfly's movement. In addition, we found that the native butterfly population was unlikely to be rescued by the exclusion of the allele for acceptance of the non-native plant as a host. This study thus highlights the importance of including both ecological and evolutionary dynamics in analyses of the outcome of species interactions and provides insights into habitat management for non-native species.

  1. AutoBD: Automated Bi-Level Description for Scalable Fine-Grained Visual Categorization. (United States)

    Yao, Hantao; Zhang, Shiliang; Yan, Chenggang; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Jintao; Tian, Qi

    Compared with traditional image classification, fine-grained visual categorization is a more challenging task, because it targets to classify objects belonging to the same species, e.g., classify hundreds of birds or cars. In the past several years, researchers have made many achievements on this topic. However, most of them are heavily dependent on the artificial annotations, e.g., bounding boxes, part annotations, and so on. The requirement of artificial annotations largely hinders the scalability and application. Motivated to release such dependence, this paper proposes a robust and discriminative visual description named Automated Bi-level Description (AutoBD). "Bi-level" denotes two complementary part-level and object-level visual descriptions, respectively. AutoBD is "automated," because it only requires the image-level labels of training images and does not need any annotations for testing images. Compared with the part annotations labeled by the human, the image-level labels can be easily acquired, which thus makes AutoBD suitable for large-scale visual categorization. Specifically, the part-level description is extracted by identifying the local region saliently representing the visual distinctiveness. The object-level description is extracted from object bounding boxes generated with a co-localization algorithm. Although only using the image-level labels, AutoBD outperforms the recent studies on two public benchmark, i.e., classification accuracy achieves 81.6% on CUB-200-2011 and 88.9% on Car-196, respectively. On the large-scale Birdsnap data set, AutoBD achieves the accuracy of 68%, which is currently the best performance to the best of our knowledge.Compared with traditional image classification, fine-grained visual categorization is a more challenging task, because it targets to classify objects belonging to the same species, e.g., classify hundreds of birds or cars. In the past several years, researchers have made many achievements on this topic

  2. Supercooled interfacial water in fine-grained soils probed by dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorek


    Full Text Available Water substantially affects nearly all physical, chemical and biological processes on the Earth. Recent Mars observations as well as laboratory investigations suggest that water is a key factor of current physical and chemical processes on the Martian surface, e.g. rheological phenomena. Therefore it is of particular interest to get information about the liquid-like state of water on Martian analogue soils for temperatures below 0 °C. To this end, a parallel plate capacitor has been developed to obtain isothermal dielectric spectra of fine-grained soils in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1.1 MHz at Martian-like temperatures down to −70 °C. Two Martian analogue soils have been investigated: a Ca-bentonite (specific surface of 237 m2 g−1, up to 9.4% w / w gravimetric water content and JSC Mars 1, a volcanic ash (specific surface of 146 m2 g−1, up to 7.4% w / w. Three soil-specific relaxation processes are observed in the investigated frequency–temperature range: two weak high-frequency processes (bound or hydrated water as well as ice and a strong low-frequency process due to counter-ion relaxation and the Maxwell–Wagner effect. To characterize the dielectric relaxation behaviour, a generalized fractional dielectric relaxation model was applied assuming three active relaxation processes with relaxation time of the ith process modelled with an Eyring equation. The real part of effective complex soil permittivity at 350 kHz was used to determine ice and liquid-like water content by means of the Birchak or CRIM equation. There are evidence that bentonite down to −70 °C has a liquid-like water content of 1.17 monolayers and JSC Mars 1 a liquid-like water content of 1.96 monolayers.

  3. Development of Ultra-Fine-Grained Structure in AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel (United States)

    Tiamiyu, A. A.; Szpunar, J. A.; Odeshi, A. G.; Oguocha, I.; Eskandari, M.


    Ultra-fine-grained (UFG) structure was developed in AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) using cryogenic rolling followed by annealing treatments at 923 K, 973 K, 1023 K, and 1073 K (650 °C, 700 °C, 750 °C, and 800 °C) for different lengths of time. The α'-martensite to γ-austenite reversion behavior and the associated texture development were analyzed in the cryo-rolled specimens after annealing. The activation energy, Q, required for the reversion of α'-martensite to γ-austenite in the steel was estimated to be 80 kJ mol-1. TiC precipitates and unreversed triple junction α'-martensite played major roles in the development of UFG structure through the Zener pinning of grain boundaries. The optimum annealing temperature and time for the development of UFG structure in the cryo-rolled AISI 321 steel are (a) 923 K (650 °C) for approximately 28800 seconds and (b) 1023 K (750 °C) for 600 seconds, with average grain sizes of 0.22 and 0.31 µm, respectively. Annealing at 1023 K (750 °C) is considered a better alternative since the volume fraction of precipitated carbides in specimens annealed at 1023 K (750 °C) are less than those annealed at 923 K (650 °C). More so, the energy consumption during prolonged annealing time to achieve an UFG structure at 923 K (650 °C) is higher due to low phase reversion rate. The hardness of the UFG specimens is 195 pct greater than that of the as-received steel. The higher volume fraction of TiC precipitates in the UFG structure may be an additional source of hardening. Micro and macrotexture analysis indicated {110}〈uvw〉 as the major texture component of the austenite grains in the UFG structure. Its intensity is stronger in the specimen annealed at low temperatures.

  4. Constitutive Analysis and Hot Deformation Behavior of Fine-Grained Mg-Gd-Y-Zr Alloys (United States)

    Alizadeh, R.; Mahmudi, R.; Ruano, O. A.; Ngan, A. H. W.


    Mg-Gd-Y-Zr alloys are among the newly developed magnesium alloys with superior strength properties at elevated temperatures. Accordingly, the hot shear deformation behavior of fine-grained extruded Mg-9Gd-4Y-0.4Zr (GWK940), Mg-5Gd-4Y-0.4Zr (GWK540), and Mg-5Gd-0.4Zr (GK50) alloys was investigated using the localized shear punch testing (SPT) method. Shear punch tests were performed at 573 K, 623 K, 673 K, 723 K, and 773 K (300 °C, 350 °C, 400 °C, 450 °C, and 500 °C) under shear strain rates in the range of 6.7 × 10-3 to 6.7 × 10-2 s-1. The new fitting method of Rieiro, Carsi, and Ruano was used for direct calculation of the Garofalo constants. It was concluded that the Garofalo equation can be used satisfactorily for describing the deformation behavior of the alloys in the entire studied ranges of strain rates and temperatures. In addition, stability maps were obtained by calculations based on the Lyapunov criteria using the Garofalo constants. The predicted stability ranges of temperature and strain rate were similar for the studied alloys. At an intermediate strain rate of 0.05 s-1, the optimal temperature at which a stable region is expected was found to be 648 K to 673 K (375 °C to 400 °C) for all three materials. The most pronounced effect of the Gd and Y elements was to enhance the high-temperature strength of the alloys.

  5. Fine-grained visual marine vessel classification for coastal surveillance and defense applications (United States)

    Solmaz, Berkan; Gundogdu, Erhan; Karaman, Kaan; Yücesoy, Veysel; Koç, Aykut


    The need for capabilities of automated visual content analysis has substantially increased due to presence of large number of images captured by surveillance cameras. With a focus on development of practical methods for extracting effective visual data representations, deep neural network based representations have received great attention due to their success in visual categorization of generic images. For fine-grained image categorization, a closely related yet a more challenging research problem compared to generic image categorization due to high visual similarities within subgroups, diverse applications were developed such as classifying images of vehicles, birds, food and plants. Here, we propose the use of deep neural network based representations for categorizing and identifying marine vessels for defense and security applications. First, we gather a large number of marine vessel images via online sources grouping them into four coarse categories; naval, civil, commercial and service vessels. Next, we subgroup naval vessels into fine categories such as corvettes, frigates and submarines. For distinguishing images, we extract state-of-the-art deep visual representations and train support-vector-machines. Furthermore, we fine tune deep representations for marine vessel images. Experiments address two scenarios, classification and verification of naval marine vessels. Classification experiment aims coarse categorization, as well as learning models of fine categories. Verification experiment embroils identification of specific naval vessels by revealing if a pair of images belongs to identical marine vessels by the help of learnt deep representations. Obtaining promising performance, we believe these presented capabilities would be essential components of future coastal and on-board surveillance systems.

  6. Fine-grained stimulus representations in body selective areas of human occipito-temporal cortex. (United States)

    Caspari, Natalie; Popivanov, Ivo D; De Mazière, Patrick A; Vanduffel, Wim; Vogels, Rufin; Orban, Guy A; Jastorff, Jan


    Neurophysiological and functional imaging studies have investigated the representation of animate and inanimate stimulus classes in monkey inferior temporal (IT) and human occipito-temporal cortex (OTC). These studies proposed a distributed representation of stimulus categories across IT and OTC and at the same time highlighted category specific modules for the processing of bodies, faces and objects. Here, we investigated whether the stimulus representation within the extrastriate (EBA) and the fusiform (FBA) body areas differed from the representation across OTC. To address this question, we performed an event-related fMRI experiment, evaluating the pattern of activation elicited by 200 individual stimuli that had already been extensively tested in our earlier monkey imaging and single cell studies (Popivanov et al., 2012, 2014). The set contained achromatic images of headless monkey and human bodies, two sets of man-made objects, monkey and human faces, four-legged mammals, birds, fruits, and sculptures. The fMRI response patterns within EBA and FBA primarily distinguished bodies from non-body stimuli, with subtle differences between the areas. However, despite responding on average stronger to bodies than to other categories, classification performance for preferred and non-preferred categories was comparable. OTC primarily distinguished animate from inanimate stimuli. However, cluster analysis revealed a much more fine-grained representation with several homogeneous clusters consisting entirely of stimuli of individual categories. Overall, our data suggest that category representation varies with location within OTC. Nevertheless, body modules contain information to discriminate also non-preferred stimuli and show an increasing specificity in a posterior to anterior gradient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Coarse-Grained/Fine-Grained Logic Interface in FPGAs with Embedded Floating-Point Arithmetic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wai Yu


    Full Text Available This paper examines the interface between fine-grained and coarse-grained programmable logic in FPGAs. Specifically, it presents an empirical study that covers the location, pin arrangement, and interconnect between embedded floating point units (FPUs and the fine-grained logic fabric in FPGAs. It also studies this interface in FPGAs which contain both FPUs and embedded memories. The results show that (1 FPUs should have a square aspect ratio; (2 they should be positioned near the center of the FPGA; (3 their I/O pins should be arranged around all four sides of the FPU; (4 embedded memory should be located between the FPUs; and (5 connecting higher I/O density coarse-grained blocks increases the demand for routing resources. The hybrid FPGAs with embedded memory required 12% wider channels than the case where embedded memory is not used.

  8. Influence of Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanoparticles on the thermal stability of ultra-fine grained copper prepared by high pressure torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Cizek, J; Kuzel, R; Islamgaliev, R K


    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) Cu (grain size 80 nm) containing 0.5 wt.% Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanoparticles (size 20 nm) was prepared by high pressure torsion (HPT). Positron lifetime spectroscopy was employed to characterize the microstructure of this material, especially with respect to types and concentration of lattice defects. The evolution of microstructure with increasing temperature was studied by positron lifetime spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements. The thermal stability of the Cu + 0.5 wt.% Al sub 2 O sub 3 nanocomposite was compared with that of pure UFG Cu prepared by the same technique. The processes taking place during thermal recovery of the initial nanoscale structure in both studied materials are described. (author)

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Non-equilibrium Grain Boundaries Diffusion Properties Recovery during Ultra-fine Grain Metals and Alloys Annealing


    Vladimir N. Chuvil’deev; Vladimir I. Kopylov; Aleksey V. Nokhrin; Olga E. Pirozhnikova


    The article presents the results of theoretical analysis of non-equilibrium grain boundaries diffusion properties recovery during ultra-fine grain (UFG) materials annealing, produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) method. The paper proves that activation energy and grain boundary diffusion coefficient of UFG materials depend on density of defects, cumulated by grain boundary during SPD.Annealing causes diffusion redistribution of defects in grain boundaries, which results in diffusion pr...

  10. The impact of disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on SPM concentration and fluid mud in and outside the harbor of Zeebrugge (United States)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Cardoso, Claudio; Dujardin, Arvid; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Hoestenberghe, Thomas; Vanlede, Joris; Van Poucke, Luc; Velez, Carlos; Martens, Chantal


    The amount of sediments to be dredged and disposed depends to a large part on the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration. Tidal, meteorological, climatological, and seasonal forcings have an influence on the horizontal and vertical distribution of the SPM in the water column and on the bed and control the inflow of fine-grained sediments towards harbors and navigation channels. About 3 million tons (dry matter) per year of mainly fine-grained sediments is dredged in the port of Zeebrugge and is disposed on a nearby disposal site. The disposed sediments are quickly resuspended and transported away from the site. The hypothesis is that a significant part of the disposed sediments recirculates back to the dredging places and that a relocation of the disposal site to another location at equal distance to the dredging area would reduce this recirculation. In order to validate the hypothesis, a 1-year field study was set up in 2013-2014. During 1 month, the dredged material was disposed at a new site. Variations in SPM concentration were related to tides, storms, seasonal changes, and human impacts. In the high-turbidity Belgian near-shore area, the natural forcings are responsible for the major variability in the SPM concentration signal, while disposal has only a smaller influence. The conclusion from the measurements is that the SPM concentration decreases after relocation of the disposal site but indicate stronger (first half of field experiment) or weaker (second half of field experiment) effects that are, however, supported by the environmental conditions. The results of the field study may have consequences on the management of disposal operations as the effectiveness of the disposal site depends on environmental conditions, which are inherently associated with chaotic behavior.

  11. Towards 3D Face Recognition in the Real: A Registration-Free Approach Using Fine-Grained Matching of 3D Keypoint Descriptors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin


    Registration algorithms performed on point clouds or range images of face scans have been successfully used for automatic 3D face recognition under expression variations, but have rarely been investigated to solve pose changes and occlusions mainly since that the basic landmarks to initialize coarse alignment are not always available. Recently, local feature-based SIFT-like matching proves competent to handle all such variations without registration. In this paper, towards 3D face recognition for real-life biometric applications, we significantly extend the SIFT-like matching framework to mesh data and propose a novel approach using fine-grained matching of 3D keypoint descriptors. First, two principal curvature-based 3D keypoint detectors are provided, which can repeatedly identify complementary locations on a face scan where local curvatures are high. Then, a robust 3D local coordinate system is built at each keypoint, which allows extraction of pose-invariant features. Three keypoint descriptors, corresponding to three surface differential quantities, are designed, and their feature-level fusion is employed to comprehensively describe local shapes of detected keypoints. Finally, we propose a multi-task sparse representation based fine-grained matching algorithm, which accounts for the average reconstruction error of probe face descriptors sparsely represented by a large dictionary of gallery descriptors in identification. Our approach is evaluated on the Bosphorus database and achieves rank-one recognition rates of 96.56, 98.82, 91.14, and 99.21 % on the entire database, and the expression, pose, and occlusion subsets, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these are the best results reported so far on this database. Additionally, good generalization ability is also exhibited by the experiments on the FRGC v2.0 database.

  12. Enhancing of chemical compound and drug name recognition using representative tag scheme and fine-grained tokenization. (United States)

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Lai, Po-Ting; Chang, Yung-Chun; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han


    The functions of chemical compounds and drugs that affect biological processes and their particular effect on the onset and treatment of diseases have attracted increasing interest with the advancement of research in the life sciences. To extract knowledge from the extensive literatures on such compounds and drugs, the organizers of BioCreative IV administered the CHEMical Compound and Drug Named Entity Recognition (CHEMDNER) task to establish a standard dataset for evaluating state-of-the-art chemical entity recognition methods. This study introduces the approach of our CHEMDNER system. Instead of emphasizing the development of novel feature sets for machine learning, this study investigates the effect of various tag schemes on the recognition of the names of chemicals and drugs by using conditional random fields. Experiments were conducted using combinations of different tokenization strategies and tag schemes to investigate the effects of tag set selection and tokenization method on the CHEMDNER task. This study presents the performance of CHEMDNER of three more representative tag schemes-IOBE, IOBES, and IOB12E-when applied to a widely utilized IOB tag set and combined with the coarse-/fine-grained tokenization methods. The experimental results thus reveal that the fine-grained tokenization strategy performance best in terms of precision, recall and F-scores when the IOBES tag set was utilized. The IOBES model with fine-grained tokenization yielded the best-F-scores in the six chemical entity categories other than the "Multiple" entity category. Nonetheless, no significant improvement was observed when a more representative tag schemes was used with the coarse or fine-grained tokenization rules. The best F-scores that were achieved using the developed system on the test dataset of the CHEMDNER task were 0.833 and 0.815 for the chemical documents indexing and the chemical entity mention recognition tasks, respectively. The results herein highlight the importance

  13. Estimated Altitude of the Top of the Uppermost Unit of Fine-Grained Sediment within the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated altitude of the top of the uppermost fine-grained sediment within the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This map was compiled by...

  14. Critical head, thickness of fine-grained deposit, and skeletal elastic storage arrays of the SUB package of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the SUB package arrays for the model grid, critical head, thickness of fine-grained deposits, and skeletal-elastic-storage used in the...

  15. Theoretical Analysis of Non-equilibrium Grain Boundaries Diffusion Properties Recovery during Ultra-fine Grain Metals and Alloys Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Chuvil’deev


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical analysis of non-equilibrium grain boundaries diffusion properties recovery during ultra-fine grain (UFG materials annealing, produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD method. The paper proves that activation energy and grain boundary diffusion coefficient of UFG materials depend on density of defects, cumulated by grain boundary during SPD.Annealing causes diffusion redistribution of defects in grain boundaries, which results in diffusion properties change. Diffusion properties recovery rate depends on grain size and it is much higher in UFG materials than in coarse-grained materials.

  16. Development of bearing capacity of fine grained permafrost deposits in western greenland urban areas subject to soil temperature changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas


    The bearing capacity of frozen soils is high, compared to non-frozen soils of same composition. Projected climatic warming in the Arctic will increase the soil temperature, thus affecting the bearing capacity and the deformation properties. Western Greenland temperatures are projected to increase...... by 2-3 °C during the 21st century. This paper presents a relation between undrained shear strength and temperature based on a series triaxial tests of fine-grained permafrost in the interval from -3 °C to -1 °C. Moderately ice-rich permafrost and excess ice free refrozen active-layer were retrieved...

  17. Formability of an ultra-fine grained Cu-Cr-Zr alloy processed via severe plastic deformation


    Asenjo Varela, Pedro


    Ultra-fine grained (UFG) metallic materials have been a hot topic in materials science for more than 25 years. There is a significant body of research showing that the UFG materials have very high mechanical strength, but their commercialization is limited due to their low uni-axial tensile ductility. The main objective of this thesis is to study the bi-axial stretching formability of the UFG Cu-Cr-Zr alloy material after equal channel angular pressing with two different processing routes. It...

  18. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Fine-Grained AZ61 Magnesium Alloys Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing


    Qiuyuan Xie; Aibin Ma; Jinghua Jiang; Zhaojun Cheng; Dan Song; Yuchun Yuan; Huan Liu


    The effect of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of a cast AZ61 Mg alloy was investigated in distilled water (DW) using the slow strain rate tensile test (SSRT) at a strain rate of 1 × 10−6 s−1. The fine-grained alloy after ECAP showed a greater SCC susceptibility but a higher ultimate tensile strength, compared with the as-cast counterpart. The results were attributed to refined grains, high-density dislocations and increased proportion of high-...

  19. A high-speed multiplexer-based fine-grain pipelined architecture for digital fuzzy logic controllers (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahram; Masoud Sayedi, Sayed


    Design and implementation of a high-speed multiplexer-based fine-grain pipelined architecture for a general digital fuzzy logic controller has been presented. All the operators have been designed at gate level. For the multiplication, a multiplexer-based modified Wallace tree multiplier has been designed, and for the division and addition multiplexer-based non-restoring parallel divider and multiplexer-based Manchester adder have been used, respectively. To further increase the processing speed, fine-grain pipelining technique has been employed. By using this technique, the critical path of the circuit is broken into finer pieces. Based on the proposed architecture, and by using Quartus II 9.1, a sample two-input, one-output digital fuzzy logic controller with eight rules has been successfully synthesised and implemented on Stratix II field programmable gate array. Simulations were carried out using DSP Builder in the MATLAB/Simulink tool at a maximum clock rate of 301.84 MHz.

  20. OSL dating as a possible tool for provenance study of fine grained quartz/polymineral from Lake Suigetsu sediments (United States)

    Sugisaki, S.; Murray, A. S.; Buylaert, J.; Tada, R.; Suzuki, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Schwenninger, J.; Haraguchi, T.; Gotanda, K.; Nakagawa, T.


    m fraction was extracted from the sediments, and equivalent doses were measured using a double SAR (infrared (IR) and blue light) and post-IR IR (pIRIR 180) respectively. The results show that quartz and polyminerals from type 1 lithology give relatively low and similar equivalent doses throughout each section, whilst quartz and polyminerals in layers of type 2 and 3 give up to 6 times higher equivalent dose than those of adjacent type 1 sediments. We discuss the possible source of quartz in each type of lithology based on fine-grained quartz and polymineral OSL and identify the most suitable lithology for OSL dating for future study.

  1. Equivalent dose estimation using a single aliquot of polymineral fine grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, D.; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.


    a blue detection window, and also with expected values of D-e based on independent age estimates and measured dose rates. We conclude that post-IR blue-stimulated luminescence provides reliable estimates of D-e, and that these are probably superior to the IRSL estimates obtained using both near-UV......-stimulated luminescence, and (iii) blue-stimulated luminescence following infrared (IR) stimulation, using a near-UV (290-380 nm) detection window in each case. For these three signals, there is a significant change in sensitivity with regeneration cycle; this change can be compensated for using the response to a fixed...... test dose after each natural or regenerated measurement. The source of the three luminescence signals is then investigated using pulse-anneal and elevated-temperature experiments. Fading tests on laboratory-induced signals show that although the IR signals fade by up to 23% in 15 days at 100 degrees...

  2. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina


    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the functional vs. lexical nature of restructuring heads: evidence for a fine-grained classification of restructuring modals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Balza


    Full Text Available This paper examines in detail the thematic and syntactic properties of a set of (non-restructuring structures in Germanic, Romance and Basque. Based on the comparison of these structures, I propose a fine-grained classification of (non-restructuring constructions that include Functional Restructuring, Semi-Lexical Restructuring, Lexical Restructuring and Non-Restructuring constructions. The four types involve complements of different underlying structures (VPs, vPs or even as large as NegP/TPs. The results of the analysis argue against Cinque’s (2005 hypothesis that all restructuring verbs are exclusively functional, and contradicts Wurmbrand’s (1999 claim that, within the mixed class of restructuring verbs, modals must be raising verbs.

  4. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Fine-Grained AZ61 Magnesium Alloys Processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyuan Xie


    Full Text Available The effect of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP on stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of a cast AZ61 Mg alloy was investigated in distilled water (DW using the slow strain rate tensile test (SSRT at a strain rate of 1 × 10−6 s−1. The fine-grained alloy after ECAP showed a greater SCC susceptibility but a higher ultimate tensile strength, compared with the as-cast counterpart. The results were attributed to refined grains, high-density dislocations and increased proportion of high-angle grain boundaries induced by severe plastic deformation, as well as isolated fine β-phase particles transiting from net-like β-phase.

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-fine-Grained Al-Mg-Si Tubes Produced by Parallel Tubular Channel Angular Pressing Process (United States)

    Faraji, G.; Roostae, S.; Seyyed Nosrati, A.; Kang, J. Y.; Kim, H. S.


    In the present work, commercial Al-6061 alloy tubes were processed via multi-pass parallel tubular channel angular pressing (PTCAP). The effects of the number of passes on grain refinement and mechanical properties were investigated. The microstructural evolution was characterized using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile tests and hardness measurements. The EBSD analyses presented that the elongated subgrains or grains with ~800 nm in size and a high fraction of low-angle grain boundaries were formed after two PTCAP passes. After four passes, the elongated subgrains have transformed to almost equiaxed grains with ~400 nm in size and high-angle grain boundaries. Microhardness of the processed tube increased from 38.9 to 63.4 HV (~63 pct) after three PTCAP passes. An increase in the number of PTCAP passes after three passes has no more effect on the microhardness. Yield and ultimate tensile strength were increased by 2.1 and 1.6 times, respectively, after four PTCAP passes ( ɛ ~6.4) compared to the annealed sample. Ductile fracture with an extensive necking zone and many big dimples occur in the annealed sample, while fine dimples and limited ductile fracture features were observed in the ultra-fine grained PTCAP-processed samples.

  6. Fine-grained clay fraction (,0.2 {mu}m): An interesting tool to approach the present thermal and permeability state in active geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrier, P.; Papapanagiotou, P.; Beaufort, D.; Traineau, H.; Bril, H.


    We have investigated by X-ray diffraction the very fine grained secondary minerals (< 0.2 {micro}m) developed in geothermal systems, in relation with their present thermal and permeability state. Because the smallest particles are the most reactive part of a rock, they are the youngest mineral phases of the geothermal fields. This study has been performed on two active geothermal fields: Milos field, Greece (130 < T < 320 C) and Chipilapa field, Salvador (90 < T < 215 C). In the Milos field, the mineralogical composition of the < 0.2 {micro}m clay fraction observed in the reservoir strongly differs from the overlying altered metamorphic schists in the presence of abundant quantities of saponite and talc/saponite interstratified minerals at unusually high temperature. These phases are considered to be kinetically control-led ''metastable'' minerals which rapidly evolve towards actinolite and talc for present temperatures higher than 300 C. Their occurrence is a good indicator of discharge in highly permeable zones. In the geothermal field of Chipilapa, the mineralogical composition of the < 0.2 {micro}m clay fractions fairly agrees with the temperatures presently measured in the wells, whereas several discrepancies may be pointed out from the compositions of coarser clay fractions (< 5 {micro}m) which contain minerals inherited from higher temperature stages. Permeable zones may be evidenced from an increase of expandable components in the interstratified minerals and a decrease of the coherent domain of the unexpandable clay particles (chlorite).

  7. Study of Secondary Phase Particle Dissolution and Austenite Grain Growth on Heating Fine-Grained High-Strength IF-Steel (United States)

    Jia, Hong-bin; Zhang, Hong-mei; Sun, Cheng-qian


    Dissolution of particles of second phase and growth of austenite grains in high-strength fine-grained IF-steel (0.0057% C, 0.0023% N) on heating is studied. Metallographic analysis of flat steel specimens cut from plates prepared by hot and cold rolling is performed. Steel structure is studied after holding for 10 - 60 min at different temperatures and water quenching. The quenching parameters at which the microalloying elements (Ti, Nb) dissolve completely with retention of fine-grained austenite are determined. Amathematical model of austenite grain growth is developed by nonlinear regression analysis of experimental data.

  8. Inverse Relationship of Marine Aerosol and Dust in Antarctic Ice with Fine-Grained Sediment in the South Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Sea-Ice Coverage and Wind Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Kanfoush


    Full Text Available This research seeks to test the hypothesis that natural gamma radiation (NGR from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1094, which displays variability over the last glacial-interglacial cycle similar to dust in the Vostok ice core, reflects fine-grained terrigenous sediment delivered by eolian processes. Grain size was measured on 400 samples spanning 0–20 m in a composite core. Accumulation of the <63μ size fraction at Site 1094 and dust in Vostok exhibit a negative correlation, suggesting the fine sediments are not dominantly eolian. However the technique used for grain size measurements cannot distinguish between terrigenous and biogenous materials; therefore it is possible much fine-grained material is diatoms. An inverse correlation between fine sediments and NGR supports this interpretation, and implies terrigenous materials were at times diluted by microfossils from high biological productivity. Fine marine sediments correlate positively with temperature and negatively with marine aerosol Na+ in Vostok. One plausible explanation is extensive sea-ice of cold intervals steepened ocean-continent temperature gradients, intensified winds, and led to increased transport of dust and marine aerosol to Antarctica yet also reduced biological productivity at Site 1094. Such a reduction despite increases in NGR, potentially representing Fe-rich dust influx, would require light limitation or stratification associated with sea-ice.

  9. Fine-grained versus categorical: Pupil size differentiates between strategies for spatial working memory performance. (United States)

    Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega


    Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. On the microstructural and magnetic properties of fine-grained CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics produced by combining polyol process and spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudisson, T.; Artus, M. [Laboratoire ITODYS, Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR-7086, 7205 Paris (France); Acevedo, U. [Departamento MMC, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Herbst, F.; Nowak, S. [Laboratoire ITODYS, Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR-7086, 7205 Paris (France); Valenzuela, R. [Departamento MMC, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Ammar, S., E-mail: [Laboratoire ITODYS, Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR-7086, 7205 Paris (France)


    Starting from polyol-made CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles of different aggregation states, high-density fine-grained ceramics were produced using Spark Plasma Sintering technique at 600 and 500 °C, under vacuum and applying a uniaxial pressure of more than 80 MPa. The grain growth of thus produced ceramics appears to be proportional to the temperature plateau and inversely proportional to the aggregation state of the initial powders. Average grain sizes ranging between about 50 and 350 nm were obtained. In all the cases, magnetic measurements evidenced a ferrimagnetic behavior at room temperature with non-zero coercivity, while their starting powders exhibited superparamagnetic features. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles of different aggregation states were produced in polyol. • Dense and fine-grained CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics were produced by SPS starting from these nanoparticles. • The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} grain growth during SPS appears to be mainly driven by diffusion mechanism. • The ceramics are ferrimagnetic at 300 K while their starting powders are superparamagnetic.

  11. A comparative study of the luminescence characteristics of polymineral fine grains and coarse-grained K-, and Na-rich feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.


    °C indicate that the signal stabilities are similar among the different feldspar types, when a higher preheat temperature (>320 °C) is used. Thermal activation energies for IRSL and pIRIR signals are largest in K-feldspar and smallest in polymineral fine grains, in both blue and UV detection windows...

  12. Fine-grained Goethite as a Precursor for Martian Gray Hematite (United States)

    Glotch, T. D.; Morris, R. V.; Sharp, T. G.; Christensen, P. R.


    Several isolated deposits of gray, crystalline hematite on Mars were discovered using data returned from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Christensen et al. provided five testable hypotheses regarding the formation of crystalline hematite on Mars: 1) low-temperature precipitation of Fe oxides/hydroxides from standing, oxygenated, Fe-rich water, followed by subsequent alteration to gray hematite, 2) low-temperature leaching of iron-bearing silicates and other materials leaving a Fe-rich residue laterite-style weathering) which is subsequently altered to gray hematite, 3) direct precipitation of gray hematite from Fe-rich circulating fluids of hydrothermal or other origin, 4) formation of gray hematitic surface coatings during weathering, and 5) thermal oxidation of magnetite-rich lavas. Since this initial work, several authors have examined the hematite deposits to determine their formation mechanism. Lane et al. cited the absence of a 390/ cm absorption in the martian hematite spectrum as evidence for platy hematite grains. Their model for the formation of the deposits includes deposition of any of a variety of iron oxides or oxyhydroxides by aqueous or hydrothermal fluids, burial and metamorphosis to gray platy hematite grains, and exhumation in recent times. Based on a detailed geomorphic examination of the Sinus Meridiani region, Hynek et al. conclude that the most likely method of hematite formation was either emplacement by a hydrothermal fluid or oxidation of a magnetite-rich pyroclastic deposit. Similarly, Arvidson et al., favor a model involving the alteration of pyroclastic deposits by aqueous or hydrothermal fluids. Finally, based on geochemical modeling and an examination of Aram Chaos, Catling and Moore favor emplacement by hydrothermal fluids with a minimum temperature of 100 C. Comparison of the average martian hematite spectrum measured by TES to hematite emissivity spectra for a variety

  13. High temperature microplasticity of fine-grained Y-TZP zirconia studied by mechanical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donzel, L.; Schaller, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique


    Mechanical spectroscopy has been used to study the early stage of the plastic deformation, i.e. the microplasticity of Y-TZP ceramics. Measurements on samples with different grain sizes have shown that the mechanical loss is proportional to the inverse of the square root of the grain size. The existence of a threshold stress has been observed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  14. Comparing Fine-Grained Source Code Changes And Code Churn For Bug Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.


    A significant amount of research effort has been dedicated to learning prediction models that allow project managers to efficiently allocate resources to those parts of a software system that most likely are bug-prone and therefore critical. Prominent measures for building bug prediction models are

  15. A two-level real-time vision machine combining coarse and fine grained parallelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Pauwels, Karl


    In this paper, we describe a real-time vision machine having a stereo camera as input generating visual information on two different levels of abstraction. The system provides visual low-level and mid-level information in terms of dense stereo and optical flow, egomotion, indicating areas...... a factor 90 and a reduction of latency of a factor 26 compared to processing on a single CPU--core. Since the vision machine provides generic visual information it can be used in many contexts. Currently it is used in a driver assistance context as well as in two robotic applications....

  16. Proposal to Perform a High-Statistics Neutrino Scattering Experiment Using a Fine-grained Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Drakoulakos, D; Stamoulis, P; Tzanakos, G S; Zois, M; Casper, D; Paschos, E; Böhnlein, D; Harris, D; Kostin, M; Morfn, J G; Shanahan, P; Christy, M E; Hinton, W; Keppel, C E; Burnstein, R A; Chakravorty, A; Kamaev, O; Solomey, Nickolas; Kulagin, S; Brooks, W K; Brüll, A; Ent, R; Gaskell, D; Melnitchouk, W; Wood, S A; Niculescu, I; Niculescu, G; Blazey, G; Cummings, M A C; Rykalin, V I; Boyd, S; Naples, D; Paolone, V; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chvojka, J; De Barbaro, P; Manly, S; McFarland, K; Park, I; Sakumoto, W; Teng, R; Gilman, R; Glashausser, C; Jiang, X; Kumbartzki, G; McCormick, K; Ransome, R; Gallagher, H; Kafka, T; Mann, W A; Oliver, W


    The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution $\

  17. Computational workflow for the fine-grained analysis of metagenomic samples. (United States)

    Pérez-Wohlfeil, Esteban; Arjona-Medina, Jose A; Torreno, Oscar; Ulzurrun, Eugenia; Trelles, Oswaldo


    The field of metagenomics, defined as the direct genetic analysis of uncultured samples of genomes contained within an environmental sample, is gaining increasing popularity. The aim of studies of metagenomics is to determine the species present in an environmental community and identify changes in the abundance of species under different conditions. Current metagenomic analysis software faces bottlenecks due to the high computational load required to analyze complex samples. A computational open-source workflow has been developed for the detailed analysis of metagenomes. This workflow provides new tools and datafile specifications that facilitate the identification of differences in abundance of reads assigned to taxa (mapping), enables the detection of reads of low-abundance bacteria (producing evidence of their presence), provides new concepts for filtering spurious matches, etc. Innovative visualization ideas for improved display of metagenomic diversity are also proposed to better understand how reads are mapped to taxa. Illustrative examples are provided based on the study of two collections of metagenomes from faecal microbial communities of adult female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for leanness or obesity and their mothers. The proposed workflow provides an open environment that offers the opportunity to perform the mapping process using different reference databases. Additionally, this workflow shows the specifications of the mapping process and datafile formats to facilitate the development of new plugins for further post-processing. This open and extensible platform has been designed with the aim of enabling in-depth analysis of metagenomic samples and better understanding of the underlying biological processes.

  18. Analyzing the Evolution of Web Services using Fine-Grained Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Pinzger, M.


    Preprint of paper published in: ICWS 2012 - IEEE 19th International Conference on Web Services, 24-29 June 2012; doi:10.1109/ICWS.2012.29 In the service-oriented paradigm web service interfaces are considered contracts between web service subscribers and providers. However, these interfaces are

  19. A Fine-Grained Visible Light Communication Position Detection System Embedded in One-Colored Light Using DMD Projector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Kodama


    Full Text Available When we consider the Internet of Things (IoT society that all of the people and things are connected by the Internet and with each other and they can use the variety of services and applications, the development of sensing and communication technology is very important. As one of its key technologies, the visible light communication (VLC has attracted attention in the point of ubiquity. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained VLC position detection system embedded in one-colored light using Digital Micromirror Device (DMD projector for new location services in millimeters and report its concept and fundamental experiment using our prototype of the receiver module with Linux single-board computer, Raspberry Pi. In addition, we mention the future application using our system in a clothes shop. Our experimental results show that our system has high accuracy in millimeters and the potential to be more convenient in the future’s location services using the VLC with the DMD projector. There was no trial to use a DMD projector as the illumination until now, but our study shows that the DMD projector has an availability of special modulated VLC illumination type beacon in the IoT age.

  20. Parallel reduction to condensed forms for symmetric eigenvalue problems using aggregated fine-grained and memory-aware kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Azzam


    This paper introduces a novel implementation in reducing a symmetric dense matrix to tridiagonal form, which is the preprocessing step toward solving symmetric eigenvalue problems. Based on tile algorithms, the reduction follows a two-stage approach, where the tile matrix is first reduced to symmetric band form prior to the final condensed structure. The challenging trade-off between algorithmic performance and task granularity has been tackled through a grouping technique, which consists of aggregating fine-grained and memory-aware computational tasks during both stages, while sustaining the application\\'s overall high performance. A dynamic runtime environment system then schedules the different tasks in an out-of-order fashion. The performance for the tridiagonal reduction reported in this paper is unprecedented. Our implementation results in up to 50-fold and 12-fold improvement (130 Gflop/s) compared to the equivalent routines from LAPACK V3.2 and Intel MKL V10.3, respectively, on an eight socket hexa-core AMD Opteron multicore shared-memory system with a matrix size of 24000×24000. Copyright 2011 ACM.

  1. The effect of high fluence neutron irradiation on the properties of a fine-grained isotropic nuclear graphite (United States)

    Ishiyama, S.; Burchell, T. D.; Strizak, J. P.; Eto, M.


    A fine-grained isotropic nuclear graphite (IG-110), manufactured from a petroleum coke, was irradiated to a total neutron dose of 3.8 × 10 26 n/m 2 or 25 displacements per atom (dpa) at 600°C in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge: National Laboratory (ORNL). The effect of irradiation and the influence of post-irradiation thermal annealing on the properties of the graphite were evaluated. Volume change turnaround was clearly observed at 15—20 dpa and the return to original volume ( {ΔV}/{V 0} = 0 ) can be estimated to occur at ˜ 30 dpa. Strength and elastic moduli of the irradiated graphite increased by a factor of 2-3, and maximums in the {δ}/{δ 0}, and {E}/{E o} curves were at ˜20 dpa at 600°C. Recovery of volume, fracture strength and thermal conductivity by thermal annealing were found., and thermal conductivity returned to better than about 30% of the unirradiated value after 1200°C thermal annealing.

  2. Surface modifications on toughened, fine-grained, recrystallized tungsten with repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Y., E-mail: [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, 671-2280 Hyogo (Japan); Sakuma, I.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, 671-2280 Hyogo (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kurishita, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)


    Surface modifications of toughened, fine-grained, recrystallized tungsten (TFGR W) materials with 1.1 wt.% TiC and 3.3 wt.% TaC dispersoids due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (∼0.15 ms) helium plasma irradiation have been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. No surface cracking at the center part of the TFGR W samples exposed to 20 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m{sup −2} was observed. The suppression of surface crack formation due to the increase of the grain boundary strength by addition of TiC and TaC dispersoids was confirmed in comparison with a pure W material. On the other hand, surface cracks and small pits appeared at the edge part of the TFGR W sample after the pulsed plasma irradiation. Erosion of the TiC and TaC dispersoids due to the pulsed plasma irradiation could cause the small pits on the surface, resulting in the surface crack formation.

  3. Surface modifications on toughened, fine-grained, recrystallized tungsten with repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Ueda, Y.; Kurishita, H.


    Surface modifications of toughened, fine-grained, recrystallized tungsten (TFGR W) materials with 1.1 wt.% TiC and 3.3 wt.% TaC dispersoids due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (∼0.15 ms) helium plasma irradiation have been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. No surface cracking at the center part of the TFGR W samples exposed to 20 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m-2 was observed. The suppression of surface crack formation due to the increase of the grain boundary strength by addition of TiC and TaC dispersoids was confirmed in comparison with a pure W material. On the other hand, surface cracks and small pits appeared at the edge part of the TFGR W sample after the pulsed plasma irradiation. Erosion of the TiC and TaC dispersoids due to the pulsed plasma irradiation could cause the small pits on the surface, resulting in the surface crack formation.

  4. Passivation and etching of fine-grained polycrystalline silicon films by hydrogen treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaoui, A.; Pihan, E.; Ka, I.; Mbow, N.A.; Roques, S.; Koebel, J.M. [InESS-CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, B.P. 20, F-67037 Strasbourg, France ()


    Here we investigated the effects of hydrogen treatment on highly defected polycrystalline silicon solar cells in terms of defects passivation and surface etching. The poly-Si films were formed by high-temperature chemical vapour deposition. The hydrogen treatment was carried out through deposition of a-SiN{sub x}:H layer followed by a thermal treatment or by direct hydrogen plasma. The deposition of silicon nitride layers on polysilicon cells led to a slight increase in the open-circuit voltage without damage to the surface. In contrast, after plasma hydrogenation, the results revealed an etching process of the emitter simultaneously with an important increase of the measured open-circuit voltage by a factor 2, reaching 420 mV. (author)

  5. Characterization of a Fine-Grained Interstratification of Turbostratic Talc and Saponite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Steudel


    Full Text Available Interstratifications of talc and trioctahedral smectites from different provenances are used as indicators for geological environments and for geotechnical and technical applications. However, comprehensive layer characterization of these interstratifications is rare. Sample EX M 1694, a clay with red-beige appearance from the Madrid basin was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous thermal analysis, gas adsorption measurements, cation exchange capacity, and environmental scanning electron microscopy. More than 95% of particles in EX M 1964 belong to the clay fraction <2 µm. It contains 75% interstratification of 30% turbostratic talc, and 70% saponite type III and 25% turbostratic talc. The turbostratic talc(0.3/saponite interstratification is characterized by a low number of layers per stack (3, small lateral dimension of layers (60–80 nm and, accordingly, a high specific surface area (283 m2/g with nearly equal surface area of micro- and mesopores. Thus, the studied material can be used as mined for adsorption, in contrast to acid-treated clays that produce hazardous waste during production. Low particle size of the interstratification drastically reduced thermal stability and dehydroxylation was superimposed by recrystallization of high temperature phases already at 816 °C, which is low for trioctahedral 2:1 layer minerals.


    Oliver, A.J.


    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  7. Presolar silicates in the matrix and fine-grained rims around chondrules in primitive CO3.0 chondrites: Evidence for pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the rims in the solar nebula (United States)

    Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine; Zega, Thomas J.; Croat, Thomas K.; Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Carpenter, Paul


    To investigate the origin of fine-grained rims around chondrules (FGRs), we compared presolar grain abundances, elemental compositions and mineralogies in fine-grained interstitial matrix material and individual FGRs in the primitive CO3.0 chondrites Allan Hills A77307, LaPaz Icefield 031117 and Dominion Range 08006. The observation of similar overall O-anomalous (∼155 ppm) and C-anomalous grain abundances (∼40 ppm) in all three CO3.0 chondrites suggests that they all accreted from a nebular reservoir with similar presolar grain abundances. The presence of presolar silicate grains in FGRs combined with the observation of similar estimated porosity between interstitial matrix regions and FGRs in LAP 031117 and ALHA77307, as well as the identification of a composite FGR (a small rimmed chondrule within a larger chondrule rim) in ALHA77307, all provide evidence for a formation of FGRs by accretion of dust grains onto freely-floating chondrules in the solar nebula before their aggregation into their parent body asteroids. Our study also shows systematically lower abundances of presolar silicate grains in the FGRs than in the matrix regions of CO3 chondrites, while the abundances of SiC grains are the same in all areas, within errors. This trend differs from CR2 chondrites in which the presolar silicate abundances are higher in the FGRs than in the matrix, but similar to each other within 2σ errors. This observation combined with the identification of localized (micrometer-scaled) aqueous alteration in a FGR of LAP 031117 suggests that the lower abundance of presolar silicates in FGRs reflects pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the fine-grained material in the FGRs. This pre-accretionary alteration could be due to either hydration and heating of freely floating rimmed chondrules in icy regions of the solar nebula or melted water ice associated with 26Al-related heating inside precursor planetesimals, followed by aggregation of FGRs into the CO chondrite parent-body.

  8. Sources and ages of fine-grained sediment to streams using fallout radionuclides in the Midwestern United States (United States)

    Gellis, Allen; Fuller, Christopher C.; Van Metre, Peter C.


    Fallout radionuclides, 7Be and 210Pbex, sampled in bed sediment for 99 watersheds in the Midwestern region of the United States and in 15 samples of suspended sediment from 3 of these watersheds were used to partition upland from channel sources and to estimate the age or the time since the surface-derived portion of sediment was on the land surface (0–∼1 year). Channel sources dominate: 78 of the 99 bed material sites (79%) have >50% channel-derived sediment, and 9 of the 15 suspended-sediment samples (60%) have >50% channel-derived sediment. 7Be was detected in 82 bed sediment samples and all 15 suspended-sediment samples. The surface-derived portion of 54 of the 80 (68%) streams with detectable 7Be and 210Pbex were ≤ 100 days old and the surface-derived portion of all suspended-sediment samples were ≤ 100 days old, indicating that surface-derived fine-grained sediment moves rapidly though these systems. The concentrations of two hydrophobic pesticides–DDE and bifenthrin–are correlated with the proportion of surface-derived sediment, indicating a link between geomorphic processes and particle-associated contaminants in streams. Urban areas had the highest pesticide concentrations and the largest percentage of surface-derived sediment. Although the percentage of surface-derived sediment is less than channel sources at most of the study sites, the relatively young age of the surface-derived sediment might indicate that management actions to reduce sediment contamination where the land surface is an important source could have noticeable effects.

  9. Key parameters for low-grade fine-grained iron ore valorization: lower environmental impact through reduced waste. (United States)

    Wagner, Christiane; Orberger, Beate; Tudryn, Alina; Baptiste, Benoît; Wirth, Richard; Morgan, Rachel; Miska, Serge


    In low-grade banded iron formations (BIFs), a large part of the iron is related to micro- and nano- metric iron-bearing inclusions within quartz and/or carbonates, mainly dolomite (~ 20 to 50 μm). Low-grade fine grained iron ore present two types of environmental risks: a) they are often stocked as tailings. For example, the recent disaster (5th of November 2015) in the Minas Gerais district, Brazil, was caused by the collapse of the Fundão tailings dam at an open cast mine; b) during beneficiation significant amounts of dust are generated also leading to metal loss. A laminated BIF studied from a drill core at Àguas Claras Mine, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil, contains 26.71 wt. % total iron, 0.2 wt. % SiO2, 0.32 wt.% MnO, 15.46 wt. % MgO, 22.32 wt.% CaO, 0.09 wt. % P2O5, formed between 680 °C and 920 °C. These findings promote the economic use of low grade ores rather than their stockpiling as tailings. The presence of OH-bearing goethite reduces the sintering temperature. After having separated coarse hematite from barren dolomite and quartz, a low temperature sintering of the inclusion-bearing dolomite/quartz leads to transformations into phases with higher magnetic susceptibilities (such as hematite and magnesioferrite). The entire Fe and Fe/Mg oxide feed can then pass through wet-high intensity magnetic separation after crushing. Intelligent processing of these ore types can minimize the two above mentioned risk factors.

  10. Historical developments in marine geology and some aspects of fine-grained sediments along the continental margins of India and Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 29 Historical developments in Marine Geology and some aspects of fine- grained sediments along the continental margins of India and Bengal Fan V. Purnachandra Rao National Institute of Oceanography.... The Andhra University, Waltair made pioneering investigations on the eastern continental margin of India in the early 1950s. However, the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE: 1961-1965) is an important landmark in the history of development...

  11. Keypoint Density-Based Region Proposal for Fine-Grained Object Detection and Classification Using Regions with Convolutional Neural Network Features (United States)


    2014), with Regions of Interest (ROIs) and the final convolutional filters being given as input to the ROI pooling layer . The 13 convolutional layers ...gave rise to specialized part models that operate by transfer of likely locations (Goering et al., 2014), which achieved high classification and...pipeline. The existing evaluations and applications of R-CNN have focused on standard coarse (rather than fine-grained) detection and classification tasks

  12. Activity of slip in amphibolite facies, fine-grained recrystallized quartz aggregates: high differential stress during high-T creep of quartz? (United States)

    Viegas, G.; Menegon, L. M.; Archanjo, C. J.


    Quartz axis fabrics are a valuable tool to investigate strain partitioning/distribution in both naturally- and experimentally deformed quartz. Previous works have shown that slip dominates at high temperatures (> 600º C) and water-rich, commonly sub-magmatic conditions, typically associated with large grain sizes and grain boundary migration microstructures. In the Pernambuco shear zone, sheared quartz veins from a protomylonitic granitoid formed during the main amphibolite facies event constrained at mid-crustal conditions (550-600ºC, 5 kbar). The veins contain heterogeneously-deformed primary quartz grains, which typically form both flattened and elongated ribbons as well as more equant porphyroclasts surrounded by aggregates of fine-grained (ca. 20 µm) recrystallized aggregates. Recrystallized quartz with the same fine grain size may also occur in intracrystalline bands within the porphyroclasts. Chessboard extinction is widely observed in the porphyroclasts, and subgrain boundaries are either parallel or normal to the (0001) direction, suggesting slip on both basal and prismatic planes during recrystallization. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of porphyroclasts (≥ 100 µm) show maxima of (0001) axes subparallel to Z and X, suggesting coeval glide along both basal and prism planes during shearing. In the recrystallized aggregates, fabric strength tends to become weaker, but still records glide along and directions. These preliminary results suggest that naturally deformed quartz veins record coeval activity of and slip during dynamic recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. The microstructure suggests that the CPO of the fine-grained aggregates is host-controlled and results from dominant subgrain rotation recrystallization. To our knowledge, activity of slip in fine-grained recrystallized aggregates has never been reported before. Thus, these preliminary results call into question the general view that slip is expected to be

  13. Production of Seamless Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities from Ultra-fine Grained Niobium, Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Crooks, Ph.D., P.E.


    The positron and electron linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) will require over 14,000, nine-cell, one meter length, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities [ILC Reference Design Report, 2007]. Manufacturing on this scale will benefit from more efficient fabrication methods. The current methods of fabricating SRF cavities involve deep drawing of the halves of each of the elliptical cells and joining them by high-vacuum, electron beam welding, with at least 19 circumferential welds per cavity. The welding is costly and has undesirable effects on the cavity surfaces, including grain-scale surface roughening at the weld seams. Hydroforming of seamless tubes avoids welding, but hydroforming of coarse-grained seamless tubes results in strain-induced surface roughening. Surface roughness limits accelerating fields, because asperities prematurely exceed the critical magnetic field and become normal conducting. This project explored the technical and economic feasibility of an improved processing method for seamless tubes for hydroforming. Severe deformation of bulk material was first used to produce a fine structure, followed by extrusion and flow-forming methods of tube making. Extrusion of the randomly oriented, fine-grained bulk material proceeded under largely steady-state conditions, and resulted in a uniform structure, which was found to be finer and more crystallographically random than standard (high purity) RRR niobium sheet metal. A 165 mm diameter billet of RRR grade niobium was processed into five, 150 mm I.D. tubes, each over 1.8 m in length, to meet the dimensions used by the DESY ILC hydroforming machine. Mechanical properties met specifications. Costs of prototype tube production were approximately twice the price of RRR niobium sheet, and are expected to be comparable with economies of scale. Hydroforming and superconducting testing will be pursued in subsequent collaborations with DESY and Fermilab. SRF Cavities are used to construct

  14. Multi-Scale Transport Properties of Fine-Grained Rocks: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; McPherson, B. J.; Wilson, T. H.; Flach, T.


    Understanding and characterizing transport properties of fine-grained rocks is critical in development of shale gas plays or assessing retention of CO2 at geologic storage sites. Difficulties arise in that both small scale (i.e., ~ nm) properties of the rock matrix and much larger scale fractures, faults, and sedimentological architecture govern migration of multiphase fluids. We present a multi-scale investigation of sealing and transport properties of the Kirtland Formation, which is a regional aquitard and reservoir seal in the San Juan Basin, USA. Sub-micron dual FIB/SEM imaging and reconstruction of 3D pore networks in core samples reveal a variety of pore types, including slit-shaped pores that are co-located with sedimentary structures and variations in mineralogy. Micron-scale chemical analysis and XRD reveal a mixture of mixed-layer smectite/illite, chlorite, quartz, and feldspar with little organic matter. Analysis of sub-micron digital reconstructions, mercury capillary injection pressure, and gas breakthrough measurements indicate a high quality sealing matrix. Natural full and partially mineralized fractures observed in core and in FMI logs include those formed from early soil-forming processes, differential compaction, and tectonic events. The potential impact of both fracture and matrix properties on large-scale transport is investigated through an analysis of natural helium from core samples, 3D seismic data and poro-elastic modeling. While seismic interpretations suggest considerable fracturing of the Kirtland, large continuous fracture zones and faults extending through the seal to the surface cannot be inferred from the data. Observed Kirtland Formation multi-scale transport properties are included as part of a risk assessment methodology for CO2 storage. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory for sponsoring this project. The DOE’s Basic Energy Science

  15. Can Composite Measures Provide a Different Perspective on Provider Performance Than Individual Measures? (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Rosen, Amy K; Burgess, James F


    Composite measures, which aggregate performance on individual measures into a summary score, are increasingly being used to evaluate facility performance. There is little understanding of the unique perspective that composite measures provide. To examine whether high/low (ie, high or low) performers on a composite measures are also high/low performers on most of the individual measures that comprise the composite. We used data from 2 previous studies, one involving 5 measures from 632 hospitals and one involving 28 measures from 112 Veterans Health Administration (VA) nursing homes; and new data on hospital readmissions for 3 conditions from 131 VA hospitals. To compare high/low performers on a composite to high/low performers on the component measures, we used 2-dimensional tables to categorize facilities into high/low performance on the composite and on the individual component measures. In the first study, over a third of the 162 hospitals in the top quintile based on the composite were in the top quintile on at most 1 of the 5 individual measures. In the second study, over 40% of the 27 high-performing nursing homes on the composite were high performers on 8 or fewer of the 28 individual measures. In the third study, 20% of the 61 low performers on the composite were low performers on only 1 of the 3 individual measures. Composite measures can identify as high/low performers facilities that perform "pretty well" (or "pretty poorly") across many individual measures but may not be high/low performers on most of them.

  16. Ultrasonic-assisted soldering of fine-grained 7034 aluminum alloy using Sn-Zn solders below 300°C. (United States)

    Guo, Weibing; Luan, Tianmin; He, Jingshan; Yan, Jiuchun


    The fine-grained Al alloys prefer to be soldered at as low as temperature to keep their mechanical properties. Solders of Sn-4Zn, Sn-9Zn, and Sn-20Zn alloys were used to solder fine-grained 7034 Al alloy pieces by ultrasonic-assisted soldering below 300°C in air. The joint using Sn-4Zn solder had the highest tensile strength of 201MPa and the fractures occurred in both β-Sn and Sn-Zn eutectic phases. Such joint was much stronger than the 1060 Al joint using Sn-4Zn solder, and its strength had approached the strength of 7034 Al joint using Zn-5Al solder. The strength of the joints using Sn-9Zn and Sn-20Zn solders dropped to∼160MPa due to the appearance of weak interfaces between η-Zn and eutectic phases in the bond layers. All the joints using Sn-Zn solders had very strong interfacial bonding, and alumina interlayers were identified at all the interfaces. Al dissolved in the bond layer reacted with the O rapidly to form alumina interlayers at the interfaces under the ultrasonic action. Zn segregated at the interface and formed strong bonds with both the Al terminated surface of alumina and the bond layer, resulting in strong interfacial bonding between Sn-Zn solders and Al alloys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tectonic and climatic controls on provenance changes of fine-grained dust on the Chinese Loess Plateau since the late Oligocene (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Ma, Long; Sun, Youbin


    Provenance variations of Late Cenozoic aeolian deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were closely associated with regional tectonic activity and climatic change. Previous studies, however, have not reached a consensus regarding the nature and origin of past variations in source. This study presents the results of oxygen isotope (δ18O) analyses of fine-grained quartz (changes of the dust source system at around 20, 12, and 2.6 Ma. The dust source system was also rather unstable at 25-20, 12-7 and 1.2-0 Ma, while three stable stages occurred at 20-12, 7-2.6, and 2.6-1.2 Ma. The correlation between the provenance changes and paleoclimatic and tectonic evidence suggests that both tectonic and climatic factors were important in driving the observed stepwise provenance changes. However, the changes were mainly constrained by Tibetan Plateau uplift prior to the Quaternary, and by global climate change thereafter.

  18. Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.


    The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

  19. Using a Fine-Grained Multiple-Choice Response Format in Educational Drill-and-Practice Video Games (United States)

    Beserra, Vagner; Nussbaum, Miguel; Grass, Antonio


    When using educational video games, particularly drill-and-practice video games, there are several ways of providing an answer to a quiz. The majority of paper-based options can be classified as being either multiple-choice or constructed-response. Therefore, in the process of creating an educational drill-and-practice video game, one fundamental…

  20. fine-GRAPE : Fine-grained APi usage extractor – an approach and dataset to investigate API usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    An Application Programming Interface (API) provides a set of functionalities to a developer with the aim of enabling reuse. APIs have been investigated from different angles such as popularity usage and evolution to get a better understanding of their various characteristics. For such studies,

  1. Tem Study of Recrystallization in Ultra-Fine Grain AA3104 Alloy Processed by High-Pressure Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H.


    Full Text Available The effect of annealing on the microstructure and the texture development was investigated in a particle containing AA3104 aluminium alloy. The samples were processed at room temperature by high-pressure torsion (HPT up to ten turns. The nucleation of new grains was analyzed by a transmission electron microscope equipped with a system for local orientation measurements and a heating holder.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K-S. Bataev


    Full Text Available Experimental data on the effect of the age of autoclaved aerated concrete with and without carbonation factor to change its physical and mechanical characteristics, as well as by the amount of creep deformation and degree of reversibility. It was found that the solution of applied problems creep theory for structures of autoclaved aerated concrete, in accordance with their carbonation from the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide, it is necessary to use the theory of elastic-creeping body on the basis of function creep measures in the form proposed by prof. S.V. Alexandrovsky. 

  3. Geochemistry of fine-grained sediments of the upper Cretaceous to Paleogene Gosau Group (Austria, Slovakia: Implications for paleoenvironmental and provenance studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Hofer


    Full Text Available Bulk rock geochemistry of 169 fine-grained sediment samples of the upper Cretaceous to Paleogene Gosau Group (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria and Slovakia from borehole and outcrop localities was performed to separate non-marine and marine deposits. Geochemical characteristics of different Gosau depositional systems, basins and sediment provenance using major-, trace-, and rare earth elements were also investigated. Geochemical proxies such as boron concentrations were tested for seeking the possibilities of paleosalinity indicators. Due to the fact that several pelagic sections are represented by extremely low boron contents, B/Al* ratios are recognized as more robust and differentiate reliably between marine (mean: 160 ± 34 and non-marine (mean: 133 ± 33 samples. Using statistical factor analysis, hemipelagic to pelagic samples from the Gießhübl Syncline and Slovakian equivalents can be differentiated from marginal-marine to non-marine samples from the Grünbach and Glinzendorf Syncline related to terrigenous (SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, Th, Rb, Zr and others and pelagic indicative elements (CaO, Sr, TOT/C and B/Al*. A clear indication for ophiolitic provenance is traced by high amounts of chromium and nickel. Only non-marine successions of the Glinzendorf Syncline show higher Cr and Ni concentrations (up to 250 and 400 ppm, respectively and enriched Cr/V and Y/Ni ratios trending to an ultramafic source.

  4. Fine-grained parallelization of fitness functions in bioinformatics optimization problems: gene selection for cancer classification and biclustering of gene expression data. (United States)

    Gomez-Pulido, Juan A; Cerrada-Barrios, Jose L; Trinidad-Amado, Sebastian; Lanza-Gutierrez, Jose M; Fernandez-Diaz, Ramon A; Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo


    Metaheuristics are widely used to solve large combinatorial optimization problems in bioinformatics because of the huge set of possible solutions. Two representative problems are gene selection for cancer classification and biclustering of gene expression data. In most cases, these metaheuristics, as well as other non-linear techniques, apply a fitness function to each possible solution with a size-limited population, and that step involves higher latencies than other parts of the algorithms, which is the reason why the execution time of the applications will mainly depend on the execution time of the fitness function. In addition, it is usual to find floating-point arithmetic formulations for the fitness functions. This way, a careful parallelization of these functions using the reconfigurable hardware technology will accelerate the computation, specially if they are applied in parallel to several solutions of the population. A fine-grained parallelization of two floating-point fitness functions of different complexities and features involved in biclustering of gene expression data and gene selection for cancer classification allowed for obtaining higher speedups and power-reduced computation with regard to usual microprocessors. The results show better performances using reconfigurable hardware technology instead of usual microprocessors, in computing time and power consumption terms, not only because of the parallelization of the arithmetic operations, but also thanks to the concurrent fitness evaluation for several individuals of the population in the metaheuristic. This is a good basis for building accelerated and low-energy solutions for intensive computing scenarios.

  5. Effects of grain size on high temperature creep of fine grained, solution and dispersion hardened V-1.6Y-8W-0.8TiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuno, T. [Ehime Univerisity, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kurishita, H., E-mail: [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nagasaka, T.; Nishimura, A.; Muroga, T. [Fusion Engineering Research Center, National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Oroshi-cho 322-6, Tok, Gifu 292 (Japan); Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K. [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime Univerisity, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)


    Creep resistance is the major concern of vanadium and its alloys for fusion reactor structural applications. In order to elucidate the effects of grain size on the creep behavior of solution and dispersion strengthened vanadium alloys, V-1.6Y-8W-0.8TiC specimens with fine grain sizes from 0.58 to 1.45 {mu}m were prepared by mechanical alloying and HIP without any plastic working and tested at 1073 K and 250 MPa in vacuum. It is shown that the creep resistance of V-1.6Y-8W-0.8TiC depends strongly on grain size and increases with increasing grain size: The creep life for the grain size of 1.45 {mu}m is almost one order longer than that of 0.58 {mu}m, and about two orders longer than that of V-4Cr-4Ti (NIFS-Heat 2) although the grain size of V-4Cr-4Ti is as large as 17.8 {mu}m. The observed creep behavior is discussed in terms of grain size effects on dislocation glide and grain boundary sliding.

  6. Metallurgical characteristics and failure mode transition for dissimilar resistance spot welds between ultra-fine grained and coarse-grained low carbon steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M., E-mail:; Kokabi, A.H.


    We studied the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of spot welded specimens, fabricated from low carbon steel sheets with different microstructures. Both ultra-fine grained (UFG) steel sheet and coarse grained (CG) steel sheet were used. The refined microstructure of the UFG steel has been produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) using the constrained groove pressing (CGP) method. The grain size of the base metals was approximately 260 nm and 30 µm in diameter, respectively, in the UFG and CG steels. Examining the microstructure of a cross section cut through the spot weld reveals a similar grain size and phase distribution in the nugget on both the sides of the initial interface between sheets. Some recrystallization is observed in the heat affected zone on the UFG side as previously reported after the welding of symmetrical UFG–UFG spot welded specimens. The same energy deposit produces larger nuggets after the spot welding of UFG steels. Moreover, the hardness distribution across the nugget changes after welding on both sides of the initial (UFG/CG) interface. This effect is presently attributed to a change in the solidification, cooling rate and tempering after welding, likely because the higher resistance of UFG steel sheets increases the heat release by the Joule effect during spot welding. These changes in the mechanical behavior modify the transition between the interfacial failure (IF) and pull out failure (PF) mode with respect to energy deposit.

  7. arXiv The FoCal prototype - an extremely fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter using CMOS pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Nooren, G.; Peitzmann, T.; Reicher, M.; Rocco, E.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; van den Brink, A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.

    A prototype of a Si-W EM calorimeter was built with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors as the active elements. With a pixelsize of 30 $\\mu$m it allows digital calorimetry, i.e. the particles' energy is determined by counting pixels, not by measuring the energy deposited. Although of modest size, with a width of only four Moliere radii, it has 39 million pixels. We describe the construction and tuning of the prototype and present results from beam tests and compare them with predictions of GEANT-based Monte Carlo simulations. We show the shape of showers caused by electrons in unprecedented detail. Results for energy and position resolution will also be given.

  8. The FoCal prototype—an extremely fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter using CMOS pixel sensors (United States)

    de Haas, A. P.; Nooren, G.; Peitzmann, T.; Reicher, M.; Rocco, E.; Röhrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; van den Brink, A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.


    A prototype of a Si-W EM calorimeter was built with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors as the active elements. With a pixel size of 30 μm it allows digital calorimetry, i.e. the particle's energy is determined by counting pixels, not by measuring the energy deposited. Although of modest size, with a width of only four Moliere radii, it has 39 million pixels. In this article the construction and tuning of the prototype is described. Results from beam tests are compared with predictions of GEANT-based Monte Carlo simulations. The shape of showers caused by electrons is shown in unprecedented detail. Results for energy and position resolution are also given.

  9. Determining the sources of fine-grained sediment using the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT) (United States)

    Gorman Sanisaca, Lillian E.; Gellis, Allen C.; Lorenz, David L.


    A sound understanding of sources contributing to instream sediment flux in a watershed is important when developing total maximum daily load (TMDL) management strategies designed to reduce suspended sediment in streams. Sediment fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches are two techniques that, when used jointly, can qualify and quantify the major sources of sediment in a given watershed. The sediment fingerprinting approach uses trace element concentrations from samples in known potential source areas to determine a clear signature of each potential source. A mixing model is then used to determine the relative source contribution to the target suspended sediment samples.The computational steps required to apportion sediment for each target sample are quite involved and time intensive, a problem the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT) addresses. Sed_SAT is a user-friendly statistical model that guides the user through the necessary steps in order to quantify the relative contributions of sediment sources in a given watershed. The model is written using the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2016b) and utilizes Microsoft Access® as a user interface but requires no prior knowledge of R or Microsoft Access® to successfully run the model successfully. Sed_SAT identifies outliers, corrects for differences in size and organic content in the source samples relative to the target samples, evaluates the conservative behavior of tracers used in fingerprinting by applying a “Bracket Test,” identifies tracers with the highest discriminatory power, and provides robust error analysis through a Monte Carlo simulation following the mixing model. Quantifying sediment source contributions using the sediment fingerprinting approach provides local, State, and Federal land management agencies with important information needed to implement effective strategies to reduce sediment. Sed_SAT is designed to assist these agencies in applying the sediment fingerprinting

  10. Recent insights into genotype-phenotype relationships in patients with Rett syndrome using a fine grain scale. (United States)

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Colombo, Barbara; Russo, Silvia; Cogliati, Francesca; Masciadri, Maura; Foglia, Silvia; Antonietti, Alessandro; Tavian, Daniela


    Mutations in MECP2 gene cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting around 1 in 10,000 female births. The clinical picture of RTT appears quite heterogeneous for each single feature. Mutations in MECP2 gene have been associated with the onset of RTT. The most known gene function consists of transcriptional repression of specific target genes, mainly by the binding of its methyl binding domain (MBD) to methylated CpG nucleotides and recruiting co-repressors and histone deacetylase binding to DNA by its transcription repressor domain (TRD). This study aimed at evaluating a cohort of 114 Rett syndrome (RTT) patients with a detailed scale measuring the different kinds of impairments produced by the syndrome. The sample included relatively large subsets of the most frequent mutations, so that genotype-phenotype correlations could be tested. Results revealed that frequent missense mutations showed a specific profile in different areas of impairment. The R306C mutation, considered as producing mild impairment, was associated to a moderate phenotype in which behavioural characteristics were mainly affected. A notable difference emerged by comparing mutations truncating the protein before and after the nuclear localization signal; such a difference concerned prevalently the motor-functional and autonomy skills of the patients, affecting the management of everyday activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N


    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rates and fluxes of centennial-scale carbon storage in the fine-grained sediments from the central South Yellow Sea and Min-Zhe belt, East China Sea (United States)

    Wang, Jianghai; Xiao, Xi; Zhou, Qianzhi; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chenxi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Dongliang


    The global carbon cycle has played a key role in mitigating global warming and climate change. Long-term natural and anthropogenic processes influence the composition, sources, burial rates, and fluxes of carbon in sediments on the continental shelf of China. In this study, the rates, fluxes, and amounts of carbon storage at the centennial scale were estimated and demonstrated using the case study of three fine-grained sediment cores from the central South Yellow Sea area (SYSA) and Min-Zhe belt (MZB), East China Sea. Based on the high-resolution temporal sequences of total carbon (TC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents, we reconstructed the annual variations of historical marine carbon storage, and explored the influence of terrestrial and marine sources on carbon burial at the centennial scale. The estimated TC storage over 100 years was 1.18×108 t in the SYSA and 1.45×109 t in the MZB. The corrected TOC storage fluxes at the centennial scale ranged from 17 to 28 t/km2/a in the SYSA and from 56 to 148 t/km2/a in the MZB. The decrease of terrestrial materials and the increase of marine primary production suggest that the TOC buried in the sediments in the SYSA and MZB was mainly derived from the marine autogenetic source. In the MZB, two depletion events occurred in TC and TOC storage from 1985 to 1987 and 2003 to 2006, which were coeval with the water impoundment in the Gezhouba and Three Gorges dams, respectively. The high-resolution records of the carbon storage rates and fluxes in the SYSA and MZB reflect the synchronous responses to human activities and provide an important reference for assessing the carbon sequestration capacity of the marginal seas of China.

  13. Numerical modelling of fine-grained sediments remobilization in heavily polluted streams. Case study: Elbe and Bílina River, Czech Republic. (United States)

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar


    river and the riparian sediment evaluation the 2D schematization (MIKE 21 C) was selected. It enabled to distinguish flow characteristics in the zone with complicated hydrodynamic conditions. The risk of remobilization of fine-grained sediments was evaluated in order to define a threshold discharge value after that the spreading of pollution can be expected. The major contribution of the study, realized in the framework of international iniciative ELSA was the identification of threshold values for potential remobilization of sediment burdened by old loads in different environments. These threshold values are important information for identification and mitigation of risks related with old loads and hydrological extremes. From methodological point of view the study verified validity of applied distinct approaches for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment and identified limits for their application. Key words: sediment, remobilization, old loads, modelling, hydrodynamics, Elbe river

  14. Crack arrestability of ship hull steel plate in accidental conditions: Application of high arrestability endowed ultra fine-grain surface layer steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Hagiwara, Yukito [Oita R and D Lab. (Japan); Oshita, Shigeru [Nippon Steel Corp., Oita (Japan). Oita Works; Inoue, Takehiro [Nippon Steel Corp., Futsu, Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Labs.; Hashimoto, Kunifumi; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Tada, Masuo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan); Yajima, Hiroshi [Univ. of Hiroshima (Japan)


    A new type steel plate with ultra fine-grained surface layers (SUF steel) has been developed to improve crack arrestability. The application of this new type steel makes it possible to prevent catastrophic brittle fracture accidents of ship hull structures in emergency conditions, such as in serious collisions or groundings. It will reduce further the risk of casualties and environmental pollutions, caused by accidents of large crude oil carriers (VLCCs). The authors have investigated the validity for the application of the new type steel with ultra-high crack arrestability. Both computer simulations for collision of two VLCCs and large-scale fracture testings for crack arrestability have been carried out to study the accidental cases. The simulation results suggest that a collision generates a significant amount of plastic strain damage for the hull plate around a struck part. For example, the sheer strake plate near the struck part suffers 5 to 10% of plastic strain, before an inner-hull ruptures. Therefore, the effect of plastic strain (10% level) on crack arrestability of steel plates (the SUF plate and a conventional TMCP plate) was examined by standard ESSO tests, ultra wide-plate duplex ESSO tests, and sheer strake model tests. The test results are as follows: (1) Plastic strain deteriorates crack arrestability of steel plates. (2) Sufficient crack arrestability at 0 deg. C cannot be expected in the conventional TMCP steel plate plastically strained by about 10%. (3) The SUF plate maintains high crack arrestability even after introducing 10% plastic strain, at design temperature of 0 deg. C.

  15. Performance of the provider satisfaction inventory to measure provider satisfaction with diabetes care. (United States)

    Montori, Victor M; Tweedy, Deborah A; Vogelsang, Debra A; Schryver, Patricia G; Naessens, James M; Smith, Steven A


    To develop and validate an inventory to measure provider satisfaction with diabetes management. Using the Mayo Clinic Model of Care, a review of the literature, and expert input, we developed a 4-category (chronic disease management, collaborative team practice, outcomes, and supportive environment), 29-item, 7-point-per-item Provider Satisfaction Inventory (PSI). For evaluation of the PSI, we mailed the survey to 192 primary-care and specialized providers from 8 practice sites (of whom 60 primary-care providers were participating in either usual or planned diabetes care). The Cronbach a score was used to assess the instrument's internal reliability. Participating providers indicated satisfaction or dissatisfaction with management of chronic disease by responding to 29 statements. The response rate was 58%. In each category, the Cronbach a score ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. Providers expressed satisfaction with patient-physician relationships, with the contributions of the nurse educator to the team, and with physician leadership. Providers were dissatisfied with their ability to spend adequate time with the patient (3.6 +/- 1.4), their ability to give patients with diabetes necessary personal attention (4.1 +/- 1.2), the efficient passing of communication (4.3 +/- 1.2), and the opportunities for input to change practice (4.3 +/- 1.6). No statistically significant difference (P = 0.12) was found in mean total scores between planned care (5.0 +/- 0.5) and usual care (4.7 +/- 0.6) providers. Moreover, no significant differences were noted across practice sites. The PSI is a reliable and preliminarily valid instrument for measuring provider satisfaction with diabetes care. Use in research and quality improvement activities awaits further validation.

  16. Ichnofabrics and biologically mediated changes in clay mineral assemblages from a deep-water, fine-grained, calcareous sedimentary succession : an example from the Upper Cretaceous Wyandot Formation, offshore Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.; McIlroy, D. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    This paper documented the ichnology and ichnofabrics of the Upper Cretaceous Wyandot Formation, a 400-metre thick succession of fine-grained calcareous mudstone located offshore Nova Scotia, and examined changes in the ichnofabric that may be the result of paleoenvironmental perturbations. The formation has two lithofacies, one pure chalk and the other an interbedded, kaolinite-bearing, argillaceous and calcareous claystone, both of which have components derived from primary production in the photic zone, which is rich in foraminifera and coccoliths. The formation is bioturbated in which low pelagic sediment accumulations rates resulted in tiering and continual overprinting of trace fossils. The ichnological analysis unveiled the trends in environmental deterioration and amelioration. Fluctuations in the input of organic matter resulted in a rise of the redox front and low porewater/sediment oxygenation, which excluded many endobenthic organisms and resulted in changes in the trace fossil assemblages. Bioturbation alters the authigenic clay mineral assemblages and thereby affects sediment texture, as shown in the mineralogical differences between burrow fill and host sediment. The clay mineral assemblage was more diverse within the burrows than in the surrounding sediment. This is likely due to the authigenesis in the digestive system of deposit-feeding endobenthos. The effects of bioturbation are reflected in the chalk and interlayed marlstone of the formation. Biologically induced textural heterogeneities have a significant effect on reservoir quality. It was concluded that large-scale biodeposition may notably alter the texture of fine-grained sediments. 66 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  17. Consideration on buckling and plastic breakdown strength characteristics of a steel plate with surface layers of ultra fine grain microstructure (SUF); Hyoso chosairyu koban no zakutsu sosei hokai kyodo tokusei ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yao, T.; Yajima, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Morita, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogihara, Y.; Ishikawa, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Buckling and plastic breakdown strength characteristics of a structure fabricated by using new steel plates with surface layer made into ultra fine grain structure were analyzed and discussed by using a belt plate buckling and plasticity test and the finite element method. The tested steel plate has a thickness of 25 mm, and was fabricated for ocean vessel use, with surface layers on both sides of about 1/6 of the whole thickness having been made an ultra fine grain structure. As a result of a belt steel buckling and plasticity test on a steel plate with surface ratio of 29%, both of the initial yield stress and the buckling stress were found increased by about 4 to 10% as compared with a steel plate having surface ratio of 0%. An analysis by using the finite element method was made on square steel plates with a length of 80 cm, a width of 100 cm, and thicknesses of 12 mm and 24 mm. A result was obtained that, in the case of surface layer ratio of 33%, both of the initial yield stress and the maximum load withstanding force were higher by 5 to 16% than the case of surface ratio of 0%. Similar rise in strength was shown also in bend preventing plates which are basic constituting members of a vessel. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Measuring parental satisfaction of care quality provided in hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Tsironi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Measuring parental satisfaction is of major importance for pediatric hospitals and the key component of evaluating the quality of services provided to health services. Aim: To assess the degree of parental satisfaction from the care provided to their hospitalized children.Methodology: A descriptive study conducted using a convenience sample of parents of hospitalized children in two public pediatric hospitals in Athens. Data collection was completed in a period of 3 months. 352 questionnaires were collected (response rate 88%. The Pyramid Questionnaire for parents of hospitalized children was used which estimates the degree of parental satisfaction from the care provided to their hospitalized child.Results: More parents were satisfied with health care professionals’ behavior (81,9%, the supplied care (78,2% and the information provision to parents regarding the hospitalized child’s disease (71,9%. In contrast, less parents were satisfied with their hospitalized child’s involvement in care (52,3% and the accessibility to the hospital (39,5%. The overall parental satisfaction ranged in very good level (76,8% and it was higher on hospital A (78,8%, among married parents (77,4% and those not al all concerned or concerned less for child’s illness (83,1%. Logistic regression model showed that hospitalization in hospital B and the great concern for child’s illness and its complications decreased ovewrall satisfaction by 24% and 17% respectively. Conclusions: The assessment of the degree of parental satisfaction is the most important indicator of hospitals’ proper functioning. From our study certain areas need improvement, such as: the parental involvement in child’s care, information provision, the accessibility to the hospital, the communication and the interpersonal health care in order greater satisfaction to be achieved.

  19. Measuring Efficiency of Secondary Healthcare Providers in Slovenia (United States)

    Blatnik, Patricia; Bojnec, Štefan; Tušak, Matej


    Abstract The chief aim of this study was to analyze secondary healthcare providers' efficiency, focusing on the efficiency analysis of Slovene general hospitals. We intended to present a complete picture of technical, allocative, and cost or economic efficiency of general hospitals. Methods We researched the aspects of efficiency with two econometric methods. First, we calculated the necessary quotients of efficiency with the stochastic frontier analyze (SFA), which are realized by econometric evaluation of stochastic frontier functions; then, with the data envelopment analyze (DEA), we calculated the necessary quotients that are based on the linear programming method. Results Results on measures of efficiency showed that the two chosen methods produced two different conclusions. The SFA method concluded Celje General Hospital is the most efficient general hospital, whereas the DEA method concluded Brežice General Hospital was the hospital to be declared as the most efficient hospital. Conclusion Our results are a useful tool that can aid managers, payers, and designers of healthcare policy to better understand how general hospitals operate. The participants can accordingly decide with less difficulty on any further business operations of general hospitals, having the best practices of general hospitals at their disposal. PMID:28730180

  20. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument. (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H


    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  1. Evaluating Frameworks That Provide Value Measures for Health Care Interventions. (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Ramsey, Scott D; Lieu, Tracy A; Phelps, Charles E


    The recent acceleration of scientific discovery has led to greater choices in health care. New technologies, diagnostic tests, and pharmaceuticals have widely varying impact on patients and populations in terms of benefits, toxicities, and costs, stimulating a resurgence of interest in the creation of frameworks intended to measure value in health. Many of these are offered by providers and/or advocacy organizations with expertise and interest in specific diseases (e.g., cancer and heart disease). To help assess the utility of and the potential biases embedded in these frameworks, we created an evaluation taxonomy with seven basic components: 1) define the purpose; 2) detail the conceptual approach, including perspectives, methods for obtaining preferences of decision makers (e.g., patients), and ability to incorporate multiple dimensions of value; 3) discuss inclusions and exclusions of elements included in the framework, and whether the framework assumes clinical intervention or offers alternatives such as palliative care or watchful waiting; 4) evaluate data sources and their scientific validity; 5) assess the intervention's effect on total costs of treating a defined population; 6) analyze how uncertainty is incorporated; and 7) illuminate possible conflicts of interest among those creating the framework. We apply the taxonomy to four representative value frameworks recently published by professional organizations focused on treatment of cancer and heart disease and on vaccine use. We conclude that each of these efforts has strengths and weaknesses when evaluated using our taxonomy, and suggest pathways to enhance the utility of value-assessing frameworks for policy and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Can Formal Methods Provide (Necessary and) Sufficient Conditions for Measurement? (United States)

    Mari, Luca


    In his focus article, "Rethinking Traditional Methods of Survey Validation," published in this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Andrew Maul introduces and discusses several foundational issues and concludes that self-report measures may be particularly difficult to validate and may fall short…

  3. Measuring Perceptual (In) Congruence between Information Service Providers and Users (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal


    Library quality is no longer evaluated solely on the value of its collections, as user perceptions of service quality play an increasingly important role in defining overall library value. This paper presents a retooling of the LibQUAL+ survey instrument, blending the gap measurement model with perceptual congruence model studies from information…

  4. Insights into the fine-grained fraction of serpentine mud from the Southern Chamorro seamount (ODP Leg 195): A combined XRD, RFA and TEM-EDS study (United States)

    Lischka, M.; Meschede, M.; Warr, L. N.


    Serpentine mud volcanoes in the outer forearc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system occur in a restricted zone, 50km - 120 km away from the trench axis [Fryer et al., 1985]. The morphotectonic elements of the forearc are dominated by horst and graben structures, caused by extensional movements and normal fault systems related to seamount subduction [Fryer et al., 2000; Stern and Smooth, 1998]. These faults may provide conduits for the diapiric uprising of low density serpentine, extruding at the seafloor in stratovolcanic like structures. Released fluids from the subducted slab at estimated depths of approximately 30km are considered to hydrate the forearc mantle wedge along those fractures [Benton et al., 2001; Mottl et al., 2003; Rübke et al., 2004]. During the formation of the fault gouge, serpentine-bodies entrained xenoliths and xenocrysts from the surrounding rocks and are exhumed towards the surface [Fryer et al., 1990]. In our investigation we focus on the silty to clay-sized particle fraction of the serpentine mud matrix, drilled during ODP Leg 195 at site 1200E. We analysed the bulk mineral composition with X-ray diffraction methods on random powder samples, supplemented by X-ray fluorescence measurements on 25 samples. To obtain more insights into the mineralogy fabric and microstructure of the samples, electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy were used to determine the crystal-chemistry and alteration textures. Particular emphasis was given on determining serpentine polymorphs and the nature of other phyllosilicates and their geochemical composition and constraints. Geochemical observation of the secondary mineral phases should allow us to reconstruct the processes linked with the migration of fluids and volatile components during subduction related metamorphism affecting the mantle wedge. Based on the new data we characterize the conditions of alteration products within a subduction factory, related to the diapiric deposition of

  5. Direct synthesis of Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} from solution for preparation of fine-grained Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphors at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jianquan, E-mail: [School of Nature Resources & Materials Science, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province 066004 (China); Zhang, Xinyi [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Han, Xiumei [School of Nature Resources & Materials Science, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province 066004 (China); Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xueyang [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Zhong, Ruixia; Guo, Rui [School of Nature Resources & Materials Science, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province 066004 (China)


    The precursors Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} can be directly precipitated from solution near room temperature under the normal pressure. The cubic Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} with fine grain size can be synthesized from Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} at the temperature as low as 600 °C. Especially, the rare earth element, such as Eu{sup 3+} etc., as luminescent center, has been simultaneously integrated into the lattices of Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The luminescent intensities of the samples annealed at a temperature over 800 °C are strong enough for phosphors, and increase with the annealing temperatures, reach a maximum at 1200 °C and then drop down at 1300 °C. The grain sizes of all the samples annealed below 1200 °C are smaller than 1 μm and suitable for mixing with other phosphors in the applications. The photoluminescent spectra of the Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} reveal that the intensities of both emission and excitation peaks increase with the dose of Eu{sup 3+}, and reach maxima at the dose level about 1.2%, then decrease due to concentration quenching. A new excitation band at 230 nm has been observed in heavier doped samples due to the complex point defects produced by association. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy to prepare a stable hydroxide Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} is developed. The strontium aluminates phosphors Eu{sup 3+} doped Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphors with controlled composition can been obtained at a low temperature by using Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} as a precursor. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} can be directly deposited from solution. • Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} can be synthesized from Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} at the temperature as low as 600 °C. • Luminescent center integrated into the lattices of Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} at low temperature. • The phosphors with fine grain size and the strong luminescent intensities. • A new excitation band at 230 nm has been

  6. Introducing Advanced Fine-grained Security in dCache-SRM for PetaByte-scale Storage Systems on Global Data Grids: gPLAZMA `grid-aware PLuggable AuthoriZation MAnagement System'

    CERN Document Server

    Rana, A S; Kennedy, R; Bakken, J; Hesselroth, T; Fisk, I; Fuhrmann, P; Ernst, M; Lorch, M; Skow, D


    We introduce gPLAZMA (grid-aware PLuggable Authorization MAnagement) for dCache/SRM in this publication. Our work is motivated by a need for fine-grained security (Role Based Access Control or RBAC) in storage systems on global data grids, and utilizes VOMS extended X.509 certificate specification for defining extra attributes (FQANs), based on RFC3281. Our implementation, gPLAZMA in dCache, introduces storage authorization callouts for SRM and GridFTP. It allows using different authorization mechanisms simultaneously, fine-tuned with switches and priorities of mechanisms. Of the four mechanisms currently supported, one is an integration with RBAC services in the open science grid (OSG) USCMS/USATLAS Privilege Project, others are built-in as a lightweight suite of services (gPLAZMA lite authorization services suite) including the legacy dcache.kpwd file, as well as the popular grid-mapfile, augmented with a gPLAZMALite specific RBAC mechanism. Based on our current work, we also outline a list of future tasks....

  7. Effects of grain size and humidity on fretting wear in fine-grained alumina, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC, and zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krell, A. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Ceramic Technologies and Sintered Materials, Dresden (Germany); Klaffke, D. [Federal Inst. for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)


    Friction and wear of sintered alumina with grain sizes between 0.4 and 3 {micro}m were measured in comparison with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC composites and with tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dependence on the grain boundary toughness and residual microstresses is investigated, and a hierarchical order of influencing parameters is observed. In air, reduced alumina grain sizes improve the micromechanical stability of the grain boundaries and the hardness, and reduced wear is governed by microplastic deformation, with few pullout events. Humidity and water slightly reduce the friction of all of the investigated ceramics. In water, this effect reduces the wear of coarser alumina microstructures. The wear of aluminas and of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC composite is similar; it is lower than observed in zirconia, where extended surface cracking occurs at grain sizes as small as 0.3 {micro}m.

  8. Impact of silica diagenesis on the porosity of fine-grained strata: An analysis of Cenozoic mudstones from the North Sea (United States)

    Wrona, Thilo; Taylor, Kevin G.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Huuse, Mads; Najorka, Jens; Pan, Indranil


    Silica diagenesis has the potential to drastically change the physical and fluid flow properties of its host strata and therefore plays a key role in the development of sedimentary basins. The specific processes involved in silica diagenesis are, however, still poorly explained by existing models. This knowledge gap is addressed by investigating the effect of silica diagenesis on the porosity of Cenozoic mudstones of the North Viking Graben, northern North Sea through a multiple linear regression analysis. First, we identify and quantify the mineralogy of these rocks by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Mineral contents and host rock porosity data inferred from wireline data of two exploration wells are then analyzed by multiple linear regressions. This robust statistical analysis reveals that biogenic opal-A is a significant control and authigenic opal-CT is a minor influence on the porosity of these rocks. These results suggest that the initial porosity of siliceous mudstones increases with biogenic opal-A production during deposition and that the porosity reduction during opal-A/CT transformation results from opal-A dissolution. These findings advance our understanding of compaction, dewatering, and lithification of siliceous sediments and rocks. Moreover, this study provides a recipe for the derivation of the key controls (e.g., composition) on a rock property (e.g., porosity) that can be applied to a variety of problems in rock physics.

  9. Advanced, Analytic, Automated (AAA) Measurement of Engagement during Learning (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney; Dieterle, Ed; Duckworth, Angela


    It is generally acknowledged that engagement plays a critical role in learning. Unfortunately, the study of engagement has been stymied by a lack of valid and efficient measures. We introduce the advanced, analytic, and automated (AAA) approach to measure engagement at fine-grained temporal resolutions. The AAA measurement approach is grounded in…

  10. Measuring physical inactivity: do current measures provide an accurate view of "sedentary" video game time? (United States)

    Fullerton, Simon; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Berry, Narelle


    Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n = 2026) were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children's video game time. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as "sedentary" may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  11. "Fine grain Nb tube for SRF cavities"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Barber


    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in charged particle linear accelerators, are currently fabricated by deep drawing niobium sheets and welding the drawn dishes together. The Nb sheet has a non-uniform microstructure, which leads to unpredictable cavity shape and surface roughness, and inconsistent "spring-back" during forming. In addition, weld zones cause hot spots during cavity operation. These factors limit linear accelerator performance and increase cavity manufacturing cost. Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) can be used to refine and homogenize the microstructure of Nb tube for subsequent hydroforming into SRF cavities. Careful selection of deformation and heat treatment conditions during the processing steps can give a uniform and consistent microstructure in the tube, leading to improved deformability and lower manufacturing costs. Favorable microstructures were achieved in short test samples of RRR Nb tube, which may be particularly suitable for hydroforming into SRF cavity strings. The approach demonstrated could be applicable to microstructure engineering of other tube materials including tantalum, titanium, and zirconium.

  12. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A-rich grain boundary layer followed by a B-rich layer; the grain interior exhibits a spinodally decomposed microstructure, evolving slowly. Further, grain growth is suppressed completely during the decomposition process. Keywords. Spinodal decomposition; grain boundary effects; phase field models. 1. Introduction.

  13. MOFAC : model for fine grained access control



    M.Sc. (Computer Science) Computer security is a key component in any computer system. Traditionally computers were not connected to one another. This centralized configuration made the implementation of computer security a relatively easy task. The closed nature of the system limited the number of unknown factors that could cause security breaches. The users and their access rights were generally well defined and the system was protected from outside threats through simple, yet effective c...

  14. Plasticity in Ultra Fine Grained Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koslowski, Marisol [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    Understanding the mechanisms of deformation of nanocrystalline (nc) materials is critical to the design of micro and nano devices and to develop materials with superior fracture strength and wear resistance for applications in new energy technologies. In this project we focused on understanding the following plastic deformation processes described in detail in the following sections: 1. Plastic strain recovery (Section 1). 2. Effect of microstructural variability on the yield stress of nc metals (Section 2). 3. The role of partial and extended full dislocations in plastic deformation of nc metals (Section 3).

  15. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have used a phase field model to study spinodal decomposition in polycrystalline materials in which the grain size is of the same order of magnitude as the characteristic decomposition wavelength ( λ S D ). In the spirit of phase field models, each grain () in our model has an order parameter ( η i ) associated with it; ...

  16. Performance Measurement for a Logistics Services Provider to the Polymer Industry


    Tok, King Lai


    This management project discusses the form of performance measurement system suitable for a logistics services provider who focuses on providing its services to large multinational petrochemical companies in the polymer industry

  17. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  18. The Medicare Electronic Health Record Incentive Program: provider performance on core and menu measures. (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Feblowitz, Joshua; Samal, Lipika; McCoy, Allison B; Sittig, Dean F


    To measure performance by eligible health care providers on CMS's meaningful use measures. Medicare Electronic Health Record Incentive Program Eligible Professionals Public Use File (PUF), which contains data on meaningful use attestations by 237,267 eligible providers through May 31, 2013. Cross-sectional analysis of the 15 core and 10 menu measures pertaining to use of EHR functions reported in the PUF. Providers in the dataset performed strongly on all core measures, with the most frequent response for each of the 15 measures being 90-100 percent compliance, even when the threshold for a particular measure was lower (e.g., 30 percent). PCPs had higher scores than specialists for computerized order entry, maintaining an active medication list, and documenting vital signs, while specialists had higher scores for maintaining a problem list, recording patient demographics and smoking status, and for providing patients with an after-visit summary. In fact, 90.2 percent of eligible providers claimed at least one exclusion, and half claimed two or more. Providers are successfully attesting to CMS's requirements, and often exceeding the thresholds required by CMS; however, some troubling patterns in exclusions are present. CMS should raise program requirements in future years. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Composite Measures of Health Care Provider Performance: A Description of Approaches (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Restuccia, Joseph D; Rosen, Amy K


    Context Since the Institute of Medicine’s 2001 report Crossing the Quality Chasm, there has been a rapid proliferation of quality measures used in quality-monitoring, provider-profiling, and pay-for-performance (P4P) programs. Although individual performance measures are useful for identifying specific processes and outcomes for improvement and tracking progress, they do not easily provide an accessible overview of performance. Composite measures aggregate individual performance measures into a summary score. By reducing the amount of data that must be processed, they facilitate (1) benchmarking of an organization’s performance, encouraging quality improvement initiatives to match performance against high-performing organizations, and (2) profiling and P4P programs based on an organization’s overall performance. Methods We describe different approaches to creating composite measures, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and provide examples of their use. Findings The major issues in creating composite measures are (1) whether to aggregate measures at the patient level through all-or-none approaches or the facility level, using one of the several possible weighting schemes; (2) when combining measures on different scales, how to rescale measures (using z scores, range percentages, ranks, or 5-star categorizations); and (3) whether to use shrinkage estimators, which increase precision by smoothing rates from smaller facilities but also decrease transparency. Conclusions Because provider rankings and rewards under P4P programs may be sensitive to both context and the data, careful analysis is warranted before deciding to implement a particular method. A better understanding of both when and where to use composite measures and the incentives created by composite measures are likely to be important areas of research as the use of composite measures grows. PMID:26626986

  20. Quantitative measures of walking and strength provide insight into brain corticospinal tract pathology in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E Fritz


    Quantitative measures of strength and walking are associated with brain corticospinal tract pathology. The addition of these quantitative measures to basic clinical information explains more of the variance in corticospinal tract fractional anisotropy and magnetization transfer ratio than the basic clinical information alone. Outcome measurement for multiple sclerosis clinical trials has been notoriously challenging; the use of quantitative measures of strength and walking along with tract-specific imaging methods may improve our ability to monitor disease change over time, with intervention, and provide needed guidelines for developing more effective targeted rehabilitation strategies.

  1. Measuring factors affecting implementation of health innovations: a systematic review of structural, organizational, provider, patient, and innovation level measures. (United States)

    Chaudoir, Stephenie R; Dugan, Alicia G; Barr, Colin H I


    Two of the current methodological barriers to implementation science efforts are the lack of agreement regarding constructs hypothesized to affect implementation success and identifiable measures of these constructs. In order to address these gaps, the main goals of this paper were to identify a multi-level framework that captures the predominant factors that impact implementation outcomes, conduct a systematic review of available measures assessing constructs subsumed within these primary factors, and determine the criterion validity of these measures in the search articles. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles reporting the use or development of measures designed to assess constructs that predict the implementation of evidence-based health innovations. Articles published through 12 August 2012 were identified through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the journal Implementation Science. We then utilized a modified five-factor framework in order to code whether each measure contained items that assess constructs representing structural, organizational, provider, patient, and innovation level factors. Further, we coded the criterion validity of each measure within the search articles obtained. Our review identified 62 measures. Results indicate that organization, provider, and innovation-level constructs have the greatest number of measures available for use, whereas structural and patient-level constructs have the least. Additionally, relatively few measures demonstrated criterion validity, or reliable association with an implementation outcome (e.g., fidelity). In light of these findings, our discussion centers on strategies that researchers can utilize in order to identify, adapt, and improve extant measures for use in their own implementation research. In total, our literature review and resulting measures compendium increases the capacity of researchers to conceptualize and measure implementation-related constructs in their ongoing and

  2. The play is a hit -but how can you tell? measuring audience bio-responses towards a performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Wang (Chen); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)


    textabstractResearch has shown that physiological sensors provide a valuable mechanism for quantifying the experience of audiences attending cultural events. In the strength of the applause or questionnaires, bio-sensors provide fine-grained timed data that can be used to infer the quality of the

  3. A systematic review of the extent and measurement of healthcare provider racism. (United States)

    Paradies, Yin; Truong, Mandy; Priest, Naomi


    Although considered a key driver of racial disparities in healthcare, relatively little is known about the extent of interpersonal racism perpetrated by healthcare providers, nor is there a good understanding of how best to measure such racism. This paper reviews worldwide evidence (from 1995 onwards) for racism among healthcare providers; as well as comparing existing measurement approaches to emerging best practice, it focuses on the assessment of interpersonal racism, rather than internalized or systemic/institutional racism. The following databases and electronic journal collections were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2012: Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts. Included studies were published empirical studies of any design measuring and/or reporting on healthcare provider racism in the English language. Data on study design and objectives; method of measurement, constructs measured, type of tool; study population and healthcare setting; country and language of study; and study outcomes were extracted from each study. The 37 studies included in this review were almost solely conducted in the U.S. and with physicians. Statistically significant evidence of racist beliefs, emotions or practices among healthcare providers in relation to minority groups was evident in 26 of these studies. Although a number of measurement approaches were utilized, a limited range of constructs was assessed. Despite burgeoning interest in racism as a contributor to racial disparities in healthcare, we still know little about the extent of healthcare provider racism or how best to measure it. Studies using more sophisticated approaches to assess healthcare provider racism are required to inform interventions aimed at reducing racial disparities in health.

  4. Provider performance measures in private and public programs: achieving meaningful alignment with flexibility to innovate. (United States)

    Higgins, Aparna; Veselovskiy, German; McKown, Lauren


    In recent years there has been a significant expansion in the use of provider performance measures for quality improvement, payment, and public reporting. Using data from a survey of health plans, we characterize the use of such performance measures by private payers. We also compare the use of these measures among selected private and public programs. We studied twenty-three health plans with 121 million commercial enrollees--66 percent of the national commercial enrollment. The health plans reported using 546 distinct performance measures. There was much variation in the use of performance measures in both private and public payment and care delivery programs, despite common areas of focus that included cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and preventive services. We conclude that policy makers and stakeholders who seek less variability in the use of performance measures to increase consistency should balance this goal with the need for flexibility to meet the needs of specific populations and promote innovation.

  5. Measuring Provider Performance for Physicians Participating in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System. (United States)

    Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C


    In 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services began requiring all eligible providers to participate in the Quality Payment Program or face financial reimbursement penalty. The Quality Payment Program outlines two paths for provider participation: the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System and Advanced Alternative Payment Models. For the first performance period beginning in January of 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates that approximately 83 to 90 percent of eligible providers will not qualify for participation in an Advanced Alternative Payment Model and therefore must participate in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System program. The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System path replaces existing quality-reporting programs and adds several new measures to evaluate providers using four categories of data: (1) quality, (2) cost/resource use, (3) improvement activities, and (4) advancing care information. These categories will be combined to calculate a weighted composite score for each provider or provider group. Composite Merit-Based Incentive Payment System scores based on 2017 performance data will be used to adjust reimbursed payment in 2019. In this article, the authors provide relevant background for understanding value-based provider performance measurement. The authors also discuss Merit-Based Incentive Payment System reporting requirements and scoring methodology to provide plastic surgeons with the necessary information to critically evaluate their own practice capabilities in the context of current performance metrics under the Quality Payment Program.

  6. Unstable brittle crack-arrest toughness of newly developed steel plate with surface layers having ultra fine grain microstructure. Part 2. Crack-arrest toughness of the plate after plastic damage and its application to prevent crack expansion after a collision; Hyoso chosairyuko no zeisei kiretsu denpa teishi seino. 2. Sosei sonsho go no tokusei oyobi shototsugo no kiretsu kakudai boshi eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T.; Hagiwara, Y.; Inoue, T.; Oshita, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroiwa, T.; Hashimoto, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tada, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Technical Inst.; Yajima, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Use of ships with high safety and reliability that can suppress the casualties and ocean pollution accidents caused by ships failure to a minimum, are in demand. Therefore, in order to study the improvement of safety when steel plates with surface layers having ultra fine grain microstructure and having extremely improved arrest characteristic are used for ship structures, fracture simulation of collision and comparative evaluation of the arrest properties with the conventional steel plate were carried out. Firstly, fracture simulation of the ship bodycaused by the collision of very large crude oil carries (VLCC) was carried out and the plastic strain caused during the collision was quantified. After that, as for steel plate with surface layers having ultrafine grain microstructure and normal KE 36 steel plate, comparative study of arrestability of steel plate under 10% plastic strain was made. As a result, it was revealed that sufficient arrest efficiency was secured by using steel plate with surface layers having ultra fine grain structure even for the case where arrestability for long big crack is not secured in case of normal KE 36 steel plate due to the plastic strain effect on VLCC caused by collision. 11 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Response distortion in personality measurement: born to deceive, yet capable of providing valid self-assessments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This introductory article to the special issue of Psychology Science devoted to the subject of “Considering Response Distortion in Personality Measurement for Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology Research and Practice” presents an overview of the issues of response distortion in personality measurement. It also provides a summary of the other articles published as part of this special issue addressing social desirability, impression management, self-presentation, response distortion, and faking in personality measurement in industrial, work, and organizational settings.

  8. Applying Rasch Measurement in Mathematics Education Research: Steps towards a Triangulated Investigation into Proficiency in the Multiplicative Conceptual Field (United States)

    Long, Caroline; Wendt, Heike; Dunne, Tim


    Educational measurement is generally thought of as empirical, quantitative, and large-scale, whose purpose is to monitor educational systems. Sociocognitive studies, on the other hand, are associated with small-scale, theoretical, and qualitative studies, the purpose of which is to conduct fine-grained analysis of learning or teaching, or to…

  9. Measuring value at the provider level in the management of cleft lip and palate patients. (United States)

    Abbott, Megan M; Rosen, Heather; Kupfer, Philipp; Meara, John G


    "Value" has become a buzzword in current health-care discussions. This study demonstrates a provider-led strategy to measuring costs, an understudied component of the value equation, for a complex diagnosis for the purposes of improvement. A retrospective, microcosting methodology was used to measure costs for all hospital and physician services and costs to the patient over 18 months of multidisciplinary care for patients with cleft lip and palate. Short-term outcomes were also recorded. Overall costs to all parts of the system ranged from $35,826 to $56,611 for different subtypes, and insight was gained into major cost drivers and variations in care that will drive internal improvement efforts. It is critical that providers learn to work together and become familiar with their own costs in conjunction with outcomes as insurers increase pressure to reduce payments or accept alternative payments so that well-informed decisions can be made.

  10. Effects of performance measure implementation on clinical manager and provider motivation. (United States)

    Damschroder, Laura J; Robinson, Claire H; Francis, Joseph; Bentley, Douglas R; Krein, Sarah L; Rosland, Ann-Marie; Hofer, Timothy P; Kerr, Eve A


    Clinical performance measurement has been a key element of efforts to transform the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). However, there are a number of signs that current performance measurement systems used within and outside the VHA may be reaching the point of maximum benefit to care and in some settings, may be resulting in negative consequences to care, including overtreatment and diminished attention to patient needs and preferences. Our research group has been involved in a long-standing partnership with the office responsible for clinical performance measurement in the VHA to understand and develop potential strategies to mitigate the unintended consequences of measurement. Our aim was to understand how the implementation of diabetes performance measures (PMs) influences management actions and day-to-day clinical practice. This is a mixed methods study design based on quantitative administrative data to select study facilities and quantitative data from semi-structured interviews. Sixty-two network-level and facility-level executives, managers, front-line providers and staff participated in the study. Qualitative content analyses were guided by a team-based consensus approach using verbatim interview transcripts. A published interpretive motivation theory framework is used to describe potential contributions of local implementation strategies to unintended consequences of PMs. Implementation strategies used by management affect providers' response to PMs, which in turn potentially undermines provision of high-quality patient-centered care. These include: 1) feedback reports to providers that are dissociated from a realistic capability to address performance gaps; 2) evaluative criteria set by managers that are at odds with patient-centered care; and 3) pressure created by managers' narrow focus on gaps in PMs that is viewed as more punitive than motivating. Next steps include working with VHA leaders to develop and test implementation approaches to help

  11. Process measures or patient reported experience measures (PREMs) for comparing performance across providers? A study of measures related to access and continuity in Swedish primary care. (United States)

    Glenngård, Anna H; Anell, Anders


    Aim To study (a) the covariation between patient reported experience measures (PREMs) and registered process measures of access and continuity when ranking providers in a primary care setting, and (b) whether registered process measures or PREMs provided more or less information about potential linkages between levels of access and continuity and explaining variables. Access and continuity are important objectives in primary care. They can be measured through registered process measures or PREMs. These measures do not necessarily converge in terms of outcomes. Patient views are affected by factors not necessarily reflecting quality of services. Results from surveys are often uncertain due to low response rates, particularly in vulnerable groups. The quality of process measures, on the other hand, may be influenced by registration practices and are often more easy to manipulate. With increased transparency and use of quality measures for management and governance purposes, knowledge about the pros and cons of using different measures to assess the performance across providers are important. Four regression models were developed with registered process measures and PREMs of access and continuity as dependent variables. Independent variables were characteristics of providers as well as geographical location and degree of competition facing providers. Data were taken from two large Swedish county councils. Findings Although ranking of providers is sensitive to the measure used, the results suggest that providers performing well with respect to one measure also tended to perform well with respect to the other. As process measures are easier and quicker to collect they may be looked upon as the preferred option. PREMs were better than process measures when exploring factors that contributed to variation in performance across providers in our study; however, if the purpose of comparison is continuous learning and development of services, a combination of PREMs and

  12. Mi Piacce – how to measure the pleasures provided by shoe design to physical disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rachel Roncoletta


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is presenting Mi Piacce Methodology, which can be applied by shoe wearers to measure the pleasures provided by shoe design for women with lower limb dysmetria. Qualitative methodology was applied with mix techniques, such as comparative analysis of secondary sources, semi-structured interviews with five health professionals, and a phenomenological methodology with nine wearers. After this, it was develop Mi Piacce Methodology, and it was applied in forty-two wearers’ shoes design; eight are presenting in this paper. It can be concluded that the inconsistency in the degree of pleasures provided by the same style of shoes underlines the importance of conducting a holistic analysis to detect the strong and weak points of each shoe design for the wearer.

  13. Measuring the quality of provided services for patients with chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Heidari Jamebozorgi, Majid; Salesi, Mahmood; Ravangard, Ramin


    The healthcare organizations need to develop and implement quality improvement plans for their survival and success. Measuring quality in the healthcare competitive environment is an undeniable necessity for these organizations and will lead to improved patient satisfaction. This study aimed to measure the quality of provided services for patients with chronic kidney disease in Kerman in 2014. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was performed from 23 January 2014 to 14 February 2014 in four hemodialysis centers in Kerman. All of the patients on chronic hemodialysis (n = 195) who were referred to these four centers were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using the SERVQUAL questionnaire, consisting of two parts: questions related to the patients' demographic characteristics, and 28 items to measure the patients' expectations and perceptions of the five dimensions of service quality, including tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 through some statistical tests, including independent-samples t test, one-way ANOVA, and paired-samples t test. The results showed that the means of patients' expectations were more than their perceptions of the quality of provided services in all dimensions, which indicated that there were gaps in all dimensions. The highest and lowest means of negative gaps were related to empathy (-0.52 ± 0.48) and tangibility (-0.29 ± 0.51). In addition, among the studied patients' demographic characteristics and the five dimensions of service quality, only the difference between the patients' income levels and the gap in assurance were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Overall, the results of the present study showed that the expectations of patients on hemodialysis were more than their perceptions of provided services. The healthcare providers and employees should pay more attention to the patients' opinions and

  14. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA). (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M


    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  15. A Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Provides for Disaster Management, Measurement of Soil Moisture, and Measurement of Earth-Surface Dynamics (United States)

    Madsen, Soren; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)


    A GEO-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) could provide daily coverage of basically all of North and South America with very good temporal coverage within the mapped area. This affords a key capability to disaster management, tectonic mapping and modeling, and vegetation mapping. The fine temporal sampling makes this system particularly useful for disaster management of flooding, hurricanes, and earthquakes. By using a fairly long wavelength, changing water boundaries caused by storms or flooding could be monitored in near real-time. This coverage would also provide revolutionary capabilities in the field of radar interferometry, including the capability to study the interferometric signature immediately before and after an earthquake, thus allowing unprecedented studies of Earth-surface dynamics. Preeruptive volcano dynamics could be studied as well as pre-seismic deformation, one of the most controversial and elusive aspects of earthquakes. Interferometric correlation would similarly allow near real-time mapping of surface changes caused by volcanic eruptions, mud slides, or fires. Finally, a GEO SAR provides an optimum configuration for soil moisture measurement that requires a high temporal sampling rate (1-2 days) with a moderate spatial resolution (1 km or better). From a technological point of view, the largest challenges involved in developing a geosynchronous SAR capability relate to the very large slant range distance from the radar to the mapped area. This leads to requirements for large power or alternatively very large antenna, the ability to steer the mapping area to the left and right of the satellite, and control of the elevation and azimuth angles. The weight of this system is estimated to be 2750 kg and it would require 20 kW of DC-power. Such a system would provide up to a 600 km ground swath in a strip-mapping mode and 4000 km dual-sided mapping in a scan-SAR mode.

  16. Measuring Explicit Word Learning of Preschool Children: A Development Study. (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth Spencer


    The purpose of this article is to present preliminary results related to the development of a new measure of explicit word learning. The measure incorporated elements of explicit vocabulary instruction and dynamic assessment and was designed to be sensitive to differences in word learning skill and to be feasible for use in clinical settings. The explicit word learning measure included brief teaching trials and repeated fine-grained measurement of semantic knowledge and production of 3 novel words (2 verbs and 1 adjective). Preschool children (N = 23) completed the measure of explicit word learning; standardized, norm-referenced measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary; and an incidental word learning task. The measure of explicit word learning provided meaningful information about word learning. Performance on the explicit measure was related to existing vocabulary knowledge and incidental word learning. Findings from this development study indicate that further examination of the measure of explicit word learning is warranted. The measure may have the potential to identify children who are poor word learners.

  17. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fullerton


    Full Text Available Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n=2026 were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Results. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children’s video game time. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as “sedentary” may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  18. Using a novel assessment of procedural proficiency provides medical educators insight into blood pressure measurement. (United States)

    Holmstrup, Michael; Jensen, Brock; Burkart, Rebecca; Levis, Malorie


    This investigation was performed to determine how students in a health sciences program utilize and explain techniques within blood pressure measurement using a novel assessment, and changes associated with greater curricular exposure. An exploratory, qualitative and quantitative study was conducted using a 'Think Aloud' design with protocol analysis. Following familiarization, participants performed the task of measuring blood pressure on a reference subject while stating their thought processes. A trained practitioner recorded each participant's procedural proficiency using a standardized rubric. There were 112 participants in the study with varying levels of curricular exposure to blood pressure measurement. Four trends are noted. Specifically, a trend was observed wherein a marked increase in procedural proficiency with a plateau occurred (e.g. released cuff pressure 2-4 mmHg, 10%, 60%, 83%, 82%). Secondly, a trend was observed with improvement across groups (e.g. cuff placed snugly/smoothly on upper arm, 20%, 60%, 81%, and 91%). Other trends included a marked improvement with subsequent decrease, and an improvement without achieving proficiency (e.g. palpation of the brachial pulse, 5%, 90%, 81%, 68%, appropriate size cuff, 17%, 40%, 33%, 41%, respectively). Qualitatively, transcript interpretation resulted in a need for clarification in the way blood pressure procedure is instructed in the curriculum. The current investigation provides a snapshot of proficiency in blood pressure assessment across a curriculum and highlights considerations for best instructional practices, including the use of Think Aloud. Consequently, medical educators should use qualitative and quantitative assessments concurrently to determine achievement of blood pressure skill proficiency.

  19. Does the edge effect impact on the measure of spatial accessibility to healthcare providers? (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Kihal, Wahida; Le Meur, Nolwenn; Souris, Marc; Deguen, Séverine


    autocorrelation index and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation) are not really impacted. Our research has revealed minor accessibility variation when edge effect has been considered in a French context. No general statement can be set up because intensity of impact varies according to healthcare provider type, territorial organization and methodology used to measure the accessibility to healthcare. Additional researches are required in order to distinguish what findings are specific to a territory and others common to different countries. It constitute a promising direction to determine more precisely healthcare shortage areas and then to fight against social health inequalities.

  20. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vaitkevičiūtė


    Full Text Available If single refugees do not belong to any groups of vulnerable persons, the support for their integration in municipality of lasts 12 months. After this period, people begin an independent life in Lithuanian society. However, not all single refugees manage successfully to do this. The aim of the research is to reveal the need for continuity of the integration measures provided for single refugees in municipalities. The qualitative research was made using semi-structured interviewing. The participants of the study are five social workers, who work in non-governmental organizations and mentoring refugee integration processes in the municipalities. The study results suggest that support period for integration in the municipality is too short. The needs of single foreigners are the least satisfied when learning Lithuanian language, trying to establish themselves in the labour market, gaining professional skills or acquiring qualification, and renting a place to live in. In these contexts, single refugees face discrimination, bullying, language barrier, ignorance and lack of information, experience financial difficulties or even social exclusion. During integration, single refugees have the least difficulties with the healthcare system. Such process and not satisfied psycho-emotional needs encourage the emigration of single refugees. In order to successfully integrate people into Lithuanian society it is necessary to individualize the program, taking into account the particular experiences, abilities, needs of individuals as well as educating professionals of public services.

  2. In situ biodeposition measurements on a Modiolus modiolus (horse mussel) reef provide insights into ecosystem services (United States)

    Kent, Flora E. A.; Last, Kim S.; Harries, Daniel B.; Sanderson, William G.


    Horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) shellfish reefs are a threatened and declining habitat in the North East Atlantic and support high levels of biodiversity. Shellfish can influence the surrounding water column and modify the quality of material that reaches the seabed by filtering water, actively depositing particles and changing the benthic boundary layer due to surface roughness. In the present study M. modiolus biodeposition was measured in a field location for the first time. The results show that M. modiolus enhance sedimentation and contribute to the downward flux of material to the seabed. Approximately 30% of the total sediment deposition was attributed to active filter feeding and overall, the presence of horse mussels enhanced deposition two fold. The results are discussed in terms of the potential for horse mussel reefs to provide ecosystem services to society, through functions such as benthopelagic coupling and sediment stabilisation. Highlighting the societal benefits supplied by marine habitats can help prioritise conservation efforts and feed into the sustainable management of coastal water bodies.

  3. The importance of sensory-motor control in providing core stability: implications for measurement and training. (United States)

    Borghuis, Jan; Hof, At L; Lemmink, Koen A P M


    Although the hip musculature is found to be very important in connecting the core to the lower extremities and in transferring forces from and to the core, it is proposed to leave the hip musculature out of consideration when talking about the concept of core stability. A low level of co-contraction of the trunk muscles is important for core stability. It provides a level of stiffness, which gives sufficient stability against minor perturbations. Next to this stiffness, direction-specific muscle reflex responses are also important in providing core stability, particularly when encountering sudden perturbations. It appears that most trunk muscles, both the local and global stabilization system, must work coherently to achieve core stability. The contributions of the various trunk muscles depend on the task being performed. In the search for a precise balance between the amount of stability and mobility, the role of sensory-motor control is much more important than the role of strength or endurance of the trunk muscles. The CNS creates a stable foundation for movement of the extremities through co-contraction of particular muscles. Appropriate muscle recruitment and timing is extremely important in providing core stability. No clear evidence has been found for a positive relationship between core stability and physical performance and more research in this area is needed. On the other hand, with respect to the relationship between core stability and injury, several studies have found an association between a decreased stability and a higher risk of sustaining a low back or knee injury. Subjects with such injuries have been shown to demonstrate impaired postural control, delayed muscle reflex responses following sudden trunk unloading and abnormal trunk muscle recruitment patterns. In addition, various relationships have been demonstrated between core stability, balance performance and activation characteristics of the trunk muscles. Most importantly, a significant

  4. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon Fullerton; Anne W. Taylor; Eleonora Dal Grande; Narelle Berry


    ... that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods...

  5. System and Method for Providing Vertical Profile Measurements of Atmospheric Gases (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A system and method for using an air collection device to collect a continuous air sample as the device descends through the atmosphere are provided. The air...

  6. Redox potential of shallow groundwater by 1-month continuous in situ potentiometric measurements (United States)

    Ioka, Seiichiro; Muraoka, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yota


    One-month continuous in situ potentiometric measurements of redox potential (Eh) were used to investigate the dominant redox processes in the shallow groundwater (i.e., cation) and over 200 mg/L of HCO3 - (the dominant anion). A good fit was found between measured Eh values and Eh values calculated using thermodynamic data of fine-grained goethite. This suggests that Fe redox system is related to the Eh values of shallow groundwater in the Aomori City aquifer.

  7. A family-specific use of the Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebes, R. C.; Nijhuis, B. J. G.; Boonstra, A. M.; Ketelaar, M.; Wijnroks, L.; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Postema, K.; Vermeer, A.

    Objective: To examine the validity and utility of the Dutch Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP) as a family-specific measure. Design: A validation study. Setting: Five paediatric rehabilitation settings in the Netherlands. Main measures: The MPOC-SP was utilized in a general

  8. A Highly Flexible, Automated System Providing Reliable Sample Preparation in Element- and Structure-Specific Measurements. (United States)

    Vorberg, Ellen; Fleischer, Heidi; Junginger, Steffen; Liu, Hui; Stoll, Norbert; Thurow, Kerstin


    Life science areas require specific sample pretreatment to increase the concentration of the analytes and/or to convert the analytes into an appropriate form for the detection and separation systems. Various workstations are commercially available, allowing for automated biological sample pretreatment. Nevertheless, due to the required temperature, pressure, and volume conditions in typical element and structure-specific measurements, automated platforms are not suitable for analytical processes. Thus, the purpose of the presented investigation was the design, realization, and evaluation of an automated system ensuring high-precision sample preparation for a variety of analytical measurements. The developed system has to enable system adaption and high performance flexibility. Furthermore, the system has to be capable of dealing with the wide range of required vessels simultaneously, allowing for less cost and time-consuming process steps. However, the system's functionality has been confirmed in various validation sequences. Using element-specific measurements, the automated system was up to 25% more precise compared to the manual procedure and as precise as the manual procedure using structure-specific measurements. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.


    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging,T2, to the relaxation parameter T2* measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T2data were transformed to pseudo-T2* data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T2* obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources.

  10. Combining Classwide Curriculum-Based Measurement and Peer Tutoring to Help General Educators Provide Adaptive Education. (United States)

    Phillips, Norris B.; And Others


    This paper describes and evaluates the efficacy of a combination of curriculum-based measurement and peer tutoring incorporated into 40 elementary education mathematics classes, to differentiate instruction and improve student achievement. The evaluation indicated that students with low achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities…

  11. Pay-for-performance for healthcare providers: Design, performance measurement, and (unintended) effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Eijkenaar (Frank)


    textabstractHealthcare systems around the world are characterized by a suboptimal delivery of healthcare services. There has been a growing belief among policymakers that many deficiencies (e.g., in the quality of care) stem from flawed provider payment systems creating perverse incentives for

  12. Sourceless formation evaluation. An LWD solution providing density and neutron measurements without the use of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, R.; Reichel, N. [Schlumberger, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)


    For many years the industry has been searching for a way to eliminate the logistical difficulties and risk associated with deployment of radioisotopes for formation evaluation. The traditional gamma-gamma density (GGD) measurement uses the scattering of 662-keV gamma rays from a 137Cs radioisotopic source, with a 30.17-year half-life, to determine formation density. The traditional neutron measurement uses an Am-Be source emitting neutrons with an energy around 4 MeV, with a half-life of 432 years. Both these radioisotopic sources pose health, security, and environmental risks. Pulsed-neutron generators have been used in the industry for several decades in wireline tools and more recently in logging-while-drilling tools. These generators produce 14-MeV neutrons, many of which interact with the nuclei in the formation. Elastic collisions allow a neutron porosity measurement to be derived, which has been available to the industry since 2005. Inelastic interactions are typically followed by the emission of a variety of high-energy gamma rays. Similar to the case of the GGD measurement, the transport and attenuation of these gamma rays is a strong function of the formation density. However, the gamma-ray source is now distributed over a volume within the formation, where gamma rays have been induced by neutron interactions and the source can no longer be considered to be a point as in the case of a radioisotopic source. In addition, the extent of the induced source region depends on the transport of the fast neutrons from the source to the point of gamma-ray production. Even though the physics is more complex, it is possible to measure the formation density if the fast neutron transport is taken into account when deriving the density answer. This paper briefly reviews the physics underlying the sourceless neutron porosity and recently introduced neutron-gamma density (SNGD) measurement, demonstrates how they can be used in traditional workflows and illustrates their

  13. A calibration facility to provide traceable calibration to upper air humidity measuring sensors (United States)

    Cuccaro, Rugiada; Rosso, Lucia; Smorgon, Denis; Beltramino, Giulio; Fernicola, Vito


    Accurate knowledge and high quality measurement of the upper air humidity and of its profile in atmosphere is essential in many areas of the atmospheric research, for example in weather forecasting, environmental pollution studies and research in meteorology and climatology. Moving from the troposphere to the stratosphere, the water vapour amount varies between some percent to few part per million. For this reason, through the years, several methods and instruments have been developed for the measurement of the humidity in atmosphere. Among the instruments used for atmospheric sounding, radiosondes, airborne and balloon-borne chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) and tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers (TDLAS) play a key role. To avoid the presence of unknown biases and systematic errors and to obtain accurate and reliable humidity measurements, these instruments need a SI-traceable calibration, preferably carried out in conditions similar to those expected in the field. To satisfy such a need, a new calibration facility has been developed at INRIM. The facility is based on a thermodynamic-based frost-point generator designed to achieve a complete saturation of the carrier gas with a single passage through an isothermal saturator. The humidity generator covers the frost point temperature range between -98 °C and -20 °C and is able to work at any controlled pressure between 200 hPa and 1000 hPa (corresponding to a barometric altitude between ground level and approximately 12000 m). The paper reports the work carried out to test the generator performances, discusses the results and presents the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. The present work was carried out within the European Joint Research Project "MeteoMet 2 - Metrology for Essential Climate Variables" co-funded by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  14. Speech graphs provide a quantitative measure of thought disorder in psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B Mota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychosis has various causes, including mania and schizophrenia. Since the differential diagnosis of psychosis is exclusively based on subjective assessments of oral interviews with patients, an objective quantification of the speech disturbances that characterize mania and schizophrenia is in order. In principle, such quantification could be achieved by the analysis of speech graphs. A graph represents a network with nodes connected by edges; in speech graphs, nodes correspond to words and edges correspond to semantic and grammatical relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To quantify speech differences related to psychosis, interviews with schizophrenics, manics and normal subjects were recorded and represented as graphs. Manics scored significantly higher than schizophrenics in ten graph measures. Psychopathological symptoms such as logorrhea, poor speech, and flight of thoughts were grasped by the analysis even when verbosity differences were discounted. Binary classifiers based on speech graph measures sorted schizophrenics from manics with up to 93.8% of sensitivity and 93.7% of specificity. In contrast, sorting based on the scores of two standard psychiatric scales (BPRS and PANSS reached only 62.5% of sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that alterations of the thought process manifested in the speech of psychotic patients can be objectively measured using graph-theoretical tools, developed to capture specific features of the normal and dysfunctional flow of thought, such as divergence and recurrence. The quantitative analysis of speech graphs is not redundant with standard psychometric scales but rather complementary, as it yields a very accurate sorting of schizophrenics and manics. Overall, the results point to automated psychiatric diagnosis based not on what is said, but on how it is said.

  15. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue measurements provide information about cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Ulusal Okyay, Gülay; Okyay, Kaan; Polattaş Solak, Evşen; Sahinarslan, Asife; Paşaoğlu, Özge; Ayerden Ebinç, Fatma; Paşaoğlu, Hatice; Boztepe Derici, Ülver; Sindel, Şükrü; Arınsoy, Turgay


    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a cardiovascular risk predictor in general population. However, its value has not been well validated in maintainance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. We aimed to assess associations of EAT with cardiovascular risk predictors in nondiabetic MHD patients. In this cross-sectional study, we measured EAT thickness by transthoracic echocardiography in 50 MHD patients (45.8 ± 14.6 years of age, 37 male). Antropometric measurements, bioimpedance analysis, left ventricular (LV) mass, carotis intima media thickness, blood tests, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and hemodialysis dose by single-pool urea clearence index (spKt/V) were determined. The mean EAT thickness was 3.28 ± 1.04 mm. There were significant associations of EAT with body mass index (β = 0.590, P body fat mass (β = 0.562, P body fat mass (β = 0.408, P = 0.003), percentage of lean tissue mass (β = -0.421, P = 0.002), LV mass (β = 0.426, P = 0.002), carotis intima media thickness (β = 0.289, P = 0.042), triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (β = 0.529, P  0.05). Body mass index, waist circumference, body fat mass, percentage of lean tissue mass, LV mass, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, HOMA-IR, and spKt/V appeared as independent predictors of EAT. EAT was significantly associated with body fat measures, cardiovascular risk predictors, and dialysis dose in MHD patients. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. Direct Measurement of Tree Height Provides Different Results on the Assessment of LiDAR Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sibona


    Full Text Available In this study, airborne laser scanning-based and traditional field-based survey methods for tree heights estimation are assessed by using one hundred felled trees as a reference dataset. Comparisons between remote sensing and field-based methods were applied to four circular permanent plots located in the western Italian Alps and established within the Alpine Space project NewFor. Remote sensing (Airborne Laser Scanning, ALS, traditional field-based (indirect measurement, IND, and direct measurement of felled trees (DIR methods were compared by using summary statistics, linear regression models, and variation partitioning. Our results show that tree height estimates by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS approximated to real heights (DIR of felled trees. Considering the species separately, Larix decidua was the species that showed the smaller mean absolute difference (0.95 m between remote sensing (ALS and direct field (DIR data, followed by Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris (1.13 m and 1.04 m, respectively. Our results cannot be generalized to ALS surveys with low pulses density (<5/m2 and with view angles far from zero (nadir. We observed that the tree heights estimation by laser scanner is closer to actual tree heights (DIR than traditional field-based survey, and this was particularly valid for tall trees with conical shape crowns.

  17. Does environmental enrichment reduce stress? An integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers provides a novel perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham D Fairhurst

    Full Text Available Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana to assess responses to short- (10-d and long-term (3-mo enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change.

  18. Measuring the benefits of using market based approaches to provide water and sanitation in humanitarian contexts. (United States)

    Martin-Simpson, S; Parkinson, J; Katsou, E


    The use of cash transfers and market based programming (CT/MBP) to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses is gaining prominence in the humanitarian sector. However, there is a lack of existing indicators and methodologies to monitor activities designed to strengthen water and sanitation (WaSH) markets. Gender and vulnerability markers to measure the impact of such activities on different stakeholders is also missing. This study identifies parameters to monitor, evaluate and determine the added value of utilising CT/MBP to achieve WaSH objectives in humanitarian response. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of faeco-oral diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action. The parameters were found to be directly applicable to the case of increasing demand and supply of point of use water treatment technology for a) disaster resilience activities, and b) post-crisis response. The need for peer review of the parameters and indicators and pilot measurement in humanitarian contexts was recognised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device provides reliable corneal pachymetry measurements in canine eyes. (United States)

    Alario, A F; Pirie, C G


    The objective of this study was to determine central corneal thickness (CCT) and the intra- and interuser reliability using a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device in canine eyes. Twenty clinically normal dogs were examined. CCT measurements were obtained from both eyes of each animal three times by two operators in succession. The CCT was automatically calculated using the pachymetry software generated from eight radial scans, 6 mm in length. Mean canine CCT was 606.83±39.45 μm for all eyes examined. There was no significant difference in CCT based on the eye examined (OD vs OS), age or gender of the animal. There was no significant difference in CCT between replicates performed by the same operator; however, a small but significant difference was noted in CCT between operators. The mean difference in CCT between operators was 1.9 μm (P=0.03). The coefficient of variation for each user and between users was very low (range 0.64-1.7 per cent). The intraclass correlation coefficient comparing operators was 0.975. Based on these results, the SD-OCT device evaluated is capable of obtaining precise CCT measurements with excellent intra- and interoperator reliability in canine eyes.

  20. A new sentence generator providing material for maximum reading speed measurement. (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Luc; Paillé, Damien; Baccino, Thierry


    A new method is proposed to generate text material for assessing maximum reading speed of adult readers. The described procedure allows one to generate a vast number of equivalent short sentences. These sentences can be displayed for different durations in order to determine the reader's maximum speed using a psychophysical threshold algorithm. Each sentence is built so that it is either true or false according to common knowledge. The actual reading is verified by asking the reader to determine the truth value of each sentence. We based our design on the generator described by Crossland et al. and upgraded it. The new generator handles concepts distributed in an ontology, which allows an easy determination of the sentences' truth value and control of lexical and psycholinguistic parameters. In this way many equivalent sentence can be generated and displayed to perform the measurement. Maximum reading speed scores obtained with pseudo-randomly chosen sentences from the generator were strongly correlated with maximum reading speed scores obtained with traditional MNREAD sentences (r = .836). Furthermore, the large number of sentences that can be generated makes it possible to perform repeated measurements, since the possibility of a reader learning individual sentences is eliminated. Researchers interested in within-reader performance variability could use the proposed method for this purpose.

  1. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.


    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  2. Auroral Electrojet Indices Designed to Provide a Global Measure, 2.5-Minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  3. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  4. Enhanced tumor contrast during breast lumpectomy provided by independent component analysis of localized reflectance measures (United States)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Garcia Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.; Conde, Olga M.


    A spectral analysis technique to enhance tumor contrast during breast conserving surgery is proposed. A set of 29 surgically-excised breast tissues have been imaged in local reflectance geometry. Measures of broadband reflectance are directly analyzed using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), on a per sample basis, to extract areas of maximal spectral variation. A dynamic selection threshold has been applied to obtain the final number of principal components, accounting for inter-patient variability. A blind separation technique based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is then applied to extract diagnostically powerful results. ICA application reveals that the behavior of one independent component highly correlates with the pathologic diagnosis and it surpasses the contrast obtained using empirical models. Moreover, blind detection characteristics (no training, no comparisons with training reference data) and no need for parameterization makes the automated diagnosis simple and time efficient, favoring its translation to the clinical practice. Correlation coefficient with model-based results up to 0.91 has been achieved.

  5. Contralateral delay activity provides a neural measure of the number of representations in visual working memory. (United States)

    Ikkai, Akiko; McCollough, Andrew W; Vogel, Edward K


    Visual working memory (VWM) helps to temporarily represent information from the visual environment and is severely limited in capacity. Recent work has linked various forms of neural activity to the ongoing representations in VWM. One piece of evidence comes from human event-related potential studies, which find a sustained contralateral negativity during the retention period of VWM tasks. This contralateral delay activity (CDA) has previously been shown to increase in amplitude as the number of memory items increases, up to the individual's working memory capacity limit. However, significant alternative hypotheses remain regarding the true nature of this activity. Here we test whether the CDA is modulated by the perceptual requirements of the memory items as well as whether it is determined by the number of locations that are being attended within the display. Our results provide evidence against these two alternative accounts and instead strongly support the interpretation that this activity reflects the current number of objects that are being represented in VWM.

  6. Planarians as models of cadmium-induced neoplasia provide measurable benchmarks for mechanistic studies. (United States)

    Voura, Evelyn B; Montalvo, Melissa J; Dela Roca, Kevin T; Fisher, Julia M; Defamie, Virginie; Narala, Swami R; Khokha, Rama; Mulligan, Margaret E; Evans, Colleen A


    Bioassays of planarian neoplasia highlight the potential of these organisms as useful standards to assess whether environmental toxins such as cadmium promote tumorigenesis. These studies complement other investigations into the exceptional healing and regeneration of planarians - processes that are driven by a population of active stem cells, or neoblasts, which are likely transformed during planarian tumor growth. Our goal was to determine if planarian tumorigenesis assays are amenable to mechanistic studies of cadmium carcinogenesis. To that end we demonstrate, by examining both counts of cell populations by size, and instances of mitosis, that the activity of the stem cell population can be monitored. We also provide evidence that specific biomodulators can affect the potential of planarian neoplastic growth, in that an inhibitor of metalloproteinases effectively blocked the development of the lesions. From these results, we infer that neoblast activity does respond to cadmium-induced tumor growth, and that metalloproteinases are required for the progression of cancer in the planarian. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Hashimov


    Full Text Available The article presents design engineering methods for the high-voltage pulse installations of technological purpose for disinfection of drinking water, sewage, and edible liquids by high field micro- and nanosecond pulsing exposure. Designing potentialities are considered of the principal elements of the high-voltage part and the discharge circuit of the installations towards assuring the best efficient on-load utilization of the source energy and safe operation of the high-voltage equipment. The study shows that for disinfection of drinking water and sewage it is expedient to apply microsecond pulse actions causing the electrohydraulic effect in aqueous media with associated complex of physical processes (ultraviolet emission, generation of ozone and atomic oxygen, mechanical compression waves, etc. having detrimental effect on life activity of the microorganisms. In case of disinfecting edible liquids it is recommended to use the nanosecond pulses capable of straight permeating the biological cell nucleus, inactivating it. Meanwhile, the nutritive and biological values of the foodstuffs are saved and their organoleptic properties are improved. It is noted that in elaboration process of high-frequency pulse installations special consideration should be given to issues of the operating personnel safety discipline and securing conditions for the entire installation uninterrupted performance. With this objective in view the necessary requirements should be fulfilled on shielding the high- and low-voltage installation parts against high-frequency electromagnetic emissions registered by special differential sensors. Simultaneously, the abatement measures should be applied on the high-voltage equipment operational noise level. The authors offer a technique for noise abatement to admissible levels (lower than 80 dB A by means of coating the inside surface with shielded enclosure of densely-packed abutting sheets of porous electro-acoustic insulating

  8. Fabrication of MEMS components using ultra fine grained aluminium


    Qiao, X.; Gao, N.; Moktadir, Zakaria; Michael, Kraft; Starink, M.J.


    A novel process for the fabrication of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metallic component with features smaller than 10 µm and high thermal conductivity was investigated. This may be applied to new or improved microscale components, such as (micro-) heat exchangers. In the first stage of processing, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was employed to refine the grain size of commercial purity aluminium (Al-1050) to the ultrafine-grained (UFG) material. Embossing was conducted using ...

  9. Friction stir weld tools having fine grain structure (United States)

    Grant, Glenn J.; Frye, John G.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, Kenneth Scott


    Tools for friction stir welding can be made with fewer process steps, lower cost techniques, and/or lower cost ingredients than other state-of-the-art processes by utilizing improved compositions and processes of fabrication. Furthermore, the tools resulting from the improved compositions and processes of fabrication can exhibit better distribution and homogeneity of chemical constituents, greater strength, and/or increased durability. In one example, a friction stir weld tool includes tungsten and rhenium and is characterized by carbide and oxide dispersoids, by carbide particulates, and by grains that comprise a solid solution of the tungsten and rhenium. The grains do not exceed 10 micrometers in diameter.

  10. Fine Grained Tungsten Claddings for Cermet Based NTP Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In October 2011, NASA initiated the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) program to evaluate the feasibility and affordability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion...

  11. Fine-Grained Targets for Laser Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)


    A mechanically robust, binder-free, inexpensive target for laser synthesis of carbon nanotubes and a method for making same, comprising the steps of mixing prismatic edge natural flake graphite with a metal powder catalyst and pressing the graphite and metal powder mixture into a mold having a desired target shape.

  12. General methods for fine-grained morphological and syntactic disambiguation


    Müller, Thomas


    We present methods for improved handling of morphologically rich languages (MRLS) where we define MRLS as languages that are morphologically more complex than English. Standard algorithms for language modeling, tagging and parsing have problems with the productive nature of such languages. Consider for example the possible forms of a typical English verb like work that generally has four four different forms: work, works, working and worked. Its Spanish counterp...

  13. A Fine Grain Sentiment Analysis with Semantics in Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Barba Gonzalez


    Full Text Available Social networking is nowadays a major source of new information in the world. Microblogging sites like Twitter have millions of active users (320 million active users on Twitter on the 30th September 2015 who share their opinions in real time, generating huge amounts of data. These data are, in most cases, available to any network user. The opinions of Twitter users have become something that companies and other organisations study to see whether or not their users like the products or services they offer. One way to assess opinions on Twitter is classifying the sentiment of the tweets as positive or negative. However, this process is usually done at a coarse grain level and the tweets are classified as positive or negative. However, tweets can be partially positive and negative at the same time, referring to different entities. As a result, general approaches usually classify these tweets as “neutral”. In this paper, we propose a semantic analysis of tweets, using Natural Language Processing to classify the sentiment with regards to the entities mentioned in each tweet. We offer a combination of Big Data tools (under the Apache Hadoop framework and sentiment analysis using RDF graphs supporting the study of the tweet’s lexicon. This work has been empirically validated using a sporting event, the 2014 Phillips 66 Big 12 Men’s Basketball Championship. The experimental results show a clear correlation between the predicted sentiments with specific events during the championship.

  14. DC circuits: I. Evidence for fine grained contextual dependence (United States)

    John, lgnatius; Allie, Saalih


    This is the first part of a broader study, exploring the contextual variations of the responses of 149 first year (non-physics major) university students at two South African universities in Cape Town. The data analysis was done in terms of the (i) forced choice responses (FCR), (ii) free written responses and (iii) personal interviews. This paper presents the development of the instrument (aspects of circuits questionnaire, or ACQ) used in the exploratory study and the results obtained from the FCR analysis of 60 students. The results showed that the student responses are triggered by the context framed by the questions and the results obtained from investigations using light bulbs cannot be generalised and may be reinterpreted. This article was extracted from the PhD thesis submitted to Faculty of Science, University of Cape Town.

  15. Fine-Grained Targets for Laser Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)


    A mechanically robust, binder-free, inexpensive target for laser synthesis of carbon nanotubes and a method for making same, comprising the steps of mixing prismatic edge natural flake graphite with a metal powder catalyst and pressing the graphite and metal powder mixture into a mold having a desired target shape.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of fine-grained thinwalled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    extrusion (TBE) as a novel combined severe plastic deformation (SPD) was applied on AZ91 alloy to produce ultrafine grained (UFG) thin-walled tubes. The effects of combined SPD process were investigated on the microstructure refinement and mechanical properties. Also, hydro bulge test was carried out to reveal the ...

  17. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians. (United States)

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J


    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  18. Multi-slice echo-planar spectroscopic MR imaging provides both global and local metabolite measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Henrik Kahr; Tscherning, Thomas; Sorensen, Per Soelberg


    MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides information about neuronal loss or dysfunction by measuring decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a metabolite widely believed to be a marker of neuronal viability. In multiple sclerosis (MS), whole-brain NAA (WBNAA) has been suggested as a marker of disease progre...

  19. Implementation of a metrology programme to provide traceability for radionuclides activity measurements in the CNEN Radiopharmaceuticals Producers Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Erica A.L. de; Braghirolli, Ana M.S.; Tauhata, Luiz; Gomes, Regio S.; Silva, Carlos J., E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delgado, Jose U.; Oliveira, Antonio E.; Iwahara, Akira, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The commercialization and use of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil are regulated by Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA) which require Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certification for Radiopharmaceuticals Producer Centers. Quality Assurance Program should implement the GMP standards to ensure radiopharmaceuticals have requirements quality to proving its efficiency. Several aspects should be controlled within the Quality Assurance Programs, and one of them is the traceability of the Radionuclides Activity Measurement in radiopharmaceuticals doses. The quality assurance of activity measurements is fundamental to maintain both the efficiency of the nuclear medicine procedures and patient and exposed occupationally individuals safety. The radiation doses received by patients, during the nuclear medicine procedures, is estimated according to administered radiopharmaceuticals quantity. Therefore it is very important either the activity measurements performed in radiopharmaceuticals producer centers (RPC) as the measurements performed in nuclear medicine services are traceable to national standards. This paper aims to present an implementation program to provide traceability to radionuclides activity measurements performed in the dose calibrators(well type ionization chambers) used in Radiopharmaceuticals Producer Center placed in different states in Brazil. The proposed program is based on the principles of GM Pand ISO 17025 standards. According to dose calibrator performance, the RPC will be able to provide consistent, safe and effective radioactivity measurement to the nuclear medicine services. (author)

  20. Comparing Food Provided and Wasted before and after Implementing Measures against Food Waste in Three Healthcare Food Service Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Strotmann


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to reduce food waste in a hospital, a hospital cafeteria, and a residential home by applying a participatory approach in which the employees were integrated into the process of developing and implementing measures. Initially, a process analysis was undertaken to identify the processes and structures existing in each institution. This included a 2-week measurement of the quantities of food produced and wasted. After implementing the measures, a second measurement was conducted and the results of the two measurements were compared. The average waste rate in the residential home was significantly reduced from 21.4% to 13.4% and from 19.8% to 12.8% in the cafeteria. In the hospital, the average waste rate remained constant (25.6% and 26.3% during the reference and control measurements. However, quantities of average daily food provided and wasted per person in the hospital declined. Minimizing overproduction, i.e., aligning the quantity of meals produced to that required, is essential to reducing serving losses. Compliance of meal quality and quantity with customer expectations, needs, and preferences, i.e., the individualization of food supply, reduces plate waste. Moreover, establishing an efficient communication structure involving all actors along the food supply chain contributes to decreasing food waste.

  1. A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. (United States)

    Welch, Aaron Z; Koshland, Douglas E


    Here we describe the first high-throughput amenable method of quantifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Current high-throughput methods of assessing yeast cell viability, such as flow cytometry and SGA analysis, do not measure the percentage viability of a culture but instead measure cell vitality or colony fitness, respectively. We developed a method, called tadpoling, to quantify the percentage viability of a yeast culture, with the ability to detect as few as one viable cell amongst ~10(8) dead cells. The most important feature of this assay is the exploitation of yeast colony formation in liquid medium. Utilizing a microtiter dish, we are able to observe a range of viability of 100% to 0.0001%. Comparison of tadpoling to the traditional plating method to measure yeast culture viability reveals that, for the majority of Saccharomyces species analyzed there is no significant difference between the two methods. In comparison to flow cytometry using propidium iodide, the high-throughput method of measuring yeast culture viability, tadpoling is much more accurate at culture viabilities < 1%. Thus, we show that tadpoling provides an easy, inexpensive, space-saving method, amenable to high-throughput screens, for accurately measuring yeast cell viability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. "Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films" Techniques Provide Representative Time-Weighted Average Measurements of Inorganic Nutrients in Dynamic Freshwater Systems. (United States)

    Huang, Jianyin; Bennett, William W; Welsh, David T; Li, Tianling; Teasdale, Peter R


    Nutrient concentrations in freshwater are highly variable over time, with changes driven by weather events, anthropogenic sources, modifications to catchment hydrology or habitats, and internal biogeochemical processes. Measuring infrequently collected grab samples is unlikely to adequately represent nutrient concentrations in such dynamic systems. In contrast, in situ passive sampling techniques, such as the "diffusive gradients in thin films" (DGT) technique, provide time-weighted average analyte concentrations over the entire deployment time. A pair of recently developed DGT techniques for nitrate (A520E-DGT) and ammonium (PrCH-DGT), as well as the Metsorb-DGT technique for phosphate, were used to monitor inorganic nutrients in different freshwater systems (i.e., streams and wetlands) with a range of environmental values and that were affected by different catchment types. Measurements of grab samples collected frequently (1-2 times daily, 8-10 a.m. and 2-4 p.m.) showed that concentrations of NH4-N and NO3-N changed dramatically in most of the studied freshwater systems over short time scales, while there were only relatively small fluctuations in PO4-P. The DGT measurements were highly representative in comparison with the average nutrient concentrations obtained from daily grab samples over short-term (24 h) and long-term (72 h) deployments. The ratios of DGT-labile concentrations to the average concentrations from grab samples were between 1.00 and 1.12 over the studied deployment periods. The results of this study confirmed that DGT measurements provided a reliable and robust method for monitoring NH4-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P in a diverse range of dynamic freshwater systems.

  3. Sexual networks: measuring sexual selection in structured, polyandrous populations. (United States)

    McDonald, Grant C; James, Richard; Krause, Jens; Pizzari, Tommaso


    Sexual selection is traditionally measured at the population level, assuming that populations lack structure. However, increasing evidence undermines this approach, indicating that intrasexual competition in natural populations often displays complex patterns of spatial and temporal structure. This complexity is due in part to the degree and mechanisms of polyandry within a population, which can influence the intensity and scale of both pre- and post-copulatory sexual competition. Attempts to measure selection at the local and global scale have been made through multi-level selection approaches. However, definitions of local scale are often based on physical proximity, providing a rather coarse measure of local competition, particularly in polyandrous populations where the local scale of pre- and post-copulatory competition may differ drastically from each other. These limitations can be solved by social network analysis, which allows us to define a unique sexual environment for each member of a population: 'local scale' competition, therefore, becomes an emergent property of a sexual network. Here, we first propose a novel quantitative approach to measure pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, which integrates multi-level selection with information on local scale competition derived as an emergent property of networks of sexual interactions. We then use simple simulations to illustrate the ways in which polyandry can impact estimates of sexual selection. We show that for intermediate levels of polyandry, the proposed network-based approach provides substantially more accurate measures of sexual selection than the more traditional population-level approach. We argue that the increasing availability of fine-grained behavioural datasets provides exciting new opportunities to develop network approaches to study sexual selection in complex societies.

  4. Measuring and managing the work environment of the mid-level provider – the neglected human resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuliffe Eilish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been written in the past decade about the health workforce crisis that is crippling health service delivery in many middle-income and low-income countries. Countries having lost most of their highly qualified health care professionals to migration increasingly rely on mid-level providers as the mainstay for health services delivery. Mid-level providers are health workers who perform tasks conventionally associated with more highly trained and internationally mobile workers. Their training usually has lower entry requirements and is for shorter periods (usually two to four years. Our study aimed to explore a neglected but crucial aspect of human resources for health in Africa: the provision of a work environment that will promote motivation and performance of mid-level providers. This paper explores the work environment of mid-level providers in Malawi, and contributes to the validation of an instrument to measure the work environment of mid-level providers in low-income countries. Methods Three districts were purposively sampled from each of the three geographical regions in Malawi. A total of 34 health facilities from the three districts were included in the study. All staff in each of the facilities were included in the sampling frame. A total of 153 staff members consented to be interviewed. Participants completed measures of perceptions of work environment, burnout and job satisfaction. Findings The Healthcare Provider Work Index, derived through Principal Components Analysis and Rasch Analysis of our modification of an existing questionnaire, constituted four subscales, measuring: (1 levels of staffing and resources; (2 management support; (3 workplace relationships; and (4 control over practice. Multivariate analysis indicated that scores on the Work Index significantly predicted key variables concerning motivation and attrition such as emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, satisfaction with the profession

  5. Measurements of intracellular ATP provide new insight into the regulation of glycolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Ytting, Cecilie K; Fuglsang, Anja T; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Özalp, Veli Cengiz; Nielsen, Lise Junker; Olsen, Lars Folke


    Glycolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits temporal oscillation under anaerobic or semianaerobic conditions. Previous evidence indicated that at least two membrane-bound ATPases, the mitochondrial F(0)F(1) ATPase and the plasma membrane P-type ATPase (Pma1p), were important in regulating the glycolytic oscillation. Measurements of intracellular ATP provide a unique tool to understand the role of these membrane ATPases and how their activities are regulated. We have constructed a new nanobiosensor that can perform time-resolved measurements of intracellular ATP in intact cells. Measurements of the temporal behaviour of intracellular ATP in a yeast strain with oscillating glycolysis showed that, in addition to oscillation in intracellular ATP, there is an overall slow decrease in intracellular ATP because the ATP consumption rate exceeds the ATP production in glycolysis. Measurements of the temporal behaviour of intracellular ATP in yeast strains lacking either of the two membrane bound ATPases have confirmed that F(0)F(1) ATPase and Pma1p contribute significantly to the ATP consumption in the cell and to the regulation of glycolytic oscillation. Furthermore, our measurements also demonstrate that ATPase activity is under strict control. In the absence of glucose ATPase activity is switched off, and the intracellular ATP concentration is high. When glucose is added to the cells the ATP concentration starts to decrease, because ATP consumption exceeds ATP production by glycolysis. Finally, when glucose is used up, the ATP consumption stops immediately. Thus, glucose or some compound derived from glucose must be involved in controlling the activity of these two ATPases. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Sink plot for runoff measurements on semi-flat terrains: preliminary data and their potential hydrological and ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidron Giora J.


    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid regions where water is the main limiting factor, water redistribution is regarded as an important hydrological process of great ecological value. By providing additional water to certain loci, moist pockets of great productivity are formed, characterized by high plant biomass and biological activity. These moist pockets are often a result of runon. Yet, although runoff may take place on semi-flat undulating surfaces, runoff measurements are thus far confined to slopes, where a sufficient gradient facilitates downslope water harvesting. On undulating surfaces of mounds and depressions, such as in interdunes, no quantification of the amount of water reaching depressions is feasible due to the fact that no reliable method for measuring the runoff amounts in semi-flat terrains is available. The current paper describes specific runoff plots, designed to measure runoff in depressions (sinks. These plots, termed sink plots (SPs, were operative in the Hallamish dunefield (Negev Desert, Israel. The paper presents measurements of runoff yield that were carried out between January 2013 and January 2014 on SPs and compared them to runoff obtained from crusted slope plots and fine-grained (playa surfaces. The potential hydrological and ecological implications of water redistribution within semi-flat terrains for this and other arid ecosystems are discussed.

  7. Transcutaneous PTCCO2 measurement in combination with arterial blood gas analysis provides superior accuracy and reliability in ICU patients. (United States)

    Spelten, Oliver; Fiedler, Fritz; Schier, Robert; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Hinkelbein, Jochen


    Hyper or hypoventilation may have serious clinical consequences in critically ill patients and should be generally avoided, especially in neurosurgical patients. Therefore, monitoring of carbon dioxide partial pressure by intermittent arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2) has become standard in intensive care units (ICUs). However, several additional methods are available to determine PCO2 including end-tidal (PETCO2) and transcutaneous (PTCCO2) measurements. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and reliability of different methods to determine PCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients on ICU. After approval of the local ethics committee PCO2 was determined in n = 32 ICU consecutive patients requiring mechanical ventilation: (1) arterial PaCO2 blood gas analysis with Radiometer ABL 625 (ABL; gold standard), (2) arterial PaCO2 analysis with Immediate Response Mobile Analyzer (IRMA), (3) end-tidal PETCO2 by a Propaq 106 EL monitor and (4) transcutaneous PTCCO2 determination by a Tina TCM4. Bland-Altman method was used for statistical analysis; p analysis revealed good correlation between PaCO2 by IRMA and ABL (R2 = 0.766; p analysis revealed a bias and precision of 2.0 ± 3.7 mmHg for the IRMA, 2.2 ± 5.7 mmHg for transcutaneous, and -5.5 ± 5.6 mmHg for end-tidal measurement. Arterial CO2 partial pressure by IRMA (PaCO2) and PTCCO2 provided greater accuracy compared to the reference measurement (ABL) than the end-tidal CO2 measurements in critically ill in mechanically ventilated patients patients.

  8. Combining QOF data with the care bundle approach may provide a more meaningful measure of quality in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wet Carl


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant minority of patients do not receive all the evidence-based care recommended for their conditions. Health care quality may be improved by reducing this observed variation. Composite measures offer a different patient-centred perspective on quality and are utilized in acute hospitals via the ‘care bundle’ concept as indicators of the reliability of specific (evidence-based care delivery tasks and improved outcomes. A care bundle consists of a number of time-specific interventions that should be delivered to every patient every time. We aimed to apply the care bundle concept to selected QOF data to measure the quality of evidence-based care provision. Methods Care bundles and components were selected from QOF indicators according to defined criteria. Five clinical conditions were suitable for care bundles: Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, Stroke & Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Each bundle has 3-8 components. A retrospective audit was undertaken in a convenience sample of nine general medical practices in the West of Scotland. Collected data included delivery (or not of individual bundle components to all patients included on specific disease registers. Practice level and overall compliance with bundles and components were calculated in SPSS and expressed as a percentage. Results Nine practices (64.3% with a combined patient population of 56,948 were able to provide data in the format requested. Overall compliance with developed QOF-based care bundles (composite measures was as follows: CHD 64.0%, range 35.0-71.9%; Stroke/TIA 74.1%, range 51.6-82.8%; CKD 69.0%, range 64.0-81.4%; and COPD 82.0%, range 47.9-95.8%; and DM 58.4%, range 50.3-65.2%. Conclusions In this small study compliance with individual QOF-based care bundle components was high, but overall (‘all or nothing’ compliance was

  9. Serial Measurements of Apoptotic Cell Numbers Provide Better Acceptance Criterion for PBMC Quality than a Single Measurement Prior to the T Cell Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Wunsch


    Full Text Available As soon as Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC are isolated from whole blood, some cells begin dying. The rate of apoptotic cell death is increased when PBMC are shipped, cryopreserved, or stored under suboptimal conditions. Apoptotic cells secrete cytokines that suppress inflammation while promoting phagocytosis. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells in PBMC may modulate T cell functions in antigen-triggered T cell assays. We assessed the effect of apoptotic bystander cells on a T cell ELISPOT assay by selectively inducing B cell apoptosis using α-CD20 mAbs. The presence of large numbers of apoptotic B cells did not affect T cell functionality. In contrast, when PBMC were stored under unfavorable conditions, leading to damage and apoptosis in the T cells as well as bystander cells, T cell functionality was greatly impaired. We observed that measuring the number of apoptotic cells before plating the PBMC into an ELISPOT assay did not reflect the extent of PBMC injury, but measuring apoptotic cell frequencies at the end of the assay did. Our data suggest that measuring the numbers of apoptotic cells prior to and post T cell assays may provide more stringent PBMC quality acceptance criteria than measurements done only prior to the start of the assay.

  10. Measuring empathy in healthcare profession students using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: health provider--student version. (United States)

    Fields, Sylvia K; Mahan, Pamela; Tillman, Paula; Harris, Jeffrey; Maxwell, Kaye; Hojat, Mohammadreza


    While empathy is commonly accepted as a mutually beneficial aspect of the health provider-patient relationship, evidence exists that many health profession students are unable to demonstrate this important skill. This study, the initial phase of a 2-year longitudinal series, examined measurement properties of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) adapted for administration to health profession students (JSE-HPS version), and investigated group differences of empathy scores in the baccalaureate nursing (BSN) program within the College of Health Professions at a public university in the southeastern part of the USA. The 20-item survey and a demographic questionnaire were completed by 265 BSN students. Correlational analyses, t-test, and analysis of variance were used to examine internal relationships and group differences. Results showed the median item-total score correlation was statistically significant (0.42). The internal consistency of the scale (Cronbach's coefficient α) was 0.78, falling within the generally agreed standard. Test-retest reliability coefficients were acceptable at 0.58 (within 3 months interval) and 0.69 (within 6 months interval) between testing. Women scored higher than men and older students outscored younger classmates. No significant relationship was found between empathy scores and ethnicity, previous non-nursing degree, or importance of religion to the participant. These findings support measurement properties of the JSE-HPS version, and can bolster the confidence of researchers in using the Scale for measuring empathy in diverse health profession students, as one component of program evaluation as well as evaluating interprofessional learning activities among diverse healthcare professional students and interprofessional collaboration.

  11. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei


    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.


    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, Matthew M. [Physics Department, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive, MS 0903, Moscow, ID 83844-0903 (United States); Stark, Christopher C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    The appearance of debris disks around distant stars depends upon the scattering/phase function (SPF) of the material in the disk. However, characterizing the SPFs of these extrasolar debris disks is challenging because only a limited range of scattering angles are visible to Earth-based observers. By contrast, Saturn’s tenuous rings can be observed over a much broader range of geometries, so their SPFs can be much better constrained. Since these rings are composed of small particles released from the surfaces of larger bodies, they are reasonable analogs to debris disks and so their SPFs can provide insights into the plausible scattering properties of debris disks. This work examines two of Saturn’s dusty rings: the G ring (at 167,500 km from Saturn’s center) and the D68 ringlet (at 67,600 km). Using data from the cameras on board the Cassini spacecraft, we are able to estimate the rings’ brightnesses at scattering angles ranging from 170° to 0.°5. We find that both of the rings exhibit extremely strong forward-scattering peaks, but for scattering angles above 60° their brightnesses are nearly constant. These SPFs can be well approximated by a linear combination of three Henyey–Greenstein functions, and are roughly consistent with the SPFs of irregular particles from laboratory measurements. Comparing these data to Fraunhofer and Mie models highlights several challenges involved in extracting information about particle compositions and size distributions from SPFs alone. The SPFs of these rings also indicate that the degree of forward scattering in debris disks may be greatly underestimated.

  14. The niche party concept and its measurement. (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas M; Miller, Bernhard


    The concept of the niche party has become increasingly popular in analyses of party competition. Yet, existing approaches vary in their definitions and their measurement approaches. We propose using a minimal definition that allows us to compare political parties in terms of their 'nicheness'. We argue that the conceptual core of the niche party concept is based on issue emphasis and that a niche party emphasizes policy areas neglected by its rivals. Based on this definition, we propose a continuous measure that allows for more fine-grained measurement of a party's 'nicheness' than the dominant, dichotomous approaches and thereby limits the risk of measurement error. Drawing on data collected by the Comparative Manifesto Project, we show that (1) our measure has high face validity and (2) exposes differences among parties that are not captured by alternative, static or dichotomous measures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Bogoyavlenskiy


    Full Text Available On the basis of system approach the structure of the aviation activity areas on air transport related to monitoring and measurements of vibration parameters is presented.The technology analysis of laboratory tests of the onboard equipment control of vibration parameters is carried out. The issues related to ensuring the unity of measurements of vibration parameters are researched and summarized.While dealing with the works on metrological certification described in the article, the risks arising from aviation activity on air transport are taken into account. The certification methods of measuring channels of vibration parametersused on stands for testing GTE at the repairing of aircraft engines are developed. The methods are implemented when con- ducting initial and periodic certifications of test benches for twelve types of aircraft GTE in repair organizations. The reliability of the results of the conducted research due to the fact that they were carried out with the use of certified measure- ment equipment, included in the State register of measuring instruments. The research is conducted for a sufficiently high statistical confidence level with the boundaries 0.95. The studies have shown that running on air transport measurements of vibration parameters are metrologically se- cured, the unity of measurements and their traceability from the national primary reference to special measuring instru- ments, test equipment, and onboard controls of the aircraft is maintained.

  16. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, Lance [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)


    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  17. Activity assays and immunoassays for plasma Renin and prorenin: information provided and precautions necessary for accurate measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Duncan J; Nussberger, Juerg; Stowasser, Michael


    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma renin is important for the clinical assessment of hypertensive patients. The most common methods for measuring plasma renin are the plasma renin activity (PRA) assay and the renin immunoassay. The clinical application of renin inhibitor therapy has thrown...... to renin inhibitor therapy, owing to the inhibitor promoting conversion of prorenin to an open conformation that is recognized by renin immunoassays. CONCLUSIONS: The successful application of renin assays to patient care requires that the clinician and the clinical chemist understand the information...

  18. Uncertainty propagation for the coulometric measurement of the plutonium concentration in CRM126 solution provided by JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Arteaga, Maria [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This GUM WorkbenchTM propagation of uncertainty is for the coulometric measurement of the plutonium concentration in a Pu standard material (C126) supplied as individual aliquots that were prepared by mass. The C126 solution had been prepared and as aliquoted as standard material. Samples are aliquoted into glass vials and heated to dryness for distribution as dried nitrate. The individual plutonium aliquots were not separated chemically or otherwise purified prior to measurement by coulometry in the F/H Laboratory. Hydrogen peroxide was used for valence adjustment.

  19. Learning to Measure Biodiversity: Two Agent-Based Models that Simulate Sampling Methods & Provide Data for Calculating Diversity Indices (United States)

    Jones, Thomas; Laughlin, Thomas


    Nothing could be more effective than a wilderness experience to demonstrate the importance of conserving biodiversity. When that is not possible, though, there are computer models with several features that are helpful in understanding how biodiversity is measured. These models are easily used when natural resources, transportation, and time…

  20. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H., III


    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  1. Voice gender discrimination provides a measure of more than pitch-related perception in cochlear implant users. (United States)

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie


    (1) To investigate whether voice gender discrimination (VGD) could be a useful indicator of the spectral and temporal processing abilities of individual cochlear implant (CI) users; (2) To examine the relationship between VGD and speech recognition with CI when comparable acoustic cues are used for both perception processes. VGD was measured using two talker sets with different inter-gender fundamental frequencies (F(0)), as well as different acoustic CI simulations. Vowel and consonant recognition in quiet and noise were also measured and compared with VGD performance. Eleven postlingually deaf CI users. The results showed that (1) mean VGD performance differed for different stimulus sets, (2) VGD and speech recognition performance varied among individual CI users, and (3) individual VGD performance was significantly correlated with speech recognition performance under certain conditions. VGD measured with selected stimulus sets might be useful for assessing not only pitch-related perception, but also spectral and temporal processing by individual CI users. In addition to improvements in spectral resolution and modulation detection, the improvement in higher modulation frequency discrimination might be particularly important for CI users in noisy environments.

  2. Balanced Scorecard Goal Four: Provide Policy Management, Advocacy and Problem Solving" Measuring Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives (United States)


    Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives A Graduate Management Project Submitted to The Residency Committee In Candidacy for the Degree of Masters in...internal customer relations, the GPRMC has incorporated use of a Balanced Scorecard within its management scheme. The scorecard serves as a strategy map...headquarters. The goal, "Provide Policy Management , Advocacy and Problem Solving", addresses the relationship between the headquarters and its internal

  3. Conceptualization and measurement of mental health providers' recovery-promoting competence: the recovery promoting relationships scale (RPRS). (United States)

    Russinova, Zlatka; Rogers, E Sally; Cook, Karon F; Ellison, Marsha Langer; Lyass, Asya


    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate an instrument that measures practitioners' competence to promote the recovery among individuals with psychiatric disabilities from the perspective of the person served. Items were developed based upon input from individuals served and practitioners as well as the extant literature on recovery. "Recovery-promoting competence" was conceptualized as a set of practitioner capabilities that promote the recovery process and enhance the working alliance. A scale was developed using a two-stage process that initially identified specific recovery-promoting competencies and then tested candidate items measuring those competencies. Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory approaches were used to validate the instrument and assess its psychometric properties with a national sample of 382 individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Analyses revealed two distinct sets of recovery-promoting competencies: (a) competencies that enhance clients' recovery, and (b) competencies that build and maintain a strong therapeutic or working alliance. The first set further differentiated into subcompetencies-enhancing clients' hopefulness, empowerment, and self-acceptance. The instrument had high internal consistency and acceptable stability over time, convergent, criterion, and known groups' validity. This scale is a tool for assessing mental health and rehabilitation practitioners' competencies from the perspective of the individual served which can be used both in research and program evaluation of agencies serving individuals with psychiatric disabilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Next Generation Forest Structure Measurements from Space: Synergism of NASA's NISAR and GEDI Observations (United States)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Xu, L.; Yu, Y.


    Post-2020 will witness a series of new observations from NASA and ESA spaceborne missions dedicated to measurements of aboveground forest structure and biomass (AGB). These measurements are designed to significantly reduce the uncertainty in terrestrial carbon cycle by providing globally consistent estimates of forest aboveground carbon stocks and dynamics from land use and climate related changes. NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI), NASA and ISRO SAR (NISAR), and ESA's BIOMASS (launch in 2020-21) missions, which are scheduled for launch in the next three to five years, share similar objectives for estimation of forest structure and aboveground biomass (AGB). The NISAR mission will measure above ground woody vegetation biomass at spatial resolution of 100 m (1-ha) annually over the lifetime of the mission providing fine grain products of carbon stocks and changes over a range of biomass limited to 100 Mg/ha. The upper threshold of 100 Mg/ha is set to reflect the sensitivity of L-band backscatter measurements to biomass and allowing coverage of more than 50% of the global forests and the entire area of remaining woody vegetation. This sensitivity will allow NISAR to quantify the carbon stocks and changes of the most dynamic and variable component of global vegetation with significant contribution to the global carbon cycle and climate science. We examine the sensitivity of NISAR in estimating AGB in different forest types and demonstrate how the NISAR and GEDI data can be combined in a machine-learning algorithm to develop synergistic products of global forest height and AGB. The synergistic approach extends the range of biomass estimation for NISAR mission and allows extrapolation of GEDI LiDAR samples to contiguous maps of height metrics. AcknowledgementsThe research was carried out partially at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Ground based remote sensing and physiological measurements provide novel insights into canopy photosynthetic optimization in arctic shrubs (United States)

    Magney, T. S.; Griffin, K. L.; Boelman, N.; Eitel, J.; Greaves, H.; Prager, C.; Logan, B.; Oliver, R.; Fortin, L.; Vierling, L. A.


    Because changes in vegetation structure and function in the Arctic are rapid and highly dynamic phenomena, efforts to understand the C balance of the tundra require repeatable, objective, and accurate remote sensing methods for estimating aboveground C pools and fluxes over large areas. A key challenge addressing the modelling of aboveground C is to utilize process-level information from fine-scale studies. Utilizing information obtained from high resolution remote sensing systems could help to better understand the C source/sink strength of the tundra, which will in part depend on changes in photosynthesis resulting from the partitioning of photosynthetic machinery within and among deciduous shrub canopies. Terrestrial LiDAR and passive hyperspectral remote sensing measurements offer an effective, repeatable, and scalable method to understand photosynthetic performance and partitioning at the canopy scale previously unexplored in arctic systems. Using a 3-D shrub canopy model derived from LiDAR, we quantified the light regime of leaves within shrub canopies to gain a better understanding of how light interception varies in response to the Arctic's complex radiation regime. This information was then coupled with pigment sampling (i.e., xanthophylls, and Chl a/b) to evaluate the optimization of foliage photosynthetic capacity within shrub canopies due to light availability. In addition, a lab experiment was performed to validate evidence of canopy level optimization via gradients of light intensity and leaf light environment. For this, hyperspectral reflectance (photochemical reflectance index (PRI)), and solar induced fluorescence (SIF)) was collected in conjunction with destructive pigment samples (xanthophylls) and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in both sunlit and shaded canopy positions.

  6. SciNOvA: A Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Narrow-Band Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paley, J.; Djurcic, Z.; /Argonne; Harris, D.; Tesarek, R.; /Fermilab; Feldman, G.; /Harvard U.; Corwin, L.; Messier, M.D.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Paley, J.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Iowa State U. /Minnesota U. /South Carolina U. /Wichita State U. /William-Mary Coll.


    We propose to construct and deploy a fine-grained detector in the Fermilab NOvA 2 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam. In this beam, the detector can make unique contributions to the measurement of quasi-elastic scattering, neutral-current elastic scattering, neutral-current {pi}{sup 0} production, and enhance the NOvA measurements of electron neutrino appearance. To minimize cost and risks, the proposed detector is a copy of the SciBar detector originally built for the K2K long baseline experiment and used recently in the SciBooNE experiment.

  7. Suspended sediment dynamics in a large-scale turbidity current: Direct measurements from the deep-water Congo Canyon (United States)

    Simmons, S.; Azpiroz, M.; Cartigny, M.; Clare, M. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P. J.


    Turbidity currents that transport sediment to the deep ocean deposit a greater volume of sediment than any other process on Earth. To date, only a handful of studies have directly measured turbidity currents, with flow durations ranging from a few minutes to a few hours. Our understanding of turbidity current dynamics is therefore largely derived from scaled laboratory experiments and numerical modelling. Recent years have seen the first field-scale measurements of depth-resolved velocity profiles, but sediment concentration (a key parameter for turbidity currents) remains elusive. Here, we present high resolution measurements of deep-water turbidity currents from the Congo Canyon; one of the world's largest submarine canyons. Direct measurements using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) show that flows can last for many days, rather than hours as seen elsewhere, and provide the first quantification of concentration and grain size within deep-water turbidity currents.Velocity and backscatter were measured at 5 second intervals by an ADCP suspended 80 m above the canyon floor, at 2000 m water depth. A novel inversion method using multiple ADCP frequencies enabled quantification of sediment concentration and grain size within the flows. We identify high concentrations of coarse sediment within a thin frontal cell, which outruns a thicker, trailing body. Thus, the flows grow in length while propagating down-canyon. This is distinct from classical models and other field-scale measurements of turbidity currents. The slow-moving body is dominated by suspended fine-grained sediment. The body mixes with the surrounding fluid leaving diffuse clouds of sediment that persist for days after initial entrainment. Ambient tidal flow also controls the mixing within the body and the surrounding fluid. Our results provide a new quantification of suspended sediment within flows and the interaction with the surrounding fluid.

  8. Echocardiographic measurements alone do not provide accurate non-invasive selection of annuloplasty band size for robotic mitral valve repair. (United States)

    Cook, Richard C; Nifong, L Wiley; Lashley, Graham G; Duncan, Robert A; Campbell, Julie A; Law, Y Brandon; Chitwood, W Randolph


    Successful mitral valve repair (MVP) is dependent on accurate annuloplasty band sizing. This is difficult and time-consuming when performed via port-access, or through a 4-cm minithoracotomy used in robotically assisted MVP. With the goal of moving toward a less-invasive approach and minimizing cross-clamp time, an attempt was made to determine annuloplasty band size using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) alone. The intertrigonal distance (ITD) was determined by dividing the left ventricular outflow tract diameter (LVOT: measured on standard midesophageal aortic valve long-axis view) by 0.8. The ITD was compared to a nomogram developed to select the best Cosgrove-Edwards annuloplasty band size. Between July and October, 2004, 11 patients (mean age 52.6 +/- 17.9 years; four Barlow's valves with bileaflet prolapse, four posterior leaflet prolapses, one anterior leaflet prolapse, one rheumatic, one dilated annulus) undergoing robotically assisted MVP had the annuloplasty band chosen using TEE alone. Seven patients (63.6%) had no or mild mitral regurgitation (MR) on postoperative TEE. Three patients (27.2%) had some systolic anterior motion (SAM), with one (Barlow's valve) requiring a second repair (same operation). One patient (9.1%, rheumatic) had grade 2+ MR on postoperative TEE. In this small case series, a substantial proportion of patients had suboptimal immediate postoperative results. This suggests that selection of the annuloplasty band should not be based on a single echocardiographic variable as it depends on the etiology of the MR, and other dimensions of the mitral valve. Further studies are ongoing to develop a non-invasive method for the selection of annuloplasty band size.

  9. Measurement and valuation of health providers' time for the management of childhood pneumonia in rural Malawi: an empirical study. (United States)

    Bozzani, Fiammetta Maria; Arnold, Matthias; Colbourn, Timothy; Lufesi, Norman; Nambiar, Bejoy; Masache, Gibson; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene


    Human resources are a major cost driver in childhood pneumonia case management. Introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) in Malawi can lead to savings on staff time and salaries due to reductions in pneumonia cases requiring admission. Reliable estimates of human resource costs are vital for use in economic evaluations of PCV-13 introduction. Twenty-eight severe and twenty-four very severe pneumonia inpatients under the age of five were tracked from admission to discharge by paediatric ward staff using self-administered timesheets at Mchinji District Hospital between June and August 2012. All activities performed and the time spent on each activity were recorded. A monetary value was assigned to the time by allocating a corresponding percentage of the health workers' salary. All costs are reported in 2012 US$. A total of 1,017 entries, grouped according to 22 different activity labels, were recorded during the observation period. On average, 99 min (standard deviation, SD = 46) were spent on each admission: 93 (SD = 38) for severe and 106 (SD = 55) for very severe cases. Approximately 40 % of activities involved monitoring and stabilization, including administering non-drug therapies such as oxygen. A further 35 % of the time was spent on injecting antibiotics. Nurses provided 60 % of the total time spent on pneumonia admissions, clinicians 25 % and support staff 15 %. Human resource costs were approximately US$ 2 per bed-day and, on average, US$ 29.5 per severe pneumonia admission and US$ 37.7 per very severe admission. Self-reporting was successfully used in this context to generate reliable estimates of human resource time and costs of childhood pneumonia treatment. Assuming vaccine efficacy of 41 % and 90 % coverage, PCV-13 introduction in Malawi can save over US$ 2 million per year in staff costs alone.

  10. The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: The opening minds scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) (United States)


    Background Research on the attitudes of health care providers towards people with mental illness has repeatedly shown that they may be stigmatizing. Many scales used to measure attitudes towards people with mental illness that exist today are not adequate because they do not have items that relate specifically to the role of the health care provider. Methods We developed and tested a new scale called the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC). After item-pool generation, stakeholder consultations and content validation, focus groups were held with 64 health care providers/trainees and six people with lived experience of mental illness to develop the scale. The OMS-HC was then tested with 787 health care providers/trainees across Canada to determine its psychometric properties. Results The initial testing OMS-HC scale showed good internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82 and satisfactory test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation = 0.66 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.75). The OMC-HC was only weakly correlated with social desirability, indicating that the social desirability bias was not likely to be a major determinant of OMS-HC scores. A factor analysis favoured a two-factor structure which accounted for 45% of the variance using 12 of the 20 items tested. Conclusions The OMS–HC provides a good starting point for further validation as well as a tool that could be used in the evaluation of programs aimed at reducing mental illness related stigma by health care providers. The OMS-HC incorporates various dimensions of stigma with a modest number of items that can be used with busy health care providers. PMID:22694771

  11. The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: The opening minds scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the attitudes of health care providers towards people with mental illness has repeatedly shown that they may be stigmatizing. Many scales used to measure attitudes towards people with mental illness that exist today are not adequate because they do not have items that relate specifically to the role of the health care provider. Methods We developed and tested a new scale called the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC. After item-pool generation, stakeholder consultations and content validation, focus groups were held with 64 health care providers/trainees and six people with lived experience of mental illness to develop the scale. The OMS-HC was then tested with 787 health care providers/trainees across Canada to determine its psychometric properties. Results The initial testing OMS-HC scale showed good internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82 and satisfactory test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation = 0.66 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.75. The OMC-HC was only weakly correlated with social desirability, indicating that the social desirability bias was not likely to be a major determinant of OMS-HC scores. A factor analysis favoured a two-factor structure which accounted for 45% of the variance using 12 of the 20 items tested. Conclusions The OMS–HC provides a good starting point for further validation as well as a tool that could be used in the evaluation of programs aimed at reducing mental illness related stigma by health care providers. The OMS-HC incorporates various dimensions of stigma with a modest number of items that can be used with busy health care providers.

  12. Relationship of Provider and Practice Volume to Performance Measure Adherence for Coronary Artery Disease, Heart Failure, and Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. (United States)

    Fleming, Lisa M; Jones, Philip; Chan, Paul S; Andrei, Adin-Christian; Maddox, Thomas M; Farmer, Steven A


    There is a reported association between high clinical volume and improved outcomes. Whether this relationship is true for outpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure (HF), and atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unknown. Using the PINNACLE Registry (2009-2012), average monthly provider and practice volumes were calculated for CAD, HF, and AF. Adherence with 4 American Heart Association CAD, 2 HF, and 1 AF performance measure were assessed at the most recent encounter for each patient. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between provider and practice volume and performance on eligible quality measures. Data incorporated patients from 1094 providers at 71 practices (practice level analyses n=654 535; provider level analyses n=529 938). Median monthly provider volumes were 79 (interquartile range [IQR], 51-117) for CAD, 27 (16-45) for HF, and 37 (24-54) for AF. Median monthly practice volumes were 923 (IQR, 476-1455) for CAD, 311 (145-657) for HF, and 459 (185-720) for AF. Overall, 55% of patients met all CAD measures, 72% met all HF measures, and 58% met the AF measure. There was no definite relationship between practice volume and concordance for CAD, AF, or HF (P=0.56, 0.52, and 0.79, respectively). In contrast, higher provider volume was associated with increased concordance for CAD and AF performance measures (Pperformance was modest and variable. Higher provider volume was positively associated with quality, whereas practice volume was not. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Question No. 5: What Role Can Satellites Take, as a Complement to Ground Based Measurement Systems, to Provide Sustained Observations to Monitor GHG Emissions? (United States)

    Chahine, Moustafa; Olsen, Edward


    What role can satellites take, as a complement to ground based measurement systems, to provide sustained observations to monitor GHG emissions (e.g., CO2, CH4, O3, N2O, CFC s, NH3, and NF3) that contribute to global warming?

  14. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  15. An interview study of pregnant women who were provided with indoor air quality measurements of second hand smoke to help them quit smoking. (United States)

    Morgan, Heather; Treasure, Elizabeth; Tabib, Mo; Johnston, Majella; Dunkley, Chris; Ritchie, Deborah; Semple, Sean; Turner, Steve


    Maternal smoking can cause health complications in pregnancy. Particulate matter (PM2.5) metrics applied to second hand smoke (SHS) concentrations provide indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements and have been used to promote smoking behaviour change among parents of young children. Here, we present the qualitative results from a study designed to use IAQ measurements to help pregnant women who smoke to quit smoking. We used IAQ measurements in two centres (Aberdeen and Coventry) using two interventions: 1. In Aberdeen, women made IAQ measurements in their homes following routine ultrasound scan; 2. In Coventry, IAQ measurements were added to a home-based Stop Smoking in Pregnancy Service. All women were invited to give a qualitative interview to explore acceptability and feasibility of IAQ measurements to help with smoking cessation. A case study approach using grounded theory was applied to develop a typology of pregnant women who smoke. There were 39 women recruited (18 in Aberdeen and 21 in Coventry) and qualitative interviews were undertaken with nine of those women. Diverse accounts of smoking behaviours and experiences of participation were given. Many women reported changes to their smoking behaviours during pregnancy. Most women wanted to make further changes to their own behaviour, but could not commit or felt constrained by living with a partner or family members who smoked. Others could not envisage quitting. Using themes emerging from the interviews, we constructed a typology where women were classified as follows: 'champions for change'; 'keen, but not committed'; and 'can't quit, won't quit'. Three women reported quitting smoking alongside participation in our study. Pregnant women who smoke remain hard to engage,. Although providing IAQ measurements does not obviously improve quit rates, it can support changes in smoking behaviour in/around the home for some individuals. Our typology might offer a useful assessment tool for midwives.

  16. Which cardiovascular magnetic resonance planes and sequences provide accurate measurements of branch pulmonary artery size in children with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction? (United States)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok; Rutledge, Jennifer M; Tham, Edythe B; Coe, James Y; Quinonez, Luis; Patton, David J; Noga, Michelle


    Children with right ventricular outflow tract obstructive (RVOTO) lesions require precise quantification of pulmonary artery (PA) size for proper management of branch PA stenosis. We aimed to determine which cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) sequences and planes correlated best with cardiac catheterization and surgical measurements of branch PA size. Fifty-five children with RVOTO lesions and biventricular circulation underwent CMR prior to; either cardiac catheterization (n = 30) or surgery (n = 25) within a 6 month time frame. CMR sequences included axial black blood, axial, coronal oblique and sagittal oblique cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with multiplanar reformatting in axial, coronal oblique, sagittal oblique, and cross-sectional planes. Maximal branch PA and stenosis (if present) diameter were measured. Comparisons of PA size on CMR were made to reference methods: (1) catheterization measurements performed in the anteroposterior plane at maximal expansion, and (2) surgical measurement obtained from a maximal diameter sound which could pass through the lumen. The mean differences (Δ) and intra class correlation (ICC) were used to determine agreement between different modalities. CMR branch PA measurements were compared to the corresponding cardiac catheterization measurements in 30 children (7.6 ± 5.6 years). Reformatted MRA showed better agreement for branch PA measurement (ICC > 0.8) than black blood (ICC 0.4-0.6) and cine sequences (ICC 0.6-0.8). Coronal oblique MRA and maximal cross sectional MRA provided the best correlation of right PA (RPA) size with ICC of 0.9 (Δ -0.1 ± 2.1 mm and Δ 0.5 ± 2.1 mm). Maximal cross sectional MRA and sagittal oblique MRA provided the best correlate of left PA (LPA) size (Δ 0.1 ± 2.4 and Δ -0.7 ± 2.4 mm). For stenoses, the best correlations were from coronal oblique MRA of right pulmonary artery (RPA) (Δ -0.2 ± 0.8 mm, ICC 0

  17. Provider Info (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — General information on currently active nursing homes, including number of certified beds, quality measure scores, staffing and other information used in the...

  18. Predicting vehicular emissions in high spatial resolution using pervasively measured transportation data and microscopic emissions model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, Marguerite; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Kang, Chaogui; Robinson, Prudence; Corti, Andrea; Szell, Michael; Streets, David; Lu, Zifeng; Britter, Rex; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Ratti, Carlo


    Air pollution related to traffic emissions pose an especially significant problem in cities; this is due to its adverse impact on human health and well-being. Previous studies which have aimed to quantify emissions from the transportation sector have been limited by either simulated or coarsely resolved traffic volume data. Emissions inventories form the basis of urban pollution models, therefore in this study, Global Positioning System (GPS) trajectory data from a taxi fleet of over 15,000 vehicles were analyzed with the aim of predicting air pollution emissions for Singapore. This novel approach enabled the quantification of instantaneous drive cycle parameters in high spatio-temporal resolution, which provided the basis for a microscopic emissions model. Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were thus estimated. Highly localized areas of elevated emissions levels were identified, with a spatio-temporal precision not possible with previously used methods for estimating emissions. Relatively higher emissions areas were mainly concentrated in a few districts that were the Singapore Downtown Core area, to the north of the central urban region and to the east of it. Daily emissions quantified for the total motor vehicle population of Singapore were found to be comparable to another emissions dataset Results demonstrated that high resolution spatio-temporal vehicle traces detected using GPS in large taxi fleets could be used to infer highly localized areas of elevated acceleration and air pollution emissions in cities, and may become a complement to traditional emission estimates, especially in emerging cities and countries where reliable fine-grained urban air quality data is not easily available. This is the first study of its kind to investigate measured microscopic vehicle movement in tandem with microscopic emissions modeling for a substantial study domain.

  19. Measuring facility capability to provide routine and emergency childbirth care to mothers and newborns: An appeal to adjust for delivery caseload of facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Allen

    Full Text Available Measurement of Emergency Obstetric Care capability is common, and measurement of newborn and overall routine childbirth care has begun in recent years. These assessments of facility capabilities can be used to identify geographic inequalities in access to functional health services and to monitor improvements over time. This paper develops an approach for monitoring the childbirth environment that accounts for the delivery caseload of the facility.We used data from the Kenya Service Provision Assessment to examine facility capability to provide quality childbirth care, including infrastructure, routine maternal and newborn care, and emergency obstetric and newborn care. A facility was considered capable of providing a function if necessary tracer items were present and, for emergency functions, if the function had been performed in the previous three months. We weighted facility capability by delivery caseload, and compared results with those generated using traditional "survey weights".Of the 403 facilities providing childbirth care, the proportion meeting criteria for capability were: 13% for general infrastructure, 6% for basic emergency obstetric care, 3% for basic emergency newborn care, 13% and 11% for routine maternal and newborn care, respectively. When the new caseload weights accounting for delivery volume were applied, capability improved and the proportions of deliveries occurring in a facility meeting capability criteria were: 51% for general infrastructure, 46% for basic emergency obstetric care, 12% for basic emergency newborn care, 36% and 18% for routine maternal and newborn care, respectively. This is because most of the caseload was in hospitals, which generally had better capability. Despite these findings, fewer than 2% of deliveries occurred in a facility capable of providing all functions.Reporting on the percentage of facilities capable of providing certain functions misrepresents the capacity to provide care at the

  20. Simulated Conversations With Virtual Humans to Improve Patient-Provider Communication and Reduce Unnecessary Prescriptions for Antibiotics: A Repeated Measure Pilot Study. (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Albright, Glenn; Hibbard, Judith; Goldman, Ron


    Despite clear evidence that antibiotics do not cure viral infections, the problem of unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics in ambulatory care persists, and in some cases, prescribing patterns have increased. The overuse of antibiotics for treating viral infections has created numerous economic and clinical consequences including increased medical costs due to unnecessary hospitalizations, antibiotic resistance, disruption of gut bacteria, and obesity. Recent research has underscored the importance of collaborative patient-provider communication as a means to reduce the high rates of unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics. However, most patients and providers do not feel prepared to engage in such challenging conversations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the ability of a brief 15-min simulated role-play conversation with virtual humans to serve as a preliminary step to help health care providers and patients practice, and learn how to engage in effective conversations about antibiotics overuse. A total of 69 participants (35 providers and 34 patients) completed the simulation once in one sitting. A pre-post repeated measures design was used to assess changes in patients' and providers' self-reported communication behaviors, activation, and preparedness, intention, and confidence to effectively communicate in the patient-provider encounter. Changes in patients' knowledge and beliefs regarding antibiotic use were also evaluated. Patients experienced a short-term positive improvement in beliefs about appropriate antibiotic use for infection (F1,30=14.10, P=.001). Knowledge scores regarding the correct uses of antibiotics improved immediately postsimulation, but decreased at the 1-month follow-up (F1,30=31.16, Pchange in patient activation and shared decision-making (SDM) scores in the total sample of patients (P>.10) Patients with lower levels of activation exhibited positive, short-term benefits in increased intent and confidence to discuss their needs

  1. Orthogonal Electric Field Measurements near the Green Fluorescent Protein Fluorophore through Stark Effect Spectroscopy and pKaShifts Provide a Unique Benchmark for Electrostatics Models. (United States)

    Slocum, Joshua D; First, Jeremy T; Webb, Lauren J


    Measurement of the magnitude, direction, and functional importance of electric fields in biomolecules has been a long-standing experimental challenge. pK a shifts of titratable residues have been the most widely implemented measurements of the local electrostatic environment around the labile proton, and experimental data sets of pK a shifts in a variety of systems have been used to test and refine computational prediction capabilities of protein electrostatic fields. A more direct and increasingly popular technique to measure electric fields in proteins is Stark effect spectroscopy, where the change in absorption energy of a chromophore relative to a reference state is related to the change in electric field felt by the chromophore. While there are merits to both of these methods and they are both reporters of local electrostatic environment, they are fundamentally different measurements, and to our knowledge there has been no direct comparison of these two approaches in a single protein. We have recently demonstrated that green fluorescent protein (GFP) is an ideal model system for measuring changes in electric fields in a protein interior caused by amino acid mutations using both electronic and vibrational Stark effect chromophores. Here we report the changes in pK a of the GFP fluorophore in response to the same mutations and show that they are in excellent agreement with Stark effect measurements. This agreement in the results of orthogonal experiments reinforces our confidence in the experimental results of both Stark effect and pK a measurements and provides an excellent target data set to benchmark diverse protein electrostatics calculations. We used this experimental data set to test the pK a prediction ability of the adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann solver (APBS) and found that a simple continuum dielectric model of the GFP interior is insufficient to accurately capture the measured pK a and Stark effect shifts. We discuss some of the limitations of this

  2. A whole blood monokine-based reporter assay provides a sensitive and robust measurement of the antigen-specific T cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sophia C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure T-cell responses to antigens is proving critical in the field of vaccine development and for understanding immunity to pathogens, allergens and self-antigens. Although a variety of technologies exist for this purpose IFNγ-ELISpot assays are widely used because of their sensitivity and simplicity. However, ELISpot assays cannot be performed on whole blood, and require relatively large volumes of blood to yield sufficient numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To address these deficiencies, we describe an assay that measures antigen-specific T cell responses through changes in monokine gene transcription. The biological amplification of the IFNγ signal generated by this assay provides sensitivity comparable to ELISpot, but with the advantage that responses can be quantified using small volumes of whole blood. Methods Whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy controls and immunosuppressed recipients of solid organ transplants were incubated with peptide pools covering viral and control antigens or mitogen for 20 hours. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed before amplification in a TaqMan qPCR reaction using primers and probes specific for MIG (CXCL9, IP-10 (CXCL10 and HPRT. The induction of MIG and IP-10 in response to stimuli was analysed and the results were compared with those obtained by ELISpot. Results Antigen-specific T cell responses can be measured through the induction of MIG or IP-10 gene expression in PBMCs or whole blood with results comparable to those achieved in ELISpot assays. The biological amplification generated by IFNγ-R signaling allows responses to be detected in as little as 25 μL of whole blood and enables the assay to retain sensitivity despite storage of samples for up to 48 hours prior to processing. Conclusions A monokine-based reporter assay provides a sensitive measure of antigen-specific T cell activation. Assays can be

  3. 'Not another safety culture survey': using the Canadian patient safety climate survey (Can-PSCS) to measure provider perceptions of PSC across health settings. (United States)

    Ginsburg, Liane R; Tregunno, Deborah; Norton, Peter G; Mitchell, Jonathan I; Howley, Heather


    The importance of a strong safety culture for enhancing patient safety has been stated for over a decade in healthcare. However, this complex construct continues to face definitional and measurement challenges. Continuing improvements in the measurement of this construct are necessary for enhancing the utility of patient safety climate surveys (PSCS) in research and in practice. This study examines the revised Canadian PSCS (Can-PSCS) for use across a range of care settings. Confirmatory factor analytical approaches are used to extensively test the Can-PSCS. Initial and cross-validation samples include 13 126 and 6324 direct care providers from 119 and 35 health settings across Canada, respectively. Results support a parsimonious model of direct care provider perceptions of patient safety climate (PSC) with 19 items in six dimensions: (1) organisational leadership support for safety; (2) incident follow-up; (3) supervisory leadership for safety; (4) unit learning culture; (5) enabling open communication I: judgement-free environment; (6) enabling open communication II: job repercussions of error. Results also support the validity of the Can-PSCS across a range of care settings. The Can-PSCS has several advantages: (1) it is a theory-based instrument with a small number of actionable dimensions central to the construct of PSC; (2) it has robust psychometric properties; (3) it is validated for use across a range of care settings, therefore suitable for use in regionalised health delivery systems and can help to raise expectations about acceptable levels of PSC across the system; (4) it has been tested in a publicly funded universal health insurance system and may be suitable for similar international systems.

  4. Effects of providing and withholding postfitting fine-tuning adjustments on outcome measures in novice hearing aid users: a pilot study. (United States)

    Cunningham, D R; Williams, K J; Goldsmith, L J


    This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of either providing or withholding subject-driven, postfitting electroacoustic changes (fine tuning) on hearing aid performance as measured by tests of speech recognition in noise, sound quality, and benefit. A group of adult first-time hearing aid users with moderate, high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss was studied over a 5-month postfitting period. Half of the group served as a control group; half constituted the treatment group. Treatment consisted of making as many postfitting electroacoustic manipulations as the participants' complaints/observations required. These adjustments were withheld from the control group individuals. Group performance differences were assessed using the COSI, two versions of the APHAB, a Satisfaction scale, a Sound Quality tool, and the SIN test. Analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in the control and treatment groups' performances or perceived benefit at any of the five postfitting test sessions. These data suggested that there was no measurable advantage to be derived from making postfitting frequency-gain adjustments of 10 dB or less to hearing aids with wide dynamic range compression fitted in the manner described in this article. Definitive studies of the effects of postfitting electroacoustic fine tuning must be undertaken.

  5. Ion Microprobe Measurements of Comet Dust and Implications for Models of Oxygen Isotope Heterogeneity in the Solar System (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.


    ]. These studies have been largely focused on the coarse-grained terminal particles extracted from aerogel collectors; hypervelocity capture into aerogel resulted in fine-grained material that was melted and intimately mixed with the SiO2 capture medium. Hypervelocity impacts into Al foils surrounding the aerogel tiles produced impact craters that captured material from the impactor without significant oxygen contamination, allowing for analysis of both the coarse and fine-grained components of the Wild 2 dust. To date, no particles with definitive hydrated mineralogy have been observed in Stardust samples, though this may be a result of alteration due to hypervelocity capture. High-carbon hydrated CS-IDPs have been suggested as resulting from the aqueous alteration of CP-IDPs [7], and may retain evidence for interaction with O-17, O-18-enriched "cometary" water predicted by CO self-shielding. Here we present results of oxygen isotope measurements of twelve Stardust foil craters and four C-rich hydrated IDPs [8, 9], and discuss implications for models of oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the early solar system.

  6. Creating meaningful cut-scores for Neuro-QOL measures of fatigue, physical functioning, and sleep disturbance using standard setting with patients and providers. (United States)

    Cook, Karon F; Victorson, David E; Cella, David; Schalet, Benjamin D; Miller, Deborah


    To establish clinically relevant classifications of health outcome scores for four Neuro-QOL measures (lower extremity function, upper extremity function, fatigue, and sleep disturbance). We employed a modified educational standard-setting methodology to identify cut-scores for symptom severity. Clinical vignettes were developed to represent graduated levels of symptom severity. A clinician panel and a panel of persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) were recruited, and, in separate, 1-day meetings, the panelists identified adjacent vignettes they judged to represent the threshold between two levels of severity for a given domain (e.g., threshold between a vignette that indicated "no problems" with sleep and the adjacent one that represented "mild problems" with sleep). Working independently, each panel (PwMS and clinicians) reached consensus on its recommended thresholds for each of the four targeted measures. Cut-scores were defined as the mean location for each pair of threshold vignettes. PwMS and clinician panels derived identical thresholds for severity levels of lower extremity function and sleep disturbance, but slightly different ones for upper extremity function and fatigue. In every case of divergence, PwMS set higher thresholds for more severe classifications of symptoms (by 0.5 SDs) than did clinicians. The modified bookmarking method is effective for defining thresholds for symptom severity based on self-reported outcome scores and consensus judgments. Derived cut-scores and severity levels provide an interpretative context for Neuro-QOL scores. Future studies should explore whether these findings can be replicated and evaluate the validity of the classifications compared to external criteria.

  7. Applying high-frequency surrogate measurements and a wavelet-ANN model to provide early warnings of rapid surface water quality anomalies. (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Wang, Peng; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao


    It is critical for surface water management systems to provide early warnings of abrupt, large variations in water quality, which likely indicate the occurrence of spill incidents. In this study, a combined approach integrating a wavelet artificial neural network (wavelet-ANN) model and high-frequency surrogate measurements is proposed as a method of water quality anomaly detection and warning provision. High-frequency time series of major water quality indexes (TN, TP, COD, etc.) were produced via a regression-based surrogate model. After wavelet decomposition and denoising, a low-frequency signal was imported into a back-propagation neural network for one-step prediction to identify the major features of water quality variations. The precisely trained site-specific wavelet-ANN outputs the time series of residual errors. A warning is triggered when the actual residual error exceeds a given threshold, i.e., baseline pattern, estimated based on long-term water quality variations. A case study based on the monitoring program applied to the Potomac River Basin in Virginia, USA, was conducted. The integrated approach successfully identified two anomaly events of TP variations at a 15-minute scale from high-frequency online sensors. A storm event and point source inputs likely accounted for these events. The results show that the wavelet-ANN model is slightly more accurate than the ANN for high-frequency surface water quality prediction, and it meets the requirements of anomaly detection. Analyses of the performance at different stations and over different periods illustrated the stability of the proposed method. By combining monitoring instruments and surrogate measures, the presented approach can support timely anomaly identification and be applied to urban aquatic environments for watershed management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Connecting the snowpack to the internet of things: an IPv6 architecture for providing real-time measurements of hydrologic systems (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Zhang, Z.; Oroza, C.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.


    We describe our improved, robust, and scalable architecture by which to rapidly instrument large-scale watersheds, while providing the resulting data in real-time. Our system consists of more than twenty wireless sensor networks and thousands of sensors, which will be deployed in the American River basin (5000 sq. km) of California. The core component of our system is known as a mote, a tiny, ultra-low-power, embedded wireless computer that can be used for any number of sensing applications. Our new generation of motes is equipped with IPv6 functionality, effectively giving each sensor in the field its own unique IP address, thus permitting users to remotely interact with the devices without going through intermediary services. Thirty to fifty motes will be deployed across 1-2 square kilometer regions to form a mesh-based wireless sensor network. Redundancy of local wireless links will ensure that data will always be able to traverse the network, even if hash wintertime conditions adversely affect some network nodes. These networks will be used to develop spatial estimates of a number of hydrologic parameters, focusing especially on snowpack. Each wireless sensor network has one main network controller, which is responsible with interacting with an embedded Linux computer to relay information across higher-powered, long-range wireless links (cell modems, satellite, WiFi) to neighboring networks and remote, offsite servers. The network manager is also responsible for providing an Internet connection to each mote. Data collected by the sensors can either be read directly by remote hosts, or stored on centralized servers for future access. With 20 such networks deployed in the American River, our system will comprise an unprecedented cyber-physical architecture for measuring hydrologic parameters in large-scale basins. The spatiotemporal density and real-time nature of the data is also expected to significantly improve operational hydrology and water resource

  9. Depositional and Immersion-Mode Ice Nucleation of Fine-Grained Volcanic Ash Samples (United States)

    Cloer, S.; Woods, T.; Genareau, K. D.


    Volcanic lightning is a common phenomenon during explosive eruptions; occurring as vent discharges, near-vent discharges, and plume lightning. Plume lightning is most similar to thunderstorm lightning, where volcanic ash may act as ice nuclei. Volcanic ash samples derived from eight volcanoes: Augustine, Crater Peak, Katmai, Okmok, Redoubt (Alaska, U.S.A.), Lathrop Well (Nevada, U.S.A.), Taupo (New Zealand), and Valles Caldera (New Mexico, U.S.A.); were used to determine what roles ash mineralogy, particularly Fe-oxide-bearing minerals and silica-enriched minerals, grain shape, and grain size have in the nucleation of ice, which can generate plume lightning. Depositional and immersion-mode ice nucleation experiments were performed using a Nicolet Almega XR Dispersive Raman spectrometer, following the methods of Schill et al. (2015), where samples were shaken for 24 h prior to experiments in ultra-pure water, then nebulized to super micron droplets. Depositional nucleation experiments were conducted from 225-235 K, and immersion-mode nucleation experiments were conducted from 233-278 K. A JEOL JSM 6010 Plus/LA scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with Image-J freeware, was used to quantify the number density of Fe-oxide mineral phases in backscattered electron images, with an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) used to determine bulk mineral abundance and an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine bulk ash composition. Based on previous studies, we hypothesize that all ash samples will efficiently form depositional ice nuclei; however, certain mineral phases will dictate the efficiency of immersion-mode ice nucleation including K or Na / Ca feldspars, which have been shown to be efficient nuclei, and Fe-oxide-bearing minerals. These results will shed new light on volcanic cloud dynamics and add new parameters for atmospheric models, which currently only address effects of mineral dust as ice nuclei and overlook the potential role of volcanic ash.

  10. Effect of zirconia addition on the fatigue behaviour of fine grained ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Paris 4 838. Guiu F 1978 J. Mater. Sci. 13 1957. Guiu F and Vaughan D A J 1986 Proc. advanced ceramics. (eds) J S Moya and S de Aza (Madrid, Spain: Sociedad. Espanola de ceramica Y Vidrio). Guiu F, Reece M J D and Vaughan A J 1991 J. Mater. Sci. 26 p 3275. Hillig W B 1962 Modern aspects of the vitreous state (ed.) ...

  11. Depositional Environment of Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i1.153The research area is situated in the northwestern side of South Sumatra Basin, which is a part of Muara Bungo Regency, Jambi Province. The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and coal-seam intercalations. This research was focused on fine sedimentary rock of Sinamar Formation, such as shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data were collected from SNM boreholes which have depths varying from 75 m up to 200 m, and outcrops that were analyzed by organic petrographic method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS of normal alkanes including isoprenoids, and sterane. The dominant maceral group is exinite, composed of alginite (3.4 - 18%, and resinite (1.6 - 5.6%, while vitrinite maceral consists of tellocolinite 0.4 - 0.6%, desmocollinite 0.4%, and vitrodetrinite 8.4 - 16.6%. Organic petrography and biomarker analyses show that organic materials of shales were derived from high plants and algae especially Botrycoccus species. Botrycoccus and fresh water fish fossil, found in the shale indicate a lacustrine environment.

  12. Fine-Grained Sediments; an Annotated Bibliography on Their Dynamic Behavior in Aquatic Systems. (United States)


    and Ca- bentonite samples, the eroding pore water was the same; pH was varied using HCI or NaOH and salinity was varied using NaCi or CaCl2... NaOH and salinity was varied using NaCI. As an aid to the interpretation of the ero- sion experiments, rheological flow property experiments, electron...clay suite is kaolinite-illite-dioctahedral vermiculite , and the Chesapeake Bay entrance bears an illite-chlorite montmorillonite suite. Mixing

  13. Fine-Grained Provenance Inference for a Large Processing Chain with Non-materialized Intermediate Views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, M.R.; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas; Ailamaki, Anastasia; Bowers, Shawn

    Many applications facilitate a data processing chain, i.e. a workflow, to process data. Results of intermediate processing steps may not be persistent since reproducing these results are not costly and these are hardly re-usable. However, in stream data processing where data arrives continuously,

  14. Frontiers in Sedimentary Geology: Microstructure of Fine-Grained Sediments from Mud to Shale (United States)


    International Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics. Liege. Bel- agua salada. Diploma Thesis, Department of Civil Engeering. University of gium. May 17-19. 1985...higher values of hydraulic conductivity v. 22(2), p. 205-214. than will be obtained if potable water is used and a dispersed soil Fernandez, F, and R.M

  15. Removal of fine-grained and thin filter cakes by a counter-current backwash treatment


    Morsch, Patrick; Anlauf, Harald; Nirschl, Hermann


    In industrial solid/liquid separation, the removal of fine particles (≤ 10 μm) in a suspension with a low solids content (0.01-1 v/v %) is a challenging and demanding task. This application takes place in a wide array of industrial production such as metal processing and treatment industries. In order to achieve the required purity, different types of filters like candle and leaf filter can be used. In Figure 1, the commonly used candle filters are shown inside the vessel (a), during filtrati...

  16. Grain size of fine-grained windblown sediment: a powerful proxy for process identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, J.


    Dust transport by the wind is not a uniform process but may occur in different modes according to source area conditions and transport height and distance. Subsequently, these differences are expressed in terms of grain-size and fluxes of the aeolian deposits. Transport distances may vary from

  17. Neural correlates of fine-grained meaning distinctions: An fMRI investigation of scalar quantifiers. (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayu; Jiang, Xiaoming; Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Zhou, Xiaolin


    Communication involves successfully deriving a speaker's meaning beyond the literal expression. Using fMRI, it was investigated how the listener's brain realizes distinctions between enrichment-based meanings and literal semantic meanings. The neural patterns of the Mandarin scalar quantifier you-de (similar to some in English) which implies the meanings not all and not most via scalar enrichment, with the specific quantifier shao-shu-de (similar to less than half in English) which lexico-semantically encodes the meanings not all and not most, were compared. Listeners heard sentences using either quantifier, paired with pictures in which either less than half, more than half, or all of the people depicted in the picture were doing the described activity; thus, the conditions included both implicature-based and semantics-based picture-sentence mismatches. Imaging results showed bilateral ventral IFG was activated for both kinds of mismatch, whereas basal ganglia and left dorsal IFG were activated uniquely for implicature-based mismatch. These findings suggest that resolving conflicts involving inferential aspects of meaning employs different neural mechanisms than the processing based on literal semantic meaning, and that the dorsal prefrontal/basal ganglia pathway makes a contribution to implicature-based interpretation. Furthermore, within the implicature-based conditions, different neural generators were implicated in the processing of strong implicature mismatch (you-de in the context of a picture in which "all" would have been true) and weak implicature mismatch (you-de in the context of a picture in which "most" would have been true), which may have important implications for theories of pragmatic comprehension. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3848-3864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Fatigue behaviour of fine-grained alumina hip-joint heads under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In prosthetic applications, the reliability of implant materials over a period of thirty years is absolutely essential. Calculation of the lifetimes of alumina ceramic heads is generally made on the basis of experimental fatigue and slow crack growth tests using finite element analysis. This investigation is aimed at.

  19. Stabilization of Fine-Grained Soil for Road and Airfield Construction. (United States)


    stabi- lizers are cement, lime, and bitumen . Less used stabilizers include chlor- -2- -- P. -- LIS. Standard Sieve Numbers Hydrometer 100 6 24" 1" 340...with the common stabilizers (cement, lime, and bitumen ). Combinations of these stabilizers in addition to additives (i.e., sodium sulfate, calcium...hour after mixing. As the pH approaches 12.4, calcium ions become available to form calcium silicates , thus completing the soil-lime reaction. Arman

  20. Kinetic study of static recrystallization in an Fe–Al–O ultra-fine-grained nanocomposite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártková, Denisa; Šmíd, Miroslav; Mašek, B.; Svoboda, Jiří; Šiška, Filip


    Roč. 97, č. 10 (2017), s. 379-385 ISSN 0950-0839 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21292Y; GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : recrystallization * dislocation structures * nanoscale precipitates * microstructure * abrupt grain coarsening Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2016

  1. Fine-Grain Feature Extraction from Malware's Scan Behavior Based on Spectrum Analysis (United States)

    Eto, Masashi; Sonoda, Kotaro; Inoue, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Katsunari; Nakao, Koji

    Network monitoring systems that detect and analyze malicious activities as well as respond against them, are becoming increasingly important. As malwares, such as worms, viruses, and bots, can inflict significant damages on both infrastructure and end user, technologies for identifying such propagating malwares are in great demand. In the large-scale darknet monitoring operation, we can see that malwares have various kinds of scan patterns that involves choosing destination IP addresses. Since many of those oscillations seemed to have a natural periodicity, as if they were signal waveforms, we considered to apply a spectrum analysis methodology so as to extract a feature of malware. With a focus on such scan patterns, this paper proposes a novel concept of malware feature extraction and a distinct analysis method named “SPectrum Analysis for Distinction and Extraction of malware features(SPADE)”. Through several evaluations using real scan traffic, we show that SPADE has the significant advantage of recognizing the similarities and dissimilarities between the same and different types of malwares.

  2. Will Sanders Supporters Jump Ship for Trump? Fine-grained Analysis of Twitter Followers


    Wang, Yu; Feng, Yang; Zhang, Xiyang; Niemi, Richard; Luo, Jiebo


    In this paper, we study the likelihood of Bernie Sanders supporters voting for Donald Trump instead of Hillary Clinton. Building from a unique time-series dataset of the three candidates' Twitter followers, which we make public here, we first study the proportion of Sanders followers who simultaneously follow Trump (but not Clinton) and how this evolves over time. Then we train a convolutional neural network to classify the gender of Sanders followers, and study whether men are more likely to...

  3. Translingual Fine-Grained Morphosyntactic Analysis and Its Application to Machine Translation (United States)

    Drabek, Elliott Franco


    English and a small set of other languages have a wealth of available linguistic knowledge resources and annotated language data, but the great majority of the world's languages have little or none. This dissertation describes work which leverages the detailed and accurate morphosyntactic analyses available for English to improve analytical…

  4. Modeling urban land development as a continuum to address fine-grained habitat heterogeneity (United States)

    P.N. Manley; S.A. Parks; Lori Campbell; M.D. Schlesinger


    Natural landscapes are increasingly subjected to impacts associated with urbanization, resulting in loss and degradation of native ecosystems and biodiversity. Traditional classification approaches to the characterization of urbanization may prove inadequate in some human-modified...

  5. Accelerating Lattice QCD Multigrid on GPUs Using Fine-Grained Parallelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, M. A. [NVIDIA Corp., Santa Clara; Joó, Bálint [Jefferson Lab; Strelchenko, Alexei [Fermilab; Cheng, Michael [Boston U., Ctr. Comp. Sci.; Gambhir, Arjun [William-Mary Coll.; Brower, Richard [Boston U.


    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic acceleration of lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations in nuclear and particle physics. This has been due to both significant progress in accelerating the iterative linear solvers using multi-grid algorithms, and due to the throughput improvements brought by GPUs. Deploying hierarchical algorithms optimally on GPUs is non-trivial owing to the lack of parallelism on the coarse grids, and as such, these advances have not proved multiplicative. Using the QUDA library, we demonstrate that by exposing all sources of parallelism that the underlying stencil problem possesses, and through appropriate mapping of this parallelism to the GPU architecture, we can achieve high efficiency even for the coarsest of grids. Results are presented for the Wilson-Clover discretization, where we demonstrate up to 10x speedup over present state-of-the-art GPU-accelerated methods on Titan. Finally, we look to the future, and consider the software implications of our findings.

  6. Fine-Grained Linguistic Soft Constraints on Statistical Natural Language Processing Models (United States)


    of each occurrence of the target is a familiar recall vs. precision tension: if the context is very short and/or very frequent (e.g., “the __ is...baile y a de david palomar y la danza dans viejo como quien se acomoda una un baile empresa por julián estrada el tercero de teatro coro al baile a

  7. A New Dataset for Fine Grained Citation Field Extraction (Author’s Manuscript) (United States)


    BFGS method of quasi- Newton optimization. Training-time inference is per- formed by “forward backward” belief propagation. Test-time inference is...doi: 10.1145/956750.956759. URL http: // Councill, Isaac G, Giles, C Lee, and Kan, Min-Yen. Parscit: An open-source

  8. Flow-type failures in fine-grained soils : An important aspect in landslide hazard analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asch, T.W.J.; Malet, J.P.


    Forecasting the possibility of flow-type failures within a slow-moving landslide mass is rarely taken into account in quantitative hazard assessments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the potential transition of sliding blocks (slumps) into flow-like processes due to the generation of excess pore

  9. Plastic Properties of Fine-Grained WMD After Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadryś D.


    Full Text Available Micro-jet welding is an innovative method of weld forced cooling immediately after welding. It allows to obtain weld with superior properties in comparison to conventional welding. The reason for this is to obtain a more favorable structure of the weld metal deposit (WMD with much higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF. Different structures and mechanical properties of weld metal deposit were obtained by using various gases for cooling. The paper shows the relationship between the type of gas for micro-jet cooling and plastic properties of the weld joint. Coefficient of restitution and plastic strain were selected to describe changes of weld plastic properties for different micro-jet cooling gases. The tests were performed in dynamic conditions (impact.

  10. A fine-grained parallel algorithm for the cyclic flexible job shop problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech


    Full Text Available In this paper there is considered a flexible job shop problem of operations scheduling. The new, very fast method of determination of cycle time is presented. In the design of heuristic algorithm there was the neighborhood inspired by the game of golf applied. Lower bound of the criterion function was used in the search of the neighborhood.

  11. Settling characteristics of fine-grained sediments used in Louisiana coastal land building and restoration projects (United States)

    Ghose Hajra, M.


    Coastal property development, sea level rise, geologic subsidence, loss of barrier islands, increasing number and intensity of coastal storms and other factors have resulted in water quality degradation, wetlands loss, reduced storm and surge protection, ground settlement, and other challenges in coastal areas throughout the world. One of the goals towards reestablishing a healthy coastal ecosystem is to rebuild wetlands with river diversion or sediment conveyance projects that optimally manage and allocate sediments, minimally impact native flora and fauna, and positively affect the water quality. Engineering properties and material characteristics of the dredged material and foundation soils are input parameters in several mathematical models used to predict the long term behavior of the dredged material and foundation soil. Therefore, proper characterization of the dredged material and foundation soils is of utmost importance in the correct design of a coastal restoration and land reclamation project. The sedimentation and consolidation characteristics of the dredged material as well as their effects on the time rate of settlement of the suspended solid particles and underlying foundation soil depend, among other factors, on the (a) grain size distribution of the dredged material, (b) salinity (fresh, brackish, or saltwater environment) of the composite slurry, and (c) concentration of the solid particles in the slurry. This paper will present the results from column settling tests and self-weight consolidation tests performed on dredged samples obtained from actual restoration projects in Louisiana. The effects of salinity, grain size distribution, and initial particle concentration on the sedimentation and consolidation parameters of the dredged material will also be discussed.

  12. A fine-grained analysis of the jumping-to-conclusions bias in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Moritz


    Full Text Available Impaired decision behavior has been repeatedly observed in schizophrenia patients. We investigated several cognitive mechanisms that might contribute to the jumping-to-conclusions bias (JTC seen in schizophrenia patients: biases in information-gathering, information weighting and integration, and overconfidence, using the process tracing paradigm Mouselab. Mouselab allows for an in-depth exploration of various decision-making processes in a structured information environment. A total of 37 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls participated in the experiment. Although showing less focused and systematic information search, schizophrenia patients practically considered all pieces of information and showed no JTC in the sense of collecting less pieces of evidence. Choices of patients and controls both approximated a rational solution quite well, but patients showed more extreme confidence ratings. Both groups mainly used weighted additive decision strategies for information integration and only a small proportion relied on simple heuristics. Under high stress induced by affective valence plus time pressure, however, schizophrenia patients switched to equal weighting strategies: less valid cues and more valid ones were weighted equally.

  13. Elevating Virtual Machine Introspection for Fine-Grained Process Monitoring: Techniques and Applications (United States)

    Srinivasan, Deepa


    Recent rapid malware growth has exposed the limitations of traditional in-host malware-defense systems and motivated the development of secure virtualization-based solutions. By running vulnerable systems as virtual machines (VMs) and moving security software from inside VMs to the outside, the out-of-VM solutions securely isolate the anti-malware…

  14. Powder preparation and compaction behaviour of fine-grained Y-TZP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Zevert, W.F.M.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Theunissen, G.S.A.M.; Burggraaf, A.J.


    Two wet chemical preparation methods are described for yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia powders. Both methods yield powders with an extremely small crystallite size (8 nm) and a narrow size distribution. The agglomerate and aggregate structure of these powders have been investigated by several

  15. The fine-grained metaphysics of artifactual and biological functional kinds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrara, M.; Vermaas, P.E.


    In this paper we consider the emerging position in metaphysics that artifact functions characterize real kinds of artifacts. We analyze how it can circumvent an objection by David Wiggins (Sameness and substance renewed, 2001, 87) and then argue that this position, in comparison to expert judgments,

  16. Constructing a taxonomy of fine-grained human movement and activity motifs through social media

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Morgan R; Mitchell, Lewis; Bagrow, James P; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M


    Profiting from the emergence of web-scale social data sets, numerous recent studies have systematically explored human mobility patterns over large populations and large time scales. Relatively little attention, however, has been paid to mobility and activity over smaller time-scales, such as a day. Here, we use Twitter to identify people's frequently visited locations along with their likely activities as a function of time of day and day of week, capitalizing on both the content and geolocation of messages. We subsequently characterize people's transition pattern motifs and demonstrate that spatial information is encoded in word choice.

  17. What’s in a domain? : Towards fine-grained adaptation for machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wees, M.E.


    Machine translation (MT) uses software to translate texts in one language to another language. Modern-day MT systems are built using large amounts of example translations between these two languages, so-called parallel corpora. For many translation tasks, or domains, there are no sizable

  18. Effects of representation on students solving physics problems: A fine-grained characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Kohl


    Full Text Available Recent papers document that student problem-solving competence varies (often strongly with representational format, and that there are significant differences between the effects that traditional and reform-based instructional environments have on these competences [Kohl and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 1, 010104 (2005; Kohl and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 2, 010102 (2006]. These studies focused on large-lecture introductory physics courses, and included aggregate data on student performance on quizzes and homeworks. In this paper, we complement previous papers with finer-grained in-depth problem-solving interviews. In 16 interviews of students drawn from these classes, we investigate in more detail how and when student problem-solving performance varies with problem representation (verbal, mathematical, graphical, or pictorial. We find that student strategy often varies with representation, and that in this environment students who show more strategy variation tend to perform more poorly. We also verify that student performance depends sensitively on the particular combination of representation, topic, and student prior knowledge. Finally, we confirm that students have generally robust opinions of their representational skills, and that these opinions correlate poorly with their actual performances.

  19. Multitasking costs in close-head injury patients. A fine-grained analysis. (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Pashler, Harold; Stablum, Franca


    The issue of whether severe close-head injury (CHI) patients suffer from disproportionate dual-task deficits compared with matched controls was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment, either one or three masked letters were presented at the center of a monitor, followed by a pure tone at variable stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs). In half of the blocks of trials, the task on the letters required a delayed report of the letters at the end of each trial; in the other half of the blocks, the letters had to be ignored. The tone task always required an immediate manual response based on the tone pitch. In the second experiment, either three masked letters or three masked digits were presented with equal probability in each trial, followed by a tone at variable SOAs. The task required the delayed report of the characters only if they were letters, or ignoring the characters if they were digits. In both experiments, CHI patients and matched controls both exhibited an SOA-locked slowing of the reaction time (RT) to the tone: When characters had to be encoded for delayed report, tone RT increased progressively as SOA was decreased. The SOA effect on tone RT was more pronounced for CHI patients than for controls, suggesting that a substantial component of the slower processing time for CHI patients was related to a selective increase at a central stage of processing shared by the two tasks. Implications for models of the CHI effects on human performance are discussed.

  20. Human Error and General Aviation Accidents: A Comprehensive, Fine-Grained Analysis Using HFACS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiegmann, Douglas; Faaborg, Troy; Boquet, Albert; Detwiler, Cristy; Holcomb, Kali; Shappell, Scott


    ... of both commercial and general aviation (GA) accidents. These analyses have helped to identify general trends in the types of human factors issues and aircrew errors that have contributed to civil aviation accidents...

  1. Effect of suction hysteresis on resilient modulus of fine-grained cohesionless soil. (United States)


    The mechanical behavior of subgrade soil is influenced by the seasonal variations in moisture content. To better understand this behavior, it is crucial to study the relationship between soil moisture content and matric suction known as the Soil Wate...

  2. A fine-grained parallel dataflow-inspired architecture for streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermeier, A.


    Data driven streaming applications are quite common in modern multimedia and wireless applications, like for example video and audio processing. The main components of these applications are Digital Signal Processing (DSP) algorithms. These algorithms are not extremely complex in terms of their

  3. Analyzing the Impact of Antipatterns on Change-Proneness Using Fine-Grained Source Code Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Raila, P.; Pinzger, M.; Khomh, F.


    Preprint of paper published in: WCRE 2012 - Proceedings of the 19th Working Conference on Reverse Engineering, 15-18 October 2012; doi:10.1109/WCRE.2012.53 Antipatterns are poor solutions to design and implementation problems which are claimed to make object oriented systems hard to maintain. Our

  4. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.


    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  5. Fine-Grained Access Control Within NoSQL Document-Oriented Datastores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colombo, Pietro; Ferrari, Elena


    The recent years have seen the birth of several NoSQL datastores, which are getting more and more popularity for their ability to handle high volumes of heterogeneous and unstructured data in a very efficient way...

  6. Characterizing shear properties of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available properties including friction angle and cohesion for strength properties and shear modulus of the soil at three moisture states. Mohr-Coulomb failure models were developed together with shear modulus correlations for the soil sample. These models can be used...

  7. Adaptive Inference of Fine-grained Data Provenance to Achieve High Accuracy at Lower Storage Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, M.R.; Wombacher, Andreas; Apers, Peter M.G.


    In stream data processing, data arrives continuously and is processed by decision making, process control and e-science applications. To control and monitor these applications, reproducibility of result is a vital requirement. However, it requires massive amount of storage space to store

  8. A Geoacoustic Model for Fine-Grained, Unconsolidated Calcareous Sediments (ARSRP Natural Laboratory) (United States)


    Acoustics and Ocean bottom. Sociedad Espanola de Acustica, Instituto de Acustica-CSIC, F.A.S.E. Specialized Conference, Madrid, 3-58. Helmberger, D. V...Jacobson, R. S., Shor, Jr., G. G., and Dorman, L.M., 1981. Linear inversion i of body wave data-Part II: Attenuation versus depth using spectral ratios...Guerra, and C. Caro-Fite (eds.), Acoustics and Ocean bottom. Sociedad Espanola de Acustica, Instituto de 5 Acustica-CSIC, F.A.S.E. Specialized

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of fine-grained thin-walled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 30, 2017 ... Abstract. A combination of parallel tubular channel angular pressing (PTCAP) and tube backward extrusion (TBE) as a novel combined severe plastic deformation (SPD) was applied on AZ91 alloy to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG) thin- walled tubes. The effects of combined SPD process were investigated ...

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of fine-grained thin-walled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A combination of parallel tubular channel angular pressing (PTCAP) and tube backward extrusion (TBE) asa novel combined severe plastic deformation (SPD) was applied on AZ91 alloy to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG) thinwalledtubes. The effects of combined SPD process were investigated on the microstructure ...

  11. Evaluation of a Non-Nuclear Soil Density Gauge on Fine-Grained Soils (United States)


    James Rowland , all of APB, and Elizabeth A. McDevitt, Concrete Materials Branch (CMB). At the time of publication, Dr. Gary L. Anderton was Chief...Figure 2. SDG 200 ( As shown in the diagram in Figure 3, the non-contacting sensor in the SDG 200 consists of two rings : a...central ring and an outer ring . The central transmit ring injects an electric field into the soil, and the response is received by the outer sensing ring

  12. Functional measures of stream impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, B.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    The effects of elevated metals (primarily Zn) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration, and phosphatase activity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of mass and chlorophyll a accumulation on ceramic tiles, and as O{sub 2}, evolution from natural substrates incubated in situ in closed chambers. Community respiration was measured in situ by incubating fine-grained sediments, collected and composited along each stream study reach, in closed chambers and measuring O{sub 2} depletion. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activity were measured for periphyton scraped from ceramic tiles and natural substrates. Primary productivity, measured as chlorophyll accretion rates and O{sup 2} evolution, were depressed by increasing Zn concentrations. Productivity measured as mass accretion rates did not show significant Zn effects. Community respiration was depressed by increasing Zn concentrations, as was alkaline phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity was higher at the more impacted sites. Overall, functional measures were able to discern those sites receiving greater metal impacts from less impacted sites.

  13. Brief Report: Do Service Dog Providers Placing Dogs with Children with Developmental Disabilities Use Outcome Measures and, if So, What Are They? (United States)

    Butterly, Felicity; Percy, Carol; Ward, Gillian


    The aim of this study was to identify the outcomes expected and assessed by those providing service dogs to children with developmental disabilities. Seventeen registered service dog providers were invited to complete a mixed methods online survey. Five providers, who prepared dogs to work with a wide range of conditions and behaviours, mainly…

  14. A simple fiber-optic microprobe for high resolution light measurements: application in marine sediment (United States)

    Jorgensen, B. B.; Des Marais, D. J.


    A fiber-optic microphobe is described which is inexpensive and simple to build and use. It consists of an 80-micrometers optical fiber which at the end is tapered down to a rounded sensing tip of 20-30-micrometers diameter. The detector is a hybrid photodiode/amplifier. The probe has a sensitivity of 0.01 microEinst m-2 s-1 and a spectral range of 300-1,100 nm. Spectral light gradients were measured in fine-grained San Francisco Bay sediment that had an undisturbed diatom coating on the surface. The photic zone of the mud was only 0.4 mm deep. Measured in situ spectra showed extinction maxima at 430-520, 620-630, 670, and 825-850 nm due to absorption by chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, and bacterio-chlorophyll a. Maximum light penetration in the visible range was found in both the violet and the red or = 700 nm.

  15. TV Audience Measurement with Big Data. (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra


    TV audience measurement involves estimating the number of viewers tuned into a TV show at any given time as well as their demographics. First introduced shortly after commercial television broadcasting began in the late 1940s, audience measurement allowed the business of television to flourish by offering networks a way to quantify the monetary value of TV audiences for advertisers, who pay for the estimated number of eyeballs watching during commercials. The first measurement techniques suffered from multiple limitations because reliable, large-scale data were costly to acquire. Yet despite these limitations, measurement standards remained largely unchanged for decades until devices such as cable boxes, video-on-demand boxes, and cell phones, as well as web apps, Internet browser clicks, web queries, and social media activity, resulted in an explosion of digitally available data. TV viewers now leave digital traces that can be used to track almost every aspect of their daily lives, allowing the potential for large-scale aggregation across data sources for individual users and groups and enabling the tracking of more people on more dimensions for more shows. Data are now more comprehensive, available in real time, and cheaper to acquire, enabling accurate and fine-grained TV audience measurement. In this article, I discuss the evolution of audience measurement and what the recent data explosion means for the TV industry and academic research.

  16. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  17. The Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient-reported Outcome Measures for a Clinical Study Involving Traditional Health Providers and Bio-medically Trained Practitioners (United States)

    Goggin, Kathy; Gqaleni, Nceba; Mbhele, Adonica Lindokuhle; Makhathini, Mqansa Elliot; Buthelezi, Thanile Doreen; Ndlovu, Sebenzile W.; Shange, Vusumuzi F.; Thabethe, Mzomunye Arthur; Mkhwanazi, Dumisani A.; Nkomo-Gwala, Bonsekile L.; Hlongwane, Thandonjani; Mdlalose, Themba; Ngubane, Langelihle; Wilson, Douglas; Wu, Albert W.; Bartman, Patricia; Gerkovich, Mary; Williams, Karen; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Puoane, Thandi; Catley, Delwyn; Johnson, Quinton; Folk, William


    This study reports on the cultural and language translation of measures for use with Zulu speakers in South Africa. The translation process was purposefully used to integrate our diverse 14 person study team by employing Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) strategies. Measures included: the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The translation was made complex by the variation in Zulu dialects across regions and even between two cities only forty-five minutes apart. Carefully conceived translations can simultaneously produce good translationsand deepen team members’ understanding of each-other. PMID:25309104

  18. Thermometer of warmth in the patient-provider relationship (WARMOMETER)--theory-based development of a patient self-report measure and initial validation using cognitive interview methodology. (United States)

    Neumann, Melanie; Scheffer, Christian; Cysarz, Dirk; Bovelet, Maxie; Tauschel, Diethard; Taylor-Swanson, Lisa; Edelhaeuser, Friedrich


    The aims of this study are twofold: (1) the theory-based development of a patient self-report measure of physician warmth and (2) the application of cognitive interview methodology to understand patients' perception and interpretation of this new measure. A draft measure was developed based on an in-depth literature review of the concept of human warmth by a multidisciplinary expert group. Sixteen cognitive probing interviews were conducted to examine how patients perceive and interpret this new measure and to identify potential problems. A content analysis of the interviews was used to evaluate findings. Findings indicate that the WARMOMETER is a short patient self-report assessment of physician warmth, which seems easy and intuitive to understand. In addition, most respondents were found to share a common concept of physician warmth. Verification of our study hypotheses and confirmation of the theoretical assumptions of human warmth give basic indications that the WARMOMETER seems to be a valid and sensitive patient self-report instrument for assessing the socio-emotional quality of physicians. These first promising results of our cognitive interviews suggest that the WARMOMETER may also be used and further validated in future health communication studies, also with other healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. What Influences Patients' Decisions When Choosing a Health Care Provider? Measuring Preferences of Patients with Knee Arthrosis, Chronic Depression, or Alzheimer's Disease, Using Discrete Choice Experiments. (United States)

    Groenewoud, Stef; Van Exel, N Job A; Bobinac, Ana; Berg, Marc; Huijsman, Robbert; Stolk, Elly A


    To investigate what influences patients' health care decisions and what the implications are for the provision of information on the quality of health care providers to patients. Dutch patient samples between November 2006 and February 2007. Discrete choice experiments were conducted in three patient groups to explore what influences choice for health care providers. Data were obtained from 616 patients with knee arthrosis, 368 patients with chronic depression, and 421 representatives of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The three patients groups chose health care providers on a different basis. The most valued attributes were effectiveness and safety (knee arthrosis); continuity of care and relationship with the therapist (chronic depression); and expertise (Alzheimer's disease). Preferences differed between subgroups, mainly in relation to patients' choice profiles, severity of disease, and some background characteristics. This study showed that there is substantial room for (quality) information about health care providers in patients' decision processes. This information should be tailor-made, targeting specific patient segments, because different actors and factors play a part in their search and selection process. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. What Influences Patients' Decisions When Choosing a Health Care Provider? : Measuring Preferences of Patients with Knee Arthrosis, Chronic Depression, or Alzheimer's Disease, Using Discrete Choice Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Groenewoud (Stef); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A. Bobinac (Ana); M. Berg (Marc); R. Huijsman (Robbert); E.A. Stolk (Elly)


    textabstractObjective: To investigate what influences patients' health care decisions and what the implications are for the provision of information on the quality of health care providers to patients. Data Sources/Study Setting: Dutch patient samples between November 2006 and February 2007. Study

  1. Measuring the impact of Hurricane Katrina on access to a personal healthcare provider: the use of the National Survey of Children's Health for an external comparison group. (United States)

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Sury, Jonathan J; Abramson, David


    This paper examined the effect of Hurricane Katrina on children's access to personal healthcare providers and evaluated the use of propensity score methods to compare a nationally representative sample of children, as a proxy for an unexposed group, with a smaller exposed sample. 2007 data from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health (G-CAFH) Study, a longitudinal cohort of households displaced or greatly impacted by Hurricane Katrina, were matched with 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data using propensity score techniques. Propensity scores were created using poverty level, household educational attainment, and race/ethnicity, with and without the addition of child age and gender. The outcome was defined as having a personal healthcare provider. Additional confounders (household structure, neighborhood safety, health and insurance status) were also examined. All covariates except gender differed significantly between the exposed (G-CAFH) and unexposed (NSCH) samples. Fewer G-CAFH children had a personal healthcare provider (65 %) compared to those from NSCH (90 %). Adjusting for all covariates, the propensity score analysis showed exposed children were 20 % less likely to have a personal healthcare provider compared to unexposed children in the US (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.76, 0.84), whereas the logistic regression analysis estimated a stronger effect (OR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.21, 0.39). Two years after Hurricane Katrina, children exposed to the storm had significantly lower odds of having a personal health care provider compared to unexposed children. Propensity score matching techniques may be useful for combining separate data samples when no clear unexposed group exists.

  2. Wall-based measurement features provides an improved IVUS coronary artery risk assessment when fused with plaque texture-based features during machine learning paradigm. (United States)

    Banchhor, Sumit K; Londhe, Narendra D; Araki, Tadashi; Saba, Luca; Radeva, Petia; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S


    Planning of percutaneous interventional procedures involves a pre-screening and risk stratification of the coronary artery disease. Current screening tools use stand-alone plaque texture-based features and therefore lack the ability to stratify the risk. This IRB approved study presents a novel strategy for coronary artery disease risk stratification using an amalgamation of IVUS plaque texture-based and wall-based measurement features. Due to common genetic plaque makeup, carotid plaque burden was chosen as a gold standard for risk labels during training-phase of machine learning (ML) paradigm. Cross-validation protocol was adopted to compute the accuracy of the ML framework. A set of 59 plaque texture-based features was padded with six wall-based measurement features to show the improvement in stratification accuracy. The ML system was executed using principle component analysis-based framework for dimensionality reduction and uses support vector machine classifier for training and testing-phases. The ML system produced a stratification accuracy of 91.28%, demonstrating an improvement of 5.69% when wall-based measurement features were combined with plaque texture-based features. The fused system showed an improvement in mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and area under the curve by: 6.39%, 4.59%, 3.31% and 5.48%, respectively when compared to the stand-alone system. While meeting the stability criteria of 5%, the ML system also showed a high average feature retaining power and mean reliability of 89.32% and 98.24%, respectively. The ML system showed an improvement in risk stratification accuracy when the wall-based measurement features were fused with the plaque texture-based features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abou-Ras


    Full Text Available Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe2 solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe2/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe2 layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w2 and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  4. Measuring the effectiveness of infrastructure-level detection of large-scale botnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zeng, Yuanyuan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shin, Kang G [UNIV OF MICHIGAN


    Botnets are one of the most serious security threats to the Internet and its end users. In recent years, utilizing P2P as a Command and Control (C&C) protocol has gained popularity due to its decentralized nature that can help hide the hotmaster's identity. Most bot detection approaches targeting P2P botnets either rely on behavior monitoring or traffic flow and packet analysis, requiring fine-grained information collected locally. This requirement limits the scale of detection. In this paper, we consider detection of P2P botnets at a high-level - the infrastructure level - by exploiting their structural properties from a graph analysis perspective. Using three different P2P overlay structures, we measure the effectiveness of detecting each structure at various locations (the Autonomous System (AS), the Point of Presence (PoP), and the router rendezvous) in the Internet infrastructure.


    Nakamichi, Kumiko; Murao, Toshimichi; Yoshiura, Keiko; Taniguchi, Mamoru

    In recent years, numerous municipalities have anno unced plans for promoting compact city. However, even if the citizens that have car dependent lifestyle move from suburbs to city center, not all of them simply abandon that kind of lifestyle. An objective of this study is to clarify the effect of the compact layout city for reduction of environmental load by tr ansportation. The effect is analyzed considering the change condition of travel behavior before and after relocation and the influence of providing information for car use reduction by using research data conduc ted in the satelite cities in metropolitan area. It was clarified that providing information continuously and making an effort for car use reduction produce the desirable effect of CO2 reduction.

  6. The Impact of Q-Matrix Designs on Diagnostic Classification Accuracy in the Presence of Attribute Hierarchies (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Bradshaw, Laine


    There is an increasing demand for assessments that can provide more fine-grained information about examinees. In response to the demand, diagnostic measurement provides students with feedback on their strengths and weaknesses on specific skills by classifying them into mastery or nonmastery attribute categories. These attributes often form a…

  7. A human papillomavirus (HPV) in vitro neutralization assay that recapitulates the in vitro process of infection provides a sensitive measure of HPV L2 infection-inhibiting antibodies. (United States)

    Day, Patricia M; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Kines, Rhonda C; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T


    Papillomavirus L2-based vaccines have generally induced low-level or undetectable neutralizing antibodies in standard in vitro assays yet typically protect well against in vivo experimental challenge in animal models. Herein we document that mice vaccinated with an L2 vaccine comprising a fusion protein of the L2 amino acids 11 to 88 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), HPV18, HPV1, HPV5, and HPV6 were uniformly protected from cervicovaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirus, but neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, -31, -33, -45, or -58 were rarely detected in their sera using a standard in vitro neutralization assay. To address this discrepancy, we developed a neutralization assay based on an in vitro infectivity mechanism that more closely mimics the in vivo infectious process, specifically by spaciotemporally separating primary and secondary receptor engagement and correspondingly by altering the timing of exposure of the dominant L2 cross-neutralizing epitopes to the antibodies. With the new assay, titers in the 100 to 10,000 range were measured for most sera, whereas undetectable neutralizing activities were observed with the standard assay. In vitro neutralizing titers measured in the serum of mice after passive transfer of rabbit L2 immune serum correlated with protection from cervicovaginal challenge of the mice. This "L2-based" in vitro neutralization assay should prove useful in critically evaluating the immunogenicity of L2 vaccine candidates in preclinical studies and future clinical trials.

  8. Fluorescence lifetime FRET non-invasive imaging of breast cancer xenografts provides a measure of target engagement in vivo (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Rudkouskaya, Alena; Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Intes, Xavier; Barroso, Margarida


    Fluorescence Lifetime Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FLIM-FRET) is a unique non-invasive imaging platform to monitor and quantify in vivo target engagement in pre-clinical studies. FLIM FRET is a valuable tool in targeted drug delivery due to its nanoscale-range molecular resolution that detects near-infrared labeled ligand binding to dimerized receptors followed by their uptake into cancer cells in vivo. Various imaging platforms, including PET, lack the ability to directly discriminate between unbound and internalized ligands. Since transferrin receptor (TfR) level is significantly elevated in cancer cells compared to non-cancerous cells, transferrin (Tf) has been successfully used in molecular imaging and targeted anti-cancer drug delivery. The dimeric nature of TfR allows for the quantification of Tf internalization into cancer cells by measuring FLIM FRET between receptor-bound Tf donor and acceptor NIR fluorophore pairs, based on the reduction of donor fluorophore lifetime in live mice. We analyzed tumor morphology, the level of expression of TfR, estrogen receptor (ER) and Tf accumulation in human breast cancer tumor xenografts. We found a remarkable heterogeneity of breast cancer tumors regarding their size, cell density, TfR and ER expression and Tf uptake. The results of this study confirm a strong correlation between in vivo NIR FLIM FRET and ex vivo evaluation of Tf uptake into tumor tissues, thus validating FD% as a robust measure of the target engagement of TfR-Tf in tumor cells in vivo.

  9. Measurements of energy flow distributions of 10 GeV/c hadronic showers in iron and in aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, B; Kiss, D; Niebergall, F; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wilmsen, W; Winter, Klaus


    The lateral distribution of the energy of hadron showers initiated by 10 GeV/c pi /sup -/ and protons has been measured at various depths in Fe and Al absorbers. It is found to scale with the density of the absorber. The energy flow is characterized by a cone of +or-65 mrad opening angle. The direction of the energy flow can be determined by two points, the vertex of the primary interaction and the centre of gravity of the energy deposited by the shower. The fluctuation of the centre of gravity has been measured using a fine-grained calorimeter and is found to give the shower direction with an r.m.s. spread of 60 mrad. (9 refs).

  10. Measuring homework compliance in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression: review, preliminary findings, and implications for theory and practice. (United States)

    Gaynor, Scott T; Lawrence, P Scott; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O


    Despite the importance placed on completion of extra-session homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a review of the available literature suggests there is much about the nature of homework compliance that remains to be empirically evaluated. This is especially true among youth receiving CBT. The present study begins to address how best to measure homework compliance and offers a fine-grained, single-case analysis of homework compliance during acute treatment with depressed adolescents. The results demonstrate that 56% of homework assignments were completed. Also observed was substantial within-subject temporal variability in homework compliance and a tendency for compliance to decrease during the course of treatment. These data call into question the adequacy of any static aggregate measure of homework compliance and have implications for both researchers and clinicians.

  11. Signal functions for measuring the ability of health facilities to provide abortion services: an illustrative analysis using a health facility census in Zambia. (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Aquino, Estela M L; Vwalika, Bellington; Gabrysch, Sabine


    Annually, around 44 million abortions are induced worldwide. Safe termination of pregnancy (TOP) services can reduce maternal mortality, but induced abortion is illegal or severely restricted in many countries. All abortions, particularly unsafe induced abortions, may require post-abortion care (PAC) services to treat complications and prevent future unwanted pregnancy. We used a signal-function approach to look at abortion care services and illustrated its utility with secondary data from Zambia. We refined signal functions for basic and comprehensive TOP and PAC services, including family planning (FP), and assessed functions currently being collected via multi-country facility surveys. We then used the 2005 Zambian Health Facility Census to estimate the proportion of 1369 health facilities that could provide TOP and PAC services under three scenarios. We linked facility and population data, and calculated the proportion of the Zambian population within reach of such services. Relevant signal functions are already collected in five facility assessment tools. In Zambia, 30 % of facilities could potentially offer basic TOP services, 3.7 % comprehensive TOP services, 2.6 % basic PAC services, and 0.3 % comprehensive PAC services (four facilities). Capability was highest in hospitals, except for FP functions. Nearly two-thirds of Zambians lived within 15 km of a facility theoretically capable of providing basic TOP, and one-third within 15 km of comprehensive TOP services. However, requiring three doctors for non-emergency TOP, as per Zambian law, reduced potential access to TOP services to 30 % of the population. One-quarter lived within 15 km of basic PAC and 13 % of comprehensive PAC services. In a scenario not requiring FP functions, one-half and one-third of the population were within reach of basic and comprehensive PAC respectively. There were huge urban-rural disparities in access to abortion care services. Comprehensive PAC services were virtually

  12. Surgeon assessment of renal preservation with partial nephrectomy provides information comparable to measurement of volume preservation with 3-dimensional image analysis. (United States)

    Tobert, Conrad M; Boelkins, Bradley; Culver, Shannon; Mammen, Leena; Kahnoski, Richard J; Lane, Brian R


    The strongest predictors of renal function after partial nephrectomy are the preoperative glomerular filtration rate and the amount of preserved parenchyma. Measuring volume preservation by 3-dimensional imaging is accurate but time-consuming. Percent functional volume preservation was designed to replace surgeon assessment of volume preservation with a less labor intensive, objective assessment. We compared volume preservation with 3-dimensional imaging, percent functional volume preservation and surgeon assessment of volume preservation as predictors of renal function after partial nephrectomy. We calculated volume preservation with 3-dimensional imaging, percent functional volume preservation and surgeon assessment of volume preservation in 41 patients with preoperative and postoperative cross-sectional imaging available. Surgeon assessment was validated internally in another 75 patients. Short-term and long-term renal function was assessed with univariate and multivariate linear regression models. Median parenchymal preservation was 85% (range 37% to 105%) by 3-dimensional imaging, 91% (range 51% to 114%) by percent functional preservation and 88% (range 45% to 99%) by surgeon assessment. Each method strongly correlated with nadir glomerular filtration rate (r(2) = 0.75, 0.65 and 0.78) and latest glomerular filtration rate (r(2) = 0.65, 0.66 and 0.67, respectively, each p analysis revealed that age, preoperative glomerular filtration rate, renal nephrometry score and each assessment were significant predictors of renal function (p analysis parenchymal preservation was the strongest predictor (p comparable to those of more time intensive alternatives. We propose that surgeon assessment of volume preservation should be routinely reported to facilitate analysis of partial nephrectomy outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pain in patients with multiple sclerosis: a complex assessment including quantitative and qualitative measurements provides for a disease-related biopsychosocial pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski D


    Full Text Available Dominik Michalski1,*, Stefanie Liebig1,*, Eva Thomae1,2, Andreas Hinz3, Florian Then Bergh1,21Department of Neurology, 2Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM, 3Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany *These authors contributed equallyBackground: Pain of various causes is a common phenomenon in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS. A biopsychosocial perspective has proven a useful theoretical construct in other chronic pain conditions and was also started in MS. To support such an approach, we aimed to investigate pain in MS with special emphasis on separating quantitative and qualitative aspects, and its interrelation to behavioral and physical aspects.Materials and methods: Pain intensity (NRS and quality (SES were measured in 38 consecutive outpatients with MS (mean age, 42.0 ± 11.5 years, 82% women. Pain-related behavior (FSR, health care utilization, bodily complaints (GBB-24 and fatigue (WEIMuS were assessed by questionnaires, and MS-related neurological impairment by a standardized neurological examination (EDSS.Results: Mean pain intensity was 4.0 (range, 0–10 and mean EDSS 3.7 (range, 0–8 in the overall sample. Currently present pain was reported by 81.6% of all patients. Disease duration and EDSS did not differ between patients with and without pain and were not correlated to quality or intensity of pain. Patients with pain had significantly higher scores of musculoskeletal complaints, but equal scores of exhaustion, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular complaints. Pain intensity correlated only with physical aspects, whereas quality of pain was additionally associated with increased avoidance, resignation and cognitive fatigue.Conclusion: As in other conditions, pain in MS must be assessed in a multidimensional way. Further research should be devoted to adapt existing models to a MS-specific model of pain.Keywords: pain intensity, quality of pain, pain

  14. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón


    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.

  15. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  16. Laminae and grain-size measures in beach sediments, east coast beaches, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    in these parameters. Individual layers have wider ranges of mean sizes, variable sorting, skewness and kurtosis values. These variations are pronounced and are observed in fine grained dark laminae as well as interlaminae space. These results suggest variations...

  17. sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra measurement in Mo, Cd and Nd sub 2 O sub 3 samples with the emanation method

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S; Kornoukhov, V N; Orekhov, I V


    Measurements of sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra content in materials and chemical reagents used to construct the double beta decay sources in the NEMO-3 experiment have been done with the emanation method technique. Three different radon emanation technologies were used in these studies. The first was the 'traditional' method of dissolving the sample. The second was an extraction of Rn from a melted sample and finally a technique of heating fine-grained powder was used. It is shown that there is good agreement of the data received with the emanation method and low background high purity germanium detectors. The sensitivity of this method is 0.02 mBq/l of solution (for the 'standard' emanation method) or 0.02 mBq/kg (for methods in which radon is extracted from a powder or melt).

  18. The Accuracy of the CNAP® Device Compared with Invasive Radial Artery Measurements for Providing Continuous Noninvasive Arterial Blood Pressure Readings at a Medical Intensive Care Unit: A Method-Comparison Study. (United States)

    Smolle, Karl-Heinz; Schmid, Martin; Prettenthaler, Helga; Weger, Christian


    In cases of intensive care unit (ICU) patients without an arterial line, noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring could be very beneficial. The CNAP® monitor (CNSystems Medizintechnik AG) provides noninvasive, beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) estimates using the volume clamp method to measure finger arterial pressure calibrated to brachial pressure values. The aim of this study was to compare noninvasive BP estimates of the CNAP monitor with invasive blood pressure (IBP) measurements obtained via a radial arterial catheter in unselected medical ICU patients under routine clinical conditions. In 40 adult patients, IBP and noninvasive CNAP blood pressure (CBP) were measured simultaneously for 30 minutes. Bland-Altman analysis accounting for repeated measurements revealed accuracy and precision of CBP toward IBP. Percentage errors were calculated using the summary measures method and tested for interchangeability. Trending analysis was assessed using 4-quadrant plots and polar plots, whereby each reported statistical calculation used the sample size of n = 40 patients. A total of 7200 measurement pairs of CBP and IBP were analyzed. For mean arterial pressure, accuracy ± precision resulted in 4.6 ± 6.7 mm Hg (limits of agreement -8.7 to 17.8 mm Hg) with a percentage error of 6.77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.57%-6.97%). Trending analysis of 3-minute intervals showed a concordance rate of 94.6% (95% CI, 94.0%-95.2%; exclusion zone 10%) and a polar concordance rate of 99.50% (95% CI, 99.48%-99.52%) for changes lying within 10% limits. The CNAP device provided feasible estimates of BP in unselected medical ICU patients under routine clinical conditions. Mean arterial pressure met interchangeability criteria for accuracy toward radial arterial pressure, as well as for percentage error, and showed good trending capabilities according to the Critchley predefined criteria.

  19. Bottom-up capacity building for data providers in RITMARE (United States)

    Pepe, Monica; Basoni, Anna; Bastianini, Mauro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Menegon, Stefano; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pavesi, Fabio; Sarretta, Alessandro; Carrara, Paola


    defined for the specific category of data (WMS, WFS, WCS, and SOS). Resources are annotated by fine-grained metadata that is compliant with standards (e.g., INSPIRE, SensorML) and also semantically enriched by leveraging controlled vocabularies and RDF-based data structures (e.g., the FOAF description of the project's organisation). The Starter Kit is packaged as an off-the-shelf virtual machine and is made available under an open license (GPL v.3) and with extensive support tools. Among the most innovative features of the architecture is the user-friendly, extensible approach to metadata creation. On the one hand, the number of metadata items that need to be provided by the user is reduced to the minimum by recourse to controlled vocabularies and context information. The semantic underpinning of these data structures enables advanced discovery functionalities. On the other hand, the templating mechanism adopted in metadata editing allows to easily plug-in further schemata. The Starter Kit provides a consistent framework for capacity building that brings the heterogeneous actors in the project under the same umbrella, while preserving the individual practices, formats, and workflows. At the same time, users are empowered with standard-compliant web services that can be discovered and accessed both locally and remotely, such as the RITMARE infrastructure itself. [1] Carrara, P., Sarretta, A., Giorgetti, A., Ribera D'Alcalà, M., Oggioni, A., & Partescano, E. (2013). An interoperable infrastructure for the Italian Marine Research. IMDIS 2013 [2] European Commission, "Establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)" Directive 2007/2/EC, Official J. European Union, vol. 50, no. L 108, 2007, pp. 1-14.

  20. Quantifying how fine-grained environmental heterogeneity and genetic variation affect demography in an annual plant population. (United States)

    Latimer, Andrew M; Jacobs, Brooke S


    The ability of plant species to colonize new habitats and persist in changing environments depends on their ability to respond plastically to environmental variation and on the presence of genetic variation, thus allowing adaptation to new conditions. For invasive species in particular, the relationship between phenotypic trait expression, demography, and the quantitative genetic variation that is available to respond to selection are likely to be important determinants of the successful establishment and persistence of populations. However, the magnitude and sources of individual demographic variation in exotic plant populations remain poorly understood. How important is plasticity versus adaptability in populations of invasive species? Among environmental factors, is temperature, soil nutrients, or competition most influential, and at what scales and life stages do they affect the plants? To investigate these questions we planted seeds of the exotic annual plant Erodium brachycarpum into typical pasture habitat in a spatially nested design. Seeds were drawn from 30 inbred lines to enable quantification of genetic effects. Despite a positive population growth rate, a few plants (0.1 %) produced >50 % of the seeds, suggesting a low effective population size. Emergence and early growth varied by genotype, but as in previous studies on native plants, environmental effects greatly exceeded genetic effects, and survival was unrelated to genotype. Environmental influences shifted from microscale soil compaction and litter depth at emergence through to larger-scale soil nutrient gradients during growth and to competition during later survival and seed production. Temperature had no effect. Most demographic rates were positively correlated, but emergence was negatively correlated with other rates.

  1. Concentration levels and spatial distribution of sulphur and metals in fine-grained sediments in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available On the coastal plains of Finland, widespread Holocene marine and lacustrine sediments have developed into acid sulphate soil as a result of extensive artificial drainage for agricultural purposes. This has caused a variety of environmental problems. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of sulphur, carbon and metals [titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese (Mn, iron, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn] in these sediments, in order to increase the geochemical understanding of the parent materials from which acid sulphate soil develops. Sediment samples were collected at 317 sites from a depth of 1.5–3 m. While the sediments have high S (sulphide concentrations (median = 0.54% and thus a strong acidification potential, they carry transition metals mainly in smallsized silicates close to “background concentrations” far below contamination limits. The previously documented extensive release of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn from oxidised and acidified layers of these sediments (i.e. acid sulphate soil is thus not explained by anomalously high natural or anthropogenic metal concentrations of the soils/sediments, but by an inherent highly mobile metal pool. Spatial-distribution maps highlight areas of elevated S and Mn concentrations, where it is likely that ditching and subsequent oxidation will result in an exceptionally large release of protons and Mn respectively.;

  2. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laury Cullen

    Full Text Available Jaguar (Panthera onca populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes.

  3. Mind wandering and attention during focused meditation: a fine-grained temporal analysis of fluctuating cognitive states. (United States)

    Hasenkamp, Wendy; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Duncan, Erica; Barsalou, Lawrence W


    Studies have suggested that the default mode network is active during mind wandering, which is often experienced intermittently during sustained attention tasks. Conversely, an anticorrelated task-positive network is thought to subserve various forms of attentional processing. Understanding how these two systems work together is central for understanding many forms of optimal and sub-optimal task performance. Here we present a basic model of naturalistic cognitive fluctuations between mind wandering and attentional states derived from the practice of focused attention meditation. This model proposes four intervals in a cognitive cycle: mind wandering, awareness of mind wandering, shifting of attention, and sustained attention. People who train in this style of meditation cultivate their abilities to monitor cognitive processes related to attention and distraction, making them well suited to report on these mental events. Fourteen meditation practitioners performed breath-focused meditation while undergoing fMRI scanning. When participants realized their mind had wandered, they pressed a button and returned their focus to the breath. The four intervals above were then constructed around these button presses. We hypothesized that periods of mind wandering would be associated with default mode activity, whereas cognitive processes engaged during awareness of mind wandering, shifting of attention and sustained attention would engage attentional subnetworks. Analyses revealed activity in brain regions associated with the default mode during mind wandering, and in salience network regions during awareness of mind wandering. Elements of the executive network were active during shifting and sustained attention. Furthermore, activations during these cognitive phases were modulated by lifetime meditation experience. These findings support and extend theories about cognitive correlates of distributed brain networks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Meta-analyzing ownership concentration and firm performance in Asia: Towards a more fine-grained understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); M. van Essen (Marc); J. van Oosterhout (Hans)


    textabstractWe present a meta-analysis of the relationship between concentrated ownership and firm financial performance in Asia. At the cross-national level of analysis, we find a small but significant positive association between both variables. This finding suggests that in regions with less than

  5. Seismic characterization of hydrates in faulted, fine-grained sediments of Krishna-Godavari Basin: Full waveform inversion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Zelt, C.A.

    (P)) and attenuation (Q sub(P) sup(-1)) character of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). In this paper, we apply frequency domain full-waveform inversion (FWI) to surface-towed 2D multichannel seismic data from the Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, India, to image...

  6. Seismic characterization of hydrates in faulted, fine-grained sediments of Krishna-Godavari basin: Full waveform inversion.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Zelt, C.A.

    (QP−1) character of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). In this paper, we apply frequency domain full-waveform inversion (FWI) to surface-towed 2D multichannel seismic data from the Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, India, to image the fine-scale (100...

  7. On the functional vs. lexical nature of restructuring heads: evidence for a fine-grained classification of restructuring modals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Balza


    Full Text Available This paper examines in detail the thematic and syntactic properties of a set of (non-restructuringstructures in Germanic, Romance and Basque. Based on the comparison of these structures, I propose a finegrainedclassification of (non-restructuring constructions that include Functional Restructuring, Semi-Lexical Restructuring, Lexical Restructuring and Non-Restructuring constructions. The four types involvecomplements of different underlying structures (VPs, vPs or even as large as NegP/TPs. The results of theanalysis argue against Cinque’s (2005 hypothesis that all restructuring verbs are exclusively functional, andcontradicts Wurmbrand’s (1999 claim that, within the mixed class of restructuring verbs, modals must beraising verbs.

  8. Student Modeling in Orthopedic Surgery Training: Exploiting Symbiosis between Temporal Bayesian Networks and Fine-Grained Didactic Analysis (United States)

    Chieu, Vu Minh; Luengo, Vanda; Vadcard, Lucile; Tonetti, Jerome


    Cognitive approaches have been used for student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs). Many of those systems have tackled fundamental subjects such as mathematics, physics, and computer programming. The change of the student's cognitive behavior over time, however, has not been considered and modeled systematically. Furthermore, the…

  9. Fine-grain Parallel Processing On A Commodity Platform: A Solution For The Atlas Second-level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Boosten, M


    From 2005 on, CERN expects to have a new accelerator available for experiments: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with a circumference of 27 kilometres. The ATLAS detector produces 40 TeraBytes/s of data. Only a fraction of all data is interesting. A computer system, called the trigger, selects the interesting data through real-time data analysis. The trigger consists of three subsequent filtering levels: LVL1, LVL2, and LVL3. LVL1 will be implemented using special-purpose hardware. LVL2 and LVL3 will be implemented using a Network Of Workstations (NOW). A major problem is to make efficient use of the computing power available in each workstation. The major contribution of this designer's project is an infrastructure named MESH. MESH enables CERN to cost- effectively implement the LVL2 trigger. Furthermore, due to the use of commodity technology, MESH enables the LVL2 trigger to be cost-effectively upgraded and supported during its 20 year lifecycle. MESH facilitates efficient parallel processing on PCs interc...

  10. A method to implement fine-grained access control for personal health records through standard relational database queries. (United States)

    Sujansky, Walter V; Faus, Sam A; Stone, Ethan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley


    Online personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to access, manage, and share certain of their own health information electronically. This capability creates the need for precise access-controls mechanisms that restrict the sharing of data to that intended by the patient. The authors describe the design and implementation of an access-control mechanism for PHR repositories that is modeled on the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) standard, but intended to reduce the cognitive and computational complexity of XACML. The authors implemented the mechanism entirely in a relational database system using ANSI-standard SQL statements. Based on a set of access-control rules encoded as relational table rows, the mechanism determines via a single SQL query whether a user who accesses patient data from a specific application is authorized to perform a requested operation on a specified data object. Testing of this query on a moderately large database has demonstrated execution times consistently below 100ms. The authors include the details of the implementation, including algorithms, examples, and a test database as Supplementary materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of mussel bioengineering on fine-grained sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon: a numerical modelling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Pernille Louise; Lumborg, Ulrik; Bundgaard, Klavs


    Rødsand lagoon in southeast Denmark is a non-tidal coastal lagoon. It is home to a wide range of marine flora and fauna and part of the Natura 2000 network. An increase in turbidity through elevated levels of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the lagoon may affect the ecosystem health...... due to reduced light penetration. Increasing SSC levels within Rødsand lagoon could be caused by increasing storm intensity or by a sediment spill from dredging activities west of the lagoon in relation to the planned construction of the Fehmarnbelt fixed link between Denmark and Germany. The aim...... of the study was to investigate the impact of a mussel reef on sediment import and SSC in a semi-enclosed lagoon through the development of a bioengineering modelling application that makes it possible to include the filtrating effect of mussels in a numerical model of the lagoonal system. The numerical...

  12. Effect of water potential and antecedent soil moisture on soil erodibility for coarse and fine-grained agricultural soils (United States)

    Soil erodibility has confounded researchers for decades. Difficulties arise with initiation of motion, pore-water status, physical, and perhaps biological, material properties and type of applied energy (i.e. rainfall, runoff, freeze/thaw, wind). Though specific tests have been developed to determin...

  13. A model for coupled electro-hydro-mechanical processes in fine grained soils accounting for gas generation and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tamagnini


    Full Text Available A theoretical and numerical model is developed for the quantitative analysis of coupled processes taking place in active waste containment systems, such as electrokinetic barriers or fences, in which alow intensity DC current is circulated across the clay barrier to move polar and non-polar contaminants. A novel feature of the proposed approach is the allowance for the presence of air in the pore space. Under unsaturated conditions, all transport coefficients involved in the electrokinetic process are strongly dependent on the degree of saturation of pore liquid. In order to assess the predictive capability of the proposed theory and to appreciate the impact of gas production at the electrodes, a series of numerical simulations of simple onedimensional electrokinetic tests have been performed. The results of the simulations compare reasonably well with data obtained from laboratory experiments performed on an illitic clayey silt. The numerical results indicate that the impact of gas production at the electrodes can be significant, even in low-intensity and short-duration treatments.Um modelo teórico e computacional é desenvolvido para a análise quantitativa de processos acoplados que tomam lugar em sistemas de contenção de lixo tais como barreiras ou grades eletrocinéticas no qual uma DC corrente de baixa intensidade é circulada através da barreira de argila para movimentar contaminantes polares e não polares. Uma nova característica da abordagem proposta é permitir a presença de ar nos poros. Sob condições não saturadas todos os coeficientes de transporte envolvidos nos processos eletrocinéticos são fortemente dependentes do grau de saturação do líquido. Com o objetivo de avaliar a capacidade do modelo proposto de predizer e de apreciar o impacto da produção de gás nos eletrodos uma série de simulações numéricas foi realizada em testes eletrocinéticos simples unidimensionais. Os resultados das simulações concordam razoavelmente bem com dados experimentais obtidos em experimentos de laboratório realizados em argilas. Os resultados numéricos indicam que o impacto da produção de gás nos eletrodos pode ser significativo mesmo em tratamentos de baixa intensidade e curta duração.

  14. The Message Driven File System: A Network Accessible File System for Fine-Grain Message Passing Multicomputers (United States)


    8217·>µ¶´¾¹Ò¶½-§b²e³:¢É²’¤Ñ¯8¼’§9ʵ ½-¯ = ®?> start@ DMAA read@ block 0B sync read@ block 1B send block 0B sync start@ DMAA send block NB read@ block NB...send block N-1C sync start@ DMAA ...D ...D CPUE operationF DMA operationF timeG = ÄH> CPU operationF DMAI operationF copyJ block 0B writeK block 0B

  15. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. (United States)

    Cullen, Laury; Stanton, Jessica C; Lima, Fernando; Uezu, Alexandre; Perilli, Miriam L L; Akçakaya, H Reşit


    Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatarina Wariyah


    Full Text Available Indonesian calcium intake is still low. So, calcium fortification  in such as rice is important. Rice fortification by extru- sion method was conducted by mixing rice flour with fortificant solution, molding and drying. The rice that was resulted from this process is called ultra rice. Menir (finely ground grain rice will be used as raw material of ultra rice. The purposed of this research was to produce high calcium extrusion rice or ultra rice with physical, organoleptic properties and cooking  quality  as normal rice. The specific purposes were to evaluate the effect of the type and amount of binder(gluten and tapioca on the characteristics of ultra rice, to determine type and amount of binder that resulted high cal- cium ultra rice with high acceptability. The result showed that high calcium ultra rice with tapioca as binder had colour,texture and organoleptic properties as normal rice. The ultra rice texture tended harder than IR-64, but cooked-ultra ricewas softer. The colour of ultra rice with tapioca as binder was similar with IR-64, but ultra rice with gluten as binderwas more yellowness. The cooking quality of ultra rice was less acceptable than IR-64. The high acceptability of ultra rice  was made with 4 % tapioca as binder, and the characterictics of this ultra rice were : hardness 140.43N, deforma- tion 63.70 %, the colour with lightness (L 71.08,  yellowness (b 11.00, redness (a -0.27 and good cooking quality. ABSTRAK Angka kecukupan asupan kalsium masyarakat Indonesia saat ini masih rendah. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan fortifikasi pada pangan yang umum  dikonsumsi  masyarakat luas seperti beras. Salah satu cara fortifikasi beras adalah dengan metode ekstrusi yaitu mencampur larutan fortifikan dengan tepung beras, kemudian dicetak dan dikeringkan.  Berasyang dihasilkan sering disebut sebagai beras ultra. Untuk meningkatkan kemanfaatan hasil samping penggilingan padi,maka digunakan menir sebagai bahan baku beras ultra. Permasalahannya adalah sifat fisik dan inderawi  serta kualitastanak beras ditentukan oleh binder (bahan pengikat yang digunakan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan berashasil ekstrusi atau beras ultra berkalsium tinggi dengan sifat fisik, inderawi dan kualitas tanak seperti beras biasa. Se-cara khusus tujuannya adalah mengevaluasi pengaruh jenis dan jumlah binder (gluten dan tapioka terhadap sifat-sifatberas ultra, menentukan jenis dan jumlah binder yang tepat agar dihasilkan beras ultra dengan sifat fisik dan kualitastanak yang disukai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa beras ultra berkalsium tinggi yang dibuat dengan bindertapioka memiliki warna, tekstur dan sifat inderawi seperti beras biasa. Secara khusus kesimpulannya adalah jenis dan jumlah binder kurang berpengaruh terhadap tekstur beras maupun nasi beras ultra, namun dibandingkan beras IR-64 tekstur beras ultra cenderung lebih keras, akan tetapi nasinya lebih lunak. Sedangkan warna beras ultra dengan binder tapioka hampir sama dengan beras IR-64, sedang dengan gluten agak kekuningan. Kualitas tanak beras ultra kurang baik dibandingkan beras IR-64. Beras ultra yang paling disukai adalah yang dibuat dengan binder tapioka 4 %. Beras tersebut memiliki karakteristik kekerasan 140,43N, deformasi 63,70 %,  warna dengan nilai L: 71,08, b: 11,00 dan a:-0,27 dengan kualitas tanak cukup baik.

  17. A Real-Time Early Cognitive Vision System based on a Hybrid coarse and fine grained Parallel Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With

    such as recognition, reasoning and planning.The ECV stage is a hierarchical architecture that makes use of an early-local-symbolic representation to sparsify and increase the semantic richness of the information from EV. Before this project, the EV and ECV stages of our software were processed on a single core CPU....... The current top model GPUs from NVIDIA possess up to 240 homogeneous cores. In the past, GPUs have beenhard to program, forcing the programmer to map the algorithm to the graphics processing pipeline and think in terms of vertex and fragment shaders, imposing a limiting factor in the implementation of non......, have less regular behavior and therefore fit the CPU better. OpenMP which is an API for shared memory parallel programming, has been used to parallelize parts of the code running on the CPU. This work presents a heterogeneous platform - called the "vision machine" - with which we have been able...

  18. Estimating concentrations of fine-grained and total suspended sediment from close-range remote sensing imagery (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam; Spicer, Kurt R.; Christianson, Tami; Uhrich, Mark A.


    Fluvial sediment, a vital surface water resource, is hazardous in excess. Suspended sediment, the most prevalent source of impairment of river systems, can adversely affect flood control, navigation, fisheries and aquatic ecosystems, recreation, and water supply (e.g., Rasmussen et al., 2009; Qu, 2014). Monitoring programs typically focus on suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge (SSQ). These time-series data are used to study changes to basin hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology caused by disturbances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has traditionally used physical sediment sample-based methods (Edwards and Glysson, 1999; Nolan et al., 2005; Gray et al., 2008) to compute SSC and SSQ from continuous streamflow data using a sediment transport-curve (e.g., Walling, 1977) or hydrologic interpretation (Porterfield, 1972). Accuracy of these data is typically constrained by the resources required to collect and analyze intermittent physical samples. Quantifying SSC using continuous instream turbidity is rapidly becoming common practice among sediment monitoring programs. Estimations of SSC and SSQ are modeled from linear regression analysis of concurrent turbidity and physical samples. Sediment-surrogate technologies such as turbidity promise near real-time information, increased accuracy, and reduced cost compared to traditional physical sample-based methods (Walling, 1977; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003; Gray and Gartner, 2009; Rasmussen et al., 2009; Landers et al., 2012; Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). Statistical comparisons among SSQ computation methods show that turbidity-SSC regression models can have much less uncertainty than streamflow-based sediment transport-curves or hydrologic interpretation (Walling, 1977; Lewis, 1996; Glysson et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2008). However, computation of SSC and SSQ records from continuous instream turbidity data is not without challenges; some of these include environmental fouling, calibration, and data range among sensors. Of greatest interest to many programs is a hysteresis in the relationship between turbidity and SSC, attributed to temporal variation of particle size distribution (Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). This phenomenon causes increased uncertainty in regression-estimated values of SSC, due to changes in nephelometric reflectance off the varying grain sizes in suspension (Uhrich et al., 2014). Here, we assess the feasibility and application of close-range remote sensing to quantify SSC and particle size distribution of a disturbed, and highly-turbid, river system. We use a consumer-grade digital camera to acquire imagery of the river surface and a depth-integrating sampler to collect concurrent suspended-sediment samples. We then develop two empirical linear regression models to relate image spectral information to concentrations of fine sediment (clay to silt) and total suspended sediment. Before presenting our regression model development, we briefly summarize each data-acquisition method.

  19. Seismic characterization of hydrates in faulted, fine-grained sediments of Krishna-Godavari basin: Unified imaging

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Zelt, C.A.

    -out assumptions (Yilmaz, 2001). In structurally deformed basins, non-horizontal stratigraphy may generate non-hyperbolic reflection trajectories which may be further distorted if V P varies over short distances (less than the streamer length) due to, say... be consistent with hydrate character at the three sites. Projection on the first zone highlights a BSR depth 10m deeper than at Site NGHP-01-10 (green well trajectories; Figure 3e). The seafloor depth at Site NGHP-01-10 differs by ~2m from its projected...

  20. Algal blooms and "Marine snow": Mechanisms that enhance preservation of organic carbon in ancient fine-grained sediments (United States)

    Macquaker, Joe H.S.; Keller, Margaret A.; Davies, Sarah J.


    Combined petrographic and geochemical methods are used to investigate the microfabrics present in thin sections prepared from representative organic carbon-rich mudstones collected from three successions (the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the Jet Rock Member of the Whitby Mudstone Formation, and the pebble shale and Hue Shale). This study was initiated to determine how organic carbon-rich materials were being delivered to the sediment–water interface, and what happened to them after deposition, prior to deep burial.Analyses of the fabrics present shows that they exhibit many common attributes. In particular they are all: (1) highly heterogeneous on the scale of a thin section, (2) organized into thin beds (blooms, and was then transported rapidly to the seafloor. The existence of the thin beds with homogenized tops and an in-situ infauna indicates that between blooms there was sufficient oxygen and time for a mixed layer to develop as a result of sediment colonization by diminutive organisms using either aerobic or dysaerobic metabolic pathways. These textures suggest that the constituents of these mudstones were delivered neither as a continuous rain of sediment nor were the bottom waters persistently anoxic. In addition, the presence of thin lags and sharp-based beds suggests that the seafloor was being episodically reworked during deposition. These fabrics indicate that conditions in the water columns and at the seafloors while these rocks were being deposited were very dynamic, and episodic fluxes of high concentrations of organic carbon to the seafloor, during phytoplankton blooms, likely enhanced preservation of organic carbon.

  1. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perrone


    Full Text Available Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients’ SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients’ SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients’ WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients.

  2. Therapy Provider Phase Information (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  3. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  4. Does multi-slice CT provide reliable attenuation values if measured with low slice thickness and low tube current? Results of a phantom study; Sind mit der Mehrschicht-Computertomografie Dichtemessungen auch bei geringer Schichtdicke und niedrigem Roehrenstrom verlaesslich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhof, K.; Bohndorf, K. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Welzel, T. [Abt. klinische Radiologie, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Wagner, T. [Pathologisches Inst., Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Behr, W. [Inst. fuer Laboratoriumsmedizin, Mikrobiologie und Umwelthygiene, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany)


    Purpose: to test whether CT with low slice thickness and low tube current provides reliable attenuation measurements. Materials and methods: using multi-slice CT and a phantom, we measured the attenuation values of thrombi with different proportions of erythrocytes, using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, 2.5 mm, and 5 mm with tube currents of 200 mA, 300 mA, and 400 mA and a slice thickness of 0.625 mm with tube currents of 150 mA, 175 mA, and 200 mA. Differences in attenuation values and pixel noise between the three thrombi for tube current and slice thickness were statistically analyzed. Results: the attenuation values of all thrombi increased (p < 0.05) when the slice thickness decreased using a tube current of 200 mA or when the tube current decreased using a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. With higher tube currents and thicker slices, the CT values depended on the type of thrombus and the slice thickness. In slices with a thickness of 0.625 mm, the CT values decreased with the tube current in the mixed thrombus with a low proportion of erythrocytes and in the red thrombus (p < 0.05). The maximal difference in mean attenuation values was 4.3 HU with a slice thickness of 0.625 mm and 2.2 HU with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. The pixel noise increased as the slice thickness decreased (p < 0.05) with the exception of the red thrombus, if reduced to 0.625 mm. The pixel noise also increased as the tube current decreased (p < 0.05) except in mixed thrombi measured with 0.625 mm. The maximal difference in mean standard deviation was 1.8 HU with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm. (orig.)

  5. Can a physical activity monitor provide a valid measure of arm elevation angle? A study to assess agreement between the SenseWear Mini Armband and the universal goniometer. (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Andrew D; Lockhart, John W; Breckenridge, John D


    We undertook the current study to assess whether an accelerometer-based physical activity monitor, the SenseWear Mini Armband (SMA), could be used to provide data on static arm elevation, and to assess the agreement between static arm elevation measures obtained using SMA-derived data and those obtained with a universal goniometer. Using a universal goniometer, healthy adult subjects (n = 25, age 30 ± 9 years) had each of right and left arms positioned in a series of set positions between arm-by-side and maximal active arm flexion (anteversion), and arm-by-side and maximal active arm abduction. Subjects wore the SMA throughout positioning, and SMA accelerometer data was used to retrospectively calculate/derive arm elevation angle using a manufacturer-provided algorithm. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement between goniometer-set and SMA-derived arm elevation angles. There were significant differences between goniometer-set and SMA-derived arm elevation angles for elevation angles ≤ 30 degrees and ≥ 90 degrees (p goniometer-set and SMA-derived elevation angles. Adjustment of the manufacturer-provided algorithm for deriving arm elevation angle corrected for this systematic difference, and resulted in 95% limits of agreement ± 12 degrees (flexion) and ± 13 degrees (abduction) across the full range of arm elevation. The SMA can be used to record data allowing derivation of static arm elevation angle in the upright position, 95% limits of agreement with the universal goniometer being similar to those reported for digital inclinometers and gyroscopes. Physiotherapists looking for innovative methods of recording upper limb range of motion should consider the potential of accelerometer-based physical activity monitors such as the SMA.

  6. Family-centredness of professionals who support people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: validation of the Dutch 'Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers' (MPOC-SP-PIMD). (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne L G; van der Putten, Annette A J; Post, Wendy J; Vlaskamp, Carla


    A Dutch version of the 'Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers' (MPOC-SP) was developed to determine the extent to which professionals apply the principles of family-centred care in the rehabilitation of children with physical disabilities. However, no data were available on the reliability and construct validity of this instrument when it comes to supporting people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This study aimed to validate an adapted version of the Dutch MPOC-SP for assessing the family-centred behaviours of professionals who support this group (MPOC-SP-PIMD). A total of 105 professionals took part in the study. A Mokken scale analysis was conducted to determine whether the instrument satisfied the assumptions of both monotone homogeneity and double monotonicity. Loevinger's scalability coefficient (H) was used for the scalability of the entire scale and of each item separately. Rho was calculated as a measure of the internal consistency of the scales. The analyses resulted in two scales: a nine-item scale interpreted as 'Showing Interpersonal Sensitivity', with H=.39 and rho=.76, and a seven-item scale interpreted as 'Treating People Respectfully', with H=.49 and rho=.78. A validated version of the MPOC-SP-PIMD, suitable for supporting people with PIMD, consists of a subset of two scales from the original Dutch MPOC-SP. This instrument can be used to compare the family-centredness of professionals with parent's expectations and views. This information can be used in practice to match the support to the needs of the parents and family of the child with PIMD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preferred provider organizations. (United States)

    Davy, J D


    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  8. The Use of Borehole Temperature Measurements to Infer Climatic Changes in Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Clow, Gary D.

    Periodic temperature measurements in the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the western Arctic Slope of Alaska have shown a strong near-surface permafrost warming over the last 40 years, particularly since ˜ 1990. Due to the manner in which these deep wells were drilled, the portion of the observed permafrost warming caused by climate change has remained unclear. Other factors that have strongly influenced temperatures near the wellbores include the heat deposited into permafrost during drilling and local-landscape changes associated with drilling operations (creation of reserve pits and drill pads). Multidimensional heat-transfer models capable of assessing the magnitude of the drilling and local-landscape disturbances near the wellbores have not been available. For the western Arctic Slope, such models must be capable of simulating heat-transfer processes in layered fine-grained mudrocks whose thermal properties are highly nonlinear due to the occurrence of unfrozen water at temperatures well below 0°C. An assessment of the drilling and landscape-change effects also requires knowledge of the specific thermophysical properties occurring at the well sites. Little information has been available about these properties on the western Arctic Slope. To establish the portion of the observed permafrost warming related to drilling and landscape-change effects, multidimensional (2-D cylindrical, 3-D cartesian) numerical heat-transfer models were created that simulate heat flow in layered heterogenous materials surrounding a wellbore, phase changes, and the unfrozen water properties of a wide range of fine-grained sediments. Using these models in conjunction with the borehole temperature measurements, the mean thermophysical properties of permafrost rock units on the western Arctic Slope were determined using an optimization process. Incorporation of local meteorological information into the optimization allows a more refined estimate of the thermal properties to be

  9. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  10. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels


    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  11. Impact of Nodal Centrality Measures to Robustness in Software-Defined Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Hegr


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the network robustness from the perspective of nodal centrality measures and its applicability in Software-Defined Networking (SDN. Traditional graph characteristics have been evolving during the last century, and numerous of less-conventional metrics was introduced trying to bring a new view to some particular graph attributes. New control technologies can finally utilize these metrics but simultaneously show new challenges. SDN brings the fine-grained and nearly online view of the underlying network state which allows to implement an advanced routing and forwarding. In such situation, sophisticated algorithms can be applied utilizing pre-computed network measures. Since in recent version of SDN protocol OpenFlow (OF has been revived an idea of the fast link failover, the authors in this paper introduce a novel metric, Quality of Alternative Paths centrality (QAP. The QAP value quantifies node surroundings and can be with an advantage utilized in algorithms to indicate more robust paths. The centrality is evaluated using the node-failure simulation at different network topologies in combination with the Quality of Backup centrality measure.

  12. How to measure cortical folding from MR images: a step-by-step tutorial to compute local gyrification index. (United States)

    Schaer, Marie; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Schmansky, Nick; Fischl, Bruce; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Eliez, Stephan


    Cortical folding (gyrification) is determined during the first months of life, so that adverse events occurring during this period leave traces that will be identifiable at any age. As recently reviewed by Mangin and colleagues(2), several methods exist to quantify different characteristics of gyrification. For instance, sulcal morphometry can be used to measure shape descriptors such as the depth, length or indices of inter-hemispheric asymmetry(3). These geometrical properties have the advantage of being easy to interpret. However, sulcal morphometry tightly relies on the accurate identification of a given set of sulci and hence provides a fragmented description of gyrification. A more fine-grained quantification of gyrification can be achieved with curvature-based measurements, where smoothed absolute mean curvature is typically computed at thousands of points over the cortical surface(4). The curvature is however not straightforward to comprehend, as it remains unclear if there is any direct relationship between the curvedness and a biologically meaningful correlate such as cortical volume or surface. To address the diverse issues raised by the measurement of cortical folding, we previously developed an algorithm to quantify local gyrification with an exquisite spatial resolution and of simple interpretation. Our method is inspired of the Gyrification Index(5), a method originally used in comparative neuroanatomy to evaluate the cortical folding differences across species. In our implementation, which we name local Gyrification Index (lGI(1)), we measure the amount of cortex buried within the sulcal folds as compared with the amount of visible cortex in circular regions of interest. Given that the cortex grows primarily through radial expansion(6), our method was specifically designed to identify early defects of cortical development. In this article, we detail the computation of local Gyrification Index, which is now freely distributed as a part of the Free

  13. Provider of Services File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  14. The Provident Principal. (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  15. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  16. Palynology and biostratigraphy of the Maastrichtian Coal Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wells are characterized by intercalation of laminated fine grained sand and light-dark grey fissile shale with interbeds of coal seams. The lower part with dark grey shale is characterized by the maximum development of Longapertites marginatus Acme Zone, dated Middle Maastrichtian. The upper part defined by ...

  17. Internet Medline providers. (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R


    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  18. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  19. Grain size of loess and paleosol samples: what are we measuring? (United States)

    Varga, György; Kovács, János; Szalai, Zoltán; Újvári, Gábor


    Particle size falling into a particularly narrow range is among the most important properties of windblown mineral dust deposits. Therefore, various aspects of aeolian sedimentation and post-depositional alterations can be reconstructed only from precise grain size data. Present study is aimed at (1) reviewing grain size data obtained from different measurements, (2) discussing the major reasons for disagreements between data obtained by frequently applied particle sizing techniques, and (3) assesses the importance of particle shape in particle sizing. Grain size data of terrestrial aeolian dust deposits (loess and paleosoil) were determined by laser scattering instruments (Fritsch Analysette 22 Microtec Plus, Horiba Partica La-950 v2 and Malvern Mastersizer 3000 with a Hydro Lv unit), while particles size and shape distributions were acquired by Malvern Morphologi G3-ID. Laser scattering results reveal that the optical parameter settings of the measurements have significant effects on the grain size distributions, especially for the fine-grained fractions (camera. However, this is only one outcome of infinite possible projections of a three-dimensional object and it cannot be regarded as a representative one. The third (height) dimension of the particles remains unknown, so the volume-based weightings are fairly dubious in the case of platy particles. Support of the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary) under contract NKFI 120620 is gratefully acknowledged. It was additionally supported (for G. Varga) by the Bolyai János Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  20. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen


    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  1. Providing Contraception to Adolescents. (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss


    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence


    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia


    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  3. Inverting Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment (CASSE) touchdown signals to measure the elastic modulus of comet material (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Witte, L.; Schröder, S.; Tune, J.; Möhlmann, D.; Roll, R.; Chares, B.; Fischer, H.; Seidensticker, K.


    carried out on the concrete floor of the LAMA to determine the stiffness of the landing gear based on the deceleration data measured with the accelerometer. Landings on fine-grained quartz sand and on a Mars soil simulant (brand names WF34 and MSS-D, respectively) allow quantifying the changes of the deceleration data due to interaction with the soil. The elastic moduli of the soils that were inverted from the accelerometer data agree well with data obtained by ultrasonic time-of-flight measurements, provided an effective contact area is used. To this end, the lander structure was viewed in a simplified way as a mass-spring-damper system coupled to the soil by a contact spring, whose stiffness is determined by elastic moduli of the soil and the contact radius. Analytical expressions allow a rapid inversion of the deceleration data to obtain elastic data. It is expected that the same procedure can be applied to the signal measured when landing on comet 67P.

  4. Pervasive Monitoring—An Intelligent Sensor Pod Approach for Standardised Measurement Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lippautz


    Full Text Available Geo-sensor networks have traditionally been built up in closed monolithic systems, thus limiting trans-domain usage of real-time measurements. This paper presents the technical infrastructure of a standardised embedded sensing device, which has been developed in the course of the Live Geography approach. The sensor pod implements data provision standards of the Sensor Web Enablement initiative, including an event-based alerting mechanism and location-aware Complex Event Processing functionality for detection of threshold transgression and quality assurance. The goal of this research is that the resultant highly flexible sensing architecture will bring sensor network applications one step further towards the realisation of the vision of a “digital skin for planet earth”. The developed infrastructure can potentially have far-reaching impacts on sensor-based monitoring systems through the deployment of ubiquitous and fine-grained sensor networks. This in turn allows for the straight-forward use of live sensor data in existing spatial decision support systems to enable better-informed decision-making.

  5. A measurement of D-mixing in wrong sign $D^{0}\\to K^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays to provide input to a model-independent determination of the CKM phase $\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080464; Rademacker, Jonas

    A measurement of the time dependent ratio of $D^{0}\\to K^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ to $D^{0}\\to K^- \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$ decays is sensitive to both D-mixing and the interference between doubly Cabibbo suppressed (DCS) and Cabibbo favoured (CF) $D^{0}\\to K \\pi \\pi \\pi$ amplitudes. Such a measurement is made using 1.0 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment at a proton-proton centre of mass collision energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. The ratio of DCS to CF amplitudes is measured to be, $r_D^{K3\\pi} = 0.0548 \\pm 0.0012$. The interference between DCS and CF amplitudes is described by the complex interference parameter $\\mathcal{Z}^{K3\\pi}$. A combination of results from LHCb and CLEO-c gives the following constraints: $\\mathcal{Re}\\mathcal{Z}^{K3\\pi}= -0.135^{+0.095}_{-0.105}$, $\\mathcal{Im}\\mathcal{Z}^{K3\\pi} = -0.26^{+0.19}_{-0.16}$. The probability of the data being a statistical fluctuation of the no-mixing hypothesis is $2.5\\times10^{-6}$, corresponding to a significance of $4.7\\sigma$ - this is...

  6. Can administrative claim file review be used to gather physical therapy, occupational therapy, and psychology payment data and functional independence measure scores? Implications for rehabilitation providers in the private health sector. (United States)

    Riis, Viivi; Jaglal, Susan; Boschen, Kathryn; Walker, Jan; Verrier, Molly


    Rehabilitation costs for spinal-cord injury (SCI) are increasingly borne by Canada's private health system. Because of poor outcomes, payers are questioning the value of their expenditures, but there is a paucity of data informing analysis of rehabilitation costs and outcomes. This study evaluated the feasibility of using administrative claim file review to extract rehabilitation payment data and functional status for a sample of persons with work-related SCI. Researchers reviewed 28 administrative e-claim files for persons who sustained a work-related SCI between 1996 and 2000. Payment data were extracted for physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and psychology services. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were targeted as a surrogate measure for functional outcome. Feasibility was tested using an existing approach for evaluating health services data. The process of administrative e-claim file review was not practical for extraction of the targeted data. While administrative claim files contain some rehabilitation payment and outcome data, in their present form the data are not suitable to inform rehabilitation services research. A new strategy to standardize collection, recording, and sharing of data in the rehabilitation industry should be explored as a means of promoting best practices.

  7. An Analysis of Seacions Ozonesonde Measurements from St. Louis MO: Providing Insight into How Cross Country Wildfires and Descending Stratospheric Air over the Great Plains Impact Regional Air Quality (United States)

    Wilkins, J. L.; Morris, G.; de Foy, B.; Fishman, J.


    As part of the SouthEast American Consortium for Intensive Ozone Network Study (SEACIONS) mission, 32 ozonesondes were launched from Forest Park in mid-town St. Louis between 8 Aug and 23 Sept 2013. These launches were supported by concurrent co-located continuous ground level ozone measurements at Saint Louis University's St. Louis Ozone Garden. During the operation of this site, wildfires from both Idaho's Beaver Creek (~115K acres) and California's RIM fire (~258k acres) generated copious amounts of pollution. In addition, widespread agricultural fires in the Midwest were also taking place. To interpret our observations over St. Louis, we used multiple satellite-derived products and retrievals in conjunction with trajectory calculations from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. We examined a blocking high pressure event [Aug 26-30] which led to ozonesonde profile changes resulting from Stratospheric-Troposphere Exchange (STE) in addition to the smoke from the fires. This case study involved two mixed layer O3 enhancements, which could be spotted at multiple sites within the SEACIONS ozonesonde network. Our findings illustrate how satellite measurements can be used to assess the contribution of the transport of pollution from various sources to local air quality.

  8. Evolution of a natural debris flow: In situ measurements of flow dynamics, video imagery, and terrestrial laser scanning (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.; Staley, D.M.; Wasklewicz, T.A.; Tucker, G.E.


    Many theoretical and laboratory studies have been undertaken to understand debris-flow processes and their associated hazards. However, complete and quantitative data sets from natural debris flows needed for confirmation of these results are limited. We used a novel combination of in situ measurements of debris-flow dynamics, video imagery, and pre- and postflow 2-cm-resolution digital terrain models to study a natural debris-flow event. Our field data constrain the initial and final reach morphology and key flow dynamics. The observed event consisted of multiple surges, each with clear variation of flow properties along the length of the surge. Steep, highly resistant, surge fronts of coarse-grained material without measurable pore-fluid pressure were pushed along by relatively fine-grained and water-rich tails that had a wide range of pore-fluid pressures (some two times greater than hydrostatic). Surges with larger nonequilibrium pore-fluid pressures had longer travel distances. A wide range of travel distances from different surges of similar size indicates that dynamic flow properties are of equal or greater importance than channel properties in determining where a particular surge will stop. Progressive vertical accretion of multiple surges generated the total thickness of mapped debris-flow deposits; nevertheless, deposits had massive, vertically unstratified sedimentological textures. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  9. Measurement of the inclusive νμ charged current cross section on carbon in the near detector of the T2K experiment (United States)

    Abe, K.; Abgrall, N.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Beznosko, D.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Boyd, S.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Brook-Roberge, D. G.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Curioni, A.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dobson, J.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziomba, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Frank, E.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Guzowski, P.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Jung, C. K.; Kaboth, A.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khanam, F.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, S. B.; Kirby, B.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Kogan, G.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kowalik, K.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Laing, A.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lim, I. T.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, G. D.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marchionni, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Masliah, P.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; McLachlan, T.; Messina, M.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nicholls, T. C.; Nielsen, C.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Obayashi, Y.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Otani, M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Pac, M. Y.; Palladino, V.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Scully, D. I.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, I. J.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wang, J.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.


    T2K has performed the first measurement of νμ inclusive charged current interactions on carbon at neutrino energies of ˜1GeV where the measurement is reported as a flux-averaged double differential cross section in muon momentum and angle. The flux is predicted by the beam Monte Carlo and external data, including the results from the NA61/SHINE experiment. The data used for this measurement were taken in 2010 and 2011, with a total of 10.8×1019 protons-on-target. The analysis is performed on 4485 inclusive charged current interaction candidates selected in the most upstream fine-grained scintillator detector of the near detector. The flux-averaged total cross section is ⟨σCC⟩ϕ=(6.91±0.13(stat)±0.84(syst))×10-39(cm2)/(nucleon) for a mean neutrino energy of 0.85 GeV.


    Kanne, W.R.


    A temperature measuring apparatus is described for use in a reactor. In this invention a cylindrlcal fuel slug is provided with an axial bore in which is disposed a thermocouple. The lead wires extend to a remote indicating device which indicates the temperature in the fuel element measured by the thermocouple.

  11. Sediment transport time measured with U-Series isotopes: Resultsfrom ODP North Atlantic Drill Site 984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J.; Maher, Kate; Christensen, John N.; McManus,Jerry


    High precision uranium isotope measurements of marineclastic sediments are used to measure the transport and storage time ofsediment from source to site of deposition. The approach is demonstratedon fine-grained, late Pleistocene deep-sea sediments from Ocean DrillingProgram Site 984A on the Bjorn Drift in the North Atlantic. The sedimentsare siliciclastic with up to 30 percent carbonate, and dated by sigma 18Oof benthic foraminifera. Nd and Sr isotopes indicate that provenance hasoscillated between a proximal source during the last three interglacialperiods volcanic rocks from Iceland and a distal continental sourceduring glacial periods. An unexpected finding is that the 234U/238Uratios of the silicate portion of the sediment, isolated by leaching withhydrochloric acid, are significantly less than the secular equilibriumvalue and show large and systematic variations that are correlated withglacial cycles and sediment provenance. The 234U depletions are inferredto be due to alpha-recoil loss of234Th, and are used to calculate"comminution ages" of the sediment -- the time elapsed between thegeneration of the small (<_ 50 mu-m) sediment grains in the sourceareas by comminution of bedrock, and the time of deposition on theseafloor. Transport times, the difference between comminution ages anddepositional ages, vary from less than 10 ky to about 300 to 400 ky forthe Site 984A sediments. Long transport times may reflect prior storagein soils, on continental shelves, or elsewhere on the seafloor. Transporttime may also be a measure of bottom current strength. During the mostrecent interglacial periods the detritus from distal continental sourcesis diluted with sediment from Iceland that is rapidly transported to thesite of deposition. The comminution age approach could be used to dateQuaternary non-marine sediments, soils, and atmospheric dust, and may beenhanced by concomitant measurement of 226Ra/230Th, 230Th/234U, andcosmogenic nuclides.

  12. Comparison of Thermal Properties Measured by Different Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Kukkonen, Ilmo [Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Haelldahl, Lars [Hot Disk AB, Uppsala (Sweden)


    one or both methods cannot be excluded. For future investigations a set of thermal conductivity standard materials should be selected for testing using the different methods of the laboratories. The material should have thermal properties in the range of typical rocks, be fine-grained and suitable for making samples of different shapes and volumes adjusted to different measurement techniques. Because of large obtained individual variations in the results, comparisons of different methods should continue and include measurements of temperature dependence of thermal properties, especially the specific heat. This should cover the relevant temperature range of about 0-90 deg C. Further comparisons would add to previous studies of temperature dependence of the present rocks.

  13. Insights to Meteorites and Impact Processes provided by Advanced EBSD Analysis (United States)

    Palasse, Laurie; Berlin, Jana; Goran, Daniel; Tagle, Roald; Hamers, Maartje; Assis Fernandes, Vera; Deutsch, Alexander; Schulte, Peter; Salge, Tobias


    . For Chicxulub, the brecciated impact melt rock from borehole Yaxcopoil-1 (Unit 5, 861.72 m) [3] reveals that the ballen microstructure is only semi-amorphous and cross cuts a fine grained recrystallised microstructure. (C) CB chondrite Gujba: EDS and EBSD data were acquired simultaneously to study chemical and physical interactions between preexisting metal particles and the invading silicate-rich impact melt matrix. Metal particles appear to have different thermal histories. Some of them consist of many small grains (average diameter ~10 µm), which have a similar orientation when they are surrounded by arcuate Fe,Cr-sulfides. [4]. Acknowledgements: P. Claeys, R.H. Jones, ICDP and the Museum of Natural History Berlin for providing samples. References: [1] T. Salge (2007) PhD thesis, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, 130p. [2] A. P. Jones et al. (2000) Lect. Notes in Earth Sciences 91: 343-361. [3] M. J. Nelson et al. (2012) GCA 86: 1-20. [4]. J. Berlin et al. (2013) 44th LPSC # 2439

  14. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo


    integrated geophysical survey: a) the H/V method allowed to estimate the mean thickness of the alluvium; b) the 3D-ERTs permitted to characterise the electrical behaviour of the materials; and c) the microgravity provided suitable information on the spatial distribution of lower density materials that according to the resistivity values, are lenticular sand and gravel bodies, within a sandy silt layer. The integrated geophysical surveys, joined to an accurate historical reconstruction of the development and environmental transformation of the area, and a geomorphological and hydrogeological characterization of the area allowed the collection of a large amount of data. Such data make possible to interpret the trigger of sinkhole phenomena, and draw a zonation of the sinkhole prone areas: during heavy rain events the inner flow regime may switch from laminar to turbulent and thus be able to erode and transport fine sediment within the lenticular bodies. The removal of the finest sediments increases the permeability of the body, producing macroscopic voids. Therefore, this study shows that the main source of sinkhole at "Il Piano" is related to the removal of fine-grained material, and also to the human activities (e.g., new buildings, infiltration, changes in groundwater pumping and in the sub-superficial hydrological system) that could influence the formation or the re-activation of sinkholes at the surface.

  15. Querying Data Providing Web Services


    Sabesan, Manivasakan


    Web services are often used for search computing where data is retrieved from servers providing information of different kinds. Such data providing web services return a set of objects for a given set of parameters without any side effects. There is need to enable general and scalable search capabilities of data from data providing web services, which is the topic of this Thesis. The Web Service MEDiator (WSMED) system automatically provides relational views of any data providing web service ...

  16. Measurement of airborne particle concentrations near the Sunset Crater volcano, Arizona. (United States)

    Benke, Roland R; Hooper, Donald M; Durham, James S; Bannon, Donald R; Compton, Keith L; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald N


    Direct measurements of airborne particle mass concentrations or mass loads are often used to estimate health effects from the inhalation of resuspended contaminated soil. Airborne particle mass concentrations were measured using a personal sampler under a variety of surface-disturbing activities within different depositional environments at both volcanic and nonvolcanic sites near the Sunset Crater volcano in northern Arizona. Focused field investigations were performed at this analog site to improve the understanding of natural and human-induced processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The level of surface-disturbing activity was found to be the most influential factor affecting the measured airborne particle concentrations, which increased over three orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. As the surface-disturbing activity level increased, the particle size distribution and the majority of airborne particle mass shifted from particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mum (0.00039 in) to particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 10 mum (0.00039 in). Under ambient conditions, above average wind speeds tended to increase airborne particle concentrations. In contrast, stronger winds tended to decrease airborne particle concentrations in the breathing zone during light and heavy surface-disturbing conditions. A slight increase in the average airborne particle concentration during ambient conditions was found above older nonvolcanic deposits, which tended to be finer grained than the Sunset Crater tephra deposits. An increased airborne particle concentration was realized when walking on an extremely fine-grained deposit, but the sensitivity of airborne particle concentrations to the resuspendible fraction of near-surface grain mass was not conclusive in the field setting when human activities disturbed the bulk of near-surface material. Although the limited sample size precluded detailed statistical analysis, the differences in airborne particle

  17. Protocol of the sepsivit study : a prospective observational study to determine whether continuous heart rate variability measurement during the first 48 hours of hospitalisation provides an early warning for deterioration in patients presenting with infection or sepsis to the emergency department of a Dutch academic teaching hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinten, Vincent M; van Meurs, Matijs; Renes, Maurits H; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Ter Maaten, Jan C


    INTRODUCTION: One in five patients with sepsis deteriorates within 48 hours after hospital admission. Regrettably, a clear tool for the early detection of deterioration is still lacking. The SepsiVit study aims to determine whether continuous heart rate variability (HRV) measurement can provide an

  18. Protocol of the sepsivit study : A prospective observational study to determine whether continuous heart rate variability measurement during the first 48 hours of hospitalisation provides an early warning for deterioration in patients presenting with infection or sepsis to the emergency department of a Dutch academic teaching hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinten, Vincent M; van Meurs, Matijs; Renes, Maurits H; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Ter Maaten, Jan C


    INTRODUCTION: One in five patients with sepsis deteriorates within 48 hours after hospital admission. Regrettably, a clear tool for the early detection of deterioration is still lacking. The SepsiVit study aims to determine whether continuous heart rate variability (HRV) measurement can provide an

  19. Measuring Negative Pore Pressures in Partially Frozen Saturated Soils


    Holten, Johannes Gaspar


    Freezing of soil is an issue which has many implications on modern infrastructure, in which frost heave plays a pivotal role. During freezing the behavior of the soil and the flow of water is altered. In an engineering perspective, it is important to grasp the driving forces behind these behavioral changes. The main contributor to frost heave is the development of a large negative pore pressure in the unfrozen water in partially frozen fine-grained soil, termed cryosuction. The suction leads...

  20. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.


    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  1. Choosing a primary care provider (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Choosing a primary care provider URL of this page: // Choosing a primary care provider To ...

  2. Types of health care providers (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Types of health care providers URL of this page: // Types of health care providers To ...

  3. Providing for the Future: Providers' Views on Apprenticeship Reform (United States)

    McCrone, Tami; Sims, David; Gladding, Cath


    Apprenticeships are currently undergoing reform in England. Funding mechanisms and the content of Apprenticeship programmes are being restructured. NFER and the Association of Employment and Learning Providers (AELP) have carried out a joint research project to inform future policy and practice with evidence on how providers of Apprenticeships are…

  4. Low-Temperature Superplasticity of Ultra-Fine-Grained Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si Alloy (United States)


    using LectroPol-5 (STRUERS) at a voltage of 22V for 25 seconds in a solution of 410 ml methanol, 245 ml 2-butoxy ethanol and 40 ml HClO4 (60 %). Then...related to thermodynamic variables and n is the coarsening exponent indicating relevant mechanism. 29 Figure 9. The unique-grain color maps...the comparison of the other thermodynamic factors was not made in this study due to lack of data, it is apparent that the rate constant is clearly

  5. Cryogenic Mechanical Properties of Warm Multi-Pass Caliber-Rolled Fine-Grained Titanium Alloys: Ti-6Al-4V (Normal and ELI Grades) and VT14 (United States)

    Nayan, Niraj; Singh, Gaurav; Antony Prabhu, T.; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Ramamurty, U.


    The effect of microstructural refinement and the β phase fraction, V β, on the mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures (up to 20 K) of two commercially important aerospace titanium alloys: Ti-6Al-4V (normal as well as extra low interstitial grades) and VT14 was examined. Multi-pass caliber rolling in the temperature range of 973 K to 1223 K (700 °C to 950 °C) was employed to refine the microstructure, as V β was found to increase nonlinearly with the rolling temperature. Detailed microstructural characterization of the alloys after caliber rolling was carried out using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Complete spheroidization of the primary α laths along with formation of bimodal microstructure occurred when the alloys are rolled at temperatures above 1123 K (850 °C). For rolling temperatures less than 1123 K (850 °C), complete fragmentation of the β phase with limited spheroidization of α laths was observed. The microstructural refinement due to caliber rolling was found to significantly enhance the strength with no penalty on ductility both at room and cryogenic temperatures. This was attributed to a complex interplay between microstructural refinement and reduced transformed β phase fraction. TEM suggests that the serrated stress-strain responses observed in the post-yield deformation regime of specimens tested at 20 K were due to the activation of { {10\\bar{1}2} } tensile twins.

  6. Impedance and AC conductivity study of nano crystalline, fine grained multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3), synthesized by microwave sintering (United States)

    Kolte, Jayant; Salame, Paresh H.; Daryapurkar, A. S.; Gopalan, P.


    In this paper, major reduction in sintering time,temperautre and significant improvement over final density of sitnered sample is reported for the microwave sintered nanocrystalline BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramic. Also, different sintering time and temperatures have been used to tailor the grain size and the final density of the resulting BFO ceramics synthesized from phase pure BFO nanoparticles ( d ¯ ≈ 10 n m ). Microwave sintering resulted in reducing the sintering time substantially (by 1h), and has resulted in submicron sized grains and high resistivity ˜1.8 GΩ-cm. The AC conductivity is seen to follow the Jonscher's power law behavior, suggesting correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism in the sample. The role of oxygen vacancies at high temperature, due to volatility of bismuth, in dielectric and conductivity behavior is also discussed. Further, the sample displayed dielectric anomaly near magnetic transition temperature (˜180 °C) indicating bearing of magnetic moments on the dielectric properties. Using Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) we have established, the electrical heterogeneity of the ceramic BFO reavealing semiconducting nature of grains and insulating nature of grain boundary. This, formation of network of insulating grain boundaries and semiconducting grains could lead to formation of internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) leading to high dielectric constant in microwave sintered BFO.

  7. Equation-free and variable free modeling for complex/multiscale systems. Coarse-grained computation in science and engineering using fine-grained models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevrekidis, Ioannis G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    The work explored the linking of modern developing machine learning techniques (manifold learning and in particular diffusion maps) with traditional PDE modeling/discretization/scientific computation techniques via the equation-free methodology developed by the PI. The result (in addition to several PhD degrees, two of them by CSGF Fellows) was a sequence of strong developments - in part on the algorithmic side, linking data mining with scientific computing, and in part on applications, ranging from PDE discretizations to molecular dynamics and complex network dynamics.

  8. Study of the Peculiarities of the Zn-Mn Phase Diagram and Their Effect on the Superplastic Behavior of Fine-Grained Zn-Mn Alloys (United States)

    Lolov, Martin; Djulgerov, Nikolai; Gyurov, Stoyko


    The part of binary manganese-zinc phase diagram (alloys containing up to 2% manganese) is analyzed and the expected compositions with increased plasticity are determined in this paper. A special attention is paid to the relation between the composition, microstructure, strain rate, and plasticity of the studied alloys. The mechanical behavior during plastic deformation is analyzed and the domains of strain rate are determined, where a superplastic deformation is expected. Superplastic deformation activation energy of the studied alloys is determined on the basis of the Arrhenius theory equation. It was found that the creep deformation of Zn-0.7% Mn alloy follows the power law, or is controlled by diffusion in grain boundaries, i.e., mechanism of deformation is Coble creep, while the deformation of Zn-1.2% Mn alloy is very low and does not correspond to any of diffusion processes in Zinc.

  9. Non-cohesive fine grained turbidity current flow processes: insights from Late Holocene sandy-silt and silty-sand turbidites (United States)

    Strachan, Lorna; Bostock, Helen; Barnes, Philip; Neil, Helen


    Silt-rich turbidites are commonly interpreted as distal deposits associated with interlaminated clay and silt deposition of turbidity current tails and overspilling flows. Here multibeam bathymetric and shallow sediment core data from the intraslope Secretary, Looking Glass and George basins, offshore Fiordland, New Zealand are used to describe a suite of Late Holocene proximal sandy-silt and silty-sand turbidites that contain negligible clay and a wide variety of vertical grading patterns. The silt-sand sediment mixtures and diversity of preserved vertical grading patterns imply a range of non-cohesive turbidity current flow processes, and a wide variety of flow concentrations. For example, inversely graded turbidites and are interpreted to preserve evidence of deposition of traction carpets from high concentration silt-sand flows. The very fine and fine sand modal grain sizes of sandy-silt and silty-sand turbidites are significantly coarser than classical abyssal plain silt turbidites and generally coarser than overbank silt turbidites. While the low percentage of clays within sandy-silt and silty-sand turbidites represents a fundamental difference between these and other silt and mud turbidites we suggest these beds represent a previously poorly described suite of proximal deposits.

  10. Cryogenic Mechanical Properties of Warm Multi-Pass Caliber-Rolled Fine-Grained Titanium Alloys: Ti-6Al-4V (Normal and ELI Grades) and VT14 (United States)

    Nayan, Niraj; Singh, Gaurav; Antony Prabhu, T.; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Ramamurty, U.


    The effect of microstructural refinement and the β phase fraction, V β, on the mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures (up to 20 K) of two commercially important aerospace titanium alloys: Ti-6Al-4V (normal as well as extra low interstitial grades) and VT14 was examined. Multi-pass caliber rolling in the temperature range of 973 K to 1223 K (700 °C to 950 °C) was employed to refine the microstructure, as V β was found to increase nonlinearly with the rolling temperature. Detailed microstructural characterization of the alloys after caliber rolling was carried out using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Complete spheroidization of the primary α laths along with formation of bimodal microstructure occurred when the alloys are rolled at temperatures above 1123 K (850 °C). For rolling temperatures less than 1123 K (850 °C), complete fragmentation of the β phase with limited spheroidization of α laths was observed. The microstructural refinement due to caliber rolling was found to significantly enhance the strength with no penalty on ductility both at room and cryogenic temperatures. This was attributed to a complex interplay between microstructural refinement and reduced transformed β phase fraction. TEM suggests that the serrated stress-strain responses observed in the post-yield deformation regime of specimens tested at 20 K were due to the activation of {10\\bar{1}2} tensile twins.

  11. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Průša


    Full Text Available In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt % alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al15(Fe,Cr3Si2 or α-Al15(Fe,Mn3Si2 phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5 by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5.

  12. Preparation of briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of fine-grained coal and coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakabský Štefan


    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the preparation of small-diameter briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of coal and coke. The phyto-materials are classified as a dry biomass that can be, on the one hand, the wastes from wood-working industry,(sawdust, chips, bark, etc. or dried mass from the plant production and, on the other hand, the mass of quick-growing plants cultivated on special plantations. In present time this renewable energy resource attracts attention by its heating value ranging from 10 to 16 (EkoWATT, 2001, a low ash content of 0.5 – 6.5 % and by a low sulphur content in a water free sample of 0.05 –0.12 %.As a phyto-material the spruce sawdusts having a grain size of –2 mm were used. The admixture of brown coal, hard coal and coke with a grain size of 0.040 mm was added to the sawdust and in such way prepared mixtures were subjected to briquetting with the aim to obtain small-diameter briquettes. The influence of admixtures amount on the density, and the suitable briquetting press have been studied. A saleability of briquettes on the basis of phyto-materials is conditioned by their density that must be higher than 1,000 kg.m-3. Thus, an adding of denser material with a relatively high calorific value would enable to attain the required density as well as to retain and/or to improve the main utility properties, i.e. calorific value and ash content.The adding evinces itself in an enhancement of briquetting press, but also density of obtained briquettes is often much higher that required by the market. It was showed that in the case of clear spruce sawdust the density of 1,059 kg.m-3 under the briquetting press of 250 MPa can be attained. According to other results, an admixture of brown coal is not very favourable because briquetting press exceeds the value of 300 MPa. As to hard coal adding, the presses under 250 MPa were achieved at the content of 25 – 30 %. The density of these briquettes ranges from 1,050 – 1,085 kg.m-3. The best results have been obtained by adding coke. The briquetting press lower than 250 MPa has already been attained at the coke content of 15 %. The further increase of the coke content up to 30 % resulted in the briquetting press of 185 MPa. The density of briquettes with the admixture of coke was from 1,037 to 1,063 kg.m-3.

  13. Features of the influence of carbonaceous nanoparticles on the rheological properties of cement paste and technological properties of the fine-grained concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOLMACHEV Sergei Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available The article describes the technological features of the manufacture of cement concrete road with carbonaceous nanoparticles. The research was carried out to determine the influence of the carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNP on the properties of cement paste and monominerals cement clinker. The method of determination of mobility and the viscosity of the cement paste due to vibration has been developed. It is shown that the optimal content of the CNP in the cement paste leads to increase of its mobility and reduced viscosity. Introduction of CNP into the cement paste helps to prolong the life setting. The investigations of zeta potential of the suspensions of the cement and cement clinker monominerals with CNP have been done. They showed that the introduction of the CNP into suspension monominerals cement clinker tricalcium aluminate (S3A and tetracalcium alyumoferrita (S4AF leads to dramatic increase of electronegativity and the change of the sign of the potential of these monominerals to the opposite. The effect of carbonaceous nanoparticles on the mechanical and structural characteristics of the cement stone and concrete with CNP was determined. It is shown that the effectiveness of the impact of the CNP on the processes of structure decreases when shifting from submikrostructure to micro-structure and further to meso- and macrostructure. Efficacy of CNP depends on the concrete mixtures compaction method: hard mixture compression or vibropressing leads to two times larger increase in strength when introducing CNP than vibration compaction of moving mixtures. The electron-microscopic studies of the structure of vibrocompacted and pressed cement stone and concrete have been done. One can observe that in the structure of concrete with CNP there are spatial frames inside and around which tumor crystallization takes place. That intensifies the processes of structure formation. Concrete with CNP can be characterized by prevailing dense structure, the scour boundary at the contact zone between the cement matrix and filler, uniform and dense structure, the porosity of the mortar is negligible and presented by micropores. Application of CNP improves the performance properties of concrete: increased frost resistance, reduced water absorption and abrasive.

  14. Impedance and AC conductivity study of nano crystalline, fine grained multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3, synthesized by microwave sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kolte


    Full Text Available In this paper, major reduction in sintering time,temperautre and significant improvement over final density of sitnered sample is reported for the microwave sintered nanocrystalline BiFeO3 (BFO ceramic. Also, different sintering time and temperatures have been used to tailor the grain size and the final density of the resulting BFO ceramics synthesized from phase pure BFO nanoparticles ( d ̄   ≈ 10   n m . Microwave sintering resulted in reducing the sintering time substantially (by 1h, and has resulted in submicron sized grains and high resistivity ∼1.8 GΩ-cm. The AC conductivity is seen to follow the Jonscher’s power law behavior, suggesting correlated barrier hopping (CBH mechanism in the sample. The role of oxygen vacancies at high temperature, due to volatility of bismuth, in dielectric and conductivity behavior is also discussed. Further, the sample displayed dielectric anomaly near magnetic transition temperature (∼180 °C indicating bearing of magnetic moments on the dielectric properties. Using Impedance Spectroscopy (IS we have established, the electrical heterogeneity of the ceramic BFO reavealing semiconducting nature of grains and insulating nature of grain boundary. This, formation of network of insulating grain boundaries and semiconducting grains could lead to formation of internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC leading to high dielectric constant in microwave sintered BFO.

  15. Prehospital Providers' Perceptions on Providing Patient and Family Centered Care. (United States)

    Ayub, Emily M; Sampayo, Esther M; Shah, Manish I; Doughty, Cara B


    A gap exists in understanding a provider's approach to delivering care that is mutually beneficial to patients, families, and other providers in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to providing patient and family centered care (PFCC) in the prehospital setting and to describe potential solutions for improving PFCC during critical pediatric events. We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from an urban, municipal, fire-based EMS system, who participated in the Pediatric Simulation Training for Emergency Prehospital Providers (PediSTEPPS) course. Two coders reviewed transcriptions of audio recordings from participants' first simulation scenario debriefings and performed constant comparison analysis to identify unifying themes. Themes were verified through member checking with two focus groups of prehospital providers. A total of 122 EMTs and paramedics participated in 16 audiotaped debriefing sessions and two focus groups. Four overarching themes emerged regarding the experience of PFCC by prehospital providers: (1) Perceived barriers included the prehospital environment, limited manpower, multi-tasking medical care, and concern for interference with patient care; (2) Providing emotional support comprised of empathetically comforting caregivers, maintaining a calm demeanor, and empowering families to feel involved; (3) Effective communication strategies consisted of designating a family point person, narration of actions, preempting the next steps, speaking in lay terms, summarizing during downtime, and conveying a positive first impression; (4) Tactics to overcome PFCC barriers were maintaining a line of sight, removing and returning a caregiver to and from the scene, and providing situational awareness. Based on debriefings from simulated scenarios, some prehospital providers identified the provision of

  16. Analysis of inter-provider conflicts among healthcare providers


    Stecker, Mona; Epstein, Nancy; Mark M Stecker; Ausman, James I.; Harrigan, Noyes


    Background: Patient safety is a top priority of healthcare organizations. The Joint Commission (TJC) is now requiring that healthcare organizations promulgate polices to investigate and resolve disruptive behavior among employees. Methods: Our aims in this investigation utilizing the Provider Conflict Questionnaire (PCQ: Appendix A) included; determining what conflicts exist among a large sample of healthcare providers, how to assess the extent and frequency of disruptive behaviors, and what ...

  17. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  18. Coordination of primary care providers. (United States)

    Hettler, D L; McAlister, W H


    Surveys were sent to family physicians in Illinois to determine knowledge and attitude concerning optometry. The respondents were knowledgeable in certain aspects of optometry. However, many need to become more aware of the optometrist as a health care provider.

  19. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  20. Seeing Your Health Care Provider (United States)

    ... Reduce Font Size 100% Increase Font Size Positive Spin Basics Federal Response Digital Tools Events Blog Home ... that may assist you. Be on time. Most healthcare providers have full appointment schedules—if you are ...

  1. EAMJ Provider April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2010 ... with breast cancer is known to result in more adverse outcomes (1). ... Objective: To determine the extent and nature of provider delay in breast cancer management at .... and calls for a review of booking procedures. Also.


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  3. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky


    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  4. Direct measurement of internal magnetic fields in natural sands using scanning SQUID microscopy. (United States)

    Walbrecker, Jan O; Kalisky, Beena; Grombacher, Denys; Kirtley, John; Moler, Kathryn A; Knight, Rosemary


    NMR experiments are ideally carried out in well-controlled magnetic fields. When samples of natural porous materials are studied, the situation can be complicated if the sample itself contains magnetic components, giving rise to internal magnetic fields in the pore space that modulate the externally applied fields. If not properly accounted for, the internal fields can lead to misinterpretation of relaxation, diffusion, or imaging data. To predict the potential effect of internal fields, and develop effective mitigation strategies, it is important to develop a quantitative understanding of the magnitude and distribution of internal fields occurring in natural porous media. To develop such understanding, we employ scanning SQUID microscopy, a technique that can detect magnetic field variations very accurately at high spatial resolution (∼3μm). We prepared samples from natural unconsolidated aquifer material, and scanned areas of about 200×200μm in a very low background magnetic field of ∼2μT. We found large amplitude variations with a magnitude of about 2mT, across a relatively long spatial scale of about 200μm, that are associated with a large magnetic grain (>50μm radius) with a strong magnetic remanence. We also detected substantial variations exceeding 60μT on small spatial scales of about ∼10μm. We attribute these small-scale variations to very fine-grained magnetic material. Because we made our measurements at very low background field, the observed variations are not induced by the background field but due to magnetic remanence. Consequently, the observed internal fields will affect even low-field NMR experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds. (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan


    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.B.


    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  7. Enstore with Chimera namespace provider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvintsev, Dmitry [Fermilab; Moibenko, Alexander [Fermilab; Oleynik, Gene [Fermilab; Zalokar, Michael [Fermilab


    Enstore is a mass storage system developed by Fermilab that provides distributed access and management of data stored on tapes. It uses a namespace service, PNFS, developed by DESY to provide a filesystem-like view of the stored data. PNFS is a legacy product and is being replaced by a new implementation, called Chimera, which is also developed by DESY. Chimera offers multiple advantages over PNFS in terms of performance and functionality. The Enstore client component, encp, has been modified to work with Chimera, as well as with any other namespace provider. We performed high load end-to-end acceptance test of Enstore with the Chimera namespace. This paper describes the modifications to Enstore, the test procedure and the results of the acceptance testing.

  8. Provider practice characteristics that promote interpersonal continuity. (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Tyler S; Mori, Motomi; Lambert, William E; Saultz, John W


    Becoming certified as a patient-centered medical home now requires practices to measure how effectively they provide continuity of care. To understand how continuity can be improved, we studied the association between provider practice characteristics and interpersonal continuity using the Usual Provider Continuity Index (UPC). We conducted a mixed-methods study of the relationship between provider practice characteristics and UPC in 4 university-based family medicine clinics. For the quantitative part of the study, we analyzed data extracted from monthly provider performance reports for 63 primary care providers (PCPs) between July 2009 and June 2010. We tested the association of 5 practice parameters on UPC: (1) clinic frequency; (2) panel size; (3) patient load (ratio of panel size to clinic frequency); (4) attendance ratio; and (5) duration in practice (number of years working in the current practice). Clinic, care team, provider sex, and provider type (physicians versus nonphysician providers) were analyzed as covariates. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used for statistical modeling. Findings from the quantitative part of the study were validated using qualitative data from provider focus groups that were analyzed using sequential thematic coding. There were strong linear associations between UPC and both clinic frequency (β = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.62-1.27) and patient load (β = -0.37; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.26). A multiple linear regression including clinic frequency, patient load, duration in practice, and provider type explained more than 60% of the variation in UPC (adjusted R(2) = 0.629). UPC for nurse practitioners and physician assistants was more strongly dependent on clinic frequency and was at least as high as it was for physicians. Focus groups identified 6 themes as other potential sources of variability in UPC. Variability in UPC between providers is strongly correlated with variables that can be modified by practice managers. Our study

  9. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis...

  10. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...

  11. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Michigan, Department of Women's Studies, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 7University of Michigan, Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology, Ann Arbor, MI USA ..... personal spending habits of physicians who were known to provide abortion – a new ..... characterized by safe space for speaking can improve physician's resilience to ...

  12. Twitter for travel medicine providers. (United States)

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E


    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail:

  13. Measurement of Ratios of νμ Charged-Current Cross Sections on C, Fe, and Pb to CH at Neutrino Energies 2–20 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, B. G.; Datta, M.; Mousseau, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Barrios Sazo, M. G.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W. K.; Budd, H.; Bustamante, M. J.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Castromonte, C. M.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Gago, A. M.; Gallagher, H.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Jerkins, M.; Kafka, T.; Kordosky, M.; Kulagin, S. A.; Le, T.; Maggi, G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martin Mari, C.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Osta, J.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Savage, D. G.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Simon, C.; Snider, F. D.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Velásquez, J. P.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Ziemer, B. P.


    We present measurements of νμ charged-current cross section ratios on carbon, iron, and lead relative to a scintillator (CH) using the fine-grained MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. The measurements utilize events of energies 2<Eν<20GeV, with (Eν)=8GeV, which have a reconstructed μ- scattering angle less than 17° to extract ratios of inclusive total cross sections as a function of neutrino energy Eν and flux-integrated differential cross sections with respect to the Bjorken scaling variable x. These results provide the first high-statistics direct measurements of nuclear effects in neutrino scattering using different targets in the same neutrino beam. Measured cross section ratios exhibit a relative

  14. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses. (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran


    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  15. Preparing to provide MTM services. (United States)

    Glenn, Zandra M; Mahdavian, Soheyla L; Woodard, Todd J


    Medication Therapy Management (MTM) has been a way for pharmacist to enhance their position as an integral member of the health care team as the need for improved clinical and economic outcomes in relation to the US health care system became apparent. MTM Certificate training programs are provided by numerous organizations. Collaboration Practice Agreements (CPA) are gaining significance as the role of the pharmacist is expanding in the care of patients as part of a multidisciplinary health care team. One major hurdle that many pharmacists are faced with is receiving reimbursement for the services provided. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 recognized that pharmacists play an important role in the management of patient care and that pharmacists bring an expertise and knowledge that will help to identify and resolve patient medication therapy problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Support Net for Frontline Providers (United States)


    With a multidisciplinary team that included an external evaluator (Dr. Robert Durham), and an extended research team (Drs. Alan Peterson and Bret...21.7%) indicated being single. The sample of providers included 13 clinical psychologists (21.7%), 17 counselors or psychotherapists (28.3%), three...a sample of service members from Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 172, 359–363. Figley, C. R. (2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists

  17. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR


    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas


    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis of the key institutional issues affecting the CSR practices of SMEs. It presents perceptions of CSR practices among 21 SMEs in the garment industry in South Africa, based on 40 interviews with managers and ...

  18. Organizational culture associated with provider satisfaction. (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L; Tabler, Jennifer; Brunisholz, Kimberly; Gren, Lisa H; Kim, Jaewhan; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Julie; Farrell, Timothy W; Waitzman, Norman J; Magill, Michael K


    Organizational culture is key to the successful implementation of major improvement strategies. Transformation to a patient-centered medical home (PCHM) is such an improvement strategy, requiring a shift from provider-centric care to team-based care. Because this shift may impact provider satisfaction, it is important to understand the relationship between provider satisfaction and organizational culture, specifically in the context of practices that have transformed to a PCMH model. This was a cross-sectional study of surveys conducted in 2011 among providers and staff in 10 primary care clinics implementing their version of a PCMH: Care by Design. Measures included the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the American Medical Group Association provider satisfaction survey. Providers were most satisfied with quality of care (mean, 4.14; scale of 1-5) and interactions with patients (mean, 4.12) and were least satisfied with time spent working (mean, 3.47), paperwork (mean, 3.45), and compensation (mean, 3.35). Culture profiles differed across clinics, with family/clan and hierarchical cultures the most common. Significant correlations (P ≤ .05) between provider satisfaction and clinic culture archetypes included family/clan culture negatively correlated with administrative work; entrepreneurial culture positively correlated with the Time Spent Working dimension; market/rational culture positively correlated with how practices were facing economic and strategic challenges; and hierarchical culture negatively correlated with the Relationships with Staff and Resource dimensions. Provider satisfaction is an important metric for assessing experiences with features of a PCMH model. Identification of clinic-specific culture archetypes and archetype associations with provider satisfaction can help inform practice redesign. Attention to effective methods for changing organizational culture is recommended.

  19. Reputational concerns with altruistic providers. (United States)

    Olivella, Pau; Siciliani, Luigi


    We study a model of reputational concerns when doctors differ in their degree of altruism and they can signal their altruism by their (observable) quality. When reputational concerns are high, following the introduction or enhancement of public reporting, the less altruistic (bad) doctor mimics the more altruistic (good) doctor. Otherwise, either a separating or a semi-separating equilibrium arises: the bad doctor mimics the good doctor with probability less than one. Pay-for-performance incentive schemes are unlikely to induce crowding out, unless some dimensions of quality are unobservable. Under the pooling equilibrium a purchaser can implement the first-best quality by appropriately choosing a simple payment scheme with a fixed price per unit of quality provided. This is not the case under the separating equilibrium. Therefore, policies that enhance public reporting complement pay-for-performance schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of magnetic grain size of perpendicular recording media with CoCrW seed layer (United States)

    Inamura, R.; Toyoda, T.; Tanaka, T.; Uzumaki, T.


    We report the use of CoCrW seed layer (SL) for making the fine grain granular structure and high crystalline orientation of CoCrPt-oxide magnetic recording layer. It is found that CoCrW SL should be of amorphouslike structure to make fine grain of CoCrPt-oxide magnetic layer. Moreover, the smooth surface of CoCrW SL provides high crystalline orientation of the CoCrPt-oxide magnetic layer.