WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing fine resolution

  1. Fine grained nuclear emulsion for higher resolution tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, T., E-mail: naka@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Hakamata, K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T. [Graduated School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tawara, Y. [Division of Energy Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); De Lellis, G. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); D' Ambrossio, N. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Fine grained nuclear emulsion with several 10 nm silver halide crystals can detect submicron tracks. This detector is expected to be worked as dark matter detector with directional sensitive. Now, nuclear emulsion became possible to be produced at Nagoya University, and extreme fine grained nuclear emulsion with 20 nm diameter was produced. Using this emulsion and new reading out technique with expansion technique, for optical selection and X-ray microscopy, recoiled tracks induced by dark matter can be detected automatically. Then, readout efficiency is larger than 80% at 120 nm, and angular resolution for final confirmation with X-ray microscopy is 20°. In addition, we started to construct the R and D underground facility in Gran Sasso.

  2. Fine Resolution Probabilistic Land Cover Classification of Landscapes in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph St. Peter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification provides valuable information for prioritizing management and conservation operations across large landscapes. Current regional scale land cover geospatial products within the United States have a spatial resolution that is too coarse to provide the necessary information for operations at the local and project scales. This paper describes a methodology that uses recent advances in spatial analysis software to create a land cover classification over a large region in the southeastern United States at a fine (1 m spatial resolution. This methodology used image texture metrics and principle components derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP aerial photographic imagery, visually classified locations, and a softmax neural network model. The model efficiently produced classification surfaces at 1 m resolution across roughly 11.6 million hectares (28.8 million acres with less than 10% average error in modeled probability. The classification surfaces consist of probability estimates of 13 visually distinct classes for each 1 m cell across the study area. This methodology and the tools used in this study constitute a highly flexible fine resolution land cover classification that can be applied across large extents using standard computer hardware, common and open source software and publicly available imagery.

  3. High Resolution Insights into Snow Distribution Provided by Drone Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, T.; Sirguey, P. J.; Cullen, N. J.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic in time and space, New Zealand's seasonal snow is largely confined to remote alpine areas, complicating ongoing in situ measurement and characterisation. Improved understanding and modeling of the seasonal snowpack requires fine scale resolution of snow distribution and spatial variability. The potential of remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) photogrammetry to resolve spatial and temporal variability of snow depth and water equivalent in a New Zealand alpine catchment is assessed in the Pisa Range, Central Otago. This approach yielded orthophotomosaics and digital surface models (DSM) at 0.05 and 0.15 m spatial resolution, respectively. An autumn reference DSM allowed mapping of winter (02/08/2016) and spring (10/09/2016) snow depth at 0.15 m spatial resolution, via DSM differencing. The consistency and accuracy of the RPAS-derived surface was assessed by comparison of snow-free regions of the spring and autumn DSMs, while accuracy of RPAS retrieved snow depth was assessed with 86 in situ snow probe measurements. Results show a mean vertical residual of 0.024 m between DSMs acquired in autumn and spring. This residual approximated a Laplace distribution, reflecting the influence of large outliers on the small overall bias. Propagation of errors associated with successive DSMs saw snow depth mapped with an accuracy of ± 0.09 m (95% c.l.). Comparing RPAS and in situ snow depth measurements revealed the influence of geo-location uncertainty and interactions between vegetation and the snowpack on snow depth uncertainty and bias. Semi-variogram analysis revealed that the RPAS outperformed systematic in situ measurements in resolving fine scale spatial variability. Despite limitations accompanying RPAS photogrammetry, this study demonstrates a repeatable means of accurately mapping snow depth for an entire, yet relatively small, hydrological basin ( 0.5 km2), at high resolution. Resolving snowpack features associated with re-distribution and preferential

  4. High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of coherent bremsstrahlung fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this research was to provide experimental evidence for fine structure due to umklapp by distinct reciprocal lattice vectors in coherent bremsstrahlung spectra. The spontaneous emission of photons by relativistic electrons transversing thin crystals is made possible by recoil of the crystal, which absorbs momentum in multiples of ℎG where G is a reciprocal lattice vector. Previous work in the MeV-GeV beam energy range used detectors whose energy resolution was greater than 10%. By fitting a Johann wavelength dispersive spectrometer to a transmission electron microscope the author obtained coherent bremsstrahlung spectra of very high quality with energy resolution of 1%. Important to this result were also the fine angular collimation, small energy width of the electron beam in the microscope, and the accurate control of crystal orientation possible in a modern goniometer stage. The theory of the design of bent crystal x-ray spectrometers is extended to include effects of defocus and aberrations. The theory for diffraction from a stationary three dimensional grating due to a dipole radiator moving at relativistic speeds is derived as well as several other broadening mechanisms stemming from experimental variables. This dissertation provides the first experimental observations and corresponding theoretical background for the fine structure of coherent bremsstrahlung due to umklapp by different G-vectors in the same reciprocal lattice plane

  5. Fine Resolution Termohaline Structure Of The Yuctatan Coastal Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez-Ortiz, C.; Capurro, L.; Euan-Avila, J.

    2007-05-01

    In the Yucatan peninsula there are a variety processes that drastically affect the thermohaline structure of the coastal seas. Some of these include hyperhaline lagoons that export salt to the ocean, upwelling events that propagate to the coast, persistent submarine groundwater discharges, and very high evaporation rates caused by the intense solar radiation. On July 2006 a fine resolution oceanographic campaign was performed on the Yucatan coast to study the detailed structure of thermohaline processes and currents from the shore to the 10 m isobath. A total of sixty nine transects that cover the entire northern stretch of the Yucatan coast were made. The transects extend seven kilometers in the offshore direction and have an alongshore spacing of 5 km. The temperature and salinity characteristics of the water column were monitored with a SEABIRD SBE 19 CTD performing profiles every 500 m along each transect. Ocean currents were measures along the same transect using a 1.5 MHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler (Sontek). The results clearly show the effects of coastal lagoons on the adjoining sea, with net salt export associated with hyperhaline lagoons (e.g. Ria Lagartos) or more estuarine influence of lagoons such as Celestun, where groundwater discharges play the role of rivers on the estuary. An assessment of this influence on the coastal ocean will be presented. It is well known the meteor impact at the end of the Cretacic era at Chicxulub, Yucatan, generated a crater with multiple rings which is evident from horizontal gravity gradients of the Yucatan mainland, and that associated with the outer ring there is a high concentration of cenotes (sinkholes) (Pope et al. 1991; Hildebrand, et al. 1995). It has also been shown that groundwater flows along this cenote ring towards the ocean, and the zones where the ring intersects the coast (Celestun and Dzilam Bravo) have impressive geologic features known as `submarine water springs' where freshwater springs as a fountain

  6. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced...... by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted...... permit comparable measures among species. We conclude that estimates of AOO based on fine-resolution distribution models are more robust tools for risk assessment than traditional systems, allowing a better understanding of species ranges at habitat level....

  7. Downscaling Surface Water Inundation from Coarse Data to Fine-Scale Resolution: Methodology and Accuracy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water surface inundation with high spatial resolution is of fundamental importance in several applications such as hydrology, meteorology and ecology. Medium spatial resolution sensors, like MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, exhibit a significant potential to study inundation dynamics over large areas because of their high temporal resolution. However, the low spatial resolution provided by MODIS is not appropriate to accurately delineate inundation over small scale. Successful downscaling of water inundation from coarse to fine resolution would be crucial for improving our understanding of complex inundation characteristics over the regional scale. Therefore, in this study, we propose an innovative downscaling method based on the normalized difference water index (NDWI statistical regression algorithm towards generating small-scale resolution inundation maps from MODIS data. The method was then applied to the Poyang Lake of China. To evaluate the performance of the proposed downscaling method, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were conducted between the inundation extent of MODIS (250 m, Landsat (30 m and downscaled MODIS (30 m. The results indicated that the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation showed significant improvement over the original MODIS observations when compared with simultaneous Landsat (30 m inundation. The edges of the lakes become smoother than the results from original MODIS image and some undetected water bodies were delineated with clearer shapes in the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation map. With respect to high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inundation, the downscaling procedure has significantly increased the R2 and reduced RMSE and MAE both for the inundation area and for the value of landscape metrics. The main conclusion of this study is that the downscaling algorithm is promising and quite feasible for the inundation mapping over small-scale lakes.

  8. Examination of the fine interstitial changes of pneumoconiosis with high resolution computed tomography (HR-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Masamitsu; Miyazaki, Nobuyoshi; Harada, Susumu; Nakata, Hajime

    1986-01-01

    High resolution CT was performed in 14 patients with fine interstitial changes of pneumoconiosis and Review image was evaluated for the diagnostic accuracy as compared with conventional chest roentgenogram. Of the 14 Patients in the study, 7 were divided category 1 by the ILO U/C classification, 4 were category 2, 3 were category 3. Studies of lung function showed obstructive ventilatory disturbance characterized by moderate reduction in FEV 1.0% (58.6 ± 16.5 %) and V25/H (0.34 ± 0.24 l/sec/m). HR-CT defined more sensitive in the presence of fine lung nodules than conventional X-p, and showed high contrast interfaces provided by the aerated lung. HR-CT was also of value in detecting bulla, bleb, peripleural changes and hilar lymphadenopathy. Radiologic-pathologic correlation was examined on tne specimens of transbronchial lung biopsy in 4 patients, and revealed the diagnostic usefullness of HR-CT. (author)

  9. Fine-pitch glass GEM for high-resolution X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Mitsuya, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fine-pitch glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM) for high-resolution X-ray imaging. The fine-pitch G-GEM is made of a 400 μm thick photo-etchable glass substrate with 150 μm pitch holes. It is fabricated using the same wet etching technique as that for the standard G-GEM. In this work, we present the experimental results obtained with a single fine-pitch G-GEM with a 50 × 50 mm 2 effective area. We recorded an energy resolution of 16.2% and gas gain up to 5,500 when the detector was irradiated with 5.9 keV X-rays. We present a 50 × 50 mm 2 X-ray radiograph image acquired with a scintillation gas and optical readout system.

  10. Deriving temporally continuous soil moisture estimations at fine resolution by downscaling remotely sensed product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Ge, Yong; Wang, Jianghao; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.

    2018-06-01

    Land surface soil moisture (SSM) has important roles in the energy balance of the land surface and in the water cycle. Downscaling of coarse-resolution SSM remote sensing products is an efficient way for producing fine-resolution data. However, the downscaling methods used most widely require full-coverage visible/infrared satellite data as ancillary information. These methods are restricted to cloud-free days, making them unsuitable for continuous monitoring. The purpose of this study is to overcome this limitation to obtain temporally continuous fine-resolution SSM estimations. The local spatial heterogeneities of SSM and multiscale ancillary variables were considered in the downscaling process both to solve the problem of the strong variability of SSM and to benefit from the fusion of ancillary information. The generation of continuous downscaled remote sensing data was achieved via two principal steps. For cloud-free days, a stepwise hybrid geostatistical downscaling approach, based on geographically weighted area-to-area regression kriging (GWATARK), was employed by combining multiscale ancillary variables with passive microwave remote sensing data. Then, the GWATARK-estimated SSM and China Soil Moisture Dataset from Microwave Data Assimilation SSM data were combined to estimate fine-resolution data for cloudy days. The developed methodology was validated by application to the 25-km resolution daily AMSR-E SSM product to produce continuous SSM estimations at 1-km resolution over the Tibetan Plateau. In comparison with ground-based observations, the downscaled estimations showed correlation (R ≥ 0.7) for both ascending and descending overpasses. The analysis indicated the high potential of the proposed approach for producing a temporally continuous SSM product at fine spatial resolution.

  11. Findings and Challenges in Fine-Resolution Large-Scale Hydrological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    Fine-resolution large-scale (FL) modeling can provide the overall picture of the hydrological cycle and transport while taking into account unique local conditions in the simulation. It can also help develop water resources management plans consistent across spatial scales by describing the spatial consequences of decisions and hydrological events extensively. FL modeling is expected to be common in the near future as global-scale remotely sensed data are emerging, and computing resources have been advanced rapidly. There are several spatially distributed models available for hydrological analyses. Some of them rely on numerical methods such as finite difference/element methods (FDM/FEM), which require excessive computing resources (implicit scheme) to manipulate large matrices or small simulation time intervals (explicit scheme) to maintain the stability of the solution, to describe two-dimensional overland processes. Others make unrealistic assumptions such as constant overland flow velocity to reduce the computational loads of the simulation. Thus, simulation efficiency often comes at the expense of precision and reliability in FL modeling. Here, we introduce a new FL continuous hydrological model and its application to four watersheds in different landscapes and sizes from 3.5 km2 to 2,800 km2 at the spatial resolution of 30 m on an hourly basis. The model provided acceptable accuracy statistics in reproducing hydrological observations made in the watersheds. The modeling outputs including the maps of simulated travel time, runoff depth, soil water content, and groundwater recharge, were animated, visualizing the dynamics of hydrological processes occurring in the watersheds during and between storm events. Findings and challenges were discussed in the context of modeling efficiency, accuracy, and reproducibility, which we found can be improved by employing advanced computing techniques and hydrological understandings, by using remotely sensed hydrological

  12. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, V A; Atkinson, P M; Pezzulo, C; Sorichetta, A; Weiss, D; Bird, T; Erbach-Schoenberg, E; Tatem, A J

    2015-04-06

    The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × 1 km using a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model. Results showed that land cover, travel time to major settlements, night-time lights and vegetation index were good predictors and that accounting for fine-scale variation, rather than assuming a uniform proportion of under 5 year olds can result in significant differences in health metrics. The largest gaps in estimated bednet and vaccination coverage were in Kano, Katsina and Jigawa. Geolocated household surveys are a valuable resource for providing detailed, contemporary and regularly updated population age-structure data in the absence of recent census data. By combining these with covariate layers, age-structure maps of unprecedented detail can be produced to guide the targeting of interventions in resource-poor settings.

  13. Fine structure of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, A.

    2005-02-01

    In the present work the phenomenon of fine structure in the region of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance in a number of heavy and medium-heavy nuclei is systematically investigated for the first time. High energy-resolution inelastic proton scattering experiments were carried out in September-October 2001 and in October 2003 at the iThemba LABS cyclotron facility in South Africa with an incident proton energy of 200 MeV. The obtained data with the energy resolution of triangle E 58 Ni, 89 Y, 90 Zr, 120 Sn, 142 Nd, 166 Er, 208 Pb), thereby establishing the global character of this phenomenon. Fine structure can be described using characteristic energy scales, appearing as a result of the decay of collective modes towards the compound nucleus through a hierarchy of couplings to complex degrees of freedom. For the extraction of the characteristic energy scales from the spectra an entropy index method and a novel technique based on the wavelet analysis are utilized. The global analysis of available data shows the presence of three groups of scales, according to their values. To the first group belong the scales with the values around and below 100 keV, which were detected in all the nuclei studied. The second group contains intermediate scales in the range of 100 keV to 1 MeV. These scales show large variations depending on the nuclear structure of the nucleus. The largest scales above 1 MeV are classified to the third group, describing the global structure of the resonance (the width). The interpretation of the observed scales is realized via the comparison with microscopic model calculations including the coupling of the initial one-particle-one-hole excitations to more complex configurations. A qualitative agreement of the experimentally observed scales with those obtained from the theoretical predictions supports the suggestion of the origin of fine structure from the coupling to the two-particle-two-hole states. However, quantitatively, large deviations are

  14. Anthropic Reasoning about Fine-Tuning, and Neoclassical Cosmology: Providence, Omnipresence, and Observation Selection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropic reasoning about observation selection effects upon the appearance of cosmic providential fine-tuning (fine-tuning that provides for life) is often motivated by a desire to avoid theological implications (implications favoring the idea of a divine cosmic provider) without appealing to sheer lucky-for-us-cosmic-jackpot happenstance and coincidence. Cosmic coincidence can be rendered less incredible by appealing to a multiverse context. Cosmic providence can be rendered non-theological by appealing to an agent-less providential purpose, or by appealing to less-than-omnipresent/local providers, such as alien intelligences creating life- providing baby universes. Instead of choosing either cosmic coincidence or cosmic providence, as though they were mutually exclusive; it is better to accept both. Neoclassical thought accepts coincidence and providence, plus many local providers and one omnipresent provider. Moreover, fundamental observation selection theory should distinguish the many local observers of some events from the one omnipresent observer of all events. Accepting both coincidence and providence avoids classical theology (providence without coincidence) and classical atheism (coincidence without providence), but not neoclassical theology (providence with coincidence). Cosmology cannot avoid the idea of an all-inclusive omnipresent providential dice-throwing living-creative whole of reality, an idea essential to neoclassical theology, and to neoclassical cosmology.

  15. Fine resolution 3D temperature fields off Kerguelen from instrumented penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Park, Young-Hyang; Le Maho, Yvon; Bost, Charles-André

    2004-12-01

    The use of diving animals as autonomous vectors of oceanographic instruments is rapidly increasing, because this approach yields cost-efficient new information and can be used in previously poorly sampled areas. However, methods for analyzing the collected data are still under development. In particular, difficulties may arise from the heterogeneous data distribution linked to animals' behavior. Here we show how raw temperature data collected by penguin-borne loggers were transformed to a regular gridded dataset that provided new information on the local circulation off Kerguelen. A total of 16 king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) were equipped with satellite-positioning transmitters and with temperature-time-depth recorders (TTDRs) to record dive depth and sea temperature. The penguins' foraging trips recorded during five summers ranged from 140 to 600 km from the colony and 11,000 dives >100 m were recorded. Temperature measurements recorded during diving were used to produce detailed 3D temperature fields of the area (0-200 m). The data treatment included dive location, determination of the vertical profile for each dive, averaging and gridding of those profiles onto 0.1°×0.1° cells, and optimal interpolation in both the horizontal and vertical using an objective analysis. Horizontal fields of temperature at the surface and 100 m are presented, as well as a vertical section along the main foraging direction of the penguins. Compared to conventional temperature databases (Levitus World Ocean Atlas and historical stations available in the area), the 3D temperature fields collected from penguins are extremely finely resolved, by one order finer. Although TTDRs were less accurate than conventional instruments, such a high spatial resolution of penguin-derived data provided unprecedented detailed information on the upper level circulation pattern east of Kerguelen, as well as the iron-enrichment mechanism leading to a high primary production over the Kerguelen

  16. Two-dimensional diced scintillator array for innovative, fine-resolution gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a technique to fabricate fine spatial resolution (FWHM<0.5mm) and cost-effective photon counting detectors, by using silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) coupled with a finely pixelated scintillator plate. Unlike traditional X-ray imagers that use a micro-columnar CsI(Tl) plate, we can pixelate various scintillation crystal plates more than 1 mm thick, and easily develop large-area, fine-pitch scintillator arrays with high precision. Coupling a fine pitch scintillator array with a SiPM array results in a compact, fast-response detector that is ideal for X-ray, gamma-ray, and charged particle detection as used in autoradiography, gamma cameras, and photon counting CTs. As the first step, we fabricated a 2-D, cerium-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillator array of 0.25 mm pitch, by using a dicing saw to cut micro-grooves 50μm wide into a 1.0 mm thick Ce:GAGG plate. The scintillator plate is optically coupled with a 3.0×3.0mm pixel 4×4 SiPM array and read-out via the resistive charge-division network. Even when using this simple system as a gamma camera, we obtained excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (FWHM) for 122 keV gamma-rays. We will present our plans to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the image, and also discuss a variety of possible applications in the near future

  17. Evaluation of the Chinese Fine Spatial Resolution Hyperspectral Satellite TianGong-1 in Urban Land-Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueke Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Chinese high spatial resolution hyperspectral satellite TianGong-1 (TG-1 opens up new possibilities for applications of remotely-sensed satellite imagery. One of the main goals of the TG-1 mission is to provide observations of surface attributes at local and landscape spatial scales to map urban land cover accurately using the hyperspectral technique. This study attempted to evaluate the TG-1 datasets for urban feature analysis, using existing data over Beijing, China, by comparing the TG-1 (with a spatial resolution of 10 m to EO-1 Hyperion (with a spatial resolution of 30 m. The spectral feature of TG-1 was first analyzed and, thus, finding out optimal hyperspectral wavebands useful for the discrimination of urban areas. Based on this, the pixel-based maximum likelihood classifier (PMLC, pixel-based support vector machine (PSVM, hybrid maximum likelihood classifier (HMLC, and hybrid support vector machine (HSVM were implemented, as well as compared in the application of mapping urban land cover types. The hybrid classifier approach, which integrates the pixel-based classifier and the object-based segmentation approach, was demonstrated as an effective alternative to the conventional pixel-based classifiers for processing the satellite hyperspectral data, especially the fine spatial resolution data. For TG-1 imagery, the pixel-based urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 89.1%, whereas the hybrid urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 91.8%. For Hyperion imagery, the pixel-based urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 85.9%, whereas the hybrid urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 86.7%. Overall, it can be concluded that the fine spatial resolution satellite hyperspectral data TG-1 is promising in delineating complex urban scenes, especially when using an appropriate classifier, such as the

  18. Automatic sleep spindle detection: Benchmarking with fine temporal resolution using open science tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eO'Reilly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindle properties index cognitive faculties such as memory consolidation and diseases such as major depression. For this reason, scoring sleep spindle properties in polysomnographic recordings has become an important activity in both research and clinical settings. The tediousness of this manual task has motivated efforts for its automation. Although some progress has been made, increasing the temporal accuracy of spindle scoring and improving the performance assessment methodology are two aspects needing more attention. In this paper, four open-access automated spindle detectors with fine temporal resolution are proposed and tested against expert scoring of two proprietary and two open-access databases. Results highlight several findings: 1 that expert scoring and polysomnographic databases are important confounders when comparing the performance of spindle detectors tested using different databases or scorings; 2 because spindles are sparse events, specificity estimates are potentially misleading for assessing automated detector performance; 3 reporting the performance of spindle detectors exclusively with sensitivity and specificity estimates, as is often seen in the literature, is insufficient; including sensitivity, precision and a more comprehensive statistic such as Matthew’s correlation coefficient, F1-score, or Cohen’s κ is necessary for adequate evaluation; 4 reporting statistics for some reasonable range of decision thresholds provides a much more complete and useful benchmarking; 5 performance differences between tested automated detectors were found to be similar to those between available expert scorings; 6 much more development is needed to effectively compare the performance of spindle detectors developed by different research teams. Finally, this work clarifies a long-standing but only seldom posed question regarding whether expert scoring truly is a reliable gold standard for sleep spindle assessment.

  19. A hybrid MLP-CNN classifier for very fine resolution remotely sensed image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ce; Pan, Xin; Li, Huapeng; Gardiner, Andy; Sargent, Isabel; Hare, Jonathon; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2018-06-01

    The contextual-based convolutional neural network (CNN) with deep architecture and pixel-based multilayer perceptron (MLP) with shallow structure are well-recognized neural network algorithms, representing the state-of-the-art deep learning method and the classical non-parametric machine learning approach, respectively. The two algorithms, which have very different behaviours, were integrated in a concise and effective way using a rule-based decision fusion approach for the classification of very fine spatial resolution (VFSR) remotely sensed imagery. The decision fusion rules, designed primarily based on the classification confidence of the CNN, reflect the generally complementary patterns of the individual classifiers. In consequence, the proposed ensemble classifier MLP-CNN harvests the complementary results acquired from the CNN based on deep spatial feature representation and from the MLP based on spectral discrimination. Meanwhile, limitations of the CNN due to the adoption of convolutional filters such as the uncertainty in object boundary partition and loss of useful fine spatial resolution detail were compensated. The effectiveness of the ensemble MLP-CNN classifier was tested in both urban and rural areas using aerial photography together with an additional satellite sensor dataset. The MLP-CNN classifier achieved promising performance, consistently outperforming the pixel-based MLP, spectral and textural-based MLP, and the contextual-based CNN in terms of classification accuracy. This research paves the way to effectively address the complicated problem of VFSR image classification.

  20. An approach for generating synthetic fine temporal resolution solar radiation time series from hourly gridded datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Perry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A tool has been developed to statistically increase the temporal resolution of solar irradiance time series. Fine temporal resolution time series are an important input into the planning process for solar power plants, and lead to increased understanding of the likely short-term variability of solar energy. The approach makes use of the spatial variability of hourly gridded datasets around a location of interest to make inferences about the temporal variability within the hour. The unique characteristics of solar irradiance data are modelled by classifying each hour into a typical weather situation. Low variability situations are modelled using an autoregressive process which is applied to ramps of clear-sky index. High variability situations are modelled as a transition between states of clear sky conditions and different levels of cloud opacity. The methods have been calibrated to Australian conditions using 1 min data from four ground stations for a 10 year period. These stations, together with an independent dataset, have also been used to verify the quality of the results using a number of relevant metrics. The results show that the method generates realistic fine resolution synthetic time series. The synthetic time series correlate well with observed data on monthly and annual timescales as they are constrained to the nearest grid-point value on each hour. The probability distributions of the synthetic and observed global irradiance data are similar, with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic less than 0.04 at each station. The tool could be useful for the estimation of solar power output for integration studies.

  1. Potential Long-Term Records of Surface Albedo at Fine Spatiotemporal Resolution from Landsat/Sentinle-2A Surface Reflectance and MODIS/VIIRS BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Shuai, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Q.; Erb, A.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The land surface albedo products at fine spatial resolutions are generated by coupling surface reflectance (SR) from Landsat (30 m) or Sentinel-2A (20 m) with concurrent surface anisotropy information (the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function - BRDF) at coarser spatial resolutions from sequential multi-angular observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) or its successor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). We assess the comparability of four types of fine-resolution albedo products (black-sky and white-sky albedos over the shortwave broad band) generated by coupling, (1) Landsat-8 Optical Land Imager (OLI) SR with MODIS BRDF; (2) OLI SR with VIIRS BRDF; (3) Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) SR with MODIS BRDF; and (4) MSI SR with VIIRS BRDF. We evaluate the accuracy of these four types of fine-resolution albedo products using ground tower measurements of surface albedo over six SURFace RADiation Network (SURFRAD) sites in the United States. For comparison with the ground measurements, we estimate the actual (blue-sky) albedo values at the six sites by using the satellite-based retrievals of black-sky and white-sky albedos and taking into account the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation from the ground measurements at the sites. The coupling of the OLI and MSI SR with MODIS BRDF has already been shown to provide accurate fine-resolution albedo values. With demonstration of a high agreement in BRDF products from MODIS and VIIRS, we expect to see consistency between all four types of fine-resolution albedo products. This assurance of consistency between the couplings of both OLI and MSI with both MODIS and VIIRS guarantees the production of long-term records of surface albedo at fine spatial resolutions and an increased temporal resolution. Such products will be critical in studying land surface changes and associated surface energy balance over the dynamic and heterogeneous landscapes

  2. Interaction of image noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast fine detail preservation in digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, Uwe; Wueller, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to improve the validity of noise and resolution measurements on digital cameras. If non-linear adaptive noise reduction is part of the signal processing in the camera, the measurement results for image noise and spatial resolution can be good, while the image quality is low due to the loss of fine details and a watercolor like appearance of the image. To improve the correlation between objective measurement and subjective image quality we propose to supplement the standard test methods with an additional measurement of the texture preserving capabilities of the camera. The proposed method uses a test target showing white Gaussian noise. The camera under test reproduces this target and the image is analyzed. We propose to use the kurtosis of the derivative of the image as a metric for the texture preservation of the camera. Kurtosis is a statistical measure for the closeness of a distribution compared to the Gaussian distribution. It can be shown, that the distribution of digital values in the derivative of the image showing the chart becomes the more leptokurtic (increased kurtosis) the stronger the noise reduction has an impact on the image.

  3. GIS Modeling of Solar Neighborhood Potential at a Fine Spatiotemporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a 3D geographic information systems (GIS modeling approach at a fine spatiotemporal resolution to assess solar potential for the development of smart net-zero energy communities. It is important to be able to accurately identify the key areas on the facades and rooftops of buildings that receive maximum solar radiation, in order to prevent losses in solar gain due to obstructions from surrounding buildings and topographic features. A model was created in ArcGIS, in order to efficiently compute and iterate the hourly solar modeling and mapping process over a simulated year. The methodology was tested on a case study area located in southern Ontario, where two different 3D models of the site plan were analyzed. The accuracy of the work depends on the resolution and sky size of the input model. Future work is needed in order to create an efficient iterative function to speed the extraction process of the pixelated solar radiation data.

  4. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  5. Mapping pre-European settlement vegetation at fine resolutions using a hierarchical Bayesian model and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong S. He; Daniel C. Dey; Xiuli Fan; Mevin B. Hooten; John M. Kabrick; Christopher K. Wikle; Zhaofei. Fan

    2007-01-01

    In the Midwestern United States, the GeneralLandOffice (GLO) survey records provide the only reasonably accurate data source of forest composition and tree species distribution at the time of pre-European settlement (circa late 1800 to early 1850). However, GLO data have two fundamental limitations: coarse spatial resolutions (the square mile section and half mile...

  6. Fine-resolution conservation planning with limited climate-change information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Payal; Mallory, Mindy L; Ando, Amy W; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2017-04-01

    Climate-change induced uncertainties in future spatial patterns of conservation-related outcomes make it difficult to implement standard conservation-planning paradigms. A recent study translates Markowitz's risk-diversification strategy from finance to conservation settings, enabling conservation agents to use this diversification strategy for allocating conservation and restoration investments across space to minimize the risk associated with such uncertainty. However, this method is information intensive and requires a large number of forecasts of ecological outcomes associated with possible climate-change scenarios for carrying out fine-resolution conservation planning. We developed a technique for iterative, spatial portfolio analysis that can be used to allocate scarce conservation resources across a desired level of subregions in a planning landscape in the absence of a sufficient number of ecological forecasts. We applied our technique to the Prairie Pothole Region in central North America. A lack of sufficient future climate information prevented attainment of the most efficient risk-return conservation outcomes in the Prairie Pothole Region. The difference in expected conservation returns between conservation planning with limited climate-change information and full climate-change information was as large as 30% for the Prairie Pothole Region even when the most efficient iterative approach was used. However, our iterative approach allowed finer resolution portfolio allocation with limited climate-change forecasts such that the best possible risk-return combinations were obtained. With our most efficient iterative approach, the expected loss in conservation outcomes owing to limited climate-change information could be reduced by 17% relative to other iterative approaches. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations.

  8. Evaluation of global fine-resolution precipitation products and their uncertainty quantification in ensemble discharge simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.; Sweetapple, C.; Zhou, H.

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of six fine-resolution precipitation products, including precipitation radar, infrared, microwave and gauge-based products, using different precipitation computation recipes, is evaluated using statistical and hydrological methods in northeastern China. In addition, a framework quantifying uncertainty contributions of precipitation products, hydrological models, and their interactions to uncertainties in ensemble discharges is proposed. The investigated precipitation products are Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products (TRMM3B42 and TRMM3B42RT), Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)/Noah, Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and a Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP-MVK+) product. Two hydrological models of different complexities, i.e. a water and energy budget-based distributed hydrological model and a physically based semi-distributed hydrological model, are employed to investigate the influence of hydrological models on simulated discharges. Results show APHRODITE has high accuracy at a monthly scale compared with other products, and GSMAP-MVK+ shows huge advantage and is better than TRMM3B42 in relative bias (RB), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (CC), false alarm ratio, and critical success index. These findings could be very useful for validation, refinement, and future development of satellite-based products (e.g. NASA Global Precipitation Measurement). Although large uncertainty exists in heavy precipitation, hydrological models contribute most of the uncertainty in extreme discharges. Interactions between precipitation products and hydrological models can have the similar magnitude of contribution to discharge uncertainty as the hydrological models. A

  9. Demonstrating the Uneven Importance of Fine-Scale Forest Structure on Snow Distributions using High Resolution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the amount of snow in forested mountainous environments, as well as how it may change due to warming and forest disturbance, is critical given its importance for water supply and ecosystem health. Forest canopies affect snow accumulation and ablation in ways that are difficult to observe and model. Furthermore, fine-scale forest structure can accentuate or diminish the effects of forest-snow interactions. Despite decades of research demonstrating the importance of fine-scale forest structure (e.g. canopy edges and gaps) on snow, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of where and when forest structure has the largest impact on snowpack mass and energy budgets. Here, we use a hyper-resolution (1 meter spatial resolution) mass and energy balance snow model called the Snow Physics and Laser Mapping (SnowPALM) model along with LIDAR-derived forest structure to determine where spatial variability of fine-scale forest structure has the largest influence on large scale mass and energy budgets. SnowPALM was set up and calibrated at sites representing diverse climates in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Then, we compared simulations at different model resolutions (i.e. 1, 10, and 100 m) to elucidate the effects of including versus not including information about fine scale canopy structure. These experiments were repeated for different prescribed topographies (i.e. flat, 30% slope north, and south-facing) at each site. Higher resolution simulations had more snow at lower canopy cover, with the opposite being true at high canopy cover. Furthermore, there is considerable scatter, indicating that different canopy arrangements can lead to different amounts of snow, even when the overall canopy coverage is the same. This modeling is contributing to the development of a high resolution machine learning algorithm called the Snow Water Artificial Network (SWANN) model to generate predictions of snow distributions over much larger domains, which has implications

  10. Morphological analysis and pathological basis of the fine pulmonary reticulation at high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Chunshuang; Ma Daqing; Guan Yansheng; Chen Budong; Zhang Yansong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the morphological appearance and pathological basis of the fine pulmonary reticulation at HRCT. Methods: One hundred and seven patients were analyzed about the morphology findings and dynamic changes on pulmonary HRCT. Twenty-four coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) specimens were examined to make comparison between CT and pathology. The data was analyzed by using the Chi-square test. Results: The reticular gap was less than 3 mm in diameter. The morphology of reticulation was round or irregular. Pulmonary parenchyma was seen between the gaps. The reticular wall was smooth or coarse. The thickness was less than 1 mm. One hundred and seven patients had accompanying signs including ground-glass opacity (68.2%, 73 patients), crazy paving (23.4%, 25 patients), interlobular septal thickening (84.1%, 90 patients), emphysema (32.7%, 35 patients), interface sign (58.9%, 63 patients), traction bronchiolectasis (41.1%, 44 patients) and honeycombing (26.2%, 28 patients). The differences of the honeycomb, traction bronchiolectosis, interbobular septal thickening, interface sign and paving were statistically significant between the fibrotic group and pneunonia (P <0.01). Pneumonia showed extensive area of ground-glass opacity (GGO) with fine reticulation. Fine reticculation with both interlobular septal thickening and small nodules were observed more frequently in lmphangitic carcinomatosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) showed fine reticulation among the honeycombing. Connective tissue disease (CTD) showed fine reticulation with rarely honeycombing and it could be partly absorbed. Fine reticulation with emphysema was seen in chronic bronchitis. In the 58 follow-up patients, the fine reticulation increased in 26 patients, decreased or disappeared in 22 patients and showed no change in 10 patients. The major pathological basis of the fine reticulation was intralobular interstitial thickening, including fibrosis hyperplasia, inflammatory cells and tumor

  11. Fine Resolution Air Quality Monitoring from a Small Satellite: CHRIS/PROBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Current remote sensing techniques fail to address the task of air quality monitoring over complex regions where multiple pollution sources produce high spatial variability. This is due to a lack of suitable satellite-sensor combinations and appropriate aerosol optical thickness (AOT retrieval algorithms. The new generation of small satellites, with their lower costs and greater flexibility has the potential to address this problem, with customised platform-sensor combinations dedicated to monitoring single complex regions or mega-cities. This paper demonstrates the ability of the European Space Agency’s small satellite sensor CHRIS/PROBA to provide reliable AOT estimates at a spatially detailed level over Hong Kong, using a modified version of the dense dark vegetation (DDV algorithm devised for MODIS. Since CHRIS has no middle-IR band such as the MODIS 2,100 nm band which is transparent to fine aerosols, the longest waveband of CHRIS, the 1,019 nm band was used to approximate surface reflectance, by the subtraction of an offset derived from synchronous field reflectance spectra. Aerosol reflectance in the blue and red bands was then obtained from the strong empirical relationship observed between the CHRIS 1,019 nm, and the blue and red bands respectively. AOT retrievals for three different dates were shown to be reliable, when compared with AERONET and Microtops II sunphotometers, and a Lidar, as well as air quality data at ground stations. The AOT images exhibited considerable spatial variability over the 11 x 11km image area and were able to indicate both local and long distance sources.

  12. Health impact assessment of particulate pollution in Tallinn using fine spatial resolution and modeling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel Veljo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health impact assessments (HIA use information on exposure, baseline mortality/morbidity and exposure-response functions from epidemiological studies in order to quantify the health impacts of existing situations and/or alternative scenarios. The aim of this study was to improve HIA methods for air pollution studies in situations where exposures can be estimated using GIS with high spatial resolution and dispersion modeling approaches. Methods Tallinn was divided into 84 sections according to neighborhoods, with a total population of approx. 390 000 persons. Actual baseline rates for total mortality and hospitalization with cardiovascular and respiratory diagnosis were identified. The exposure to fine particles (PM2.5 from local emissions was defined as the modeled annual levels. The model validation and morbidity assessment were based on 2006 PM10 or PM2.5 levels at 3 monitoring stations. The exposure-response coefficients used were for total mortality 6.2% (95% CI 1.6–11% per 10 μg/m3 increase of annual mean PM2.5 concentration and for the assessment of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations 1.14% (95% CI 0.62–1.67% and 0.73% (95% CI 0.47–0.93% per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10. The direct costs related to morbidity were calculated according to hospital treatment expenses in 2005 and the cost of premature deaths using the concept of Value of Life Year (VOLY. Results The annual population-weighted-modeled exposure to locally emitted PM2.5 in Tallinn was 11.6 μg/m3. Our analysis showed that it corresponds to 296 (95% CI 76528 premature deaths resulting in 3859 (95% CI 10236636 Years of Life Lost (YLL per year. The average decrease in life-expectancy at birth per resident of Tallinn was estimated to be 0.64 (95% CI 0.17–1.10 years. While in the polluted city centre this may reach 1.17 years, in the least polluted neighborhoods it remains between 0.1 and 0.3 years. When dividing the YLL by the number of

  13. Historic Low Wall Detection via Topographic Parameter Images Derived from Fine-Resolution DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coral walls protect vegetation gardens from strong winds that sweep across Xiji Island, Taiwan Strait for half the year. Topographic parameters based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR-based high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM provide obvious correspondence with the expected form of landscape features. The information on slope, curvature, and openness can help identify the location of landscape features. This study applied the automatic landscape line detection to extract historic vegetable garden wall lines from a LiDAR-derived DEM. The three rapid processes used in this study included the derivation of topographic parameters, line extraction, and aggregation. The rules were extracted from a decision tree to check the line detection from multiple topographic parameters. Results show that wall line detection with multiple topographic parameter images is an alternative means of obtaining essential historic wall feature information. Multiple topographic parameters are highly related to low wall feature identification. Furthermore, the accuracy of wall feature detection is 74% compared with manual interpretation. Thus, this study provides rapid wall detection systems with multiple topographic parameters for further historic landscape management.

  14. New insights into the formation and resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kok Lung; Hickson, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    that are important for preventing Fanconi anemia (FA) in man. As part of an analysis of the roles of these proteins in mitosis, we identified a novel class of anaphase bridge structure, called an ultra-fine anaphase bridge (UFB). These UFBs are also defined by the presence of a SNF2 family protein called PICH...

  15. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter using high resolution satellite images in the southeastern U.S 2003–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihye; Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with adverse health outcomes. The use of ground monitoring stations of PM2.5 to assess personal exposure; however, induces measurement error. Land use regression provides spatially resolved predictions but land use terms do not vary temporally. Meanwhile, the advent of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have made possible to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of PM2.5 exposures. In this paper, we used AOD data with other PM2.5 variables such as meteorological variables, land use regression, and spatial smoothing to predict daily concentrations of PM2.5 at a 1 km2 resolution of the southeastern United States including the seven states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida for the years from 2003 through 2011. We divided the study area into 3 regions and applied separate mixed-effect models to calibrate AOD using ground PM2.5 measurements and other spatiotemporal predictors. Using 10-fold cross-validation, we obtained out of sample R2 values of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.70 with the square root of the mean squared prediction errors (RMSPE) of 2.89, 2.51, and 2.82 μg/m3 for regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The slopes of the relationships between predicted PM2.5 and held out measurements were approximately 1 indicating no bias between the observed and modeled PM2.5 concentrations. Predictions can be used in epidemiological studies investigating the effects of both acute and chronic exposures to PM2.5. Our model results will also extend the existing studies on PM2.5 which have mostly focused on urban areas due to the paucity of monitors in rural areas. PMID:26082149

  16. Rational diversification of a promoter providing fine-tuned expression and orthogonal regulation for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin A; Weenink, Tim; Vasylechko, Serge; Ellis, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an ideal organism for the development and application of synthetic biology, yet there remain relatively few well-characterised biological parts suitable for precise engineering of this chassis. In order to address this current need, we present here a strategy that takes a single biological part, a promoter, and re-engineers it to produce a fine-graded output range promoter library and new regulated promoters desirable for orthogonal synthetic biology applications. A highly constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoter, PFY1p, was identified by bioinformatic approaches, characterised in vivo and diversified at its core sequence to create a 36-member promoter library. TetR regulation was introduced into PFY1p to create a synthetic inducible promoter (iPFY1p) that functions in an inverter device. Orthogonal and scalable regulation of synthetic promoters was then demonstrated for the first time using customisable Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) modified and designed to act as orthogonal repressors for specific PFY1-based promoters. The ability to diversify a promoter at its core sequences and then independently target Transcription Activator-Like Orthogonal Repressors (TALORs) to virtually any of these sequences shows great promise toward the design and construction of future synthetic gene networks that encode complex "multi-wire" logic functions.

  17. Rational Diversification of a Promoter Providing Fine-Tuned Expression and Orthogonal Regulation for Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin A.; Weenink, Tim; Vasylechko, Serge; Ellis, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an ideal organism for the development and application of synthetic biology, yet there remain relatively few well-characterised biological parts suitable for precise engineering of this chassis. In order to address this current need, we present here a strategy that takes a single biological part, a promoter, and re-engineers it to produce a fine-graded output range promoter library and new regulated promoters desirable for orthogonal synthetic biology applications. A highly constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoter, PFY1p, was identified by bioinformatic approaches, characterised in vivo and diversified at its core sequence to create a 36-member promoter library. TetR regulation was introduced into PFY1p to create a synthetic inducible promoter (iPFY1p) that functions in an inverter device. Orthogonal and scalable regulation of synthetic promoters was then demonstrated for the first time using customisable Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) modified and designed to act as orthogonal repressors for specific PFY1-based promoters. The ability to diversify a promoter at its core sequences and then independently target Transcription Activator-Like Orthogonal Repressors (TALORs) to virtually any of these sequences shows great promise toward the design and construction of future synthetic gene networks that encode complex “multi-wire” logic functions. PMID:22442681

  18. Multi-allergen quantification of fining-related egg and milk proteins in white wines by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Linda; Losito, Ilario; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Pilolli, Rosa; Visconti, Angelo

    2013-09-15

    A method based on High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of fining agents containing potentially allergenic milk (casein) and egg-white (lysozyme and ovalbumin) proteins, added to commercial white wines at sub-ppm levels. Selected tryptic peptides were used as quantitative markers. An evaluation of protein digestion yields was also performed by implementing the (15)N-valine-labelled analogues of the best peptide markers identified for αS1 -casein and ovalbumin. The method was based on the combination of ultrafiltration (UF) of protein-containing wines, tryptic digestion of the dialyzed wine extracts and liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) analysis of tryptic digests. Peptides providing the most intense electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS response were chosen as quantitative markers of the proteins under investigation. Six-point calibrations were performed by adding caseinate and egg-white powder in the concentration range between 0.25 and 10 µg/mL, to an allergen-free white wine. The following three peptide markers, LTEWTSSNVMEER, GGLEPINFQTAADQAR and ELINSWVESQTNGIIR, were highlighted as best markers for ovalbumin, while GTDVQAWIR and NTDGSTDYGILQINSR for lysozyme and YLGYLEQLLR, GPFPIIV and FFVAPFPEVFGK for caseinate. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.4 to 1.1 µg/mL. The developed method is suited for assessing the contemporary presence of allergenic milk and egg proteins characterizing egg white and caseinate, fining agents typically employed for wine clarification. The LODs of the method enable the detection of sub-ppm concentrations of residual fining agents, that could represent a potential risk for allergic consumers. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Spatiotemporal Prediction of Fine Particulate Matter Using High-Resolution Satellite Images in the Southeastern US 2003-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihye; Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5), particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with adverse health outcomes. The use of ground monitoring stations of PM(sub 2.5) to assess personal exposure, however, induces measurement error. Land-use regression provides spatially resolved predictions but land-use terms do not vary temporally. Meanwhile, the advent of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have made possible to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of PM(sub 2.5) exposures. In this paper, we used AOD data with other PM(sub 2.5) variables, such as meteorological variables, land-use regression, and spatial smoothing to predict daily concentrations of PM(sub 2.5) at a 1 sq km resolution of the Southeastern United States including the seven states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida for the years from 2003 to 2011. We divided the study area into three regions and applied separate mixed-effect models to calibrate AOD using ground PM(sub 2.5) measurements and other spatiotemporal predictors. Using 10-fold cross-validation, we obtained out of sample R2 values of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.70 with the square root of the mean squared prediction errors of 2.89, 2.51, and 2.82 cu micrograms for regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The slopes of the relationships between predicted PM2.5 and held out measurements were approximately 1 indicating no bias between the observed and modeled PM(sub 2.5) concentrations. Predictions can be used in epidemiological studies investigating the effects of both acute and chronic exposures to PM(sub 2.5). Our model results will also extend the existing studies on PM(sub 2.5) which have mostly focused on urban areas because of the paucity of monitors in rural areas.

  20. The multiplicity of massive stars: A high angular resolution survey with the HST fine guidance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldoretta, E. J.; Gies, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Norris, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.″01 and 1.″0 and brighter than △m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.

  1. Ecosystem structure and function in the SPRUCE chambers at fine resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, N. F.; Graham, J.; Spaete, L.; Hanson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental change (SPRUCE; operated by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory) aims to assess biological and ecological responses in a peat bog to a range of increased temperatures and the presence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We are using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to monitor vegetation productivity and hummock-hollow structure at cm-scale in the SPRUCE plots to complement in-situ measurements of gross and net primary production. The hummock-hollow peatland microtopography is associated with fluctuating water levels and sphagnum mosses, and ultimately controls C and methane cycling. We estimate tree growth by calculating increases in tree height and canopy voxel volume between years with the TLS data. Microtopography is also characterized over time with TLS but by using gridded cells to classify regions into hummocks or hollows. Spectroscopy to quantify water content in the sphagnum is used to further classify these microtopographic regions. As multiple years of data collection occur, we will couple our fine-scale remote sensing measurements with in-situ measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux measures to capture species-specific productivity responses to warming and increased CO2.

  2. The Potamophylax nigricornis group (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: resolution of phylogenetic species by fine structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Applying the phylogenetic species concept and the sexual selection theory we have reviewed some natal aspects of incipient species and their accelerated evolution. How can we recognise early stages of divergence? Which selection pressures are at work during speciation? Which pathways accelerate the speed of speciation? Which kinds of trait variabilities makes difficult to find initial split criteria? Elaborating the principles of Fine Structure Analysis (FSA and the morphological Initial Split Criteria (ISP it was discovered that the European spring dwelling caddisfly Potamophylax nigricornis doesn’tbelong to a single species. It represents an entire species group with seventeen peripatric species evolving on the southernperipheries of the distributional area. Four new species subgroups have been erected: Potamophylax nigricornis new species subgroup, P. elegantulus new species subgroup, P. horgos new species subgroup, P. simas new species subgroup. Eleven new species have been described: Potamophylax apados sp. nov., P. fules sp. nov., P. fureses sp. nov., P. hasas sp. novov., P. horgos sp. nov., P. kethas sp. nov., P. lemezes sp. nov., P. peremes sp. nov., P. simas sp. nov., P. tuskes sp. nov., P. ureges sp. nov. One Potamophylax sp. nov. has been differentiated and three new species status have been documented:Potamophylax elegantulus (Klapálek stat. n., P. mista (Navás stat. nov., P. testaceus (Zetterstedt stat. nov.

  3. K+Λ and K+Σ0 photoproduction with fine center-of-mass energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jude, T.C.; Glazier, D.I.; Watts, D.P.; Aguar-Bartolomé, P.; Akasoy, L.K.; Annand, J.R.M.; Arends, H.J.; Bantawa, K.; Beck, R.; Bekrenev, V.S.; Berghäuser, H.; Braghieri, A.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W.J.; Brudvik, J.; Cherepnya, S.; Demissie, B.T.; Dieterle, M.; Downie, E.J.; Fil'kov, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of γp→K + Λ and γp→K + Σ 0 cross-sections have been obtained with the photon tagging facility and the Crystal Ball calorimeter at MAMI-C. The measurement uses a novel K + meson identification technique in which the weak decay products are characterized using the energy and timing characteristics of the energy deposit in the calorimeter, a method that has the potential to be applied at many other facilities. The fine center-of-mass energy (W) resolution and statistical accuracy of the new data results in a significant impact on partial wave analyses aiming to better establish the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. The new analyses disfavor a strong role for quark–diquark dynamics in the nucleon

  4. A high-resolution study of mesospheric fine structure with the Jicamarca MST radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sheth

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Correlation studies performed on data from recent mesospheric experiments conducted with the 50-MHz Jicamarca radar in May 2003 and July 2004 are reported. The study is based on signals detected from a combination of vertical and off-vertical beams. The nominal height resolution was 150 m and spectral estimates were obtained after ~1 min integration. Spectral widths and backscattered power generally show positive correlations at upper mesospheric heights in agreement with earlier findings (e.g., Fukao et al., 1980 that upper mesospheric echoes are dominated by isotropic Bragg scatter. In many instances in the upper mesosphere, a weakening of positive correlation away from layer centers (towards top and bottom boundaries was observed with the aid of improved height resolution. This finding supports the idea that layer edges are dominated by anisotropic turbulence. The data also suggests that negative correlations observed at lower mesospheric heights are caused by scattering from anisotropic structures rather than reflections from sharp vertical gradients in electron density.

  5. A high-resolution study of mesospheric fine structure with the Jicamarca MST radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, R.; Kudeki, E.; Lehmacher, G.; Sarango, M.; Woodman, R.; Chau, J.; Guo, L.; Reyes, P.

    2006-07-01

    Correlation studies performed on data from recent mesospheric experiments conducted with the 50-MHz Jicamarca radar in May 2003 and July 2004 are reported. The study is based on signals detected from a combination of vertical and off-vertical beams. The nominal height resolution was 150 m and spectral estimates were obtained after ~1 min integration. Spectral widths and backscattered power generally show positive correlations at upper mesospheric heights in agreement with earlier findings (e.g., Fukao et al., 1980) that upper mesospheric echoes are dominated by isotropic Bragg scatter. In many instances in the upper mesosphere, a weakening of positive correlation away from layer centers (towards top and bottom boundaries) was observed with the aid of improved height resolution. This finding supports the idea that layer edges are dominated by anisotropic turbulence. The data also suggests that negative correlations observed at lower mesospheric heights are caused by scattering from anisotropic structures rather than reflections from sharp vertical gradients in electron density.

  6. Fine Particulate Matter Predictions Using High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Nordio, Francesco; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Jujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    To date, spatial-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) within urban areas have primarily been examined using models. On the other hand, satellites extend spatial coverage but their spatial resolution is too coarse. In order to address this issue, here we report on spatial variability in PM levels derived from high 1 km resolution AOD product of Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm developed for MODIS satellite. We apply day-specific calibrations of AOD data to predict PM(sub 2.5) concentrations within the New England area of the United States. To improve the accuracy of our model, land use and meteorological variables were incorporated. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to account for nonrandom missingness of AOD and nested regions within days to capture spatial variation. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance among others. Out-of-sample "ten-fold" cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of model predictions. Our results show that the model-predicted PM(sub 2.5) mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations, with out-of- sample R(sub 2) of 0.89. Furthermore, our study shows that the model captures the pollution levels along highways and many urban locations thereby extending our ability to investigate the spatial patterns of urban air quality, such as examining exposures in areas with high traffic. Our results also show high accuracy within the cities of Boston and New Haven thereby indicating that MAIAC data can be used to examine intra-urban exposure contrasts in PM(sub 2.5) levels.

  7. New PSM optimized for stable resolution of fine holes in FPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashiki, Nobuhisa; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Hayase, Michihiko

    2017-07-01

    Recently, due to increases in the definition of high function panels for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, LCD panel TFT and OLED (organic electro luminescence display) circuits are becoming increasingly denser and more miniaturized by the year. TFT and OLED circuits are composed of several layers, such as gate, semiconductor and contact hole (C / H). It is particularly difficult to obtain a stable resolution for C/H due to the decrease in the C/H process margin (EL, DOF, MEEF) as a result of increases in the density of the circuit. Moreover, C/H productivity has also markedly decreased due to an increase in the exposure dose. In response to this, attenuated phase shift mask (Att. PSM) for large size photomasks have been proposed as a means to improve the process margin in FPD. We have developed new PSM that can further improve the process margin and the productivity of C/H via the effective positioning of a high transmittance phase shift film. Using a 1.5um sized hole as the target, we confirmed the improvement effect of the optimized PSM via a software simulation and an exposure test. Hereafter it is necessary for us to optimize the new PSM for each panel process so as to allow us to use this mask in actual processes.

  8. Identification of fine scale and landscape scale drivers of urban aboveground carbon stocks using high-resolution modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Johansen, Kasper; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A; Wu, Dan; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    Urban areas are sources of land use change and CO 2 emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite this, assessments of urban vegetation carbon stocks often fail to identify important landscape-scale drivers of variation in urban carbon, especially the potential effects of landscape structure variables at different spatial scales. We combined field measurements with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data to build high-resolution models of woody plant aboveground carbon across the urban portion of Brisbane, Australia, and then identified landscape scale drivers of these carbon stocks. First, we used LiDAR data to quantify the extent and vertical structure of vegetation across the city at high resolution (5×5m). Next, we paired this data with aboveground carbon measurements at 219 sites to create boosted regression tree models and map aboveground carbon across the city. We then used these maps to determine how spatial variation in land cover/land use and landscape structure affects these carbon stocks. Foliage densities above 5m height, tree canopy height, and the presence of ground openings had the strongest relationships with aboveground carbon. Using these fine-scale relationships, we estimate that 2.2±0.4 TgC are stored aboveground in the urban portion of Brisbane, with mean densities of 32.6±5.8MgCha -1 calculated across the entire urban land area, and 110.9±19.7MgCha -1 calculated within treed areas. Predicted carbon densities within treed areas showed strong positive relationships with the proportion of surrounding tree cover and how clumped that tree cover was at both 1km 2 and 1ha resolutions. Our models predict that even dense urban areas with low tree cover can have high carbon densities at fine scales. We conclude that actions and policies aimed at increasing urban carbon should focus on those areas where urban tree cover is most fragmented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fine resolution mapping of double-strand break sites for human ribosomal DNA units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. Pope

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage arises during a variety of biological processes, including transcription, replication and genome rearrangements. In the context of disease, extensive fragmentation of DNA has been described in cancer cells and during early stages of neurodegeneration (Stephens et al., 2011 Stephens et al. (2011 [5]; Blondet et al., 2001 Blondet et al. (2001 [1]. Stults et al. (2009 Stults et al. (2009 [6] reported that human rDNA gene clusters are hotspots for recombination and that rDNA restructuring is among the most common chromosomal alterations in adult solid tumours. As such, analysis of rDNA regions is likely to have significant prognostic and predictive value, clinically. Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016 Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016 [7,9] have made major advances in this direction, reporting that sites of human genome double-strand breaks (DSBs occur frequently at sites in rDNA that are tightly linked with active transcription - the authors used a RAFT (rapid amplification of forum termini protocol that selects for blunt-ended sites. They reported the relative frequency of these rDNA DSBs within defined co-ordinate ‘windows’ of varying size and made these data (as well as the relevant ‘raw’ sequencing information available to the public (Tchurikov et al., 2015b. Assay designs targeting rDNA DSB hotspots will benefit greatly from the publication of break sites at greater resolution. Here, we re-analyse public RAFT data and make available rDNA DSB co-ordinates to the single-nucleotide level.

  10. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  11. Fine resolution atmospheric sulfate model driven by operational meteorological data: Comparison with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Schwartz, S.E.; Berkowitz, C.M.; Easter, R.C.

    1993-09-01

    The hypothesis that anthropogenic sulfur aerosol influences clear-sky and cloud albedo and can thus influence climate has been advanced by several investigators; current global-average climate forcing is estimated to be of comparable magnitude, but opposite sign, to longwave forcing by anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The high space and time variability of sulfate concentrations and column aerosol burdens have been established by observational data; however, geographic and time coverage provided by data from surface monitoring networks is very limited. Consistent regional and global estimates of sulfate aerosol loading, and the contributions to this loading from different sources can be obtained only by modeling studies. Here we describe a sub-hemispheric to global-scale Eulerian transport and transformation model for atmospheric sulfate and its precursors, driven by operational meteorological data, and report results of calculations for October, 1986 for the North Atlantic and adjacent continental regions. The model, which is based on the Global Chemistry Model uses meteorological data from the 6-hour forecast model of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast to calculate transport and transformation of sulfur emissions. Time- and location-dependent dry deposition velocities were estimated using the methodology of Wesely and colleagues. Chemical reactions includes gaseous oxidation of SO 2 and DMS by OH, and aqueous oxidation of SO 2 by H 2 O 2 and O 3 . Anthropogenic emissions were from the NAPAP and EMEP 1985 inventories and biogenic emissions based on Bates et al. Calculated sulfate concentrations and column burdens exhibit high variability on spatial scale of hundreds of km and temporal scale of days. Calculated daily average sulfate concentrations closely reproduce observed concentrations at locations widespread over the model domain

  12. Assessment of Acacia koa forest health across environmental gradients in Hawai'i using fine resolution remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai'ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600-1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua'i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17-20 °C mean annual temperature and 750-1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai'i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species.

  13. Assessment of Acacia Koa Forest Health across Environmental Gradients in Hawai‘i Using Fine Resolution Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai‘ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600–1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua‘i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17–20 °C mean annual temperature and 750–1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai‘i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species. PMID:22163920

  14. Evaluation of the Chinese Fine Spatial Resolution Hyperspectral Satellite TianGong-1 in Urban Land-Cover Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xueke Li; Taixia Wu; Kai Liu; Yao Li; Lifu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The successful launch of the Chinese high spatial resolution hyperspectral satellite TianGong-1 (TG-1) opens up new possibilities for applications of remotely-sensed satellite imagery. One of the main goals of the TG-1 mission is to provide observations of surface attributes at local and landscape spatial scales to map urban land cover accurately using the hyperspectral technique. This study attempted to evaluate the TG-1 datasets for urban feature analysis, using existing data over Beijing, ...

  15. Repeated 1-cm Resolution Topographic and 2.5-mm Resolution Photomosiac Surveys of Benthic Communities and Fine Scale Bedforms in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Risi, M.; Troni, G.; Paull, C. K.; Rock, S.; Padial, J. A.; Hammond, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has developed a low altitude, ROV-based seafloor mapping system that combines lidar laser ranging, multibeam sonar, and stereo photographic imagery. When operated at a 3-m altitude, this system maps seafloor topography with a 1-cm lateral resolution and simultaneously collects 2.5-mm resolution color photography. We have twice mapped an 80-m by 80-m area of a chemosynthetic clam community located at 2850-m depth in the Monterey Canyon axis. Both the topography and the photomosaics resolve changes in the clam community over a six-month interval. Many individual animals have moved, and tracks of those animals are visible in the lidar topography. No other changes in the seafloor at this site can be discerned. We have also performed single surveys of bedforms and scours at both 1850-m and 2850-m depths in Monterey Canyon. The highest resolution bathymetry data are collected using a 3DatDepth SL1 lidar laser scanner. This system has a 30° field of view and ranges continuously, achieving a 1 cm sounding spacing at a 3 m altitude and 0.3 m/s speed. Bathymetry data are also collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 3-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 2.5 cm acrosstrack and 5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Prosilica GX1920 2.4 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. Illumination is provided by dual xenon strobes. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view with less than 1% distortion. At a 3-m altitude the raw image pixels have a 2.5 mm resolution. Position and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz Teledyne RD Instruments Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS

  16. Providing grief resolution as an oncology nurse retention strategy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Lori

    2012-12-01

    Oncology nurses play a pivotal role in optimizing care provided to patients at the end of life (EOL). Although oncology nurses commonly provide EOL care and witness deaths of patients that they have maintained long-standing relationships with, they are frequently excluded from grief resolution endeavors. With a worldwide shortage of oncology nurses, retention is paramount to ensuring that the care patients with cancer receive is not jeopardized. Various strategies were identified to resolve grief and increase nurse retention, including creating supportive work environments, debriefing with colleagues, providing EOL and grief education, and altering patient care assignments. Future research on emerging technologies and their effects on oncology nurse coping and retention strategies also was suggested.

  17. Developing fine-pixel CdTe detectors for the next generation of high-resolution hard x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven

    Over the past decade, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been improving the angular resolution of hard X-ray (HXR; 20 "70 keV) optics to the point that we now routinely manufacture optics modules with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec Half Power Diameter (HDP), almost three times the performance of NuSTAR optics (Ramsey et al. 2013; Gubarev et al. 2013a; Atkins et al. 2013). New techniques are currently being developed to provide even higher angular resolution. High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For the HERO mirrors, where the HPD is 26 arcsec over a 6-m focal length converts to 750 μm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 μm. At a 10-m focal length these detectors can support a 16 arcsec HPD. Of course, the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage (Ramsey 2001). The ability to handle high counting rates is also desirable for efficient calibration. A collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MSFC, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK is developing precisely such detectors under an ongoing, funded APRA program (FY2015 to FY2017). The detectors use the RALdeveloped Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology. These HEXITEC ASICs can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) to create a fine (250 μm pitch) HXR detector (Jones et al. 2009; Seller et al. 2011). The objectives of this funded effort are to develop and test a HEXITEC

  18. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.

  19. HIGH RESOLUTION LANDCOVER MODELLING WITH PLÉIADES IMAGERY AND DEM DATA IN SUPPORT OF FINE SCALE LANDSCAPE THERMAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of air-borne thermal infrared imaging sensors, the use of simulated spectral infrared scenery is a cost-effective way to provide input to the sensor. The benefit of simulated scenes includes control over parameters governing the spectral and related thermal behaviour of the terrain as well as atmospheric conditions. Such scenes need to have a high degree of radiometric and geometric accuracy, as well as high resolution to account for small objects having different spectral and associated thermal properties. In support of this, innovative use of tri-stereo, ultra-high resolution Pléiades satellite imagery is being used to generated high detail, small scale quantitative terrain surface data to compliment comparable optical data in order to produce detailed urban and rural landscape datasets representative of different landscape features, within which spectrally defined characteristics can be subsequently matched to thermal signatures. Pléiades tri-stereo mode, acquired from the same orbit during the same pass, is particularly favourable for reaching the required metric accuracy because images are radiometrically and geometrically very homogeneous, which allows a very good radiometric matching for relief computation. The tri-stereo approach reduces noise and allows significantly enhanced relief description in landscapes where simple stereo imaging cannot see features, such as in dense urban areas or valley bottoms in steep, mountainous areas. This paper describes the datasets that have been generated for DENEL over the Hartebeespoort Dam region, west of Pretoria, South Africa. The final terrain datasets are generated by integrated modelling of both height and spectral surface characteristics within an object-based modelling environment. This approach provides an operational framework for rapid and highly accurate mapping of building and vegetation structure of wide areas, as is required in support of the evaluation of thermal

  20. Projected future vegetation changes for the northwest United States and southwest Canada at a fine spatial resolution using a dynamic global vegetation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Sarah; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Pelltier, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0–58.0°N latitude by 136.6–103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070–2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas.

  1. An innovative computer design for modeling forest landscape change in very large spatial extents with fine resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson; Yangjian. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Although forest landscape models (FLMs) have benefited greatly from ongoing advances of computer technology and software engineering, computing capacity remains a bottleneck in the design and development of FLMs. Computer memory overhead and run time efficiency are primary limiting factors when applying forest landscape models to simulate large landscapes with fine...

  2. Combining Remote Sensing imagery of both fine and coarse spatial resolution to Estimate Crop Evapotranspiration and quantifying its Influence on Crop Growth Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulcre-Cantó, Guadalupe; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise; Arboleda, Alirio; Duveiller, Gregory; Piccard, Isabelle; de Wit, Allard; Tychon, Bernard; Bakary, Djaby; Defourny, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This study has been carried out in the framework of the GLOBAM -Global Agricultural Monitoring system by integration of earth observation and modeling techniques- project whose objective is to fill the methodological gap between the state of the art of local crop monitoring and the operational requirements of the global monitoring system programs. To achieve this goal, the research aims to develop an integrated approach using remote sensing and crop growth modeling. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a valuable parameter in the crop monitoring context since it provides information on the plant water stress status, which strongly influences crop development and, by extension, crop yield. To assess crop evapotranspiration over the GLOBAM study areas (300x300 km sites in Northern Europe and Central Ethiopia), a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model forced with remote sensing and numerical weather prediction data has been used. This model runs at pre-operational level in the framework of the EUMETSAT LSA-SAF (Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility) using SEVIRI and ECMWF data, as well as the ECOCLIMAP database to characterize the vegetation. The model generates ET images at the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) spatial resolution (3 km at subsatellite point),with a temporal resolution of 30 min and monitors the entire MSG disk which covers Europe, Africa and part of Sud America . The SVAT model was run for 2007 using two approaches. The first approach is at the standard pre-operational mode. The second incorporates remote sensing information at various spatial resolutions going from LANDSAT (30m) to SEVIRI (3-5 km) passing by AWIFS (56m) and MODIS (250m). Fine spatial resolution data consists of crop type classification which enable to identify areas where pure crop specific MODIS time series can be compiled and used to derive Leaf Area Index estimations for the most important crops (wheat and maize). The use of this information allowed to characterize

  3. Inversion of gravity gradient tensor data: does it provide better resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, V.; Fedi, M.; Italiano, F.; Florio, G.; Ialongo, S.

    2016-04-01

    The gravity gradient tensor (GGT) has been increasingly used in practical applications, but the advantages and the disadvantages of the analysis of GGT components versus the analysis of the vertical component of the gravity field are still debated. We analyse the performance of joint inversion of GGT components versus separate inversion of the gravity field alone, or of one tensor component. We perform our analysis by inspection of the Picard Plot, a Singular Value Decomposition tool, and analyse both synthetic data and gradiometer measurements carried out at the Vredefort structure, South Africa. We show that the main factors controlling the reliability of the inversion are algebraic ambiguity (the difference between the number of unknowns and the number of available data points) and signal-to-noise ratio. Provided that algebraic ambiguity is kept low and the noise level is small enough so that a sufficient number of SVD components can be included in the regularized solution, we find that: (i) the choice of tensor components involved in the inversion is not crucial to the overall reliability of the reconstructions; (ii) GGT inversion can yield the same resolution as inversion with a denser distribution of gravity data points, but with the advantage of using fewer measurement stations.

  4. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.

    2016-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. The EMODnet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting from SeaDataNet the Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the Sextant data products catalogue service. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards such as ISO and OGC. The SeaDataNet portal provides users a number of interrelated meta directories, an extensive range of controlled vocabularies, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools. SeaDataNet at present gives overview and access to more than 1.8 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM has a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use is made of available and gathered surveys and already more than 13.000 surveys have been indexed by 27 European data providers from 15 countries. Also use is made of composite DTMs as generated and maintained by several data providers for their areas of interest. Already 44 composite DTMs are included in the Sextant data products catalogue. For areas without coverage use is made of the latest global DTM of GEBCO who is partner in the EMODnet Bathymetry project. In return GEBCO integrates the EMODnet

  5. The influence of model spatial resolution on simulated ozone and fine particulate matter for Europe: implications for health impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Sara; Doherty, Ruth M.; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Macintyre, Helen L.; O'Connor, Fiona M.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the impact of model horizontal resolution on simulated concentrations of surface ozone (O3) and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), and the associated health impacts over Europe, using the HadGEM3-UKCA chemistry-climate model to simulate pollutant concentrations at a coarse (˜ 140 km) and a finer (˜ 50 km) resolution. The attributable fraction (AF) of total mortality due to long-term exposure to warm season daily maximum 8 h running mean (MDA8) O3 and annual-average PM2.5 concentrations is then calculated for each European country using pollutant concentrations simulated at each resolution. Our results highlight a seasonal variation in simulated O3 and PM2.5 differences between the two model resolutions in Europe. Compared to the finer resolution results, simulated European O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are higher on average in winter and spring (˜ 10 and ˜ 6 %, respectively). In contrast, simulated O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are lower in summer and autumn (˜ -1 and ˜ -4 %, respectively). These differences may be partly explained by differences in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations simulated at the two resolutions. Compared to O3, we find the opposite seasonality in simulated PM2.5 differences between the two resolutions. In winter and spring, simulated PM2.5 concentrations are lower at the coarse compared to the finer resolution (˜ -8 and ˜ -6 %, respectively) but higher in summer and autumn (˜ 29 and ˜ 8 %, respectively). Simulated PM2.5 values are also mostly related to differences in convective rainfall between the two resolutions for all seasons. These differences between the two resolutions exhibit clear spatial patterns for both pollutants that vary by season, and exert a strong influence on country to country variations in estimated AF for the two resolutions. Warm season MDA8 O3 levels are higher in most of southern Europe, but lower in areas of northern and eastern Europe when

  6. Fine-Resolution Modeling of the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins for Climate Change and Riparian System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Volo, T. J.; Rivera, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2011-12-01

    This project is part of a multidisciplinary effort aimed at understanding the impacts of climate variability and change on the ecological services provided by riparian ecosystems in semiarid watersheds of the southwestern United States. Valuing the environmental and recreational services provided by these ecosystems in the future requires a numerical simulation approach to estimate streamflow in ungauged tributaries as well as diffuse and direct recharge to groundwater basins. In this work, we utilize a distributed hydrologic model known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) in the upper Santa Cruz and San Pedro basins with the goal of generating simulated hydrological fields that will be coupled to a riparian groundwater model. With the distributed model, we will evaluate a set of climate change and population scenarios to quantify future conditions in these two river systems and their impacts on flood peaks, recharge events and low flows. Here, we present a model confidence building exercise based on high performance computing (HPC) runs of the tRIBS model in both basins during the period of 1990-2000. Distributed model simulations utilize best-available data across the US-Mexico border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely-sensed imagery and government databases. Meteorological forcing over the historical period is obtained from a combination of sparse ground networks and weather radar rainfall estimates. We then focus on a comparison between simulation runs using ground-based forcing to cases where the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model is used to specify the historical conditions. Two spatial resolutions are considered from the WRF model fields - a coarse (35-km) and a downscaled (10- km) forcing. Comparisons will focus on the distribution of precipitation, soil moisture, runoff generation and recharge and assess the value of the WRF coarse and downscaled products. These results provide confidence in

  7. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) initiative. EMODNet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODNet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODNet is entering its 3rd phase with operational portals providing access to marine data for bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities, complemented by checkpoint projects, analyzing the fitness for purpose of data provision. The EMODNet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting from SeaDataNet the Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the Sextant data products catalogue service. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centers around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards such as ISO and OGC. The SeaDataNet portal provides users a number of interrelated meta directories, an extensive range of controlled vocabularies, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools. SeaDataNet at present gives overview and access to more than 1.8 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centers from 34 countries riparian to European seas. The latest EMODNet Bathymetry DTM has a resolution of 1/8 arc minute * 1/8 arc minute and covers all European sea regions. Use is made of

  8. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) is a long term marine data initiative from the European Commission Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE) underpinning the Marine Knowledge 2020 strategy. EMODnet is a consortium of organisations assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The main purpose of EMODnet is to unlock fragmented and hidden marine data resources and to make these available to individuals and organisations (public and private), and to facilitate investment in sustainable coastal and offshore activities through improved access to quality-assured, standardised and harmonised marine data which are interoperable and free of restrictions on use. The EMODnet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODnet is in the 2nd phase of development with seven sub-portals in operation that provide access to marine data from the following themes: bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities. EMODnet development is a dynamic process so new data, products and functionality are added regularly while portals are continuesly improved to make the service more fit for purpose and user friendly with the help of users and stakeholders. The EMODnet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets, that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the SeaDataNet Sextant data products catalogue service. The new EMODnet DTM will have a resolution of 1

  9. High-resolution phylogeny providing insights towards the epidemiology, zoonotic aspects and taxonomy of sapoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, A.F.; Durães-Carvalho, R.; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F.; Alfieri, A.; Poel, Van der W.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution, epidemiology and zoonotic aspects of Sapoviruses (SaV) are still not well explored. In this study, we applied high-resolution phylogeny to investigate the epidemiological and zoonotic origins as well as taxonomic classification of animal and human SaV. Bayesian framework analyses

  10. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties: 2. Scale awareness and application to single-column model experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sha; Li, Zhijin; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin; Zhang, Minghua; Toto, Tami; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Endo, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    three-dimensional fields have been produced using the Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system for the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains region. The GSI system is implemented in a multiscale data assimilation framework using the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. From the fine-resolution three-dimensional fields, large-scale forcing is derived explicitly at grid-scale resolution; a subgrid-scale dynamic component is derived separately, representing subgrid-scale horizontal dynamic processes. Analyses show that the subgrid-scale dynamic component is often a major component over the large-scale forcing for grid scales larger than 200 km. The single-column model (SCM) of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 is used to examine the impact of the grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components on simulated precipitation and cloud fields associated with a mesoscale convective system. It is found that grid-scale size impacts simulated precipitation, resulting in an overestimation for grid scales of about 200 km but an underestimation for smaller grids. The subgrid-scale dynamic component has an appreciable impact on the simulations, suggesting that grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components should be considered in the interpretation of SCM simulations.

  11. A high-resolution genetic linkage map and QTL fine mapping for growth-related traits and sex in the Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Fu, Beide; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Haiyang; Pang, Meixia; Tong, Jingou

    2018-04-02

    A high-density genetic linkage map is essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genome analysis, identification of candidate genes and marker-assisted selection for economic traits in aquaculture species. The Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) is one of the most important aquacultured strains in China. However, quite limited genetics and genomics resources have been developed for genetic improvement of economic traits in such strain. A high-resolution genetic linkage map was constructed by using 7820 2b-RAD (2b-restriction site-associated DNA) and 295 microsatellite markers in a F2 family of the Yangtze River common carp (C. c. haematopterus). The length of the map was 4586.56 cM with an average marker interval of 0.57 cM. Comparative genome mapping revealed that a high proportion (70%) of markers with disagreed chromosome location was observed between C. c. haematopterus and another common carp strain (subspecies) C. c. carpio. A clear 2:1 relationship was observed between C. c. haematopterus linkage groups (LGs) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) chromosomes. Based on the genetic map, 21 QTLs for growth-related traits were detected on 12 LGs, and contributed values of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) ranging from 16.3 to 38.6%, with LOD scores ranging from 4.02 to 11.13. A genome-wide significant QTL (LOD = 10.83) and three chromosome-wide significant QTLs (mean LOD = 4.84) for sex were mapped on LG50 and LG24, respectively. A 1.4 cM confidence interval of QTL for all growth-related traits showed conserved synteny with a 2.06 M segment on chromosome 14 of D. rerio. Five potential candidate genes were identified by blast search in this genomic region, including a well-studied multi-functional growth related gene, Apelin. We mapped a set of suggestive and significant QTLs for growth-related traits and sex based on a high-density genetic linkage map using SNP and microsatellite markers for Yangtze River common carp. Several

  12. 49 CFR 39.101 - What are the requirements for providing Complaints Resolution Officials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... satisfaction or provide a requested accommodation, your personnel must immediately inform the passenger of the...) Your reservation agents, contractors, and Web sites must provide information equivalent to that...

  13. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Shun, E-mail: s-ono@champ.hep.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka (Japan); Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei [Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka (Japan); Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Org. (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm{sup 2} pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  14. Characterizing, measuring, and utilizing the resolution of CT imagery for improved quantification of fine-scale features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketcham, Richard A., E-mail: ketcham@jsg.utexas.edu; Hildebrandt, Jordan

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative results extracted from computed tomographic (CT) data sets should be the same across resolutions and between different instruments and laboratory groups. Despite the proliferation of scanners and data processing methods and tools, and scientific studies utilizing them, relatively little emphasis has been given to ensuring that these results are comparable or reproducible. This issue is particularly pertinent when the features being imaged and measured are of the same order size as data voxels, as is often the case with fracture apertures, pore throats, and cell walls. We have created a tool that facilitates quantification of the spatial resolution of CT data via its point-spread function (PSF), in which the user draws a traverse across a sharp interface between two materials and a Gaussian PSF is fitted to the blurring across that interface. Geometric corrections account for voxel shape and the angle of the traverse to the interface, which does not need to be orthogonal. We use the tool to investigate a series of grid phantoms scanned at varying conditions and observe how the PSF varies within and between slices. The PSF increases with increasing radial distance within slices, and can increase tangentially with increasing radial distance in CT data sets acquired with relatively few projections. The PSF between CT slices is similar to that within slices when a 2-D detector is used, but is much sharper when the data are acquired one slice at a time with a collimated linear detector array. The capability described here can be used not only to calibrate processing algorithms that use deconvolution operations, but it can also help evaluate scans on a routine basis within and between CT research groups, and with respect to the features within the imagery that are being measured.

  15. Facial primer provides immediate and long-term improvements in mild-to-moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines associated with photoaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts WE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wendy E Roberts,1 Lily I Jiang,2 James H Herndon Jr3 1Generational and Cosmetic Dermatology, Rancho Mirage, CA, 2Thomas J Stephens and Associates, Richardson, 3Dermatology Center of Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA Background: Photoaged skin results from various environmental factors, most importantly chronic sun exposure. Dyschromia and fine lines/wrinkles are common clinical manifestations of photodamaged skin. Purpose: This single-center clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a new multifunctional facial primer (camouflage, broad-spectrum SPF 50, and a treatment for hyperpigmentation when used by females with mild-to-moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines due to photoaging over a course of 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Subjects were provided test material (Even Up-Clinical Pigment Perfector and supporting products to use on their face and neck. Products were used according to specific application instructions. Clinical grading for efficacy and tolerability assessments were performed by an expert grader at baseline, baseline (post-application primer, week 4, week 8, week 12, and week 12 (post-application primer. Standardized digital photographs were taken, and self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. Results: Twenty-eight female subjects completed the 12-week trial. The facial primer improved scores for the appearance of hyperpigmentation and other photoaging parameters immediately after the first application. The treatment also showed a progressive improvement in the clinical assessment of hyperpigmentation and other photoaging parameters over the 12-week trial. These long-term benefits can be attributed to an improvement in the underlying skin condition. The facial primer was well tolerated. Subject questionnaires showed that the product was highly rated at all visits. Conclusion: The facial primer was shown to be effective and well tolerated for immediate and long-term improvement in the appearance

  16. High-Resolution Inkjet-Printed Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with a Self-Aligned Fine Channel Bank Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Shao, Shuangshuang; Chen, Zheng; Pecunia, Vincenzo; Xia, Kai; Zhao, Jianwen; Cui, Zheng

    2018-05-09

    A self-aligned inkjet printing process has been developed to construct small channel metal oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with independent bottom gates on transparent glass substrates. Poly(methylsilsesquioxane) was used to pattern hydrophobic banks on the transparent substrate instead of commonly used self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane. Photolithographic exposure from backside using bottom-gate electrodes as mask formed hydrophilic channel areas for the TFTs. IGZO ink was selectively deposited by an inkjet printer in the hydrophilic channel region and confined by the hydrophobic bank structure, resulting in the precise deposition of semiconductor layers just above the gate electrodes. Inkjet-printed IGZO TFTs with independent gate electrodes of 10 μm width have been demonstrated, avoiding completely printed channel beyond the broad of the gate electrodes. The TFTs showed on/off ratios of 10 8 , maximum mobility of 3.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , negligible hysteresis, and good uniformity. This method is conductive to minimizing the area of printed TFTs so as to the development of high-resolution printing displays.

  17. Kinetic energy measurement of hydrogen in LHD peripheral plasma with a multi-wavelength-range fine-resolution spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Mizushiri, Keisuke; Nishioka, Tomomi; Shikama, Taiichi; Iwamae, Atsushi; Goto, Motoshi; Morita, Shigeru; Hasuo, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured high resolution emission spectra of the hydrogen atomic Balmer-α, -β, -γ lines and molecular Fulcher-α band for a LHD peripheral plasma generated under a central magnetic field strength of 0.4 T. It is found that the velocity distributions of excited atoms calculated from the Balmer-α, -β, and -γ line shapes show similar profiles to each other. The translational kinetic energy corresponding to the average velocity is about 13 eV, which is about 300 times larger than the rotational energy of hydrogen molecules estimated from the line intensities in the Fulcher-α band. The velocity distributions differ from Maxwellian and have a high velocity tail over 1x10 5 m/s. A correlation between the high velocity tail and the electron temperature and density is seen and suggesting the excited atoms having such high velocities to be generated by the charge exchange collisions from high velocity protons in the peripheral region.

  18. 采用非均匀细分网格提高电阻抗成象图象精度的方法%Improve Spatial Resolution of Electrical Impedance Tomography Image Based on Non-uniformity Fine Mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟民; 莫玉龙

    2000-01-01

    In electrical impedance tomography (EIT) an approximation for the internal resistivity distribution is computed based on the knowledge of the injected currents and measured voltages on the surface of the body. Several difficulties have been identified in EIT, where the main problem is the low spatial resolution. This paper presents a fining mesh method based on finite element method (FEM), by fining the sensitive element, the most actual signal is obtained in certain electrode number. Newton-Raphson reconstruction algorithm improves the spatial solution of image. The advantages of this method are the improvement of spatial resolution and ease of implementation.

  19. Accounting for downscaling and model uncertainty in fine-resolution seasonal climate projections over the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid; Rana, Arun

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts on natural systems as well as various socio-economic aspects of human life. This has urged scientific communities to improve the understanding of future climate and reduce the uncertainties associated with projections. In the present study, ten statistically downscaled CMIP5 GCMs at 1/16th deg. spatial resolution from two different downscaling procedures are utilized over the Columbia River Basin (CRB) to assess the changes in climate variables and characterize the associated uncertainties. Three climate variables, i.e. precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature, are studied for the historical period of 1970-2000 as well as future period of 2010-2099, simulated with representative concentration pathways of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is employed to reduce the model uncertainty and develop a probabilistic projection for each variable in each scenario. Historical comparison of long-term attributes of GCMs and observation suggests a more accurate representation for BMA than individual models. Furthermore, BMA projections are used to investigate future seasonal to annual changes of climate variables. Projections indicate significant increase in annual precipitation and temperature, with varied degree of change across different sub-basins of CRB. We then characterized uncertainty of future projections for each season over CRB. Results reveal that model uncertainty is the main source of uncertainty, among others. However, downscaling uncertainty considerably contributes to the total uncertainty of future projections, especially in summer. On the contrary, downscaling uncertainty appears to be higher than scenario uncertainty for precipitation.

  20. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, De-an

    2015-01-01

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the "3"4S isotopic ion is drastically affected by "1"3C_2 and "1"8O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ("1"2C_x"1H_y"1"6O_z"3"2S"1"3C_2"1"8O, "1"2C_x_+_2"1H_y"1"6O_z_+_1"3"4S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS"n). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field. - Highlights: • We provide a new strategy for specifically screening of sulfurous compounds. • The fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) bases on separation of "1"3C_2+"1"8O and "3"4S. • Ultra high resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) is essential for FIPF. • IPF is applied to study the unique components of TCM for the first time. • New sulfurous components

  1. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Min [National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhou, Zhe [ThermoFisher Scientific China Co., Ltd, No 6 Building, 27 Xinjinqiao Road, Shanghai 201206 (China); Guo, De-an, E-mail: daguo@simm.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2015-09-24

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the {sup 34}S isotopic ion is drastically affected by {sup 13}C{sub 2} and {sup 18}O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ({sup 12}C{sub x}{sup 1}H{sub y}{sup 16}O{sub z}{sup 32}S{sup 13}C{sub 2}{sup 18}O, {sup 12}C{sub x+2}{sup 1}H{sub y}{sup 16}O{sub z+1}{sup 34}S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS{sup n}). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field. - Highlights: • We provide a new strategy for specifically screening of sulfurous compounds. • The fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) bases on separation of {sup 13}C{sub 2}+{sup 18}O and {sup 34}S. • Ultra high resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) is essential

  2. 14 CFR 382.151 - What are the requirements for providing Complaints Resolution Officials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discrimination, accommodations, or services with respect to passengers with a disability, and your personnel do not immediately resolve the issue to the customer's satisfaction or provide a requested accommodation... information to the passenger in a format he or she can use. (2) Your reservation agents, contractors, and Web...

  3. Trans-ethnic meta-regression of genome-wide association studies accounting for ancestry increases power for discovery and improves fine-mapping resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mägi, Reedik; Horikoshi, Momoko; Sofer, Tamar; Mahajan, Anubha; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Franceschini, Nora; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2017-09-15

    Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across diverse populations can increase power to detect complex trait loci when the underlying causal variants are shared between ancestry groups. However, heterogeneity in allelic effects between GWAS at these loci can occur that is correlated with ancestry. Here, a novel approach is presented to detect SNP association and quantify the extent of heterogeneity in allelic effects that is correlated with ancestry. We employ trans-ethnic meta-regression to model allelic effects as a function of axes of genetic variation, derived from a matrix of mean pairwise allele frequency differences between GWAS, and implemented in the MR-MEGA software. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate increased power to detect association for MR-MEGA over fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis across a range of scenarios of heterogeneity in allelic effects between ethnic groups. We also demonstrate improved fine-mapping resolution, in loci containing a single causal variant, compared to these meta-analysis approaches and PAINTOR, and equivalent performance to MANTRA at reduced computational cost. Application of MR-MEGA to trans-ethnic GWAS of kidney function in 71,461 individuals indicates stronger signals of association than fixed-effects meta-analysis when heterogeneity in allelic effects is correlated with ancestry. Application of MR-MEGA to fine-mapping four type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci in 22,086 cases and 42,539 controls highlights: (i) strong evidence for heterogeneity in allelic effects that is correlated with ancestry only at the index SNP for the association signal at the CDKAL1 locus; and (ii) 99% credible sets with six or fewer variants for five distinct association signals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Should providers be allowed to extra bill for uncovered services? Debate, resolution, and sequel in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Naoki

    2006-12-01

    Japan has managed to provide universal coverage at relatively low cost by containing prices and restricting the conditions for which services can be billed in the compulsory social health insurance (SHI) program. However, decline in Japan's economic growth ushered in new actors backed by the prime minister who proposed that the providers should be allowed to extra bill for services not covered by the SHI. In 2004 they took the strategy of drawing the attention of the public to areas where the rigidity of the current prohibition appeared to be unfair and ridiculous. They were opposed by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare and the Japan Medical Association, who strongly objected on the grounds of safety and equity. The compromise reached by the two ministers in charge led to a clarification of the services that are to be covered and of the process for extending coverage to new procedures and drugs. The prohibition on extra billing has remained essentially unchanged, but the momentum for deregulation has been lost. In 2005 an alternate proposal was made to contain SHI expenditures by introducing a global cap on health expenditures and increasing out-of-pocket payment. Although this proposal was not fully adopted, the gradual decline in SHI benefit levels could lead to a renewed move to allow extra billing.

  5. High-resolution respirometry of fine-needle muscle biopsies in pre-manifest Huntington's disease expansion mutation carriers shows normal mitochondrial respiratory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buck

    Full Text Available Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD, one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain. The integrated respiratory chain function of the human vastus lateralis muscle was measured by high-resolution respirometry (HRR in freshly taken fine-needle biopsies from seven pre-manifest HD expansion mutation carriers and nine controls. The respiratory parameters were unaffected. For comparison skeletal muscle isolated from HD knock-in mice (HdhQ111 as well as a broader spectrum of tissues including cortex, liver and heart muscle were examined by HRR. Significant changes of mitochondrial respiration in the HdhQ knock-in mouse model were restricted to the liver and the cortex. Mitochondrial mass as quantified by mitochondrial DNA copy number and citrate synthase activity was stable in murine HD-model tissue compared to control. mRNA levels of key enzymes were determined to characterize mitochondrial metabolic pathways in HdhQ mice. We demonstrated the feasibility to perform high-resolution respirometry measurements from small human HD muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we conclude that alterations in respiratory parameters of pre-manifest human muscle biopsies are rather limited and mirrored by a similar absence of marked alterations in HdhQ skeletal muscle. In contrast, the HdhQ111 murine cortex and liver did show respiratory alterations highlighting the tissue specific nature of mutant huntingtin effects on respiration.

  6. Impacts of 21st century sea-level rise on a Danish major city - an assessment based on fine-resolution digital topography and a new flooding algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Boecher, Peder Klith; Moelhave, Thomas; Arge, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the potential impact of 21st century sea-level rise on Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, emphasizing the economic risk to the city's real estate. Furthermore, it assesses which possible adaptation measures that can be taken to prevent flooding in areas particularly at risk from flooding. We combine a new national Digital Elevation Model in very fine resolution (∼2 meter), a new highly computationally efficient flooding algorithm that accurately models the influence of barriers, and geospatial data on real-estate values to assess the economic real-estate risk posed by future sea-level rise to Aarhus. Under the A2 and A1FI (IPCC) climate scenarios we show that relatively large residential areas in the northern part of the city as well as areas around the river running through the city are likely to become flooded in the event of extreme, but realistic weather events. In addition, most of the large Aarhus harbour would also risk flooding. As much of the area at risk represent high-value real estate, it seems clear that proactive measures other than simple abandonment should be taken in order to avoid heavy economic losses. Among the different possibilities for dealing with an increased sea level, the strategic placement of flood-gates at key potential water-inflow routes and the construction or elevation of existing dikes seems to be the most convenient, most socially acceptable, and maybe also the cheapest solution. Finally, we suggest that high-detail flooding models similar to those produced in this study will become an important tool for a climate-change-integrated planning of future city development as well as for the development of evacuation plans.

  7. Impacts of 21st century sea-level rise on a Danish major city - an assessment based on fine-resolution digital topography and a new flooding algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Svenning, Jens-Christian [Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Boecher, Peder Klith [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University (Denmark); Moelhave, Thomas; Arge, Lars, E-mail: jesper.moeslund@biology.au.d [MADALGO - Center for Massive Data Algorithmics, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the potential impact of 21st century sea-level rise on Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, emphasizing the economic risk to the city's real estate. Furthermore, it assesses which possible adaptation measures that can be taken to prevent flooding in areas particularly at risk from flooding. We combine a new national Digital Elevation Model in very fine resolution ({approx}2 meter), a new highly computationally efficient flooding algorithm that accurately models the influence of barriers, and geospatial data on real-estate values to assess the economic real-estate risk posed by future sea-level rise to Aarhus. Under the A2 and A1FI (IPCC) climate scenarios we show that relatively large residential areas in the northern part of the city as well as areas around the river running through the city are likely to become flooded in the event of extreme, but realistic weather events. In addition, most of the large Aarhus harbour would also risk flooding. As much of the area at risk represent high-value real estate, it seems clear that proactive measures other than simple abandonment should be taken in order to avoid heavy economic losses. Among the different possibilities for dealing with an increased sea level, the strategic placement of flood-gates at key potential water-inflow routes and the construction or elevation of existing dikes seems to be the most convenient, most socially acceptable, and maybe also the cheapest solution. Finally, we suggest that high-detail flooding models similar to those produced in this study will become an important tool for a climate-change-integrated planning of future city development as well as for the development of evacuation plans.

  8. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, Ronan, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-09-14

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  9. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  10. Low resolution scans can provide a sufficiently accurate, cost- and time-effective alternative to high resolution scans for 3D shape analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marcy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Advances in 3D shape capture technology have made powerful shape analyses, such as geometric morphometrics, more feasible. While the highly accurate micro-computed tomography (µCT scanners have been the “gold standard,” recent improvements in 3D surface scanners may make this technology a faster, portable, and cost-effective alternative. Several studies have already compared the two devices but all use relatively large specimens such as human crania. Here we perform shape analyses on Australia’s smallest rodent to test whether a 3D scanner produces similar results to a µCT scanner. Methods We captured 19 delicate mouse (Pseudomys delicatulus crania with a µCT scanner and a 3D scanner for geometric morphometrics. We ran multiple Procrustes ANOVAs to test how variation due to scan device compared to other sources such as biologically relevant variation and operator error. We quantified operator error as levels of variation and repeatability. Further, we tested if the two devices performed differently at classifying individuals based on sexual dimorphism. Finally, we inspected scatterplots of principal component analysis (PCA scores for non-random patterns. Results In all Procrustes ANOVAs, regardless of factors included, differences between individuals contributed the most to total variation. The PCA plots reflect this in how the individuals are dispersed. Including only the symmetric component of shape increased the biological signal relative to variation due to device and due to error. 3D scans showed a higher level of operator error as evidenced by a greater spread of their replicates on the PCA, a higher level of multivariate variation, and a lower repeatability score. However, the 3D scan and µCT scan datasets performed identically in classifying individuals based on intra-specific patterns of sexual dimorphism. Discussion Compared to µCT scans, we find that even low resolution 3D scans of very small specimens are

  11. Calcination and solid state reaction of ceramic-forming components to provide single-phase superconducting materials having fine particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Emerson, James E.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved method for the preparation of single phase, fine grained ceramic materials from precursor powder mixtures where at least one of the components of the mixture is an alkali earth carbonate. The process consists of heating the precursor powders in a partial vacuum under flowing oxygen and under conditions where the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 evolved during the calcination is kept to a very low level relative to the oxygen. The process has been found particularly suitable for the preparation of high temperature copper oxide superconducting materials such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x "123" and YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.8 "124".

  12. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as Hα or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of ∼310 km and ∼710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of ∼70 km s –1 , and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling in neighboring strands

  13. PROVIDING STRINGENT STAR FORMATION RATE LIMITS OF z ∼ 2 QSO HOST GALAXIES AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Do, Tuan [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Larkin, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-04-10

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ∼ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host. We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ∼0.″2 (∼1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (z{sub Hα} = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (z{sub Hα} = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290–350 km s{sup −1}. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ∼7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%–40% of the Eddington rate, if

  14. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  15. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    colonization in tomato roots, indicating that, besides hormonal interactions, a fine-tuning of each hormone level is required for AM development.

  16. Anne Fine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Anne Fine with an introduction and aside on the role of children’s literature in our lives and development, and our adult perceptions of the suitability of childhood reading material. Since graduating from Warwick in 1968 with a BA in Politics and History, Anne Fine has written over fifty books for children and eight for adults, won the Carnegie Medal twice (for Goggle-Eyes in 1989 and Flour Babies in 1992, been a highly commended runner-up three times (for Bill’s New Frock in 1989, The Tulip Touch in 1996, and Up on Cloud Nine in 2002, been shortlisted for the Hans Christian Andersen Award (the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books, 1998, undertaken the positon of Children’s Laureate (2001-2003, and been awarded an OBE for her services to literature (2003. Warwick presented Fine with an Honorary Doctorate in 2005. Philip Gaydon’s interview with Anne Fine was recorded as part of the ‘Voices of the University’ oral history project, co-ordinated by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

  17. Fine-scale application of WRF-CAM5 during a dust storm episode over East Asia: Sensitivity to grid resolutions and aerosol activation parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2018-03-01

    An advanced online-coupled meteorology and chemistry model WRF-CAM5 has been applied to East Asia using triple-nested domains at different grid resolutions (i.e., 36-, 12-, and 4-km) to simulate a severe dust storm period in spring 2010. Analyses are performed to evaluate the model performance and investigate model sensitivity to different horizontal grid sizes and aerosol activation parameterizations and to examine aerosol-cloud interactions and their impacts on the air quality. A comprehensive model evaluation of the baseline simulations using the default Abdul-Razzak and Ghan (AG) aerosol activation scheme shows that the model can well predict major meteorological variables such as 2-m temperature (T2), water vapor mixing ratio (Q2), 10-m wind speed (WS10) and wind direction (WD10), and shortwave and longwave radiation across different resolutions with domain-average normalized mean biases typically within ±15%. The baseline simulations also show moderate biases for precipitation and moderate-to-large underpredictions for other major variables associated with aerosol-cloud interactions such as cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud liquid water path (LWP) due to uncertainties or limitations in the aerosol-cloud treatments. The model performance is sensitive to grid resolutions, especially for surface meteorological variables such as T2, Q2, WS10, and WD10, with the performance generally improving at finer grid resolutions for those variables. Comparison of the sensitivity simulations with an alternative (i.e., the Fountoukis and Nenes (FN) series scheme) and the default (i.e., AG scheme) aerosol activation scheme shows that the former predicts larger values for cloud variables such as CDNC and COT across all grid resolutions and improves the overall domain-average model performance for many cloud/radiation variables and precipitation. Sensitivity simulations using the FN series scheme also have large impacts on

  18. Molecular-level evidence provided by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry for oil-derived doc in groundwater at Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ananna; Ahmed, Arif; Hur, Manhoi; Thorn, Kevin A.; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter samples extracted from ground water at the USGS Bemidji oil spill site in Minnesota were investigated by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the elemental composition assignments of the samples showed that the score plots for the contaminated sites were well separated from those for the uncontaminated sites. Additionally, spectra obtained from the same sampling site 7 and 19 years after the spill were grouped together in the score plot, strongly suggesting a steady state of contamination within the 12 year interval. The double bond equivalence (DBE) of Ox class compounds was broader for the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the complex nature of oil and the consequent formation of compounds with saturated and/or aromatic structures from the oxygenated products of oil. In addition, Ox class compounds with a relatively smaller number of x (x < 8; x = number of oxygen) and OxS1 class compounds were more abundant in the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the lower oxygen and higher sulfur contents of the oil compared to humic substances. The molecular-level signatures presented here can be a fundamental basis for in-depth analysis of oil contamination.

  19. Molecular-level evidence provided by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry for oil-derived doc in groundwater at Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ananna; Ahmed, Arif; Hur, Manhoi; Thorn, Kevin A.; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter samples extracted from ground water at the USGS Bemidji oil spill site in Minnesota were investigated by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the elemental composition assignments of the samples showed that the score plots for the contaminated sites were well separated from those for the uncontaminated sites. Additionally, spectra obtained from the same sampling site 7 and 19 years after the spill were grouped together in the score plot, strongly suggesting a steady state of contamination within the 12 year interval. The double bond equivalence (DBE) of Ox class compounds was broader for the samples from the contaminated sites, because of the complex nature of oil and the consequent formation of compounds with saturated and/or aromatic structures from the oxygenated products of oil. In addition, Ox class compounds with a relatively smaller number of x (x molecular-level signatures presented here can be a fundamental basis for in-depth analysis of oil contamination.

  20. Contradictions about Fine Structures in Meson Spectra and Proposed High-Resolution Hadron Spectrometer Using 'Interactive' Solid-State Hydrogen Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, Bogdan C.

    2004-01-01

    High resolution has been discouraged in meson spectrometry for 4 decades by the Doctrine of Experiments Incompatible with Theory (DEIT). DEIT a priori rejects narrow hadron resonances on the paradigm that only broad hadron peaks, Γ≥ 100 MeV, can exist -- in spite of the accumulated evidence to the contrary. The facts are: Mesons 2 orders of magnitude narrower than 'allowed' for hadrons, have been confirmed; a new one was announced at this conference. Narrow meson structures have been repeatedly reported at high momentum transfer, vertical bar t vertical bar >0.2, while they are absent at the low transfer, vertical bar t vertical bar ∼0.01, where 99% of the experiments are performed. Modification of meson mass and width as a function of the density of nuclear matter in which they are produced, have been recently reported.We postulate for meson spectra: (1) Intrinsic ('true') width, Γ, is different from the observable ('apparent') width, Γ': Γ< Γ' (2) Γ of all meson states are narrow and can be observed only at or near the maximum vertical bar t vertical bar reachable in the reaction, and (3) Γ of all meson resonances are subject to broadening as vertical bar t vertical bar decreases. Since both Γ' and the production σ are inversely proportional to vertical bar t vertical ar, most of the observed spectra are produced at the lowest vertical bar t vertical bar <0.01 and thus the peaks appear broad. We have conceptually designed a novel type hadron spectrometer with an order of magnitude better resolution (0.1 MeV). It would operate at 2 orders of magnitude higher vertical bar t vertical bar (0.3< vertical bar t vertical bar <1 (GeV/c)2, than most experiments to date (vertical bar t vertical bar <0.01). Mesons in the mass region 0.5 < Mx<5 GeV would be produced in πP→PX (baryons in PP→PP*) in a 'solid state hydrogen target' consisting of an array of plastic scintillator fibers, CH; collisions with C are electronically rejected. Missing mass of P is

  1. Fine-structural distribution of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the rat skeletal muscle upon training: a study by high-resolution in situ zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, Marine; Żybura-Broda, Katarzyna; Cabaj, Anna; Włodarczyk, Jakub; Sławińska, Urszula; Rylski, Marcin; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M

    2012-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key regulators of extracellular matrix remodeling, but have also important intracellular targets. The purpose of this study was to examine the activity and subcellular localization of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in skeletal muscle of control and physically trained rats. In control hind limb muscle, the activity of the gelatinases was barely detectable. In contrast, after 5 days of intense exercise, in Soleus (Sol), but not Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, significant upregulation of gelatinolytic activity in myofibers was observed mainly in the nuclei, as assessed by high resolution in situ zymography. The nuclei of quiescent satellite cells did not contain the activity. Within the myonuclei, the gelatinolytic activity colocalized with an activated RNA Polymerase II. Also in Sol, but not in EDL, there were few foci of mononuclear cells with strongly positive cytoplasm, associated with apparent necrotic myofibers. These cells were identified as activated satellite cells/myoblasts. No extracellular gelatinase activity was observed. Gel zymography combined with subcellular fractionation revealed training-related upregulation of active MMP-2 in the nuclear fraction, and increase of active MMP-9 in the cytoplasmic fraction of Sol. Using RT-PCR, selective increase in MMP-9 mRNA was observed. We conclude that training activates nuclear MMP-2, and increases expression and activity of cytoplasmic MMP-9 in Sol, but not in EDL. Our results suggest that the gelatinases are involved in muscle adaptation to training, and that MMP-2 may play a novel role in myonuclear functions.

  2. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  3. High-resolution, time-resolved MRA provides superior definition of lower-extremity arterial segments compared to 2D time-of-flight imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, F J; Du, J; Suleiman, S A; Dieter, R; Tefera, G; Pillai, K R; Korosec, F R; Mistretta, C A; Grist, T M

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate a novel time-resolved contrast-enhanced (CE) projection reconstruction (PR) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) method for identifying potential bypass graft target vessels in patients with Class II-IV peripheral vascular disease. Twenty patients (M:F = 15:5, mean age = 58 years, range = 48-83 years), were recruited from routine MRA referrals. All imaging was performed on a 1.5 T MRI system with fast gradients (Signa LX; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Images were acquired with a novel technique that combined undersampled PR with a time-resolved acquisition to yield an MRA method with high temporal and spatial resolution. The method is called PR hyper time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (PR-hyperTRICKS). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to compare two-dimensional (2D) time-of-flight (TOF) and PR-hyperTRICKS in 13 arterial segments per lower extremity. Statistical analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Fifteen percent (77/517) of the vessels were scored as missing or nondiagnostic with 2D TOF, but were scored as diagnostic with PR-hyperTRICKS. Image quality was superior with PR-hyperTRICKS vs. 2D TOF (on a four-point scale, mean rank = 3.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.9 +/- 1.2, P < 0.0001). PR-hyperTRICKS produced images with high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and high spatial and temporal resolution. 2D TOF images were of inferior quality due to moderate spatial resolution, inferior CNR, greater flow-related artifacts, and absence of temporal resolution. PR-hyperTRICKS provides superior preoperative assessment of lower limb ischemia compared to 2D TOF.

  4. Research and Development of a portable microfocus x-ray system capable of providing ultra-high resolutions images of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkala, G.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of x-ray screening has long been a recognized valuable tool as a means to evaluate and identify suspect articles for possible improvised explosive devices. Recent bombings indicate an increase in technical sophistication by the terrorist which demand additional means to further the possibility of detecting these devices before they reach their target or detonate. This paper discusses history of the use of x-ray and the design parameters of a portable micro-focus x-ray system capable of providing ultra high resolution radiographs as well as being able to be used with additional state-of-the-art imaging systems

  5. Future changes in the climatology of the Great Plains low-level jet derived from fine resolution multi-model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Winkler, Julie; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi; Doubler, Dana; Yu, Lejiang; Walters, Claudia

    2017-07-10

    The southerly Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ) is one of the most significant circulation features of the central U.S. linking large-scale atmospheric circulation with the regional climate. GPLLJs transport heat and moisture, contribute to thunderstorm and severe weather formation, provide a corridor for the springtime migration of birds and insects, enhance wind energy availability, and disperse air pollution. We assess future changes in GPLLJ frequency using an eight member ensemble of dynamically-downscaled climate simulations for the mid-21st century. Nocturnal GPLLJ frequency is projected to increase in the southern plains in spring and in the central plains in summer, whereas current climatological patterns persist into the future for daytime and cool season GPLLJs. The relationship between future GPLLJ frequency and the extent and strength of anticyclonic airflow over eastern North America varies with season. Most simulations project a westward shift of anticyclonic airflow in summer, but uncertainty is larger for spring with only half of the simulations suggesting a westward expansion. The choice of regional climate model and the driving lateral boundary conditions have a large influence on the projected future changes in GPLLJ frequency and highlight the importance of multi-model ensembles to estimate the uncertainty surrounding the future GPLLJ climatology.

  6. High Bandwidth, Fine Resolution Deformable Mirror Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Low Temperature Solders 68 B.6 Influence Function Parameters 68 APPENDIX C 19 Capacitance Measurement 69 ACCESSION for NTIS white Sectloo ODC Buff...Multilayer actuator: Dilatation versus applied electric field 10 Figure 3 - Multilayer actuator: Influence function 11 Figure 4 - Honeycomb device...bimorph 20 Figure 8 - Bimorph device: Influence function of a bimorph device which has a glass plate 0.20 cm thick 24 Figure 9 - Bimorph device

  7. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  8. A regional approach to plant DNA barcoding provides high species resolution of sedges (Carex and Kobresia, Cyperaceae) in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc-Blain, Jessica L E; Starr, Julian R; Bull, Roger D; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on barcoding sedges (Carex) suggested that basic searches within a global barcoding database would probably not resolve more than 60% of the world's some 2000 species. In this study, we take an alternative approach and explore the performance of plant DNA barcoding in the Carex lineage from an explicitly regional perspective. We characterize the utility of a subset of the proposed protein-coding and noncoding plastid barcoding regions (matK, rpoB, rpoC1, rbcL, atpF-atpH, psbK-psbI) for distinguishing species of Carex and Kobresia in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a clearly defined eco-geographical region representing 1% of the Earth's landmass. Our results show that matK resolves the greatest number of species of any single-locus (95%), and when combined in a two-locus barcode, it provides 100% species resolution in all but one combination (matK + atpFH) during unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean averages (UPGMA) analyses. Noncoding regions were equally or more variable than matK, but as single markers they resolve substantially fewer taxa than matK alone. When difficulties with sequencing and alignment due to microstructural variation in noncoding regions are also considered, our results support other studies in suggesting that protein-coding regions are more practical as barcoding markers. Plastid DNA barcodes are an effective identification tool for species of Carex and Kobresia in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a region where the number of co-existing closely related species is limited. We suggest that if a regional approach to plant DNA barcoding was applied on a global scale, it could provide a solution to the generally poor species resolution seen in previous barcoding studies. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Wavelet-based resolution recovery using an anatomical prior provides quantitative recovery for human population phantom PET [11C]raclopride data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, M; Tamura, H; Tsoumpas, C; McGinnity, C J; Hammers, A; Turkheimer, F E; Kato, T; Watabe, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a resolution recovery (RR) method using a variety of simulated human brain [ 11 C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) images. Simulated datasets of 15 numerical human phantoms were processed by a wavelet-based RR method using an anatomical prior. The anatomical prior was in the form of a hybrid segmented atlas, which combined an atlas for anatomical labelling and a PET image for functional labelling of each anatomical structure. We applied RR to both 60 min static and dynamic PET images. Recovery was quantified in 84 regions, comparing the typical ‘true’ value for the simulation, as obtained in normal subjects, simulated and RR PET images. The radioactivity concentration in the white matter, striatum and other cortical regions was successfully recovered for the 60 min static image of all 15 human phantoms; the dependence of the solution on accurate anatomical information was demonstrated by the difficulty of the technique to retrieve the subthalamic nuclei due to mismatch between the two atlases used for data simulation and recovery. Structural and functional synergy for resolution recovery (SFS-RR) improved quantification in the caudate and putamen, the main regions of interest, from −30.1% and −26.2% to −17.6% and −15.1%, respectively, for the 60 min static image and from −51.4% and −38.3% to −27.6% and −20.3% for the binding potential (BP ND ) image, respectively. The proposed methodology proved effective in the RR of small structures from brain [ 11 C]raclopride PET images. The improvement is consistent across the anatomical variability of a simulated population as long as accurate anatomical segmentations are provided. (paper)

  10. High Resolution Crystal Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Nicotinamidase with Trapped Intermediates Provide Insights into Catalytic Mechanism and Inhibition by Aldehydes∥,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jarrod B.; Cen, Yana; Sauve, Anthony A.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinamidases are salvage enzymes that convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are essential for the recycling of nicotinamide into NAD+ in most prokaryotes, most single cell and multicellular eukaryotes, but not in mammals. The significance of these enzymes for nicotinamide salvage and for NAD+ homeostasis has increased interest in nicotinamidases as possible antibiotic targets. Nicotinamidases are also regulators of intracellular nicotinamide concentrations, thereby regulating signaling of downstream NAD+ consuming enzymes, such as the NAD+-dependent deacetylases (sirtuins). Here, we report several high resolution crystal structures of the nicotinamidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpNic) in unliganded and ligand-bound forms. The structure of the C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide provides details about substrate binding while a trapped nicotinoyl-thioester complexed with SpNic reveals the structure of the proposed thioester reaction intermediate. Examination of the active site of SpNic reveals several important features including a metal ion that coordinates the substrate and the catalytically relevant water molecule, and an oxyanion hole which both orients the substrate and offsets the negative charge that builds up during catalysis. Structures of this enzyme with bound nicotinaldehyde inhibitors elucidate the mechanism of inhibition and provide further details about the catalytic mechanism. In addition, we provide a biochemical analysis of the identity and role of the metal ion that orients the ligand in the active site and activates the water molecule responsible for hydrolysis of the substrate. These data provide structural evidence for several proposed reaction intermediates and allow for a more complete understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme. PMID:20853856

  11. High-resolution crystal structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae nicotinamidase with trapped intermediates provide insights into the catalytic mechanism and inhibition by aldehydes .

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jarrod B; Cen, Yana; Sauve, Anthony A; Ealick, Steven E

    2010-10-12

    Nicotinamidases are salvage enzymes that convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are essential for the recycling of nicotinamide into NAD(+) in most prokaryotes and most single-cell and multicellular eukaryotes, but not in mammals. The significance of these enzymes for nicotinamide salvage and for NAD(+) homeostasis has stimulated interest in nicotinamidases as possible antibiotic targets. Nicotinamidases are also regulators of intracellular nicotinamide concentrations, thereby regulating signaling of downstream NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, such as the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases (sirtuins). Here, we report several high-resolution crystal structures of the nicotinamidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpNic) in unliganded and ligand-bound forms. The structure of the C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide provides details about substrate binding, while a trapped nicotinoyl thioester in a complex with SpNic reveals the structure of the proposed thioester reaction intermediate. Examination of the active site of SpNic reveals several important features, including a metal ion that coordinates the substrate and the catalytically relevant water molecule and an oxyanion hole that both orients the substrate and offsets the negative charge that builds up during catalysis. Structures of this enzyme with bound nicotinaldehyde inhibitors elucidate the mechanism of inhibition and provide further details about the catalytic mechanism. In addition, we provide a biochemical analysis of the identity and role of the metal ion that orients the ligand in the active site and activates the water molecule responsible for hydrolysis of the substrate. These data provide structural evidence of several proposed reaction intermediates and allow for a more complete understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.

  12. High-Resolution Crystal Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Nicotinamidase with Trapped Intermediates Provide Insights into the Catalytic Mechanism and Inhibition by Aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Cen, Yana; Sauve, Anthony A.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Weill-Med)

    2010-11-11

    Nicotinamidases are salvage enzymes that convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are essential for the recycling of nicotinamide into NAD{sup +} in most prokaryotes and most single-cell and multicellular eukaryotes, but not in mammals. The significance of these enzymes for nicotinamide salvage and for NAD{sup +} homeostasis has stimulated interest in nicotinamidases as possible antibiotic targets. Nicotinamidases are also regulators of intracellular nicotinamide concentrations, thereby regulating signaling of downstream NAD{sup +}-consuming enzymes, such as the NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases (sirtuins). Here, we report several high-resolution crystal structures of the nicotinamidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpNic) in unliganded and ligand-bound forms. The structure of the C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide provides details about substrate binding, while a trapped nicotinoyl thioester in a complex with SpNic reveals the structure of the proposed thioester reaction intermediate. Examination of the active site of SpNic reveals several important features, including a metal ion that coordinates the substrate and the catalytically relevant water molecule and an oxyanion hole that both orients the substrate and offsets the negative charge that builds up during catalysis. Structures of this enzyme with bound nicotinaldehyde inhibitors elucidate the mechanism of inhibition and provide further details about the catalytic mechanism. In addition, we provide a biochemical analysis of the identity and role of the metal ion that orients the ligand in the active site and activates the water molecule responsible for hydrolysis of the substrate. These data provide structural evidence of several proposed reaction intermediates and allow for a more complete understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.

  13. High-speed assembly language (80386/80387) programming for laser spectra scan control and data acquisition providing improved resolution water vapor spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An assembly language program using the Intel 80386 CPU and 80387 math co-processor chips was written to increase the speed of data gathering and processing, and provide control of a scanning CW ring dye laser system. This laser system is used in high resolution (better than 0.001 cm-1) water vapor spectroscopy experiments. Laser beam power is sensed at the input and output of white cells and the output of a Fabry-Perot. The assembly language subroutine is called from Basic, acquires the data and performs various calculations at rates greater than 150 faster than could be performed by the higher level language. The width of output control pulses generated in assembly language are 3 to 4 microsecs as compared to 2 to 3.7 millisecs for those generated in Basic (about 500 to 1000 times faster). Included are a block diagram and brief description of the spectroscopy experiment, a flow diagram of the Basic and assembly language programs, listing of the programs, scope photographs of the computer generated 5-volt pulses used for control and timing analysis, and representative water spectrum curves obtained using these programs.

  14. Development of an Internally-Calibrated Wide-Band Airborne Microwave Radiometer to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Measurements for SWOT (HAMMR - High-frequency Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-wave Radiometer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Internally-Calibrated Wide-Band Airborne Microwave Radiometer to Provide High-Resolution Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay Measurements for SWOT (HAMMR -...

  15. Development of a high-resolution soft x-ray (30--1500 eV) beamline at the Advanced Light Source and its use for the study of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, W.R.A.

    1996-02-01

    ALS Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 is for high resolution spectroscopy, with circularly polarized light. Fixed included-angle SGM uses three gratings for 30--1500 eV photons; circular polarization is produced by an aperture for selecting the beam above or below the horizontal plane. Photocurrent from upper and lower jaws of entrance slit sets a piezoelectric drive feedback loop on the vertically deflecting mirror for stable beam. End station has a movable platform. With photomeission data from Stanford, structure of c(2x2)P/Fe(100) was determined using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS). Multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations indicate that P atoms adsorb in fourfold hollow sites 1.02A above the first Fe layer. Self-consistent-field Xα scattered wave calculation confirm that the Fe 1 -Fe 2 space is contracted for S/Fe but not for P/Fe; comparison is made to atomic N and O on Fe(100). Final-state effects on ARPEFS curves used literature data from the S 1s and 2p core levels of c(2x2)S/Ni(001); a generalized Ramsauer-Townsend splitting is present in the 1s but not 2p data. An approximate method for analyzing ARPEFS data from a non-s initial state using only the higher-ell partial wave was tested successfully. ARPEFS data from clean surfaces were collected normal to Ni(111) (3p core levels) and 5 degree off-normal from Cu(111)(3s, 3p). Fourier transforms (FT) resemble adsorbate systems, showing backscattering signals from atoms up to 4 layers below emitters. 3p FTs show scattering from 6 nearest neighbors in the same crystal layer as the emitters. MSSW calulation indicate that Cu 3p photoemission is mostly d-wave. FTs also indicate double-scattering and single-scattering from laterally distant atoms; calculations indicate that the signal is dominated by photoemission from the first 2 crystal layers

  16. The utility of satellite observations for constraining fine-scale and transient methane sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D.; Benmergui, J. S.; Brandman, J.; White, L.; Randles, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Resolving differences between top-down and bottom-up emissions of methane from the oil and gas industry is difficult due, in part, to their fine-scale and often transient nature. There is considerable interest in using atmospheric observations to detect these sources. Satellite-based instruments are an attractive tool for this purpose and, more generally, for quantifying methane emissions on fine scales. A number of instruments are planned for launch in the coming years from both low earth and geostationary orbit, but the extent to which they can provide fine-scale information on sources has yet to be explored. Here we present an observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) exploring the tradeoffs between pixel resolution, measurement frequency, and instrument precision on the fine-scale information content of a space-borne instrument measuring methane. We use the WRF-STILT Lagrangian transport model to generate more than 200,000 column footprints at 1.3×1.3 km2 spatial resolution and hourly temporal resolution over the Barnett Shale in Texas. We sub-sample these footprints to match the observing characteristics of the planned TROPOMI and GeoCARB instruments as well as different hypothetical observing configurations. The information content of the various observing systems is evaluated using the Fisher information matrix and its singular values. We draw conclusions on the capabilities of the planned satellite instruments and how these capabilities could be improved for fine-scale source detection.

  17. NGST fine guidance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Neil; Hutchings, John; Murowinski, Richard G.; Alexander, Russ

    2003-03-01

    Instrumentation for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is currently in the Phase A definition stage. We have developed a concept for the NGST Fine Guidance Sensor or FGS. The FGS is a detector array based imager which resides in the NGST focal plane. We report here on tradeoff studies aimed at defining an overall configuration of the FGS which will meet the performance and interface requirements. A key performance requirement is a noise equivalent angle of 3 milli-arcseconds to be achieved with 95% probability for any pointing of the observatory in the celestial sphere. A key interface requirement is compatibility with the architecture of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The concept developed consists of two independent and redundant FGS modules, each with a 4' x 2' field of view covered by two 2048 x 2048 infrared detector arrays, providing 60 milli-arcsecond sampling. Performance modeling supporting the choice of this architecture and the trade space considered is presented. Each module has a set of readout electronics which perform star detection, pixel-by-pixel correction, and in fine guiding mode, centroid calculation. These readout electronics communicate with the ISIM Command &Data Handling Units where the FGS control software is based. Rationale for this choice of architecture is also presented.

  18. Can small island mountains provide relief from the Subtropical Precipitation Decline? Simulating future precipitation regimes for small island nations using high resolution Regional Climate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J.; Terando, A. J.; Misra, V.; Wootten, A.

    2017-12-01

    Small island nations are vulnerable to changes in the hydrologic cycle because of their limited water resources. This risk to water security is likely even higher in sub-tropical regions where anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is expected to lead to a drier future (the so-called `dry-get-drier' pattern). However, high-resolution numerical modeling experiments have also shown an enhancement of existing orographically-influenced precipitation patterns on islands with steep topography, potentially mitigating subtropical drying on windward mountain sides. Here we explore the robustness of the near-term (25-45 years) subtropical precipitation decline (SPD) across two island groupings in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These islands, forming the boundary between the Greater and Lesser Antilles, significantly differ in size, topographic relief, and orientation to prevailing winds. Two 2-km horizontal resolution regional climate model simulations are used to downscale a total of three different GCMs under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. Results indicate some possibility for modest increases in precipitation at the leading edge of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico, but consistent declines elsewhere. We conclude with a discussion of potential explanations for these patterns and the attendant risks to water security that subtropical small island nations could face as the climate warms.

  19. 47 CFR 76.943 - Fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.943 Fines. (a) A franchising authority may impose fines or... specifically at the cable operator, provided the franchising authority has such power under state or local laws. (b) If a cable operator willfully fails to comply with the terms of any franchising authority's order...

  20. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  1. Accomplishments of the MUSICA project to provide accurate, long-term, global and high-resolution observations of tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; Wiegele, Andreas; Barthlott, Sabine; González, Yenny; Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; García, Omaira E.; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Andrey, Javier

    2016-07-01

    In the lower/middle troposphere, {H2O,δD} pairs are good proxies for moisture pathways; however, their observation, in particular when using remote sensing techniques, is challenging. The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) addresses this challenge by integrating the remote sensing with in situ measurement techniques. The aim is to retrieve calibrated tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs from the middle infrared spectra measured from ground by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and the thermal nadir spectra measured by IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) aboard the MetOp satellites. In this paper, we present the final MUSICA products, and discuss the characteristics and potential of the NDACC/FTIR and MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs. First, we briefly resume the particularities of an {H2O,δD} pair retrieval. Second, we show that the remote sensing data of the final product version are absolutely calibrated with respect to H2O and δD in situ profile references measured in the subtropics, between 0 and 7 km. Third, we reveal that the {H2O,δD} pair distributions obtained from the different remote sensors are consistent and allow distinct lower/middle tropospheric moisture pathways to be identified in agreement with multi-year in situ references. Fourth, we document the possibilities of the NDACC/FTIR instruments for climatological studies (due to long-term monitoring) and of the MetOp/IASI sensors for observing diurnal signals on a quasi-global scale and with high horizontal resolution. Fifth, we discuss the risk of misinterpreting {H2O,δD} pair distributions due to incomplete processing of the remote sensing products.

  2. An analysis of patient-provider secure messaging at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers: message content and resolution through secure messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Stephanie L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Rothendler, James A; Zirkle, Maryan; Zhao, Shibei; Feng, Hua; Fix, Gemmae M; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Martin, Tracey; Johnson, Sharon A; Tulu, Bengisu; Gordon, Howard S; Simon, Steven R; Woods, Susan S

    2017-09-01

    We sought to understand how patients and primary care teams use secure messaging (SM) to communicate with one another by analyzing secure message threads from 2 Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. We coded 1000 threads of SM communication sampled from 40 primary care teams. Most threads (94.5%) were initiated by patients (90.4%) or caregivers (4.1%); only 5.5% were initiated by primary care team members proactively reaching out to patients. Medication renewals and refills (47.2%), scheduling requests (17.6%), medication issues (12.9%), and health issues (12.7%) were the most common patient-initiated requests, followed by referrals (7.0%), administrative issues (6.5%), test results (5.4%), test issues (5.2%), informing messages (4.9%), comments about the patient portal or SM (4.1%), appreciation (3.9%), self-reported data (2.8%), life issues (1.5%), and complaints (1.5%). Very few messages were clinically urgent (0.7%) or contained other potentially challenging content. Message threads were mostly short (2.7 messages), comprising an average of 1.35 discrete content types. A substantial proportion of issues (24.2%) did not show any evidence of being resolved through SM. Time to response and extent of resolution via SM varied by message content. Proactive SM use by teams varied, but was most often for test results (32.7%), medication-related issues (21.8%), medication renewals (16.4%), or scheduling issues (18.2%). The majority of messages were transactional and initiated by patients or caregivers. Not all content categories were fully addressed over SM. Further education and training for both patients and clinical teams could improve the quality and efficiency of SM communication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  3. Fine Arts Database (FAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  4. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  5. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabloff, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics

  6. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  7. Radioactivity in fine papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)

  8. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  9. Numerical modeling of fine particle fractal aggregates in turbulent flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Feifeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for prediction of fine particle transport in a turbulent flow is proposed, the interaction between particles and fluid is studied numerically, and fractal agglomerate of fine particles is analyzed using Taylor-expansion moment method. The paper provides a better understanding of fine particle dynamics in the evolved flows.

  10. Towards gloss control in fine art reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Teun; Brettel, Hans; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.

    2015-03-01

    The studies regarding fine art reproduction mainly focus on the accuracy of colour and the recreation of surface texture properties. Since reflection properties other than colour are neglected, important details of the artwork are lost. For instance, gloss properties, often characteristic to painters and particular movements in the history of art, are not well reproduced. The inadequate reproduction of the different gloss levels of a piece of fine art leads to a specular reflection mismatch in printed copies with respect to the original works that affects the perceptual quality of the printout. We used different print parameters of a 3D high resolution printing setup to control the gloss level on a printout locally. Our method can be used to control gloss automatically and in crucial applications such as fine art reproduction.

  11. Fine-resolution repeat topographic surveying of dryland landscapes using UAS-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry: Assessing accuracy and precision against traditional ground-based erosion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and finer spatial resolution compared to airborne laser scanning. Accuracy and precision of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from UAS imagery have been explored in many studies, typically by comparing image coordinates to surveyed check points or LiDAR datasets. In addition to traditional check points, this study compared 5 cm resolution DTMs derived from fixed-wing UAS imagery with a traditional ground-based method of measuring soil surface change called erosion bridges. We assessed accuracy by comparing the elevation values between DTMs and erosion bridges along thirty topographic transects each 6.1 m long. Comparisons occurred at two points in time (June 2014, February 2015) which enabled us to assess vertical accuracy with 3314 data points and vertical precision (i.e., repeatability) with 1657 data points. We found strong vertical agreement (accuracy) between the methods (RMSE 2.9 and 3.2 cm in June 2014 and February 2015, respectively) and high vertical precision for the DTMs (RMSE 2.8 cm). Our results from comparing SfM-generated DTMs to check points, and strong agreement with erosion bridge measurements suggests repeat UAS imagery and SfM processing could replace erosion bridges for a more synoptic landscape assessment of shifting soil surfaces for some studies. However, while collecting the UAS imagery and generating the SfM DTMs for this study was faster than collecting erosion bridge measurements, technical challenges related to the need for ground control networks and image processing requirements must be addressed before this technique could be applied effectively to large landscapes.

  12. Fine structure studies of terbium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhay Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Krishnanath; Niraj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Terbium (Z = 65) is a typical rare-earth element. Fine structure of spectural lines of terbium (Tb) are presented using the laser optogalvanic spectroscopic technique. Altogether eighty transitions in the 5686-6367 A range have been observed in the fine structure spectrum of 159 Tb. Wavelengths of all the observed transitions have been determined. Out of 80 transitions of Tb, a total of 59 transitions are being reported for the first time. Classifications of 39 new transitions have been provided using the known energy levels, Doppler-limited optogalvanic spectroscopic technique is employed to study the fine structure (fs) 159 Tb. (author)

  13. Magnetoacoustic Imaging of Electrical Conductivity of Biological Tissues at a Spatial Resolution Better than 2 mm

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an emerging approach for noninvasively imaging electrical impedance properties of biological tissues. The MAT-MI imaging system measures ultrasound waves generated by the Lorentz force, having been induced by magnetic stimulation, which is related to the electrical conductivity distribution in tissue samples. MAT-MI promises to provide fine spatial resolution for biological tissue imaging as compared to ultrasound resolution. In t...

  14. Modeling fire behavior on tropical islands with high-resolution weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Benoit; Francis M. Fujioka; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we consider fire behavior simulation in tropical island scenarios such as Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The development of a system to provide real-time fire behavior prediction in Hawaii is discussed. This involves obtaining fuels and topography information at a fine scale, as well as supplying daily high-resolution weather forecast data for the area of...

  15. A fine art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, G.; Raaff, T. [Andritz AG (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    The paper describes a new dewatering system for coal fines which challenges established processes by using screenbowl centrifuge and hyperbaric filter combinations. Company acquisitions over the past three to four years enabled Andritz AG to develop a new system combining two technologies. The article describes the benefits of the combination process and explains the basic operation of these machines. 4 figs.

  16. Fine 5 lavastab Venemaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tantsuteatru Fine 5 koreograafid Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik toovad Jekaterinburgis välja lavastuse "... and Red", esitajaks Venemaa nimekas nüüdistantsutrupp Provintsialnõje Tantsõ. Lavastuses kõlab Taavo Remmeli kontrabassiimprovisatsioon "12.12.2006"

  17. Imeilus Fine 5

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Vaba Lava teatrikeskuse laval esineb Fine 5 oma lavastusega "Imeilus". Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik, tantsulavastuse autorid on koreograafid, õppejõud, lavastajad ja kogemustega tantsijad. 29. jaanuaril korraldavad Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik Tallinna Ülikoolis kaasaegse liikumismõtlemise töötoa, mis on pühendatud lavastusele "Imeilus"

  18. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.

    2013-10-15

    the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in the cold season. Especially in the residential areas local wood combustion emissions were occasionally substantial. A notable contribution of particles originating from wood combustion was detected both at suburban and urban areas caused by emissions that were distributed regionally or they were long-range transported. In addition to the wood combustion emissions, transported smokes from open-land fires in Russia and the Baltic countries affected the air quality in Helsinki in the warm season. Source-specific tracer compounds were used in the thesis for identifying the biomass burning source of fine particles. The most used tracer compounds were anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan) that originate specifically in the pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, the main components of plant biomass. In summary, the sampling and analytical methods needed for the online chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning were developed in order to provide precise and prompt high-time-resolution information on biomass burning emissions. The results and the implications of this thesis provide new information on the concentrations and sources of fine particles in the boreal region. (orig.)

  19. Simultaneous Speciation, Structure, and Equilibrium Constant Determination in the Ni2+-EDTA-CN- Ternary System via High-Resolution Laboratory X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnóczi, Éva G; Németh, Zoltán; Vankó, György

    2017-11-20

    Even quite simple chemical systems can involve many components and chemical states, and sometimes it can be very difficult to differentiate them by their hardly separable physical-chemical properties. The Ni II -EDTA-CN - (EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) ternary system is a good example for this problem where, in spite of its fairly simple components and numerous investigations, several molecular combinations can exist, all of them not having been identified unambiguously yet. In order to achieve a detailed understanding of the reaction steps and chemical equilibria, methods are required in which the structural transitions in the different reaction steps can be followed via element-selective complex spectral feature sets. With the help of our recently developed von Hámos type high-resolution laboratory X-ray absorption spectrometer, both the structural variations and stability constants of the forming complexes were determined from the same measurement series, proving that X-ray absorption spectroscopy can be considered as a multifaced, table-top tool in coordination chemistry. Furthermore, with the help of theoretical calculations, independent structural evidence was also given for the formation of the [NiEDTA(CN)] 3- mixed complex.

  20. Fast generation of multiple resolution instances of raster data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Haverkort, Herman; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos

    2012-01-01

    In many GIS applications it is important to study the characteristics of a raster data set at multiple resolutions. Often this is done by generating several coarser resolution rasters from a fine resolution raster. In this paper we describe efficient algorithms for different variants of this prob......In many GIS applications it is important to study the characteristics of a raster data set at multiple resolutions. Often this is done by generating several coarser resolution rasters from a fine resolution raster. In this paper we describe efficient algorithms for different variants...... in the main memory of the computer. We also provide two algorithms that solve this problem in external memory, that is when the input raster is larger than the main memory. The first external algorithm is very easy to implement and requires O(sort(N)) data block transfers from/to the external memory....... For this variant we describe an algorithm that runs in (U logN) time in internal memory, where U is the size of the output. We show how this algorithm can be adapted to perform efficiently in the external memory using O(sort(U)) data transfers from the disk. We have also implemented two of the presented algorithms...

  1. The aggregation efficiency of very fine volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bello, E.; Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can discharge large amounts of very small sized pyroclasts (under 0.090 mm) into the atmosphere that may cause problems to people, infrastructures and environment. The transport and deposition of fine ash are ruled by aggregation that causes premature settling of fine ash and, as consequence, significantly reduces the concentration of airborne material over long distances. Parameterizing the aggregation potential of fine ash is then needed to provide accurate modelling of ash transport and deposition from volcanic plumes. Here we present the first results of laboratory experiments investigating the aggregation efficiency of very fine volcanic particles. Previous laboratory experiments have shown that collision kinetic and relative humidity provide the strongest effect on aggregation behaviour but were only limited to particles with size > 0.125 mm. In our work, we focus on natural volcanic ash at ambient humidity with particles size aggregation potential. Two types of ash were used in our experiments: fresh ash, collected during fall-out from a recent plume-forming eruption at Sakurajima (Japan -July 2013) and old ash, collected from fall-out tephra deposits at Campi Flegrei (Italy, ca. 10 ka), to account for the different chemical composition and morphoscopic effects of altered ash on aggregation efficiency. Total samples were hand sieved to obtain three classes with unimodal grain size distributions (sieved from the top of a transparent tank where a fan, placed at the bottom, allows turbulent dispersion of particles. Collision and sticking of particles on a vertical glass slide were filmed with a high speed cameras at 6000 fps. Our lenses arrangement provide high image resolution allowing to capture particles down to 0.005 mm in diameter. Video sequences of particles motion and collision were then processed with image analysis and particle tracking tools to determine i) the particle number density and ii) the grain size distribution

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in providing a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i1.15 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  3. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  4. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  5. Optical versus radiographic magnification for fine-detail skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genant, H.K.; Doi, K.; Mall, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Fine detail radiographic techniques for peripheral skeletal imaging have gained wide clinical acceptance. In this study, the imaging properties and clinical applications of the optical magnification technique, which employs fine-grain industrial film and a large focal spot, have been compared quantitatively and qualitatively with those of three slow screen-film techniques, namely, contact exposure with a large focal spot, 2X radiographic magnification with a 0.3 mm focal spot, and 4X radiographic magnification with a 50 μ focal spot. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of the recording systems and focal spots have been obtained and film sensitometry has been performed. Clinical comparisons for patients with metabolic, arthritic, and neoplastic skeletal disorders have been made. The results illustrate the superiority of the optical magnification technique over contact or 2X magnification techniques using slow screen-film systems. If a microfocus tube is used, however, direct radiographic magnification may provide images comparable in resolution, noise, and contrast to those made with the optical magnification technique, and at lower radiation exposure to the patient. (U.S.)

  6. Origin of fine structure of the giant dipole resonance in s d -shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearick, R. W.; Erler, B.; Matsubara, H.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Richter, A.; Roth, R.; Tamii, A.

    2018-04-01

    A set of high-resolution zero-degree inelastic proton scattering data on 24Mg, 28Si, 32S, and 40Ca provides new insight into the long-standing puzzle of the origin of fragmentation of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) in s d -shell nuclei. Understanding is achieved by comparison with random phase approximation calculations for deformed nuclei using for the first time a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction derived from the Argonne V18 potential with the unitary correlation operator method and supplemented by a phenomenological three-nucleon contact interaction. A wavelet analysis allows one to extract significant scales both in the data and calculations characterizing the fine structure of the GDR. The fair agreement for scales in the range of a few hundred keV supports the surmise that the fine structure arises from ground-state deformation driven by α clustering.

  7. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  8. Dark energy with fine redshift sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-03-01

    The cosmological constant and many other possible origins for acceleration of the cosmic expansion possess variations in the dark energy properties slow on the Hubble time scale. Given that models with more rapid variation, or even phase transitions, are possible though, we examine the fineness in redshift with which cosmological probes can realistically be employed, and what constraints this could impose on dark energy behavior. In particular, we discuss various aspects of baryon acoustic oscillations, and their use to measure the Hubble parameter H(z). We find that currently considered cosmological probes have an innate resolution no finer than Δz≈0.2 0.3.

  9. Dark energy with fine redshift sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-01-01

    The cosmological constant and many other possible origins for acceleration of the cosmic expansion possess variations in the dark energy properties slow on the Hubble time scale. Given that models with more rapid variation, or even phase transitions, are possible though, we examine the fineness in redshift with which cosmological probes can realistically be employed, and what constraints this could impose on dark energy behavior. In particular, we discuss various aspects of baryon acoustic oscillations, and their use to measure the Hubble parameter H(z). We find that currently considered cosmological probes have an innate resolution no finer than Δz≅0.2-0.3

  10. 2fl-f2 DPOAE fine structure for 12 symphony orchestra musicians before and after rehearsal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2005-01-01

    The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is revealed, when measuring DPOAE with a very fine frequency resolution. It is characterized by consistent maxima and minima with notches of up to 20 dB depth. The fine structure is known also from absolute hearing thresholds...

  11. Radiology and fine art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  12. Large area spark counters with fine time and position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-10-01

    Spark counters trace their history back over three decades but have been used in only a limited number of experiments. The key properties of these devices include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. In this talk I will discuss some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector. 14 references

  13. Fine surface structure of unfixed and hydrated macrophages observed by laser-plasma x-ray contact microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Friedman, Herman; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Shioda, Seiji; Debari, Kazuhiro; Shinohara, Kunio; Rajyaguru, Jayshree; Richardson, Martin

    2000-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution, laser-plasma, x-ray contact microscope using a table-top Nd:glass laser system has been developed and utilized for the analysis of the surface structure of live macrophages. Fine fluffy surface structures of murine peritoneal macrophages, which were live, hydrolyzed and not sliced and stained, were observed by the x-ray microscope followed by analysis using an atomic force microscopy. In order to compare with other techniques, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the surface structure of the macrophages. The SEM offered a fine whole cell image of the same macrophages, which were fixed and dehydrated, but the surfaces were ruffled and different from that of x-ray images. A standard light microscope was also utilized to observe the shape of live whole macrophages. Light microscopy showed some fluffy surface structures of the macrophages, but the resolution was too low to observe the fine structures. Thus, the findings of fine fluffy surface structures of macrophages by x-ray microscopy provide valuable information for studies of phagocytosis, cell spreading and adherence, which are dependent on the surface structure of macrophages. Furthermore, the present study also demonstrates the usefulness of x-ray microscopy for analysis of structures of living cells

  14. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  15. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R and D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion

  16. Fine Arts Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Fine Arts Standards of Learning in this publication represent a major development in public education in Virginia, emphasizing the importance of instruction in the fine arts (dance arts, music, theatre arts, and visual arts) as an important part of Virginia's efforts to provide challenging educational programs in the public schools. Knowledge…

  17. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  18. Super-resolution microscopy in studying neuroendocrine cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneka eBost

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a tremendous development in high resolution microscopy techniques giving rise to acronyms such as TIRFM, SIM, PALM, STORM, and STED. The goal of all these techniques is to overcome the physical resolution barrier of light microscopy in order to resolve precise protein localization and possibly their interaction in cells. Neuroendocrine cell function is to secrete hormones and peptides on demand. This fine-tuned multi-step process is mediated by a large array of proteins. Here, we review the new microscopy techniques used to obtain high resolution and how they have been applied to increase our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in neuroendocrine cell secretion. Further the limitations of these methods are discussed and insights in possible new applications are provided.

  19. Process of briquetting fine shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, J

    1943-05-05

    A process is described for the preparation of briquetts of fine bituminous shale, so-called Mansfield copper shale, without addition of binding material, characterized in that the fine shale is warmed to about 100/sup 0/C and concurrently briquetted in a high-pressure rolling press or piece press under a pressure of 300 to 800 kg/cm/sup 2/.

  20. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  1. Spatial scales of pollution from variable resolution satellite imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Kostinski, Alex; Lyapustin, Alexei; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not adequate for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM 2.5 as measured by the EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated at varying spatial scales. Our analysis suggested that the correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreased significantly as AOD resolution was degraded. This is so despite the intrinsic mismatch between PM 2.5 ground level measurements and AOD vertically integrated measurements. Furthermore, the fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 km scale. Finally, this spatial variability of AOD within the urban domain was shown to depend on PM 2.5 levels and wind speed. - Highlights: ► The correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreases as AOD resolution is degraded. ► High resolution MAIAC AOD 1 km retrieval can be used to investigate within-city PM 2.5 variability. ► Low pollution days exhibit higher spatial variability of AOD and PM 2.5 then moderate pollution days. ► AOD spatial variability within urban area is higher during the lower wind speed conditions. - The correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreases as AOD resolution is degraded. The new high-resolution MAIAC AOD retrieval has the potential to capture PM 2.5 variability at the intra-urban scale.

  2. Measure theory and fine properties of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence Craig

    2015-01-01

    Measure Theory and Fine Properties of Functions, Revised Edition provides a detailed examination of the central assertions of measure theory in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The book emphasizes the roles of Hausdorff measure and capacity in characterizing the fine properties of sets and functions. Topics covered include a quick review of abstract measure theory, theorems and differentiation in ℝn, Hausdorff measures, area and coarea formulas for Lipschitz mappings and related change-of-variable formulas, and Sobolev functions as well as functions of bounded variation.The text provides complete proofs of many key results omitted from other books, including Besicovitch's covering theorem, Rademacher's theorem (on the differentiability a.e. of Lipschitz functions), area and coarea formulas, the precise structure of Sobolev and BV functions, the precise structure of sets of finite perimeter, and Aleksandrov's theorem (on the twice differentiability a.e. of convex functions).This revised edition includes countl...

  3. Scintillating optical fibers for fine-grained hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.R.; Strand, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fast detectors with fine spatial resolution will be needed to exploit high event rates at ISABELLE. Scintillating optical fibers for fine grained hodoscopes have been developed by the authors. A commercial manufacturer of optical fibers has drawn and clad PVT scintillator. Detection efficiencies greater than 99% have been achieved for a 1 mm fiber with a PMT over lengths up to 60 cm. Small diameter PMT's and avalanche photodiodes have been tested with the fibers. Further improvements are sought for the fiber and for the APD's sensitivity and coupling efficiency with the fiber

  4. A two-dimensional wide-angle proton spectrometer with improved angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Su; Deng, Yanqing; Ge, Xulei; Fang, Yuan; Wei, Wenqing; Gao, Jian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Liao, Guoqian; Li, Yutong; Zhao, Li; Ma, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    We present an improvement design of a two-dimensional (2D) angular-resolved proton spectrometer for wide-angle measurement of proton beams from high-intensity laser-solid interactions. By using a 2D selective entrance pinhole array with different periods in orthogonal axes, the angular resolution along one dimension is improved by a factor of 6.7. This improvement provides the accessibility to detect the spatial fine structures of the proton energy spectrum.

  5. A two-dimensional wide-angle proton spectrometer with improved angular resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Su [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Deng, Yanqing [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ge, Xulei [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fang, Yuan; Wei, Wenqing; Gao, Jian; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liao, Guoqian; Li, Yutong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhao, Li [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ma, Yanyun [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); and others

    2017-07-11

    We present an improvement design of a two-dimensional (2D) angular-resolved proton spectrometer for wide-angle measurement of proton beams from high-intensity laser-solid interactions. By using a 2D selective entrance pinhole array with different periods in orthogonal axes, the angular resolution along one dimension is improved by a factor of 6.7. This improvement provides the accessibility to detect the spatial fine structures of the proton energy spectrum.

  6. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  7. Fine 5 kolib Kumu lavale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kumu kunstimuuseumi auditooriumis toimub 21. veebruaril Fine 5 kaasaegse tantsu etendus "Panus". Esinevad Tiina Ollesk, Irina Pähn, žonglöör Dimitri Kruus, disainer Rain Saukas ja muusik Mattias Siitan

  8. Finely divided, irradiated tetrafluorethylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; Rodway, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Dry non-sticky fine lubricant powders are made by γ-irradiation of unsintered coagulated dispersion grade tetrafluoroethylene polymers. These powders may also be dispersed in an organic medium for lubricating purposes

  9. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  10. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  11. Fast generation of multiple resolution instances of raster data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arge, L.; Haverkort, H.J.; Tsirogiannis, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    In many GIS applications it is important to study the characteristics of a raster data set at multiple resolutions. Often this is done by generating several coarser resolution rasters from a fine resolution raster. In this paper we describe efficient algorithms for different variants of this

  12. Innovations in the flotation of fine and coarse particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D.; Filippov, L. O.

    2017-07-01

    Research on the mechanisms of particle-bubble interaction has provided valuable information on how to improve the flotation of fine (100 µm) with novel flotation machines which provide higher collision and attachment efficiencies of fine particles with bubbles and lower detachment of the coarse particles. Also, new grinding methods and technologies have reduced energy consumption in mining and produced better mineral liberation and therefore flotation performance.

  13. Fine uniform filament superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Li, Qi; Roberts, Peter R.; Antaya, Peter D.; Seuntjens, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Steven; DeMoranville, Kenneth L.; Christopherson, Craig J.; Garrant, Jennifer H.; Craven, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    A multifilamentary superconductor composite having a high fill factor is formed from a plurality of stacked monofilament precursor elements, each of which includes a low density superconductor precursor monofilament. The precursor elements all have substantially the same dimensions and characteristics, and are stacked in a rectilinear configuration and consolidated to provide a multifilamentary precursor composite. The composite is thereafter thermomechanically processed to provide a superconductor composite in which each monofilament is less than about 50 microns thick.

  14. Providing affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel; Johannesen, Hl

    2004-01-01

    , Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk. Research found that there was a lack of identity or sense of belonging and nothing anchoring people to the region as a whole. Common affinity is somehow forced to the people of East England and thereby we came to the conclusion that a single landmark...... and potential situations but also virtual events that calls for an undeterminated process of resolution. This process is activated by the user who co-produces the actualisation as an answer to a virtual reality that we defined at the first place. The potential situations or the possible it is a fantomatic real....... The possible is like the real. It is determinated and it only lakes existence. While the possible is already made, the virtual is like a problematic which needs to be resolved and actualized. Our installations are based on high tech interactivity where we use sensors and remote communication to offer a sense...

  15. Spatial scales of pollution from variable resolution satellite imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A; Kostinski, Alex; Lyapustin, Alexei; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not adequate for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM(2.5) as measured by the EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated at varying spatial scales. Our analysis suggested that the correlation between PM(2.5) and AOD decreased significantly as AOD resolution was degraded. This is so despite the intrinsic mismatch between PM(2.5) ground level measurements and AOD vertically integrated measurements. Furthermore, the fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 km scale. Finally, this spatial variability of AOD within the urban domain was shown to depend on PM(2.5) levels and wind speed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrotscher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s Reazione Nera led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as

  17. Shock fabrics in fine-grained micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, M. D.; Genge, M. J.; Russell, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The orientations of dehydration cracks and fracture networks in fine-grained, unmelted micrometeorites were analyzed using rose diagrams and entropy calculations. As cracks exploit pre-existing anisotropies, analysis of their orientation provides a mechanism with which to study the subtle petrofabrics preserved within fine-grained and amorphous materials. Both uniaxial and biaxial fabrics are discovered, often with a relatively wide spread in orientations (40°-60°). Brittle deformation cataclasis and rotated olivine grains are reported from a single micrometeorite. This paper provides the first evidence for impact-induced shock deformation in fine-grained micrometeorites. The presence of pervasive, low-grade shock features in CM chondrites and CM-like dust, anomalously low-density measurements for C-type asteroids, and impact experiments which suggest CM chondrites are highly prone to disruption all imply that CM parent bodies are unlikely to have remained intact and instead exist as a collection of loosely aggregated rubble-pile asteroids, composed of primitive shocked clasts.

  18. Optimal Design of Experiments by Combining Coarse and Fine Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A.; Brenner, Michael P.; Colwell, Lucy J.

    2017-11-01

    In many contexts, it is extremely costly to perform enough high-quality experimental measurements to accurately parametrize a predictive quantitative model. However, it is often much easier to carry out large numbers of experiments that indicate whether each sample is above or below a given threshold. Can many such categorical or "coarse" measurements be combined with a much smaller number of high-resolution or "fine" measurements to yield accurate models? Here, we demonstrate an intuitive strategy, inspired by statistical physics, wherein the coarse measurements are used to identify the salient features of the data, while the fine measurements determine the relative importance of these features. A linear model is inferred from the fine measurements, augmented by a quadratic term that captures the correlation structure of the coarse data. We illustrate our strategy by considering the problems of predicting the antimalarial potency and aqueous solubility of small organic molecules from their 2D molecular structure.

  19. Resolution propositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  20. Usage of Crushed Concrete Fines in Decorative Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Anton; Bazhenova, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    the crushed concrete fines were provided. It is shown that the admixture of the crushed concrete fines has little effect on the colour characteristics of the decorative concrete products. The preferred options to improve the surfaces of decorative concrete are also proposed.

  1. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  2. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    Because of a change in underground mining methods that caused a considerable increase in the amount of fine sizes in the raw coal, Sahara Coal Co. designed and constructed a unique and simple fine coal system at their Harrisburg, IL prep plant. Before the new system was built, the overload of the fine coal circuit created a cost crunch due to loss of salable coal to slurry ponds, slurry pond cleaning costs, and operating and maintenance costs--each and every one excessive. Motivated by these problems, Sahara designed a prototype system to dewater the minus 28 mesh refuse. The success of the idea permitted fine refuse to be loaded onto the coarse refuse belt. Sahara also realized a large reduction in pond cleaning costs. After a period of testing, an expanded version of the refuse system was installed to dewater and dry the 28 mesh X 0 clean coal. Clean coal output increased about 30 tph. Cost savings justified the expenditures for the refuse and clean coal systems. These benefits, combined with increased coal sales revenue, paid back the project costs in less than a year.

  3. The potential of space exploration for the fine arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1993-01-01

    Art provides an integrating function between the 'upper' and 'lower' centers of the human psyche. The nature of this function can be made more specific through the triune model of the brain. The evolution of the fine arts - painting, drawing, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, dance, and drama, plus cinema and mathematics-as-a-fine-art - are examined in the context of their probable stimulations by space exploration: near term and long term.

  4. Cooperation between humans and robots in fine assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Konold, P.; Rapp, I.; Mann, C.; Muminovic, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ever smaller components in manufacturing processes require handling, assembling and testing of miniature similar components. The human eye meets its optical limits with ongoing miniaturization of parts, due to the fact that it is not able to detect particles with a size smaller than 0.11 mm or register distances below 0.07 mm - like separating gaps. After several hours of labour, workers cannot accurately differentiate colour nuances as well as constant quality of work cannot be guaranteed. Assembly is usually done with tools, such as microscopes, magnifiers or digital measuring devices. Due to the enormous mental concentration, quickly a fatigue process sets in. This requires breaks or change of task and reduces productivity. Dealing with handling devices such as grippers, guide units and actuators for component assembling, requires a time consuming training process. Often productivity increase is first achieved after years of daily training. Miniaturizations are ubiquitously needed, for instance in the surgery. Very small add-on instruments must be provided. In measurement, e.g. it is a technological must and a competitive advantage, to determine required data with a small-as-possible, highest-possible-resolution sensor. Solution: The realization of a flexible universal workstation, using standard robotic systems and image processing devices in cooperation with humans, where workers are largely freed up from highly strenuous physical and fine motoric work, so that they can do productive work monitoring and adjusting the machine assisted production process.

  5. How fine is fine enough when doing CFD terrain simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2012-01-01

    The present work addresses the problemof establishing the necessary grid resolution to obtain a given level of numerical accuracy using a CFD model for prediction of flow over terrain. It is illustrated, that a very high resolution may be needed if the numerical difference between consecutive...

  6. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  7. Soft sensor for real-time cement fineness estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić, Darko; Jorgovanović, Nikola; Popov, Nikola; Čongradac, Velimir

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of soft sensors to estimate cement fineness. Soft sensors are mathematical models that use available data to provide real-time information on process variables when the information, for whatever reason, is not available by direct measurement. In this application, soft sensors are used to provide information on process variable normally provided by off-line laboratory tests performed at large time intervals. Cement fineness is one of the crucial parameters that define the quality of produced cement. Providing real-time information on cement fineness using soft sensors can overcome limitations and problems that originate from a lack of information between two laboratory tests. The model inputs were selected from candidate process variables using an information theoretic approach. Models based on multi-layer perceptrons were developed, and their ability to estimate cement fineness of laboratory samples was analyzed. Models that had the best performance, and capacity to adopt changes in the cement grinding circuit were selected to implement soft sensors. Soft sensors were tested using data from a continuous cement production to demonstrate their use in real-time fineness estimation. Their performance was highly satisfactory, and the sensors proved to be capable of providing valuable information on cement grinding circuit performance. After successful off-line tests, soft sensors were implemented and installed in the control room of a cement factory. Results on the site confirm results obtained by tests conducted during soft sensor development. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A 35 year high-resolution wave atlas for nearshore energy production and economics at the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lavidas, George; Venugopal, Vengatesan

    2017-01-01

    The study enhances the coastal resource knowledge and discusses opportunities for wave energy in theAegean Sea. A fine-resolution numerical wave model is utilised to provide results for the Greek coastalregions. The model ran for 35 years (1980e2014) estimating wave characteristics, and quantifying thewave energy potential in coastal areas. The results deliver the energy potential, variability, and sitecharacterisation for the Aegean Sea.The dataset is coupled with wave energy converters powe...

  9. Berry's Phase and Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    Irrational numbers can be assigned to physical entities based on iterative processes of geometric objects. It is likely that iterative round trips of vector signals include a geometric phase component. If so, this component will couple back to the round trip frequency or path length generating an non-linear feedback loop (i.e. induced by precession). In this paper such a quantum feedback mechanism is defined including generalized fine structure constants in accordance with the fundamental gravitomagnetic relation of spin-orbit coupling. Supported by measurements, the general relativistic and topological background allows to propose, that the deviation of the fine structure constant from 1/137 could be assigned to Berry's phase. The interpretation is straightforward: spacetime curvature effects can be greatly amplified by non-linear phase-locked feedback-loops adjusted to single-valued phase relationships in the quantum regime.

  10. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of the resolution volume for the SEQUOIA spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granroth G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations, of direct geometry spectrometers, have been particularly useful in instrument design and characterization. However, these tools can also be useful for experiment planning and analysis. To this end, the McStas Monte Carlo ray tracing model of SEQUOIA, the fine resolution fermi chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, has been modified to include the time of flight resolution sample and detector components. With these components, the resolution ellipsoid can be calculated for any detector pixel and energy bin of the instrument. The simulation is split in two pieces. First, the incident beamline up to the sample is simulated for 1 × 1011 neutron packets (4 days on 30 cores. This provides a virtual source for the backend that includes the resolution sample and monitor components. Next, a series of detector and energy pixels are computed in parallel. It takes on the order of 30 s to calculate a single resolution ellipsoid on a single core. Python scripts have been written to transform the ellipsoid into the space of an oriented single crystal, and to characterize the ellipsoid in various ways. Though this tool is under development as a planning tool, we have successfully used it to provide the resolution function for convolution with theoretical models. Specifically, theoretical calculations of the spin waves in YFeO3 were compared to measurements taken on SEQUOIA. Though the overall features of the spectra can be explained while neglecting resolution effects, the variation in intensity of the modes is well described once the resolution is included. As this was a single sharp mode, the simulated half intensity value of the resolution ellipsoid was used to provide the resolution width. A description of the simulation, its use, and paths forward for this technique will be discussed.

  12. Hyper-Resolution Groundwater Modeling using MODFLOW 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Langevin, C.

    2017-12-01

    MODFLOW 6 is the latest version of the U.S. Geological Survey's modular hydrologic model. MODFLOW 6 was developed to synthesize many of the recent versions of MODFLOW into a single program, improve the way different process models are coupled, and to provide an object-oriented framework for adding new types of models and packages. The object-oriented framework and underlying numerical solver make it possible to tightly couple any number of hyper-resolution models within coarser regional models. The hyper-resolution models can be used to evaluate local-scale groundwater issues that may be affected by regional-scale forcings. In MODFLOW 6, hyper-resolution meshes can be maintained as separate model datasets, similar to MODFLOW-LGR, which simplifies the development of a coarse regional model with imbedded hyper-resolution models from a coarse regional model. For example, the South Atlantic Coastal Plain regional water availability model was converted from a MODFLOW-2000 model to a MODFLOW 6 model. The horizontal discretization of the original model is approximately 3,218 m x 3,218 m. Hyper-resolution models of the Aiken and Sumter County water budget areas in South Carolina with a horizontal discretization of approximately 322 m x 322 m were developed and were tightly coupled to a modified version of the original coarse regional model that excluded these areas. Hydraulic property and aquifer geometry data from the coarse model were mapped to the hyper-resolution models. The discretization of the hyper-resolution models is fine enough to make detailed analyses of the effect that changes in groundwater withdrawals in the production aquifers have on the water table and surface-water/groundwater interactions. The approach used in this analysis could be applied to other regional water availability models that have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate local scale groundwater issues.

  13. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  14. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  15. Acoustic fine structure may encode biologically relevant information for zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Nora H; Smith, Edward; Lawson, Shelby; Ball, Gregory F; Dooling, Robert J

    2018-04-18

    The ability to discriminate changes in the fine structure of complex sounds is well developed in birds. However, the precise limit of this discrimination ability and how it is used in the context of natural communication remains unclear. Here we describe natural variability in acoustic fine structure of male and female zebra finch calls. Results from psychoacoustic experiments demonstrate that zebra finches are able to discriminate extremely small differences in fine structure, which are on the order of the variation in acoustic fine structure that is present in their vocal signals. Results from signal analysis methods also suggest that acoustic fine structure may carry information that distinguishes between biologically relevant categories including sex, call type and individual identity. Combined, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that zebra finches can encode biologically relevant information within the fine structure of their calls. This study provides a foundation for our understanding of how acoustic fine structure may be involved in animal communication.

  16. Development and performance evaluation of an experimental fine pitch detector multislice CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yasuhiro; Nukui, Masatake; Ishihara, Yotaro; Fujishige, Takashi; Ogata, Kentaro; Moritake, Masahiro; Kurochi, Haruo; Ogata, Tsuyoshi; Yahata, Mitsuru; Tang, Xiangyang

    2009-04-01

    The authors have developed an experimental fine pitch detector multislice CT scanner with an ultrasmall focal spot x-ray tube and a high-density matrix detector through current CT technology. The latitudinal size of the x-ray tube focal spot was 0.4 mm. The detector dimension was 1824 channels (azimuthal direction) x 32 rows (longitudinal direction) at row width of 0.3125 mm, in which a thinner reflected separator surrounds each detector cell coupled with a large active area photodiode. They were mounted on a commercial 64-slice CT scanner gantry while the scan field of view (50 cm) and gantry rotation speed (0.35 s) can be maintained. The experimental CT scanner demonstrated the spatial resolution of 0.21-0.22 mm (23.8-22.7 lp/cm) with the acrylic slit phantom and in-plane 50%-MTF 9.0 lp/cm and 10%-MTF 22.0 lp/cm. In the longitudinal direction, it demonstrated the spatial resolution of 0.24 mm with the high-resolution insert of the CATPHAN phantom and 0.34 mm as the full width at half maximum of the slice sensitivity profile. In low-contrast detectability, 3 mm at 0.3% was visualized at the CTDI(vol) of 47.2 mGy. Two types of 2.75 mm diameter vessel phantoms with in-stent stenosis at 25%, 50%, and 75% stair steps were scanned, and the reconstructed images can clearly resolve the stenosis at each case. The experimental CT scanner provides high-resolution imaging while maintaining low-contrast detectability, demonstrating the potentiality for clinical applications demanding high spatial resolution, such as imaging of inner ear, lung, and bone, or low-contrast detectability, such as imaging of coronary artery.

  17. Considering Fine Art and Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a close association between picturebook illustrations and works of fine art since the picturebook was first conceived, and many ways these associations among works of fine art and picturebook illustrations and design play out. To make sense of all the various ways picturebook illustrations are associated with works of fine art,…

  18. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a reasonable...

  19. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  20. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  1. Fine-grained hodoscopes based on scintillating optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.R.; Strand, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    In order to exploit the high event rates at ISABELLE, it will be necessary to have fast detection with fine spatial resolution. The authors are currently constructing a prototype fine-grained hodoscope, the elements of which are scintillating optical fibers. The fibers have been drawn from commercially available plastic scintillator which has been clad with a thin layer of silicone. So far it has been demonstrated with one mm diameter fibers, that with a photodetector at each end, the fibers are more than 99% efficient for lengths of about 60 cm. The readout will be accomplished either with small diameter photomultiplier tubes or avalanche photodiodes used either in the linear or Geiger mode. The program of fiber development and evaluation is described. The status of the APD as a readout element is discussed, and an optical encoding readout scheme is described for events of low multiplicity

  2. Estimated UV clutter levels at 10-100 meter sensor pixel resolution extrapolated from recent Polar Bear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, M.; Huguenin, R.; Weinberg, M.; Huffman, R.; Eastes, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and the results obtained at 1304 A wavelength from an analysis of the AFGL Polar Bear experiment. The basic measurement equipment provided data of a spatial resolution of 20 km over a large portion of the earth. The instrumentation also provided sampled outputs as the footprint scanned along the measurement track. The combination of the fine scanning and large area coverage provided opportunity for a spatial power spectral analysis that in turn provided a means for extrapolation to finer spatial scale

  3. Novel silica stabilization method for the analysis of fine nanocrystals using coherent X-ray diffraction imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteforte, Marianne; Estandarte, Ana K.; Chen, Bo; Harder, Ross; Huang, Michael H.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-06-23

    High-energy X-ray Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) is a well established synchrotron-based technique used to quantitatively reconstruct the three-dimensional morphology and strain distribution in nanocrystals. The BCDI technique has become a powerful analytical tool for quantitative investigations of nanocrystals, nanotubes, nanorods and more recently biological systems. BCDI has however typically failed for fine nanocrystals in sub-100?nm size regimes ? a size routinely achievable by chemical synthesis ? despite the spatial resolution of the BCDI technique being 20?30?nm. The limitations of this technique arise from the movement of nanocrystals under illumination by the highly coherent beam, which prevents full diffraction data sets from being acquired. A solution is provided here to overcome this problem and extend the size limit of the BCDI technique, through the design of a novel stabilization method by embedding the fine nanocrystals into a silica matrix. Chemically synthesized FePt nanocrystals of maximum dimension 20?nm and AuPd nanocrystals in the size range 60?65?nm were investigated with BCDI measurement at beamline 34-ID-C of the APS, Argonne National Laboratory. Novel experimental methodologies to elucidate the presence of strain in fine nanocrystals are a necessary pre-requisite in order to better understand strain profiles in engineered nanocrystals for novel device development.

  4. QUIESCENT PROMINENCES IN THE ERA OF ALMA: SIMULATED OBSERVATIONS USING THE 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Anzer, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85740 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-12-20

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence–corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  5. Discovery and fine mapping of serum protein loci through transethnic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J A; Prins, Bram P; Feitosa, Mary F; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H; Folsom, Aaron R; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Ido P; Lopez, Lorna M; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V; Winkler, Cheryl A; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y D; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Lackner, Karl J; Launer, Lenore; Loehr, Laura R; Li, Guo; Meisinger, Christa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schwienbacher, Christine; Starr, John M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Torlak, Vesela; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wild, Philipp S; Kirin, Mirna; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zhang, Qunyuan; Ziegler, Andreas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B; Campbell, Harry; Deary, Ian J; Frayling, Timothy M; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hicks, Andrew A; Koenig, Wolfgang; O' Donnell, Christopher J; Fox, Caroline S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Alan F; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yongmei; Jenny, Nancy S; North, Kari E; Felix, Janine F; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Cupples, L Adrienne; Perry, John R B; Morris, Andrew P

    2012-10-05

    Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through transethnic meta-analysis of European-ancestry and Japanese genome-wide association studies, we identified six loci at genome-wide significance (p Japanese individuals) and three loci for total protein (TNFRS13B, 6q21.3, and ELL2, in up to 25,539 European-ancestry and 10,168 Japanese individuals). We observed little evidence of heterogeneity in allelic effects at these loci between groups of European and Japanese ancestry but obtained substantial improvements in the resolution of fine mapping of potential causal variants by leveraging transethnic differences in the distribution of linkage disequilibrium. We demonstrated a functional role for the most strongly associated serum albumin locus, HPN, for which Hpn knockout mice manifest low plasma albumin concentrations. Other loci associated with serum albumin harbor genes related to ribosome function, protein translation, and proteasomal degradation, whereas those associated with serum total protein include genes related to immune function. Our results highlight the advantages of transethnic meta-analysis for the discovery and fine mapping of complex trait loci and have provided initial insights into the underlying genetic architecture of serum protein concentrations and their association with human disease. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memišević Haris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (ID, we examined these skills in children with Down syndrome. The sample for this study comprised 90 children with ID, aged 7-15, who were divided in three etiological groups: 1. Down syndrome, 2. Organic/other genetic cause of ID and 3. Unknown etiology of ID. Fine motor skills were assessed by the Purdue Pegboard Test. The results of this study indicate that children with Down syndrome did not differ statistically significantly from the other two etiological groups. On the other hand, children with unknown etiology of ID performed statistically better than children with organic/other genetic cause of ID. An additional goal was to examine fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome in relation to the child's sex. There were no statistically significant differences in fine motor skills between girls and boys with Down syndrome. It is important to provide children with Down syndrome, and all other children with ID, with early (rehabilitation programs for the improvement of their fine motor skills. Special educators and rehabilitators should play a crucial role in the assessment and in creating programs for the development of these skills.

  7. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) are sounds produced by the healthy inner ear. They can be measured as low-level signals in the ear canal and are used to monitor the functioning of outer hair cells.Several studies indicate that OAE might be a more sensitive measure to detect early noise-induced hearing...... losses than puretone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stimulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  8. Envisioning the Future: Working toward Sustainability in Fine Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela; Hulbert, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Fine art education provides students with opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills to respond creatively to their experience of society and culture. Fostering creative ways of knowing, thinking and doing requires studio learning conditions that promote the exploration of embodied perceptions, material sensibilities and conceptual ideas that…

  9. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  10. Function spaces with uniform, fine and graph topologies

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Robert A; Jindal, Varun

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive account of the theory of spaces of continuous functions under uniform, fine and graph topologies. Besides giving full details of known results, an attempt is made to give generalizations wherever possible, enriching the existing literature. The goal of this monograph is to provide an extensive study of the uniform, fine and graph topologies on the space C(X,Y) of all continuous functions from a Tychonoff space X to a metric space (Y,d); and the uniform and fine topologies on the space H(X) of all self-homeomorphisms on a metric space (X,d). The subject matter of this monograph is significant from the theoretical viewpoint, but also has applications in areas such as analysis, approximation theory and differential topology. Written in an accessible style, this book will be of interest to researchers as well as graduate students in this vibrant research area.

  11. Fine Tuning Mission to reach those influenced by Darwinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientifically aware section of the South African population is increasing. Many are being exposed to the concept of Darwinian evolution. Exposure has generated a religious sub �people group� who have problems with Christianity because they have been influenced by the naturalistic element in Darwinian philosophy. Christian antagonism towards evolution has often prejudiced them unfavourably towards the gospel. Recent discoveries concerning the fine-tuning of the universe have now presented a window of opportunity for overcoming this. It may enable the church to �fine-tune� its missionary approach to present them with the gospel in a more acceptable manner. It is suggested that Paul�s Areopagus speech provides a model for such cross-cultural evangelism. A section is included at the end, describing some objections that have been raised against the cosmological fine-tuning apologetic.

  12. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory.

  13. A coarse to fine minutiae-based latent palmprint matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eryun; Jain, Anil K; Tian, Jie

    2013-10-01

    With the availability of live-scan palmprint technology, high resolution palmprint recognition has started to receive significant attention in forensics and law enforcement. In forensic applications, latent palmprints provide critical evidence as it is estimated that about 30 percent of the latents recovered at crime scenes are those of palms. Most of the available high-resolution palmprint matching algorithms essentially follow the minutiae-based fingerprint matching strategy. Considering the large number of minutiae (about 1,000 minutiae in a full palmprint compared to about 100 minutiae in a rolled fingerprint) and large area of foreground region in full palmprints, novel strategies need to be developed for efficient and robust latent palmprint matching. In this paper, a coarse to fine matching strategy based on minutiae clustering and minutiae match propagation is designed specifically for palmprint matching. To deal with the large number of minutiae, a local feature-based minutiae clustering algorithm is designed to cluster minutiae into several groups such that minutiae belonging to the same group have similar local characteristics. The coarse matching is then performed within each cluster to establish initial minutiae correspondences between two palmprints. Starting with each initial correspondence, a minutiae match propagation algorithm searches for mated minutiae in the full palmprint. The proposed palmprint matching algorithm has been evaluated on a latent-to-full palmprint database consisting of 446 latents and 12,489 background full prints. The matching results show a rank-1 identification accuracy of 79.4 percent, which is significantly higher than the 60.8 percent identification accuracy of a state-of-the-art latent palmprint matching algorithm on the same latent database. The average computation time of our algorithm for a single latent-to-full match is about 141 ms for genuine match and 50 ms for impostor match, on a Windows XP desktop system with 2

  14. Remelting of metallurgical fines using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L.C.; Neto F, J.B.F.; Bender, O.W.; Collares, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma furnace was developed for remelting of ferro alloys and silicon fines. The furnace capacity was about 4 Kg of silicon and power about 50 kW. The fine (20 to 100 mesh) was fed into the furnace directly at the high temperature zone. This system was tested for remelting silicon fines and the results in the recovery of silicon was about 95% and it took place a refine of aluminium and calcium. (author)

  15. A study of human DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    height and ripple prevalence. Temporary changes of the DPOAE fine structure are analyzed by measuring DPOAE both before and after exposing some of the subjects to an intense sound. The characteristic patterns of fine structure can be found in the DPOAE of all subjects, though they are individual and vary...... fine structures are obtained from 74 normalhearing humans using primary levels of L1/L2=65/45 dB. The subjects belong to groups with different age and exposure history. A classification algorithm is developed, which quantifies the fine structure by the parameters ripple place, ripple width, ripple...

  16. On Basu's proposal: Fines affect bribes

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    I model the connection between the equilibrium bribe amount and the fines imposed on both bribe-taker and bribe-payer. I show that Basu's (2011) proposal to lower the fines imposed on bribe-payers in order to induce more whistleblowing and increase the probability of penalizing corrupt government officials might instead increase bribe amounts. Higher expected fines on bribe-takers will make them charge larger bribes; at the same time, lowering fines for bribe-paying might increase bribe-payer...

  17. Experimental determination of the relativistic fine structure splitting in a pionic atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.-C.; Boehm, F.; Hahn, A.A.; Henrikson, H.E.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Kunselman, R.

    1978-01-01

    Using a high-resolution crystal spectrometer, the authors have measured the energy splitting of the pionic 5g-4f and 5f-4d transitions in Ti. The observed fine structure splitting agrees, within the experimental error of 3%, with the splitting arising from the calculated relativistic term and other small corrections for spinless particles. (Auth.)

  18. A Modeling Framework for Improved Characterization of Near-Road Exposure at Fine Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traffic-related air pollutants could cause adverse health impact to communities near roadways. To estimate the population risk and locate "hotspots" in the near-road environment, quantifying the exposure at a fine spatial resolution is essential. A new state-of-the-art ...

  19. Fine scale heterogeneity in the Earth's upper mantle - observation and interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    can be correlated to main plate tectonic features, such as oceanic spreading centres, continental rift zones and subducting slabs. Much seismological mantle research is now concentrated on imaging fine scale heterogeneity, which may be detected and imaged with high-resolution seismic data with dense...

  20. Comparing three spaceborne optical sensors via fine scale pixel-based urban land cover classification products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breytenbach, Andre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to higher resolution earth observation satellites suggests an improvement in the potential for fine scale image classification. In this comparative study, imagery from three optical satellites (WorldView-2, Pléiades and RapidEye) were...

  1. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were

  2. Tuneable resolution as a systems biology approach for multi-scale, multi-compartment computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Denise E; Hunt, C Anthony; Marino, Simeone; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Linderman, Jennifer J

    2014-01-01

    The use of multi-scale mathematical and computational models to study complex biological processes is becoming increasingly productive. Multi-scale models span a range of spatial and/or temporal scales and can encompass multi-compartment (e.g., multi-organ) models. Modeling advances are enabling virtual experiments to explore and answer questions that are problematic to address in the wet-lab. Wet-lab experimental technologies now allow scientists to observe, measure, record, and analyze experiments focusing on different system aspects at a variety of biological scales. We need the technical ability to mirror that same flexibility in virtual experiments using multi-scale models. Here we present a new approach, tuneable resolution, which can begin providing that flexibility. Tuneable resolution involves fine- or coarse-graining existing multi-scale models at the user's discretion, allowing adjustment of the level of resolution specific to a question, an experiment, or a scale of interest. Tuneable resolution expands options for revising and validating mechanistic multi-scale models, can extend the longevity of multi-scale models, and may increase computational efficiency. The tuneable resolution approach can be applied to many model types, including differential equation, agent-based, and hybrid models. We demonstrate our tuneable resolution ideas with examples relevant to infectious disease modeling, illustrating key principles at work. © 2014 The Authors. WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Radiological and microanalytical studies of fine Melnik wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, Dimiter; Geleva, Elena; Damianova, Anna; Grigorov, Todor; Goutev, Nikolai; Protohristov, Hristo; Stoyanov, Chavdar; Bashev, Vladimir; Popov, Evgeni; Tringovska, Ivanka; Kostova, Dimitrina

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear methods and chemical fingerprinting can help in the process of determination of the year of production (vintage) and the geographical provenance or designation of origin of high quality wines. For the first time we report results obtained for fine Bulgarian wines from Melnik region, as well as, vineyard soil, vine stems and grape leaves. The gamma-ray activity of the radioisotope 137 Cs has been measured also for the first time in wines from different vintages using low background, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The specific concentrations of 16 elements have been measured in samples from soil, vine stems, grape leaves and fine wines from the type Shiroka Melnishka, which are grown in typical Melnik vineyard by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The obtained radiological and chemical correlations can be used as initial data base in order to determinate the wine vintage back to 1986 and, eventually, as tool to establish the designation of origin of the Melnik fine wine and the quality of the wine

  4. Impact of WOWW's Fine Arts Enriched Education Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Laurie A.; Tiegs, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Learning through the fine arts possesses many benefits, yet efforts to address the arts within public schools, particularly rural schools, are insufficient. In an effort to support rural public schools in Texas, Window On a Wider World (WOWW) began providing fine arts enriched education programming in 2006 to area partner schools that serve…

  5. METHODS OF RECEIVING OF FINE-GRAINED STRUCTURE OF CASTINGS AT CRYSTALLIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tolochko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for fine-grained structure of ingots during crystallization depending on the used foundry technologies. It is shown that by using modern scientific and technological advances may improve the traditional and the development of new casting processes, providing production of cast parts with over fine-grained structure and enhanced properties.

  6. Distributed Modeling with Parflow using High Resolution LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Urban landscapes provide a challenging domain for the application of distributed surface-subsurface hydrologic models. Engineered water infrastructure and altered topography influence surface and subsurface flow paths, yet these effects are difficult to quantify. In this work, a parallel, distributed watershed model (ParFlow) is used to simulate urban watersheds using spatial data at the meter and sub-meter scale. An approach using GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is presented that incorporates these data to construct inputs for the ParFlow simulation. LIDAR topography provides the basis for the fully coupled overland flow simulation. Methods to address real discontinuities in the urban land-surface for use with the grid-based kinematic wave approximation used in ParFlow are presented. The spatial distribution of impervious surface is delineated accurately from high-resolution land cover data; hydrogeological properties are specified from literature values. An application is presented for part of the Dead Run subwatershed of the Gwynns Falls in Baltimore County, MD. The domain is approximately 3 square kilometers, and includes a highly impacted urban stream, a major freeway, and heterogeneous urban development represented at a 10-m horizontal resolution and 1-m vertical resolution. This resolution captures urban features such as building footprints and highways at an appropriate scale. The Dead Run domain provides an effective test case for ParFlow application at the fine scale in an urban environment. Preliminary model runs employ a homogeneous subsurface domain with no-flow boundaries. Initial results reflect the highly articulated topography of the road network and the combined influence of surface runoff from impervious surfaces and subsurface flux toward the channel network. Subsequent model runs will include comparisons of the coupled surface-subsurface response of alternative versions of the Dead Run domain with and without impervious

  7. Hand/Eye Coordination For Fine Robotic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Anatole M.

    1992-01-01

    Fine motions of robotic manipulator controlled with help of visual feedback by new method reducing position errors by order of magnitude. Robotic vision subsystem includes five cameras: three stationary ones providing wide-angle views of workspace and two mounted on wrist of auxiliary robot arm. Stereoscopic cameras on arm give close-up views of object and end effector. Cameras measure errors between commanded and actual positions and/or provide data for mapping between visual and manipulator-joint-angle coordinates.

  8. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Min Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  9. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2017-10-10

    Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  10. Fine Structure of Plasmaspheric Hiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Omura, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss plays a key role in controlling the structure and dynamics of Earth's radiation belts.The quiet time slot region between the inner and outer belts can be explained as a steady-state balance between earthward radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering loss of energetic electrons to the atmosphere induced by plasmaspheric hiss. Plasmaspheric hiss can also induce gradual precipitation loss of MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt. Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband,structureless,incoherent emission. Here, by examining burst-mode vector waveform data from the EMFISIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission,we show that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Specifically, plasmaspheric hiss appears as discrete rising tone and falling tone elements. By means of waveform analysis we identify typical amplitudes,phase profiles,and sweep rates of the rising and falling tone elements. The new observations reported here can be expected to fuel a re-examination of the properties of plasmaspheric hiss, including a further re-analysis of the generation mechanism for hiss.

  11. Fine structure of cluster decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, O.

    1993-07-01

    Within the one level R-matrix approach the hindrance factors of the radioactive decays in which are emitted α and 14 C - nuclei are calculated. The generalization to radioactive decays in which are emitted heavier clusters such as e.g. 20 O, 24 Ne, 25 Ne, 28 Mg. 30 Mg, 32 Si and 34 Si is straightforward. The interior wave functions are supposed to be given by the shell model with effective residual interactions (e.g. the large scale shell model code-OXBASH - in the Michigan State University version for nearly spherical nuclei or by the enlarged superfluid model - ESM - recently proposed for deformed nuclei). The exterior wave functions are calculated from a cluster - nucleus double - folding model potential obtained with the M3Y interaction. As examples of the cluster decay fine structure we analyzed the particular cases of α - decay of 241 Am and 14 C -decay of 233 Ra. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained. (author). 78 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Resolution analysis of archive films for the purpose of their optimal digitization and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek

    2017-09-01

    With recent high demand for ultra-high-definition (UHD) content to be screened in high-end digital movie theaters but also in the home environment, film archives full of movies in high-definition and above are in the scope of UHD content providers. Movies captured with the traditional film technology represent a virtually unlimited source of UHD content. The goal to maintain complete image information is also related to the choice of scanning resolution and spatial resolution for further distribution. It might seem that scanning the film material in the highest possible resolution using state-of-the-art film scanners and also its distribution in this resolution is the right choice. The information content of the digitized images is however limited, and various degradations moreover lead to its further reduction. Digital distribution of the content in the highest image resolution might be therefore unnecessary or uneconomical. In other cases, the highest possible resolution is inevitable if we want to preserve fine scene details or film grain structure for archiving purposes. This paper deals with the image detail content analysis of archive film records. The resolution limit in captured scene image and factors which lower the final resolution are discussed. Methods are proposed to determine the spatial details of the film picture based on the analysis of its digitized image data. These procedures allow determining recommendations for optimal distribution of digitized video content intended for various display devices with lower resolutions. Obtained results are illustrated on spatial downsampling use case scenario, and performance evaluation of the proposed techniques is presented.

  13. Autonomous patterning of cells on microstructured fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Iwori; Kawanabe, Masato; Kaneko, Arata

    2015-01-01

    Regularly patterned cells can clarify cellular function and are required in some biochip applications. This study examines cell patterning along microstructures and the effect of microstructural geometry on selective cellular adhesion. Particles can be autonomously assembled on a soda-lime glass substrate that is chemically patterned by immersion in a suspension of fine particles. By adopting various sizes of fine particles, we can control the geometry of the microstructure. Cells adhere more readily to microstructured fine particles than to flat glass substrate. Silica particles hexagonally packed in 5–40 μm line and space microstructures provide an effective cell scaffold on the glass substrate. Cultured cells tend to attach and proliferate along the microstructured region while avoiding the flat region. The difference in cell adhesion is attributed to their geometries, as both of the silica particles and soda-lime glass are hydrophilic related with cell adhesiveness. After cell seeding, cells adhered to the flat region migrated toward the microstructured region. For most of the cells to assemble on the scaffold, the scaffolding microstructures must be spaced by at most 65 μm. - Highlights: • PS and SiO 2 particles provide effective scaffolds for cells. • Cells that adhere to microstructured particles successfully proliferate and differentiate. • Selective adhesion and growth along the scaffold can be achieved by patterning the fine particle microstructure. • Cells adhered to flat regions migrate toward microstructured regions. • Selective adhesion by cells depends on the microstructural geometry; specifically, on the inter-line spacing

  14. Flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang; Wang, Chong-qing

    2018-01-01

    The flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils were investigated through microflotation test, turbidity measurements, infrared spectroscopy, and interfacial interaction calculations. The results of the flotation test show that at pH 2-11, the floatability of molybdenite fines in the presence of transformer oil is markedly better than that in the presence of kerosene and diesel oil. The addition of transformer oil, which enhances the floatability of molybdenite fines, promotes the aggregation of molybdenite particles. Fourier transform infrared measurements illustrate that physical interaction dominates the adsorption mechanism of neutral oil on molybdenite. Interfacial interaction calculations indicate that hydrophobic attraction is the crucial force that acts among the oil collector, water, and molybdenite. Strong hydrophobic attraction between the oily collector and water provides the strong dispersion capability of the collector in water. Furthermore, the dispersion capability of the collector, not the interaction strength between the oily collectors and molybdenite, has a highly significant role in the flotation system of molybdenite fines. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of molybdenite flotation.

  15. Get out of Fines Free: Recruiting Student Usability Testers via Fine Waivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Benjamin; Blackburn, Kourtney

    2016-01-01

    St. John Fisher College's Lavery Library's Access Services and Systems departments began a pilot project in which students with overdue fines tested usability of library Web sites in exchange for fine waivers. Circulation staff promoted the program and redeemed fine waiver vouchers at the Checkout Desk, while Systems staff administered testing and…

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Hanna, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM 2.5 patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM 2.5 concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM 2.5 variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. - Highlights: →Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) hot spots are hard to identify in urban areas. → Literature conclusions about PM 2.5 hot spots depend on study design and methods. → Hot spots are more likely for short-term concentrations at high spatial density. → Statistical methods illustrate local source impacts beyond regional transport. → Dispersion models and high-resolution monitors are both needed to find hot spots. - Fine particulate matter can vary spatially within large urban areas, in spite of the significant contribution from regional atmospheric transport.

  17. A global Fine-Root Ecology Database to address below-ground challenges in plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Colleen M; McCormack, M Luke; Powell, A Shafer; Blackwood, Christopher B; Freschet, Grégoire T; Kattge, Jens; Roumet, Catherine; Stover, Daniel B; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; van Bodegom, Peter M; Violle, Cyrille

    2017-07-01

    Variation and tradeoffs within and among plant traits are increasingly being harnessed by empiricists and modelers to understand and predict ecosystem processes under changing environmental conditions. While fine roots play an important role in ecosystem functioning, fine-root traits are underrepresented in global trait databases. This has hindered efforts to analyze fine-root trait variation and link it with plant function and environmental conditions at a global scale. This Viewpoint addresses the need for a centralized fine-root trait database, and introduces the Fine-Root Ecology Database (FRED, http://roots.ornl.gov) which so far includes > 70 000 observations encompassing a broad range of root traits and also includes associated environmental data. FRED represents a critical step toward improving our understanding of below-ground plant ecology. For example, FRED facilitates the quantification of variation in fine-root traits across root orders, species, biomes, and environmental gradients while also providing a platform for assessments of covariation among root, leaf, and wood traits, the role of fine roots in ecosystem functioning, and the representation of fine roots in terrestrial biosphere models. Continued input of observations into FRED to fill gaps in trait coverage will improve our understanding of changes in fine-root traits across space and time. © 2017 UT-Battelle LLC. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Rice

    Full Text Available Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details

  19. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  20. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Holon

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m. It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures

  1. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  2. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  3. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp

    2017-03-11

    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  4. Coupling Solute and Fine Particle Transport with Sand Bed Morphodynamics within a Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Ortiz, C. P.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Packman, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Fine suspended particles are typically considered to pass through streams and rivers as wash load without interacting with the bed, however experiments have demonstrated that hyporheic flow causes advective exchange of fine particles with the stream bed, yielding accumulation of fine particle deposits within the bed. Ultimately, understanding river morphodynamics and ecosystem dynamics requires coupling both fine particle and solute transport with bed morphodynamics. To better understand the coupling between these processes we analyze a novel dataset from a controlled field experiment conducted on Clear Run, a 2nd order sand bed stream located within the North Carolina coastal plain. Data include concentrations of continuously injected conservative solutes and fine particulate tracers measured at various depths within the stream bed, overhead time lapse images of bed forms, stream discharge, and geomorphological surveys of the stream. We use image analysis of bed morphodynamics to assess exchange, retention, and remobilization of solutes and fine particles during constant discharge and a short duration experimental flood. From the images, we extract a time series of bedform elevations and scour depths for the duration of the experiment. The high-resolution timeseries of bed elevation enables us to assess coupling of bed morphodynamics with both the solute and fine particle flux during steady state mobile bedforms prior to the flood and to changing bedforms during the flood. These data allow the application of a stochastic modeling framework relating bed elevation fluctuations to fine particle residence times. This combined experimental and modeling approach ultimately informs our ability to predict not only the fate of fine particulate matter but also associated nutrient and carbon dynamics within streams and rivers.

  5. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  6. NARSTO fine-particle and ozone assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, Jeremy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NARSTO ozone and fine-particle assessments compile and present policy-relevant scientific information. - NARSTO, a tri-national North American consortium for applied tropospheric pollution research, conducts periodic assessments of air-pollution behavior to provide an information interface between the research community and individuals working in policy analysis and air-quality management. The first of these, entitled An Assessment of Tropospheric Ozone Pollution-A North American Perspective, appeared in late 2000 and has been circulated widely throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and South America. The second (currently) entitled NARSTO Assessment of the Atmospheric Science on Particulate Matter, is presently in its third-draft phase and is available for general review. A fourth draft, incorporating comments from the current review stage, will be submitted in January 2002 to a tri-national review committee composed of the Canadian Royal Society, the US National Academy of Sciences, and the Mexican Red de Desarrollo e Investigacion de la Calidad del Aire en Grandes Ciudades. Finalization of the document will follow this review, which will conclude in July 2000. Publication is expected in December 2002. These two assessments contain substantial amounts of policy-relevant information, which is of interest to the research community as well as those working in policy analysis and air-quality management. This presentation provides a brief overview of features and findings of the two documents

  7. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  8. Geo-Parcel Based Crop Identification by Integrating High Spatial-Temporal Resolution Imagery from Multi-Source Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingpin Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geo-parcel based crop identification plays an important role in precision agriculture. It meets the needs of refined farmland management. This study presents an improved identification procedure for geo-parcel based crop identification by combining fine-resolution images and multi-source medium-resolution images. GF-2 images with fine spatial resolution of 0.8 m provided agricultural farming plot boundaries, and GF-1 (16 m and Landsat 8 OLI data were used to transform the geo-parcel based enhanced vegetation index (EVI time-series. In this study, we propose a piecewise EVI time-series smoothing method to fit irregular time profiles, especially for crop rotation situations. Global EVI time-series were divided into several temporal segments, from which phenological metrics could be derived. This method was applied to Lixian, where crop rotation was the common practice of growing different types of crops, in the same plot, in sequenced seasons. After collection of phenological features and multi-temporal spectral information, Random Forest (RF was performed to classify crop types, and the overall accuracy was 93.27%. Moreover, an analysis of feature significance showed that phenological features were of greater importance for distinguishing agricultural land cover compared to temporal spectral information. The identification results indicated that the integration of high spatial-temporal resolution imagery is promising for geo-parcel based crop identification and that the newly proposed smoothing method is effective.

  9. A Nonlinear Transmission Line Model of the Cochlea With Temporal Integration Accounts for Duration Effects in Threshold Fine Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko L.; Mauermann, Manfred; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    For normal-hearing listeners, auditory pure-tone thresholds in quiet often show quasi periodic fluctuations when measured with a high frequency resolution, referred to as threshold fine structure. Threshold fine structure is dependent on the stimulus duration, with smaller fluctuations for short...... than for long signals. The present study demonstrates how this effect can be captured by a nonlinear and active model of the cochlear in combination with a temporal integration stage. Since this cochlear model also accounts for fine structure and connected level dependent effects, it is superior...

  10. Estimating uncertainty in resolution tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available frequencies yields a biased estimate, and we provide an improved estimator. An application illustrates how the results derived can be incorporated into a larger un- certainty analysis. ? 2006 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. H20851DOI: 10....1117/1.2202914H20852 Subject terms: resolution testing; USAF 1951 test target; resolution uncertainity. Paper 050404R received May 20, 2005; revised manuscript received Sep. 2, 2005; accepted for publication Sep. 9, 2005; published online May 10, 2006. 1...

  11. The influence of model resolution on ozone in industrial volatile organic compound plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Barron H; Jeffries, Harvey E; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Vizuete, William G

    2010-09-01

    Regions with concentrated petrochemical industrial activity (e.g., Houston or Baton Rouge) frequently experience large, localized releases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aircraft measurements suggest these released VOCs create plumes with ozone (O3) production rates 2-5 times higher than typical urban conditions. Modeling studies found that simulating high O3 productions requires superfine (1-km) horizontal grid cell size. Compared with fine modeling (4-kmin), the superfine resolution increases the peak O3 concentration by as much as 46%. To understand this drastic O3 change, this study quantifies model processes for O3 and "odd oxygen" (Ox) in both resolutions. For the entire plume, the superfine resolution increases the maximum O3 concentration 3% but only decreases the maximum Ox concentration 0.2%. The two grid sizes produce approximately equal Ox mass but by different reaction pathways. Derived sensitivity to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and VOC emissions suggests resolution-specific sensitivity to NOx and VOC emissions. Different sensitivity to emissions will result in different O3 responses to subsequently encountered emissions (within the city or downwind). Sensitivity of O3 to emission changes also results in different simulated O3 responses to the same control strategies. Sensitivity of O3 to NOx and VOC emission changes is attributed to finer resolved Eulerian grid and finer resolved NOx emissions. Urban NOx concentration gradients are often caused by roadway mobile sources that would not typically be addressed with Plume-in-Grid models. This study shows that grid cell size (an artifact of modeling) influences simulated control strategies and could bias regulatory decisions. Understanding the dynamics of VOC plume dependence on grid size is the first step toward providing more detailed guidance for resolution. These results underscore VOC and NOx resolution interdependencies best addressed by finer resolution. On the basis of these results, the

  12. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute. Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair. Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States. Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  13. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  14. FINE PORE DIFFUSER SYSTEM EVALUATION FOR THE GREEN BAY METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District retrofitted two quadrants of their activated sludge aeration system with ceramic and membrane fine pore diffusers to provide savings in energy usage compared to the sparged turbine aerators originally installed. Because significant di...

  15. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation camera for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area is described in which means is provided for second order positional resolution. The phototubes, which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  16. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  17. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  18. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  19. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report

  20. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervicofacial actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kusuma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as a fixed jaw swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration, along with a review of the relevant literature. A 60 year-old man presented with a gradually increasing 6 x 5 cm swelling in the left side of his jaw. The swelling was fixed, without any apparent sinus or abscess. Fine needle aspiration was diagnostic as it revealed colonies of actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs and chronic inflammatory cells. The histopathological study of the excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. Fine needle aspiration is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis although its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the fine needle aspiration technique.

  1. The Execution of Criminal Fine Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Peneoașu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at dissecting the criminal provisions on criminal enforcement of fines in current Romanian criminal law with the goal of highlighting the new penal policy stated in the larger field of criminal penalties. In the new Criminal Code the fine penalty experience a new regulation, but also a wider scope compared to the Criminal Code from 1968, with an exponential growth of the number of offenses or variations of them, for which a fine may be imposed as a unique punishment, but, especially, as an alternative punishment to imprisonment. Consequently, to ensure the efficiency of this punishment, the effective enforcement manner of the fine takes a new dimension. The study aims both students and academics or practitioners in the making. Furthermore, throughout the approach of this scientific research, new matters that new criminal legislation brings, are emphasized regarding this institution, both in a positive, and especially under a critical manner.

  2. The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life has received a great deal of attention in recent years, both in the philosophical and scientific literature. The claim is that in the space of possible physical laws, parameters and initial conditions, the set that permits the evolution of intelligent life is very small. I present here a review of the scientific literature, outlining cases of fine-tuning in the classic works of Carter, Carr and Rees, and Barrow and Tipler, as well as more recent work. To sharpen the discussion, the role of the antagonist will be played by Victor Stenger's recent book The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. Stenger claims that all known fine-tuning cases can be explained without the need for a multiverse. Many of Stenger's claims will be found to be highly problematic. We will touch on such issues as the logical necessity of the laws of nature; objectivity, invariance and symmetry; theoretical physics and possible universes; entropy in cosmology; cosmic inflation and initial conditions; galaxy formation; the cosmological constant; stars and their formation; the properties of elementary particles and their effect on chemistry and the macroscopic world; the origin of mass; grand unified theories; and the dimensionality of space and time. I also provide an assessment of the multiverse, noting the significant challenges that it must face. I do not attempt to defend any conclusion based on the fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life. This paper can be viewed as a critique of Stenger's book, or read independently.

  3. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fine tuning power diodes with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarneja, K.S.; Bartko, J.; Johnson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Diodes of a particular type are fine tuned with irradiation to optimize the reverse recovery time while minimizing forward voltage drop and providing more uniform electrical characcteristics. The initial and desired minority carrier lifetimes in the anode region of the type are determined as a function of forward voltage drop and reverse recovery time, and the minority carrier radiation damage factor is determined for a desired type of diode and radiation source. The radiation dosage to achieve the desired carrier lifetime with the radiation source is thereafter determined from the function 1/tau = 1/tau 0 + K phi, where tau is the desired minority carrier lifetime, tau 0 is the initial minority carrier lifetime, K is the determined minority carrier radiation damage factor and phi is the radiation dosage. A major surface and preferably the major surface adjoining the anode region of the diodes is then irradiated with the radiation source to the determined radiation dosage. Preferably, the radiation dosage is between about 1 X 10 12 and 5 X 10 13 e/cm 2 , with electron radiation of intensity between 1 and 3 MeV

  5. Probing fine magnetic particles with neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Because thermal neutrons are scattered both by nuclei and by unpaired electrons, they provide an ideal probe for studying the atomic and magnetic structures of fine-grained magnetic materials, including nanocrystalline solids, thin epitaxial layers, and colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, known as ferrofluids. Diffraction, surface reflection, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are the techniques used. With the exception of surface reflection, these methods are described in this article. The combination of SANS with refractive-index matching and neutron polarisation analysis is particularly powerful because it allows the magnetic and atomic structures to be determined independently. This technique has been used to study both dilute and concentrated ferrofluid suspensions of relatively monodisperse cobalt particles, subjected to a series of applied magnetic fields. The size of the cobalt particle core and the surrounding surfactant layer were determined. The measured interparticle structure factor agrees well with a recent theory that allows correlations in binary mixtures of magnetic particles to be calculated in the case of complete magnetic alignment. When one of the species in such a binary mixture is a nonmagnetic, cyclindrical macromolecule, application of a magnetic field leads to some degree of alignment of the nonmagnetic species. This result has been demonstrated with tobacco mosaic virus suspended in a water-based ferrofluid

  6. Fine 5 Eesti tantsuväljal / Iiris Viirpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viirpalu, Iiris, 1992-

    2017-01-01

    Nüüdistantsuteatril Fine 5 täitub tänavu 25. tegutsemisaasta. Fine 5 käekirjast. Vestlusest Fine 5 tantsuteatri ja -kooli kauaaegsete kunstiliste juhtide Renee Nõmmiku ja Tiina Olleskiga Eesti tantsukunstist

  7. Fine topology and locally Minkowskian manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Gunjan; Sinha, Soami Pyari

    2018-05-01

    Fine topology is one of the several well-known topologies of physical and mathematical relevance. In the present paper, it is obtained that the nonempty open sets of different dimensional Minkowski spaces with the fine topology are not homeomorphic. This leads to the introduction of a new class of manifolds. It turns out that the technique developed here is also applicable to some other topologies, namely, the s-topology, space topology, f-topology, and A-topology.

  8. Fine sediment erodibility in Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Hwang, Kyu-Nam

    1989-01-01

    The critical need to predict the turbidity in water due to fine-grained sediment suspension under wave action over mud deposits for sedimentation and erosion studies, as well as sorbed contaminant transport, is well known. Since fall velocities of fine sediment particles are very small, they can be easily transported by hydrodynamic flows such as waves and currents. The presence of these particles in the water column affects accoustic transmission, heat absorption and depth of ...

  9. Laser characterization of fine aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to establish the feasibility of using a laser monitoring system to provide real-time data to characterize aggregate properties in a laboratory or field environment. This was accomplished by using...

  10. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Graham G. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2017-03-06

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ∼20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  11. Revisiting fine-tuning in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Graham G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik

    2017-03-15

    We evaluate the amount of fine-tuning in constrained versions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with different boundary conditions at the GUT scale. Specifically we study the fully constrained version as well as the cases of non-universal Higgs and gaugino masses. We allow for the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms which we show further relax the fine-tuning. Of particular importance is the possibility of a Higgsino mass term and we discuss possible origins for such a term in UV complete models. We point out that loop corrections typically lead to a reduction in the fine-tuning by a factor of about two compared to the estimate at tree-level, which has been overlooked in many recent works. Taking these loop corrections into account, we discuss the impact of current limits from SUSY searches and dark matter on the fine-tuning. Contrary to common lore, we find that the MSSM fine-tuning can be as small as 10 while remaining consistent with all experimental constraints. If, in addition, the dark matter abundance is fully explained by the neutralino LSP, the fine-tuning can still be as low as ∝20 in the presence of additional non-holomorphic soft-terms. We also discuss future prospects of these models and find that the MSSM will remain natural even in the case of a non-discovery in the foreseeable future.

  12. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  13. Texton-based super-resolution for achieving high spatiotemporal resolution in hybrid camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Kenji; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2010-05-01

    Many super-resolution methods have been proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of images by using iteration and multiple input images. In a previous paper, we proposed the example-based super-resolution method to enhance an image through pixel-based texton substitution to reduce the computational cost. In this method, however, we only considered the enhancement of a texture image. In this study, we modified this texton substitution method for a hybrid camera to reduce the required bandwidth of a high-resolution video camera. We applied our algorithm to pairs of high- and low-spatiotemporal-resolution videos, which were synthesized to simulate a hybrid camera. The result showed that the fine detail of the low-resolution video can be reproduced compared with bicubic interpolation and the required bandwidth could be reduced to about 1/5 in a video camera. It was also shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of the images improved by about 6 dB in a trained frame and by 1.0-1.5 dB in a test frame, as determined by comparison with the processed image using bicubic interpolation, and the average PSNRs were higher than those obtained by the well-known Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method. Compared with that of the Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method, the computational time of our method was reduced to almost 1/10.

  14. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  15. Censored rainfall modelling for estimation of fine-scale extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, David; Onof, Christian; Winter, Hugo; Bernardara, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Reliable estimation of rainfall extremes is essential for drainage system design, flood mitigation, and risk quantification. However, traditional techniques lack physical realism and extrapolation can be highly uncertain. In this study, we improve the physical basis for short-duration extreme rainfall estimation by simulating the heavy portion of the rainfall record mechanistically using the Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse (BLRP) model. Mechanistic rainfall models have had a tendency to underestimate rainfall extremes at fine temporal scales. Despite this, the simple process representation of rectangular pulse models is appealing in the context of extreme rainfall estimation because it emulates the known phenomenology of rainfall generation. A censored approach to Bartlett-Lewis model calibration is proposed and performed for single-site rainfall from two gauges in the UK and Germany. Extreme rainfall estimation is performed for each gauge at the 5, 15, and 60 min resolutions, and considerations for censor selection discussed.

  16. Congenital amusia: a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Ayotte, Julie; Zatorre, Robert J; Mehler, Jacques; Ahad, Pierre; Penhune, Virginia B; Jutras, Benoît

    2002-01-17

    We report the first documented case of congenital amusia. This disorder refers to a musical disability that cannot be explained by prior brain lesion, hearing loss, cognitive deficits, socioaffective disturbance, or lack of environmental stimulation. This musical impairment is diagnosed in a middle-aged woman, hereafter referred to as Monica, who lacks most basic musical abilities, including melodic discrimination and recognition, despite normal audiometry and above-average intellectual, memory, and language skills. The results of psychophysical tests show that Monica has severe difficulties with detecting pitch changes. The data suggest that music-processing difficulties may result from problems in fine-grained discrimination of pitch, much in the same way as many language-processing difficulties arise from deficiencies in auditory temporal resolution.

  17. Constraints on eQTL Fine Mapping in the Presence of Multisite Local Regulation of Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL detection has emerged as an important tool for unraveling of the relationship between genetic risk factors and disease or clinical phenotypes. Most studies use single marker linear regression to discover primary signals, followed by sequential conditional modeling to detect secondary genetic variants affecting gene expression. However, this approach assumes that functional variants are sparsely distributed and that close linkage between them has little impact on estimation of their precise location and the magnitude of effects. We describe a series of simulation studies designed to evaluate the impact of linkage disequilibrium (LD on the fine mapping of causal variants with typical eQTL effect sizes. In the presence of multisite regulation, even though between 80 and 90% of modeled eSNPs associate with normally distributed traits, up to 10% of all secondary signals could be statistical artifacts, and at least 5% but up to one-quarter of credible intervals of SNPs within r2 > 0.8 of the peak may not even include a causal site. The Bayesian methods eCAVIAR and DAP (Deterministic Approximation of Posteriors provide only modest improvement in resolution. Given the strong empirical evidence that gene expression is commonly regulated by more than one variant, we conclude that the fine mapping of causal variants needs to be adjusted for multisite influences, as conditional estimates can be highly biased by interference among linked sites, but ultimately experimental verification of individual effects is needed. Presumably similar conclusions apply not just to eQTL mapping, but to multisite influences on fine mapping of most types of quantitative trait.

  18. Electron energy-loss spectrometry at the frontier of spatial and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, F.; Grogger, W.; Kothleitner, G.

    2004-01-01

    on a FEI Tecnai F20. Its energy resolution is essentially improved due to the following factors: the Wien filter monochromator below the Schottky emitter; the improved stabilization of the high voltage tank; and a new high resolution imaging filter. The overall energy resolution is in the range of 0.15 eV and opens up the possibility to fully exploit the chemical bonding information contained in the near edge fine structure of ionization edges (ELNES) or to measure band gaps with high accuracy. In this paper, we consider new instrumentation that promises to provide higher energy- and spatial resolution in the TEM, and also recent methodical developments to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of elemental or structural analysis. Refs. 4 (author)

  19. Remotely Sensed High-Resolution Global Cloud Dynamics for Predicting Ecosystem and Biodiversity Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wilson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud cover can influence numerous important ecological processes, including reproduction, growth, survival, and behavior, yet our assessment of its importance at the appropriate spatial scales has remained remarkably limited. If captured over a large extent yet at sufficiently fine spatial grain, cloud cover dynamics may provide key information for delineating a variety of habitat types and predicting species distributions. Here, we develop new near-global, fine-grain (≈1 km monthly cloud frequencies from 15 y of twice-daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite images that expose spatiotemporal cloud cover dynamics of previously undocumented global complexity. We demonstrate that cloud cover varies strongly in its geographic heterogeneity and that the direct, observation-based nature of cloud-derived metrics can improve predictions of habitats, ecosystem, and species distributions with reduced spatial autocorrelation compared to commonly used interpolated climate data. These findings support the fundamental role of remote sensing as an effective lens through which to understand and globally monitor the fine-grain spatial variability of key biodiversity and ecosystem properties.

  20. Impact of the spatial resolution of climatic data and soil physical properties on regional corn yield predictions using the STICS crop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, Guillaume; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mesbah, S. Morteza; Liu, Jiangui; Duchesne, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The assimilation of Earth observation (EO) data into crop models has proven to be an efficient way to improve yield prediction at a regional scale by estimating key unknown crop management practices. However, the efficiency of prediction depends on the uncertainty associated with the data provided to crop models, particularly climatic data and soil physical properties. In this study, the performance of the STICS (Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard) crop model for predicting corn yield after assimilation of leaf area index derived from EO data was evaluated under different scenarios. The scenarios were designed to examine the impact of using fine-resolution soil physical properties, as well as the impact of using climatic data from either one or four weather stations across the region of interest. The results indicate that when only one weather station was used, the average annual yield by producer was predicted well (absolute error <5%), but the spatial variability lacked accuracy (root mean square error = 1.3 t ha-1). The model root mean square error for yield prediction was highly correlated with the distance between the weather stations and the fields, for distances smaller than 10 km, and reached 0.5 t ha-1 for a 5-km distance when fine-resolution soil properties were used. When four weather stations were used, no significant improvement in model performance was observed. This was because of a marginal decrease (30%) in the average distance between fields and weather stations (from 10 to 7 km). However, the yield predictions were improved by approximately 15% with fine-resolution soil properties regardless of the number of weather stations used. The impact of the uncertainty associated with the EO-derived soil textures and the impact of alterations in rainfall distribution were also evaluated. A variation of about 10% in any of the soil physical textures resulted in a change in dry yield of 0.4 t ha-1. Changes in rainfall distribution

  1. Super-resolution mapping using multi-viewing CHRIS/PROBA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Manish; Kumar, Vinay

    2016-04-01

    High-spatial resolution Remote Sensing (RS) data provides detailed information which ensures high-definition visual image analysis of earth surface features. These data sets also support improved information extraction capabilities at a fine scale. In order to improve the spatial resolution of coarser resolution RS data, the Super Resolution Reconstruction (SRR) technique has become widely acknowledged which focused on multi-angular image sequences. In this study multi-angle CHRIS/PROBA data of Kutch area is used for SR image reconstruction to enhance the spatial resolution from 18 m to 6m in the hope to obtain a better land cover classification. Various SR approaches like Projection onto Convex Sets (POCS), Robust, Iterative Back Projection (IBP), Non-Uniform Interpolation and Structure-Adaptive Normalized Convolution (SANC) chosen for this study. Subjective assessment through visual interpretation shows substantial improvement in land cover details. Quantitative measures including peak signal to noise ratio and structural similarity are used for the evaluation of the image quality. It was observed that SANC SR technique using Vandewalle algorithm for the low resolution image registration outperformed the other techniques. After that SVM based classifier is used for the classification of SRR and data resampled to 6m spatial resolution using bi-cubic interpolation. A comparative analysis is carried out between classified data of bicubic interpolated and SR derived images of CHRIS/PROBA and SR derived classified data have shown a significant improvement of 10-12% in the overall accuracy. The results demonstrated that SR methods is able to improve spatial detail of multi-angle images as well as the classification accuracy.

  2. The fine print on HSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A health savings account (HSA) plan, when properly understood, can be a great tool for managing health care costs for employers. It also can be a great tool for employees who want to save for future medical costs. Unfortunately, most presentations and articles about HSA plans skip the details and there are many administrative and compliance complexities, as would be expected with any plan that involves a tax break. This article provides ten points human resource (HR) and benefit professionals should know when considering whether to add an HSA plan. In this collective learning curve, the more accurately employers address questions, the happier their employees will be with their new plans.

  3. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixin; Tian, Ye; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wenliang; Lin, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR) images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3). Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI) yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex) in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI) outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT) in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE) of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable. PMID:27775670

  4. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3. Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable.

  5. New methods and standards for fine dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, Juergen; Hartstock, Stefan; Grimm, Hans

    2009-01-01

    There seems to be common agreement that PM10 is a suboptimal quantity for the quantification of potential dangers from fine dust due to a number of reasons, notably because the chemical composition of the particles is not considered, because the size distribution is disregarded, and because of sampling artefacts. In a first step for improving the particle measurements, the European Community has published new directives for ambient air in June 2008 (EU 2008), which as a main part included new regulations for PM2.5 measurements, in addition to the further on valid regulations for PM10. The comparison of PM2.5 and PM10 may allow a source apportionment and a better assessment of the influence of fine dust on human health. The source apportionment may allow more effective fine dust reduction strategies.

  6. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  7. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Coverage and Structure using Data Fusion of High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Aerial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, A.; Rogan, J.; Williams, C. A.; Martin, D. G.; Ratick, S.; Nowak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban tree canopy (UTC) coverage is a critical component of sustainable urban areas. Trees provide a number of important ecosystem services, including air pollution mitigation, water runoff control, and aesthetic and cultural values. Critically, urban trees also act to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect by shading impervious surfaces and via evaporative cooling. The cooling effect of urban trees can be seen locally, with individual trees reducing home HVAC costs, and at a citywide scale, reducing the extent and magnitude of an urban areas UHI. In order to accurately model the ecosystem services of a given urban forest, it is essential to map in detail the condition and composition of these trees at a fine scale, capturing individual tree crowns and their vertical structure. This paper presents methods for delineating UTC and measuring canopy structure at fine spatial resolution (body of methods, relying on a data fusion method to combine the information contained in high resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery and aerial lidar data using an object-based image classification approach. The study area, Worcester, MA, has recently undergone a large-scale tree removal and reforestation program, following a pest eradication effort. Therefore, the urban canopy in this location provides a wide mix of tree age class and functional type, ideal for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Early results show that the object-based classifier is indeed capable of identifying individual tree crowns, while continued research will focus on extracting crown structural characteristics using lidar-derived metrics. Ultimately, the resulting fine resolution UTC map will be compared with previously created UTC maps of the same area but for earlier dates, producing a canopy change map corresponding to the Worcester area tree removal and replanting effort.

  8. High-resolution MR imaging of the knee at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, M.; Nakai, T.; Ikeda, K.; Tang, G.Y.; Yoshioka, H.; Itai, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to examine the practical feasibility of using a 3.0-T MR unit to obtain high-quality, high-resolution images of the knee joint, one human cadaveric and 5 porcine knees were imaged with the 3.0-T unit. Sets of T1-weighted spin echo images were obtained with in-plane resolution of 0.195x0.39 mm and an acquisition time of approximately 5 min. Two porcine knees were also imaged with the 1.0-T unit with an identical imaging protocol and the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were measured on images at 3 T and 1 T. The 3-T MR system provided detailed delineation of the knees. Deep layers of the medial collateral ligament and associated fine fibers beneath the medial and lateral collateral ligament were demarcated. We observed precise demonstration of the tibial attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament, irregularity of the meniscal free edge, and conjoint tendon formation together with the lateral collateral ligament and the biceps femoris tendon. Compared to the 1-T unit, the S/N ratio with the 3-T unit was increased by a factor of 1.39 to 1.72. Due to the potential advantage of obtaining detailed images, the 3-T MR system suggests a practical utility for fine demonstration of the knee morphology.

  9. High-resolution MR imaging of the knee at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, M.; Nakai, T.; Ikeda, K.; Tang, G.Y.; Yoshioka, H.; Itai, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In order to examine the practical feasibility of using a 3.0-T MR unit to obtain high-quality, high-resolution images of the knee joint, one human cadaveric and 5 porcine knees were imaged with the 3.0-T unit. Sets of T1-weighted spin echo images were obtained with in-plane resolution of 0.195x0.39 mm and an acquisition time of approximately 5 min. Two porcine knees were also imaged with the 1.0-T unit with an identical imaging protocol and the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were measured on images at 3 T and 1 T. The 3-T MR system provided detailed delineation of the knees. Deep layers of the medial collateral ligament and associated fine fibers beneath the medial and lateral collateral ligament were demarcated. We observed precise demonstration of the tibial attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament, irregularity of the meniscal free edge, and conjoint tendon formation together with the lateral collateral ligament and the biceps femoris tendon. Compared to the 1-T unit, the S/N ratio with the 3-T unit was increased by a factor of 1.39 to 1.72. Due to the potential advantage of obtaining detailed images, the 3-T MR system suggests a practical utility for fine demonstration of the knee morphology

  10. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Study of fine structure of deformed hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskresenskaya, L.A.; Petukhova, A.S.; Kovalev, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the hafnium fine structure following the cold plastic deformation have been studied. The fine structure condition has been studied through the harmonic analysis of the profile of the X-ray diffraction line, obtained at the DRON-I installation. Received has been the dependence of the crystal lattice microdistortions value on the deformation extent for hafnium. This dependence is compared with the corresponding one for zirconium. It is found out that at all the deformations the microdistortion distribution is uniform. The microdistortion value grows with the increase in the compression. During the mechanical impact higher microdistortions of the crystal lattice occur in the hafnium rather than in zirconium

  12. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monozon, B.S., E-mail: borismonozon@mail.ru [Physics Department, Marine Technical University, 3 Lotsmanskaya Str., 190008 St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  13. Treatment of oil sands mature fine tailings with silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffett, R.H. [DuPont Canada Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of treating mature fine tailings (MFT) with silica. Rheology modifications with silica treatments were examined. Experimental studies demonstrated a significant slump at 30 minutes after mixing. Flow properties were studied at a 2 degree angle. The MFT thin lift evaporative drying procedure was used to determine the effects of the silica treatments. Methods of using pressure to dewater MFTs were reviewed. The results of a field test conducted to determine the flow behaviour of MFTs treated with low dose silica were presented. Drying characteristics and strength gains were also evaluated. Results of the study showed that the MFTs had a tendency to channel at discharge points. After a 15 day period that included a freeze-thaw the MFTs had cracks that continued to enlarge, full depth cracking, and fine cracking. The field tests demonstrated that in-situ polymerization of silica within the water phase of fluid fine tails provides significant modifications to rheological properties, and that the onset of rheological modification can be controlled over a range of conditions and times. tabs., figs.

  14. Fine--Mesh Photodetectors for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bajanov, N A; Golubev, Nikolai; Gusev, Yuri; Kachanov, Vassili; Klechneva, T Y; Kovalev, A I; Levtchenko, L A; Lukyanov, Valery; Mamaeva, Galina; Moroz, Feodor; Prilutskaya, D M; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Blinnikov, Yuri

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of fine-mesh vacuum phototetrodes and phototriodes ( VPTs) in an axial magnetic field of ( 0 -- 4)T has been investigated. The measured VPT parameters are: fine-mesh cell dimensions, the photocathode sensitivity and its homogenity, the gain in zero and 4T magnetic field at tilt angles corresponding to the rapidity range of CMS ECAL Endcap 1.479 -- 3.0 and excess noise factor. Measurements have been performed on 21 and 30 mm diameter photodetectors with different fine-mesh structures: 30, 60 and 100 lines per mm under different types of photocathode illumination by green LED. Phototriodes with 30 or 60 lines per mm and an external diameter of 21 mm are found to be the best candidates for the CMS environment with the initial size of PWO crystals proposed to be used in the Endcap, by comparison with phototetrodes. They provide a gain of the order of 6 -- 8 in 4T magnetic field and an excess noise factor of 2 under full photocathode illumination.

  15. Fine-mesh photodetectors for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bajanov, N A; Gusev, Yu I; Klechneva, T Yu; Kovalev, A I; Levtchenko, L A; Moroz, F V; Seliverstov, D M; Kachanov, V A; Golubev, N A; Frolov, V A; Lukyanov, V N; Mamaeva, G A; Prilutskaya, D M

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of fine-mesh vacuum phototriodes (VPTs) with the external diameters of 21 and 35 mm has been investigated in an axial magnetic field up to 4 T in view of their applications as readout devices for CMS Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The measured VPT parameters are: the photocathode's sensitivity and its homogeneity, the gain in zero and 4 T magnetic field at tilt angles corresponding to the pseudorapidity range of CMS ECAL Endcap 1.48-3.0 as a function of fine-mesh cell dimensions, excess noise factor and the stability of the photocathode response under the illumination by light emission diodes (LED) and the irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. Phototriodes with 100 lines per mm fine-mesh and 25 mm external diameter are found to be the best candidates for coupling with rear PbWO/sub 4/ crystals by dimensions of 30*30 mm, proposed to be used in CMS ECAL Endcaps. VPTs provide a gain of the order (6-8) in a 4 T magnetic field and an excess noise factor of 2-2.5 under illumination of a full photocatho...

  16. A Modelling Approach on Fine Particle Spatial Distribution for Street Canyons in Asian Residential Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Uhrner, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Rapidly increasing urban pollution poses severe health risks.Especially fine particles pollution is considered to be closely related to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. In this work, ambient fine particles are studied in street canyons of a typical Asian residential community using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) dispersion modelling approach. The community is characterised by an artery road with a busy traffic flow of about 4000 light vehicles (mainly cars and motorcycles) per hour at rush hours, three streets with hundreds light vehicles per hour at rush hours and several small lanes with less traffic. The objective is to study the spatial distribution of the ambient fine particle concentrations within micro-environments, in order to assess fine particle exposure of the people living in the community. The GRAL modelling system is used to simulate and assess the emission and dispersion of the traffic-related fine particles within the community. Traffic emission factors and traffic situation is assigned using both field observation and local emissions inventory data. High resolution digital elevation data (DEM) and building height data are used to resolve the topographical features. Air quality monitoring and mobile monitoring within the community is used to validate the simulation results. By using this modelling approach, the dispersion of fine particles in street canyons is simulated; the impact of wind condition and street orientation are investigated; the contributions of car and motorcycle emissions are quantified respectively; the residents' exposure level of fine particles is assessed. The study is funded by "Taiwan Megacity Environmental Research (II)-chemistry and environmental impacts of boundary layer aerosols (Year 2-3) (103-2111-M-001-001-); Spatial variability and organic markers of aerosols (Year 3)(104-2111-M-001 -005 -)"

  17. Divergence of fine and gross motor skills in prelingually deaf children: implications for cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess relations between fine and gross motor development and spoken language processing skills in pediatric cochlear implant users. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant before age 5 and had no known developmental delay or cognitive impairment were included in the study. Fine and gross motor development were assessed before implantation using the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, a standardized parental report of adaptive behavior. Fine and gross motor scores reflected a given child's motor functioning with respect to a normative sample of typically developing, normal-hearing children. Relations between these preimplant scores and postimplant spoken language outcomes were assessed. In general, gross motor scores were found to be positively related to chronologic age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for fine motor scores. Fine motor scores were more strongly correlated with postimplant expressive and receptive language scores than gross motor scores. Our findings suggest a disassociation between fine and gross motor development in prelingually deaf children: fine motor skills, in contrast to gross motor skills, tend to be delayed as the prelingually deaf children get older. These findings provide new knowledge about the links between motor and spoken language development and suggest that auditory deprivation may lead to atypical development of certain motor and language skills that share common cortical processing resources.

  18. Coupling fine particle and bedload transport in gravel-bedded streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsu; Hunt, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Fine particles in the silt- and clay-size range are important determinants of surface water quality. Since fine particle loading rates are not unique functions of stream discharge this limits the utility of the available models for water quality assessment. Data from 38 minimally developed watersheds within the United States Geological Survey stream gauging network in California, USA reveal three lines of evidence that fine particle release is coupled with bedload transport. First, there is a transition in fine particle loading rate as a function of discharge for gravel-bedded sediments that does not appear when the sediment bed is composed of sand, cobbles, boulders, or bedrock. Second, the discharge at the transition in the loading rate is correlated with the initiation of gravel mobilization. Third, high frequency particle concentration and discharge data are dominated by clockwise hysteresis where rising limb discharges generally have higher concentrations than falling limb discharges. These three observations across multiple watersheds lead to a conceptual model that fine particles accumulate within the sediment bed at discharges less than the transition and then the gravel bed fluidizes with fine particle release at discharges above the transition discharge. While these observations were individually recognized in the literature, this analysis provides a consistent conceptual model based on the coupling of fine particle dynamics with filtration at low discharges and gravel bed fluidization at higher discharges.

  19. A global analysis of fine root production as affected by soil nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z Y; Chen, Han Y H

    2012-09-22

    Fine root production is the largest component of belowground production and plays substantial roles in the biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. The increasing availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) due to human activities is expected to increase aboveground net primary production (ANNP), but the response of fine root production to N and P remains unclear. If roots respond to nutrients as ANNP, fine root production is anticipated to increase with increasing soil N and P. Here, by synthesizing data along the nutrient gradient from 410 natural habitats and from 469 N and/or P addition experiments, we showed that fine root production increased in terrestrial ecosystems with an average increase along the natural N gradient of up to 0.5 per cent with increasing soil N. Fine root production also increased with soil P in natural conditions, particularly at P production increased by a global average of 27, 21 and 40 per cent, respectively. However, its responses differed among ecosystems and soil types. The global average increases in fine root production are lower than those of ANNP, indicating that above- and belowground counterparts are coupled, but production allocation shifts more to aboveground with higher soil nutrients. Our results suggest that the increasing fertilizer use and combined N deposition at present and in the future will stimulate fine root production, together with ANPP, probably providing a significant influence on atmospheric CO(2) emissions.

  20. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  1. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  2. Light stops and fine-tuning in MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cici, Ali; Kirca, Zerrin; Uen, Cem Salih [Uludag Univ., Department of Physics, Bursa (Turkey)

    2018-01-15

    We discuss the fine-tuning issue within the MSSM framework. Following the idea that the fine-tuning can measure effects of some missing mechanism, we impose non-universal gaugino masses at the GUT scale, and explore the low scale implications. We realize that the fine-tuning parametrized with Δ{sub EW} can be as low as zero. We consider the stop mass with a special importance and focus on the mass scales as m{sub t} ≤ 700 GeV, which are excluded by the current experiments when the stop decays into a neutralino along with a top quark or a chargino along with a bottom quark. We find that the stop mass can be as low as about 250 GeV with Δ{sub EW} ∝ 50. We find that the solutions in this region can be excluded only up to 60% when stop decays into a neutralino-top quark, and 50% when it decays into a chargino-b quark. Setting 65% CL to be potential exclusion and 95% to be pure exclusion limit such solutions will be tested in near future experiments, which are conducted with higher luminosity. In addition to stop, the region with low fine-tuning and light stops predicts masses for the other supersymmetric particles such as m{sub b} >or similar 700 GeV, m{sub τ} >or similar 1 TeV, m{sub χ{sub 1}{sup {sub ±}}} >or similar 120 GeV. The details for the mass scales and decay rates are also provided by tables of benchmark points. (orig.)

  3. Light stops and fine-tuning in MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçi, Ali; Kırca, Zerrin; Ün, Cem Salih

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the fine-tuning issue within the MSSM framework. Following the idea that the fine-tuning can measure effects of some missing mechanism, we impose non-universal gaugino masses at the GUT scale, and explore the low scale implications. We realize that the fine-tuning parametrized with Δ _{EW} can be as low as zero. We consider the stop mass with a special importance and focus on the mass scales as m_{\\tilde{t}} ≤ 700 GeV, which are excluded by the current experiments when the stop decays into a neutralino along with a top quark or a chargino along with a bottom quark. We find that the stop mass can be as low as about 250 GeV with Δ _{EW} ˜ 50. We find that the solutions in this region can be exluded only up to 60% when stop decays into a neutralino-top quark, and 50% when it decays into a chargino-b quark. Setting 65% CL to be potential exclusion and 95% to be pure exclusion limit such solutions will be tested in near future experiments, which are conducted with higher luminosity. In addition to stop, the region with low fine-tuning and light stops predicts masses for the other supersymmetric particles such as m_{\\tilde{b}} ≳ 700 GeV, m_{\\tilde{τ }} ≳ 1 TeV, m_{\\tilde{χ }1^{± }} ≳ 120 GeV. The details for the mass scales and decay rates are also provided by tables of benchmark points.

  4. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  5. Fine-Mapping the HOXB Region Detects Common Variants Tagging a Rare Coding Allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Edward J; Dadaev, Tokhir; Leongamornlert, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs u...

  6. Quantitative rainfall metrics for comparing volumetric rainfall retrievals to fine scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Scott; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Giangrande, Scott; Fridlind, Ann; Theisen, Adam; Jensen, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation processes play a significant role in the energy balance of convective systems for example, through latent heating and evaporative cooling. Heavy precipitation "cores" can also be a proxy for vigorous convection and vertical motions. However, comparisons between rainfall rate retrievals from volumetric remote sensors with forecast rain fields from high-resolution numerical weather prediction simulations are complicated by differences in the location and timing of storm morphological features. This presentation will outline a series of metrics for diagnosing the spatial variability and statistical properties of precipitation maps produced both from models and retrievals. We include existing metrics such as Contoured by Frequency Altitude Diagrams (Yuter and Houze 1995) and Statistical Coverage Products (May and Lane 2009) and propose new metrics based on morphology, cell and feature based statistics. Work presented focuses on observations from the ARM Southern Great Plains radar network consisting of three agile X-Band radar systems with a very dense coverage pattern and a C Band system providing site wide coverage. By combining multiple sensors resolutions of 250m2 can be achieved, allowing improved characterization of fine-scale features. Analyses compare data collected during the Midlattitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) with simulations of observed systems using the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model. May, P. T., and T. P. Lane, 2009: A method for using weather radar data to test cloud resolving models. Meteorological Applications, 16, 425-425, doi:10.1002/met.150, 10.1002/met.150. Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze, 1995: Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Microphysical Evolution of Florida Cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency Distributions of Vertical Velocity, Reflectivity, and Differential Reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1941-1963, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1995)1232.0.CO;2.

  7. The structure of hydrate bearing fine grained marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, J.; Kingston, E.; Clayton, C. [Southampton Univ., Highfield (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and the Environment; Schultheiss, P.; Druce, M. [Geotek Ltd., Daventry (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the structure of naturally occurring methane gas hydrates in fine-grained sediments from core samples recovered using in situ pressures from the eastern margin of the Indian Ocean. High resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) images were taken of gas hydrate cores. The hydrate structure was examined and comparisons were made between low resolution X-ray images obtained on the cores prior to sub-sectioning and depressurization procedures. The X-ray images showed the presence of high-angle, sub-parallel veins within the recovered sediments. The scans indicated that the hydrates occurred as fracture filing veins throughout the core. Fracture orientation was predominantly sub-vertical. Thick millimetric hydrate veins were composed of sub-millimetric veins with variations in fracture angle. The analysis indicated that hydrate formation was episodic in nature and subject to changes in the stress regime. Results of the study showed that depressurization and subsequent freezing alter the structure of the sediment even when the gas hydrate has not been altered. A large proportion of the hydrate survived when outside of its stability region. The self-preserving behaviour of the hydrate was attributed to the endothermic nature of gas hydrate dissociation. It was concluded that the accurate physical characterization of gas hydrates can only be conducted when the core section remains under in situ stress conditions. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Fine Mapping of Two Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes Located at the Pm1 Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by (DC. f. sp. ( is a globally devastating foliar disease of wheat ( L.. More than a dozen genes against this disease, identified from wheat germplasms of different ploidy levels, have been mapped to the region surrounding the locus on the long arm of chromosome 7A, which forms a resistance (-gene cluster. and from einkorn wheat ( L. were two of the genes belonging to this cluster. This study was initiated to fine map these two genes toward map-based cloning. Comparative genomics study showed that macrocolinearity exists between L. chromosome 1 (Bd1 and the – region, which allowed us to develop markers based on the wheat sequences orthologous to genes contained in the Bd1 region. With these and other newly developed and published markers, high-resolution maps were constructed for both and using large F populations. Moreover, a physical map of was constructed through chromosome walking with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and comparative mapping. Eventually, and were restricted to a 0.12- and 0.86-cM interval, respectively. Based on the closely linked common markers, , , and (another powdery mildew resistance gene in the cluster were not allelic to one another. Severe recombination suppression and disruption of synteny were noted in the region encompassing . These results provided useful information for map-based cloning of the genes in the cluster and interpretation of their evolution.

  9. The insulator protein SU(HW fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke G van Bemmel

    Full Text Available Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW weakens genome - NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions.

  10. HELICAL MOTIONS OF FINE-STRUCTURE PROMINENCE THREADS OBSERVED BY HINODE AND IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Takenori J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Tsuneta, Saku, E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    Fine-structure dynamics in solar prominences holds critical clues to understanding their physical nature of significant space-weather implications. We report evidence of rotational motions of horizontal helical threads in two active-region prominences observed by the Hinode and/or Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph satellites at high resolution. In the first event, we found transverse motions of brightening threads at speeds up to 55 km s{sup -1} seen in the plane of the sky. Such motions appeared as sinusoidal space–time trajectories with a typical period of ∼390 s, which is consistent with plane-of-sky projections of rotational motions. Phase delays at different locations suggest the propagation of twists along the threads at phase speeds of 90–270 km s{sup -1}. At least 15 episodes of such motions occurred in two days, none associated with an eruption. For these episodes, the plane-of-sky speed is linearly correlated with the vertical travel distance, suggestive of a constant angular speed. In the second event, we found Doppler velocities of 30–40 km s{sup -1} in opposite directions in the top and bottom portions of the prominence, comparable to the plane-of-sky speed. The moving threads have about twice broader line widths than stationary threads. These observations, when taken together, provide strong evidence for rotations of helical prominence threads, which were likely driven by unwinding twists triggered by magnetic reconnection between twisted prominence magnetic fields and ambient coronal fields.

  11. Fine filament NbTi superconductive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.; Grabinsky, G.; Marancik, W.; Pattanayak, D.

    1986-01-01

    The large superconducting magnet for the high energy physics accelerator requires fine filament composite to minimize the field error due to the persistent current in the filaments. New concepts toward the fine filament composite and its cable fabrication are discussed. Two-stage cables of fine wire with intermediate number of filaments were introduced. The first stage was six wires cables around one and in the second stage this was used to produce a Rutherford cable. The advantage of this process is in the ease of billet fabrication since the number of filaments in a single wire is within the range of easy billet fabrication. The disadvantage is in the cable fabrication. One of the major concerns in the fabrication of fine NbTi filaments composite in a copper matrix is the intermetallic compound formation during the extrusion and heat treatment steps. The hard intermetallic particles degrade the uniformity of the filaments and reduce the critical current density. The process of using Nb barrier between the filaments and copper matrix in order to prevent this CuTi intermetallic particle formation is described

  12. Renal fine structures detected by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilch, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    A significantly improved image quality is achieved by the technique described, as compared to the magnetic resonance data obtained so far. The detailed analysis of the kidney goes as deep as into anatomic fine structures, and there is reason to hope for far better diagnostic details. (orig.) [de

  13. Looking inside giant resonance fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Voronov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Microscopic calculations of the fine structure of giant resonances for spherical nuclei are presented. Excited states are treated by wave function which takes into account coupling of simple one-phonon configurations with more complex ones. Nuclear structure calculations are applied to the description of the γ-decay of resonances into the ground and low-lying excited states. 16 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Fine needle aspiration cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: This is a consecutive 9-year analysis of patients with peripheral lymphadenopathy. All the patients had fine needle aspiration. Smears were made, fixed in 95% alcohol and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Zeihl Neelsen stains. Results: 48 patients, 31 males and 17 females, were analyzed.

  15. Local Alignments for Fine-Grained Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavves, E.; Fernando, B.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Tuytelaars, T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is fine-grained categorization without human interaction. Different from prior work, which relies on detectors for specific object parts, we propose to localize distinctive details by roughly aligning the objects using just the overall shape. Then, one may proceed to the

  16. Krypton and xenon in lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J. R.; Dragon, J. C.; Pepin, R. O.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Data from grain-size separates, stepwise-heated fractions, and bulk analyses of 20 samples of fines and breccias from five lunar sites are used to define three-isotope and ordinate intercept correlations in an attempt to resolve the lunar heavy rare gas system in a statistically valid approach. Tables of concentrations and isotope compositions are given.

  17. Testing with fine fragrances in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2001-01-01

    The frequencies of contact allergic reactions to 2 fine fragrances were studied by patch testing. Further, a comparison was made of test results before and after evaporation of the solvent. A total of 480 consecutive eczema patients were included, 100 in the Dortmund clinic and 380 in the Gentoft...

  18. Interaction of fine sediment with alluvial streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Carey, William P.

    1989-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about the physical processes that control the transport of fine sediment moving over an alluvial bed. The knowledge is needed to design rational sampling and monitoring programs that assess the transport and fate of toxic substances in surface waters because the toxics are often associated with silt- and clay-sized particles. This technical note reviews some of the past research in areas that may contribute to an increased understanding of the processes involved. An alluvial streambed can have a large capacity to store fine sediments that are extracted from the flow when instream concentrations are high and it can gradually release fine sediment to the flow when the instream concentrations are low. Several types of storage mechanisms are available depending on the relative size distribution of the suspended load and bed material, as well as the flow hydraulics. Alluvial flow tends to segregate the deposited material according to size and density. Some of the storage locations are temporary, but some can store the fine sediment for very long periods of time.

  19. Derivation of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, A.

    1980-01-01

    The fine-structure constant is derived as a dynamical property of quantum electrodynamics. Single-particle solutions of the coupled Maxwell and Dirac equations have a physical charge spectrum. The solutions are used to construct lepton-and quark-like particles. The strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces are described as the interactions of complex charges in multiple combinations

  20. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  1. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  2. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science; Daly, Chris [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    2003-04-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km{sup 2} area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m{sup 2}, with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process

  3. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E.; Daly, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km 2 area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m 2 , with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process models

  4. State of the art in atomic resolution off-axis electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, Martin; Freitag, Bert; Kujawa, Stephan; Lehmann, Michael; Niermann, Tore

    2012-01-01

    As proposed by Hannes Lichte, to resolve structure–property relations not only the question “Which atom is where?” but also the question “Which fields are around?” has to be answered. High-resolution off-axis electron holography opens up an access to these key questions in that it allows accessing the complete exit-wave of the object provided within the information limit of the microscope, i.e. amplitude and phase including atomic details such as position and species, and moreover, information about large area electric potentials and magnetic fields, which a conventional transmission electron microscope is blind for—also when using a Cs-corrector. For an excellent object exit-wave reconstruction, special care has to be taken on the hologram quality, i.e. interference fringe contrast and electron dose. Severe restrictions are given to signal resolution by the limited brightness of the electron source. Utilizing a new high-brightness Schottky field electron emitter in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope operated at 300 kV, the phase signal resolution at atomic resolution can significantly be enhanced. An improvement by at least a factor of 2.88 compared to the most recently reported single hologram at atomic resolution is found. To proof the applicability of this setup to real materials science problems, a grain boundary of gold has been investigated holographically. -- Highlights: ► Impact of the brightness on the reconstructed signal in electron holography. ► Factor 2.8 gain in signal quality by setup with a high brightness electron gun. ► Investigation of a grain boundary in gold with a state-of-the-art holography setup. ► A-posteriori aberration fine-tuning for true one Angstrom resolution in the object wave. ► Mistilt analysis on the atomic scale by numerical wave optics.

  5. Studies of relative gain and timing response of fine-mesh photomultiplier tubes in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulkosky, V.; Allison, L.; Barber, C.; Cao, T.; Ilieva, Y.; Jin, K.; Kalicy, G.; Park, K.; Ton, N.; Zheng, X.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the use of Hamamatsu fine-mesh photomultiplier tube assemblies H6152-70 and H6614-70 with regards to their gain and timing resolution in magnetic fields up to 1.9 T. Our results show that the H6614-70 assembly can operate reliably in magnetic fields exceeding 1.5 T, while preserving a reasonable timing resolution even with a gain reduction of a factor of ~100. The reduction of the relative gain of the H6152-70 is similar to the H6614-70's near 1.5 T, but its timing resolution worsens considerably at this high field.

  6. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  7. Resolution 261/12. It determine the zone that will be affected by the servitudes provided for literals b) and c) in the Art. 1 of Decree Law 10.383, about the lines of electric power that it will be built to provision of public electric power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This resolution determine that The National Administration of Electricity and Transmission Plants (UTE), it will establish the necessary limitations and prohibitions that affect safety in general, wires, towers and public service elements of electricity.

  8. Alternative Dispute Resolution to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassberg, Maria

    1989-01-01

    Examines the use of mediation and arbitration to settle civil disputes which have been traditionally settled through the courts. Discusses the advantages of alternative forms of dispute resolution. Describes the operations of dispute resolution centers and provides information about the individuals who serve as dispute mediators. (KO)

  9. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Near-field electromagnetic holography for high-resolution analysis of network interactions in neuronal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik D; Kaiser, Marcus; Whittington, Miles A

    2015-09-30

    Brain function is dependent upon the concerted, dynamical interactions between a great many neurons distributed over many cortical subregions. Current methods of quantifying such interactions are limited by consideration only of single direct or indirect measures of a subsample of all neuronal population activity. Here we present a new derivation of the electromagnetic analogy to near-field acoustic holography allowing high-resolution, vectored estimates of interactions between sources of electromagnetic activity that significantly improves this situation. In vitro voltage potential recordings were used to estimate pseudo-electromagnetic energy flow vector fields, current and energy source densities and energy dissipation in reconstruction planes at depth into the neural tissue parallel to the recording plane of the microelectrode array. The properties of the reconstructed near-field estimate allowed both the utilization of super-resolution techniques to increase the imaging resolution beyond that of the microelectrode array, and facilitated a novel approach to estimating causal relationships between activity in neocortical subregions. The holographic nature of the reconstruction method allowed significantly better estimation of the fine spatiotemporal detail of neuronal population activity, compared with interpolation alone, beyond the spatial resolution of the electrode arrays used. Pseudo-energy flow vector mapping was possible with high temporal precision, allowing a near-realtime estimate of causal interaction dynamics. Basic near-field electromagnetic holography provides a powerful means to increase spatial resolution from electrode array data with careful choice of spatial filters and distance to reconstruction plane. More detailed approaches may provide the ability to volumetrically reconstruct activity patterns on neuronal tissue, but the ability to extract vectored data with the method presented already permits the study of dynamic causal interactions

  11. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  12. Customizing digital printing for fine art practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; Thirkell, Paul; Hoskins, Steve; Wang, Hong Qiang; Laidler, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The presentation will demonstrate how through alternative methods of digital print production the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) is developing methodologies for digital printing that attempt to move beyond standard reproductive print methods. Profiling is used for input and output hardware, along with bespoke profiling for fine art printmaking papers. Examples of artist's work, and examples from the Perpetual Portfolio are included - an artist in residence scheme for selected artists wanting to work at the Centre and to make a large-format digital print. Colour is an important issue: colour fidelity, colour density on paper, colour that can be achieved through multiple-pass printing. Research is also underway to test colour shortfalls in the current inkjet ink range, and to extend colour through the use of traditional printing inks.

  13. Sub-stratum injection of fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteren van, W.; Cornelisse, J.; Costello, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experiment conducted to evaluate the sub-stratum injection of oil sands fine tailings. The hydraulic fracturing method was developed as a sub-surface dredging process for mining sand without removing the overburden. Pressure was used to transport the sand-water mixture, and the high pressures used in the process resulted in water losses through the clay-sand interface. The experiment was conducted with soft clay, compacted sand, and an injection feed. Results of the study showed that the injection method may be successful. However, further research is required to characterize the fracture energy of oil sands and the rheology of fine tailings. Horizontal hydraulic fracturing equations were presented. Tensile failures in clay and oil sands were discussed. Fractures were identified by deformation and discharge rates. Crack propagation methods were also studied. tabs., figs.

  14. Radiation effects in fine metal media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu. A.; Aliev, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The report discusses condition and perspectives of theoretical and experimental research of metal powder material radiation processing influence on their caking, recrystallization and formation of metal and alloy structure obtained by powder metallurgy methods. Radiation processing of metal powders under determined modes causes forming of homogeneous fine metal structure and helps to considerably improve their running abilities (strength, endurance, corrosion resistance) and caking technological conditions

  15. Device for the analysis of fine dusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, F.; Tausch, W.; Torge, R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention deals with a device that brings graphite bulbs containing samples of fine dusts automatically to the spectrometer for analysis and transports them away afterwards, a great number of individual measurements thus being quickly performed. The device consists of magazines, means of transport for them etc., and, if necessary, also a furnace for thermal preparation of the samples. (RW) 891 RW/RW 892 MKO [de

  16. Fine Structure of 211 Po Alpha Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, a theory based on the Landau-Zener effect was developed intending to describe quantitatively the cluster decay fine structure phenomenon. It was claimed that the same promotion effect can also govern the fine structure in the case of α-decay. This formalism intends to explain the fine structure of α-decay by considering single-particle transitions due to the radial and the rotational couplings. The levels with the same good quantum numbers associated to some symmetries of the system cannot in general intersect, but exhibit quasi-crossings, or pseudo-crossings, or avoided level crossings. The system is characterised by an axial symmetry, therefore the good quantum numbers are the projections of the nucleon spin Ω. The radial coupling causes transitions of the unpaired nucleon near the avoided level crossings. True crossings can also be obtained between levels characterized by different quantum numbers. Generally, the rotational coupling has a maximum strength in the vicinity of the true crossings. Transitions due to both couplings are taken into account in order to explain the excitations of the unpaired nucleon. For a tunnelling velocity of 9 x 10 6 fm/fs, the ratio between the intensity for transitions to the first excited state and to the ground state was found to be 0.0071 and the obtained ratio of the same parameter between the second excited state and the ground state was 0.0062, in good agreement with experimental data. These calculations suggest that the α-decay fine structure phenomenon can be explained quantitatively by describing the decaying system with molecular models and it can be stated that the quantitative characteristics of this phenomenon are ruled by dynamical effects. (author)

  17. BepiColombo fine sun sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslooper, Erik; van der Heiden, Nico; Naron, Daniël.; Schmits, Ruud; van der Velde, Jacob Jan; van Wakeren, Jorrit

    2017-11-01

    Design, development and verification of the passive Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) for the BepiColombo spacecraft is described. Major challenge in the design is to keep the detector at acceptable temperature levels while exposed to a solar flux intensity exceeding 10 times what is experienced in Earth orbit. A mesh type Heat Rejection Filter has been developed. The overall sensor design and its performance verification program is described.

  18. Fractal aggregation and breakup of fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakup may exert a controlling influence on particle size distributions and particles either are fractured or are eroded particle-by-particle through shear. The shear-induced breakage of fine particles in turbulent conditions is investigated using Taylor-expansion moment method. Their equations have been derived in continuous form in terms of the number density function with particle volume. It suitable for future implementation in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  19. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficiation 2010, 4–6 May 2010. 671The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 110 NOVEMBER 2010 L Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant mixed with magnetite in the launder and enters... with production. Plant equipment operational changes Cyclone spigot changes In an attempt to lower the cut-point density, the spigot on the L 672 NOVEMBER 2010 VOLUME 110 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Figure 1...

  20. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  1. Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Hailiang; Fang, Ming; Jostins, Luke; Umićević Mirkov, Maša; Boucher, Gabrielle; Anderson, Carl A; Andersen, Vibeke; Cleynen, Isabelle; Cortes, Adrian; Crins, François; D'Amato, Mauro; Deffontaine, Valérie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Docampo, Elisa; Elansary, Mahmoud; Farh, Kyle Kai-How; Franke, Andre; Gori, Ann-Stephan; Goyette, Philippe; Halfvarson, Jonas; Haritunians, Talin; Knight, Jo; Lawrance, Ian C; Lees, Charlie W; Louis, Edouard; Mariman, Rob; Meuwissen, Theo; Mni, Myriam; Momozawa, Yukihide; Parkes, Miles; Spain, Sarah L; Théâtre, Emilie; Trynka, Gosia; Satsangi, Jack; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Vermeire, Severine; Xavier, Ramnik J; Weersma, Rinse K; Duerr, Richard H; Mathew, Christopher G; Rioux, John D; McGovern, Dermot P B; Cho, Judy H; Georges, Michel; Daly, Mark J; Barrett, Jeffrey C

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci, but few have been conclusively resolved to specific functional variants. Here we

  2. Mapping land cover in urban residential landscapes using fine resolution imagery and object-oriented classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A knowledge of different types of land cover in urban residential landscapes is important for building social and economic city-wide policies including landscape ordinances and water conservation programs. Urban landscapes are typically heterogeneous, so classification of land cover in these areas ...

  3. Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hailiang; Fang, Ming; Jostins, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci, but few have been conclusively resolved to specific functional variants. Here w...

  4. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250

  5. Fine-resolution remote-sensing and modelling of Himalayan catchment sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quincey, D.J.; Luckman, A.; Hessel, R.; Davies, R.; Sankhayan, P.L.; Balla, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have reported on environmental degradation in the Nepal Himalaya as a result of large-scale deforestation and the associated agricultural extension. In contrast to many previous regional scale studies, we consider land cover and its environmental impact on an individual

  6. Active region fine structure observed at 0.08 arcsec resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlichenmaier, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Hoch, S.; Soltau, D.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Staude, J.; Feller, A.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S.K.; Collados Vera, M.; Sigwarth, M.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.A.; Kneer, F.; Nicklas, H.; Sobotka, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 596, December (2016), A7/1-A7/8 ISSN 0004-6361 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312495 - SOLARNET Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * activity * sunspots Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  7. Growth and element flux at fine taxonomic resolution in natural microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, Bruce; Mau, Rebecca; Schwartz, Egbert; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Dijkstra, Paul; van Gestel, Natasja; Koch, Benjamin J.; Liu, Cindy M.; McHugh, Theresa; Marks, Jane C.; Morrissey, Ember; Price, Lance B.

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms are the engines of global biogeochemical cycles, driving half of all photosynthesis and nearly all decomposition. Yet, quantifying the rates at which uncultured microbial taxa grow and transform elements in intact and highly diverse natural communities in the environment remains among the most pressing challenges in microbial ecology today. Here, we show how shifts in the density of DNA caused by stable isotope incorporation can be used to estimate the growth rates of individual bacterial taxa in intact soil communities. We found that the distribution of growth rates followed the familiar lognormal distribution observed for the abundances, biomasses, and traits of many organisms. Growth rates of most bacterial taxa increased in response to glucose amendment, though the increase in growth observed for many taxa was larger than could be explained by direct utilization of the added glucose for growth, illustrating that glucose addition indirectly stimulated the utilization of other substrates. Variation in growth rates and phylogenetic distances were quantitatively related, connecting evolutionary history and biogeochemical function in intact soil microbial communities. Our approach has the potential to identify biogeochemically significant taxa in the microbial community and quantify their contributions to element transformations and ecosystem processes.

  8. Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

  9. The Multiplicity of Massive Stars: A High Angular Resolution Survey With The HST Fine Guidance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the color of the star and filter used ( Horch et al. 2006) as well as the time of observation relative to that of a servicing mission or other...T. C., Gies, D. R., Bagnuolo, W. G. Jr., et al. 2006, ApJ, 639, 1069 Horch , E. P., Franz, O. G., Wasserman, L. H., & Heasley, J. N. 2006, AJ, 132

  10. Computer games and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.

  11. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction 2 O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ... Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During ...

  13. effect of fines content on the engineering properties of reconstituted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Reconstitution of the natural soil (0% fines content) yielded soil samples having fines content between ... action to different stabilizing agents are better under- .... tion cracking, whereas clay soils with too low plastic limit (PL) ...

  14. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    transportation applications such as structural fill, road base material, and as snow ... normal fine particles resulting in weak porous paste, modulus of elasticity is ..... with the porous structure and high absorptivity of fine particles of bottom ash.

  15. 49 CFR 107.336 - Limitation on fines and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Criminal Penalties § 107.336 Limitation on fines and penalties. If a State or political subdivision or Indian tribe assesses any fine or penalty determined by the...

  16. Flocculation of chromite ore fines suspension using polysaccharide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    liquid separation. Keywords. Flocculation; graft copolymer; mineral industry effluent; chromite ore fines; ... work well as flocculating agent on coal washery effluent, copper and iron ore fines etc (Karmakar et al 1998, 1999;. Tripathy et al 2001).

  17. Fine structure transitions in Fe XIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2013-07-01

    Results are reported for Fe XIV energy levels and transitions obtained from the ab initio relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method. BPRM method developed under the Iron Project is capable of calculating very large number of fine structure energy levels and corresponding transitions. However, unlike in the atomic structure calculations, where levels are identified spectroscopically based on the leading percentage contributions of configurations, BPRM is incapable of such identification of the levels and hence the transitions. The main reason for it is that the percentage contributions can not be determined exactly from the large number of channels in the R-matrix space. The present report describes an identification method that uses considerations of quantum defects of channels, contributions of channel from outer regions, Hund's rule, and angular momenta algebra for addition and completeness of fine structure components. The present calculations are carried out using a close coupling wave function expansion that included 26 core excitations from configurations 2s22p63s2, 2s22p63s3p,2s22p63p2,2s22p63s3d, and 2s22p63p3d. A total of 1002 fine structure levels with n ⩽ 10, l⩽9, and 0.5 ⩽J⩽ 9.5 with even and odd parities and the corresponding 130,520 electric dipole allowed (E1) fine structure transitions, a most complete set for astrophysical modelings of spectral analysis and opacities, is presented. Large number of new energy levels are found and identified. The energies agree very well, mostly in less than 1% with the highest being 1.9%, with the 68 observed fine structure levels. While the high lying levels may have some uncertainty, an overall accuracy of energy levels should be within 10%. BPRM transitions have been benchmarked with the existing most accurate calculated transition probabilities with very good agreement for most cases. Based on the accuracy of the method and comparisons, most of the transitions can be rated with A (⩽10%) to C (

  18. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  19. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  20. Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills

    OpenAIRE

    Les, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Title: Effect of hyperbaric environment on fine motor skills Objectives: The aim of study is to assess the changes fine motor skills due to hyperbaric environment in preparation for selected tests of fine motor skills. Methods: The first method was used empirically - research. Then the method chosen of compilation of the information obtained. The basic method to work was the experimental measurement method specially constructed tests on fine motor skills. All measured values were statisticall...

  1. Development and Validation of an Aquatic Fine Sediment Biotic Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Christina D.; Minshall, G. Wayne; Danehy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fine Sediment Biotic Index (FSBI) is a regional, stressor-specific biomonitoring index to assess fine sediment (Plecoptera (5), Trichoptera (3), and Ephemeroptera (2) contained all but one of the species or species groups classified as extremely sensitive. Index validation with an independent data set of 255 streams found FSBI scores to accurately predict both high and low levels of measured fine sediment.

  2. 76 FR 31307 - Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting The next meeting of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts is scheduled for June 16, 2011, at 10 a.m. in the Commission offices at the National Building Museum,Suite 312, Judiciary Square, 401 F Street, NW., Washington, DC, 20001-2728. Items of...

  3. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  4. High-resolution mapping based on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture paleoseismic offsets along the Altyn-Tagh fault, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxing; Xu, Xiwei; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Tapponnier, Paul

    2017-08-15

    The recent dramatic increase in millimeter- to centimeter- resolution topographic datasets obtained via multi-view photogrammetry raises the possibility of mapping detailed offset geomorphology and constraining the spatial characteristics of active faults. Here, for the first time, we applied this new method to acquire high-resolution imagery and generate topographic data along the Altyn Tagh fault, which is located in a remote high elevation area and shows preserved ancient earthquake surface ruptures. A digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 0.065 m and an orthophoto with a resolution of 0.016 m were generated from these images. We identified piercing markers and reconstructed offsets based on both the orthoimage and the topography. The high-resolution UAV data were used to accurately measure the recent seismic offset. We obtained the recent offset of 7 ± 1 m. Combined with the high resolution satellite image, we measured cumulative offsets of 15 ± 2 m, 20 ± 2 m, 30 ± 2 m, which may be due to multiple paleo-earthquakes. Therefore, UAV mapping can provide fine-scale data for the assessment of the seismic hazards.

  5. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation camera is described for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area in which means is provided for second-order positional resolution. The phototubes which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second-order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  6. An economic prediction of the finer resolution level wavelet coefficients in electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Szilvia; Pipek, János

    2015-12-21

    In wavelet based electronic structure calculations, introducing a new, finer resolution level is usually an expensive task, this is why often a two-level approximation is used with very fine starting resolution level. This process results in large matrices to calculate with and a large number of coefficients to be stored. In our previous work we have developed an adaptively refined solution scheme that determines the indices, where the refined basis functions are to be included, and later a method for predicting the next, finer resolution coefficients in a very economic way. In the present contribution, we would like to determine whether the method can be applied for predicting not only the first, but also the other, higher resolution level coefficients. Also the energy expectation values of the predicted wave functions are studied, as well as the scaling behaviour of the coefficients in the fine resolution limit.

  7. High-resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; N. S. Wagenbrenner; J. M. Forthofer; B. K. Lamb; K. S. Shannon; D. Finn; R. M. Eckman; K. Clawson; L. Bradshaw; P. Sopko; S. Beard; D. Jimenez; C. Wold; M. Vosburgh

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical wind flow models have been developed for simulating wind flow at relatively fine spatial resolutions (e.g., 100 m); however, there are very limited observational data available for evaluating these high-resolution models. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The...

  8. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  9. A characteristics of East Asian climate using high-resolution regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Reanalysis is one approach to obtaining long term homogeneous analysis of needed variables. However, the horizontal resolution of global reanalysis is of the order of 100 to 200 km, too coarse for many application studies. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. In this study, we will provide accurately downscaled regional climate over East Asia using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. A mixed layer model is embedded within the GRIMs in order to improve air-sea interaction. A detailed description of the characteristics of the East Asian summer and winter climate will be presented through the high-resolution numerical simulations. The increase in horizontal resolution is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

  10. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  11. Resolution improvement by nonconfocal theta microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindek, S; Stelzer, E H

    1999-11-01

    We present a novel scanning fluorescence microscopy technique, nonconfocal theta microscopy (NCTM), that provides almost isotropic resolution. In NCTM, multiphoton absorption from two orthogonal illumination directions is used to induce fluorescence emission. Therefore the point-spread function of the microscope is described by the product of illumination point-spread functions with reduced spatial overlap, which provides the resolution improvement and the more isotropic observation volume. We discuss the technical details of this new method.

  12. Conflict Resolution, Can It Really Make a Difference in the Classroom: Conflict Resolution Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollan, Savannah; Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses conflict and provides five resolutions for teachers on managing negative behaviors within the classroom. Acknowledging and implementing conflict resolution strategies in the classroom enables every student to fully participate in the learning process.

  13. Tele-AAC Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Anderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide.  Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC systems.  The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation; determine the communication competence levels achieved  by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders’  perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability; maximize Tele-AAC’s capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions. 

  14. Super resolution imaging of genetically labelled synapses in Drosophila brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ayumi Spühler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Super resolution imaging of brain tissue harbors difficulties due to light scattering and the density of signals. In order to reduce out of focus signal, we take advantage of the genetic tools available in the Drosophila and have fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins expressed in only a small number of neurons. These neurons form synapses within the calyx of the mushroom body, a distinct brain region involved in associative memory formation. Our results show that super resolution microscopy, in combination with genetically labelled synaptic proteins, is a powerful tool to investigate synapses in a quantitative fashion providing an entry point for studies on synaptic plasticity during learning and memory formation

  15. Super Resolution Imaging of Genetically Labeled Synapses in Drosophila Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spühler, Isabelle A; Conley, Gaurasundar M; Scheffold, Frank; Sprecher, Simon G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Super resolution imaging of brain tissue harbors difficulties due to light scattering and the density of signals. In order to reduce out of focus signal, we take advantage of the genetic tools available in the Drosophila and have fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins expressed in only a small number of neurons. These neurons form synapses within the calyx of the mushroom body, a distinct brain region involved in associative memory formation. Our results show that super resolution microscopy, in combination with genetically labeled synaptic proteins, is a powerful tool to investigate synapses in a quantitative fashion providing an entry point for studies on synaptic plasticity during learning and memory formation.

  16. Relations between fine motor skill and parental report of attention in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casnar, Christy L; Janke, Kelly M; van der Fluit, Faye; Brei, Natalie G; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders presenting in approximately 1 in 3,500 live births. NF1 is a highly variable condition with a large number of complications. A common complication is neuropsychological problems, including developmental delays and learning difficulties that affect as many as 60% of patients. Research has suggested that school-aged children with NF1 often have poorer fine motor skills and are at greater risk for attention difficulties than the general population. Thirty-eight children with NF1 and 23 unaffected children between the ages of 4 and 6 years, who are enrolled in a study of early development in NF1, were included in the present study. Varying levels of fine motor functioning were examined (simple to complex fine motor tasks). For children with NF1, significant difficulties were demonstrated on lab-based mid-level and complex fine motor tasks, even after controlling for nonverbal reasoning abilities, but not on simple fine motor tasks. Parental report also indicated difficulties in everyday adaptive fine motor functioning. No significant correlations were found between complex fine motor ability and attention difficulties. This study provides much needed descriptive data on the early emergence of fine motor difficulties and attention difficulties in young children with NF1.

  17. Fine-grained sheet silicate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-09-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the possibility of using shales as repositories for radioactive waste and a variety of other waste products, and it appears that over the next few years much money and effort will be expended to investigate and test a wide variety of shales. If shales are to be studied in detail by a large number of investigators, it is important that all concerned have the same concept of what constitutes a shale. The term shale and other terms for fine-grained rocks have been used for many years and have been continually redefined. Most definitions predate the development of modern instrumentation and are based on field observations and intuition; however, the main problem is the diversity of definitions. An attempt is made here to develop a simple, rational classification of fine-grained sediments, and it is hoped that this classification will eliminate some of the present ambiguity. In order that the classification be pertinent, mineral composition and textural data were compiled and evaluated. The data on unconsolidated and consolidated sediments were contrasted and the effects of burial diagenesis assessed. It was found necessary to introduce a new term, physil, to describe all sheet silicate minerals. In contrast to the term clay mineral, the term physil has no size connotation. A simple classification is proposed that is based on the percentage of physils and grain size. In Part II the fine-grained physil rocks are classified on the basis of physil type, non-physil minerals, and texture. Formations are listed which have the mineral and textural characteristics of the most important rock types volumetrically. Selected rock types, and the formations in which they can be found, are recommended for laboratory study to determine their suitability for the storage of high-level radioactive waste

  18. Resolution enhancement of lung 4D-CT data using multiscale interphase iterative nonlocal means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Yap, Pew-Thian; Wu Guorong; Feng Qianjin; Chen Wufan; Lian Jun; Shen Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computer tomography (4D-CT) has been widely used in lung cancer radiotherapy due to its capability in providing important tumor motion information. However, the prolonged scanning duration required by 4D-CT causes considerable increase in radiation dose. To minimize the radiation-related health risk, radiation dose is often reduced at the expense of interslice spatial resolution. However, inadequate resolution in 4D-CT causes artifacts and increases uncertainty in tumor localization, which eventually results in extra damages of healthy tissues during radiotherapy. In this paper, the authors propose a novel postprocessing algorithm to enhance the resolution of lung 4D-CT data. Methods: The authors' premise is that anatomical information missing in one phase can be recovered from the complementary information embedded in other phases. The authors employ a patch-based mechanism to propagate information across phases for the reconstruction of intermediate slices in the longitudinal direction, where resolution is normally the lowest. Specifically, the structurally matching and spatially nearby patches are combined for reconstruction of each patch. For greater sensitivity to anatomical details, the authors employ a quad-tree technique to adaptively partition the image for more fine-grained refinement. The authors further devise an iterative strategy for significant enhancement of anatomical details. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm using a publicly available lung data that consist of 10 4D-CT cases. The authors’ algorithm gives very promising results with significantly enhanced image structures and much less artifacts. Quantitative analysis shows that the authors’ algorithm increases peak signal-to-noise ratio by 3–4 dB and the structural similarity index by 3%–5% when compared with the standard interpolation-based algorithms. Conclusions: The authors have developed a new algorithm to improve the resolution of 4D-CT. It

  19. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  20. STM study on surface relief, ultra-fine structure and transformation mechanism of bainite in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, H.S.; Yang, Z.G.; Wang, J.J.; Zheng, Y.K.

    1995-01-01

    The surface reliefs accompanying lower bainite transformation in steels have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). With the exclusive vertical resolution of STM, we observed that the surface relief associated with bainite is a group of surface reliefs related to subplates, subunits and sub-subunits. From the bainite plate to the sub-subunit in it, the reliefs are in a tent shape, not of invariant plane strain (IPS) type. The fine structure of bainite in a steel has also been shown by STM and TEM that bainite plate is composed of subplates, subunits and sub-subunits. On the basis of the fine structure inside a bainitic ferrite plate observed under STM, sympathetic-ledgewise mechanism of bainite formation is proposed. (orig.)

  1. Particle identification by means of fine sampling dE/dX measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, A; Ishii, T; Ohshima, T; Okuno, H; Shiino, K [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study; Naito, F [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Matsuda, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1983-04-01

    Identification of relativistic charged particles by means of fine sampling d E/d X measurements with a longitudinal drift chamber has been studied. Using a fast-sampling ADC (25 MHz), dE/dX was measured in a 1.4 mm gas thickness over an electron drift space of 51 mm. For the simulated 1 m long tracks of pions and electrons of 500 MeV/c, a particle separation of 10sigma - 12sigma has been obtained, where sigma is the r.m.s. resolution of the dE/dX measurement. This result with fine sampling is better by a factor of 1.7 compared to the dE/dX measurement, with 21 mm sampling thickness. Further improvement achievable by reducing the correlation between neighbouring samples and simplification of electronics by use of the delta-ray clipping method are also discussed.

  2. Fine structure of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance in 40Ca due to Landau damping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, I.; Buthelezi, Z.; Carter, J.; Cooper, G.R.J.; Fearick, R.W.; Foertsch, S.V.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Kalmykov, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Neveling, R.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Richter, A.; Roth, R.; Shevchenko, A.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Smit, F.D.

    2011-01-01

    The fragmentation of the Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance (ISGQR) in 40 Ca has been investigated in high energy-resolution experiments using proton inelastic scattering at E p =200 MeV. Fine structure is observed in the region of the ISGQR and its characteristic energy scales are extracted from the experimental data by means of a wavelet analysis. The experimental scales are well described by Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and second-RPA calculations with an effective interaction derived from a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction by the Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM). In these results characteristic scales are already present at the mean-field level pointing to their origination in Landau damping, in contrast to the findings in heavier nuclei and also to SRPA calculations for 40 Ca based on phenomenological effective interactions, where fine structure is explained by the coupling to two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) states.

  3. Study on ultra-fine w-EDM with on-machine measurement-assisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuntong; Yang Hongye

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the on-machine measurement techniques so as to precisely fabricate micro intricate part using ultra-fine w-EDM. The measurement-assisted approach which employs an automatic optical inspection (AOI) is incorporated to ultra-fine w-EDM process to on-machine detect the machining error for next re-machining. The AOI acquires the image through a high resolution CCD device from the contour of the workpiece after roughing in order to further process and recognize the image for determining the residual. This facilitates the on-machine error detection and compensation re-machining. The micro workpiece and electrode are not repositioned during machining. A fabrication for a micro probe of 30-μm diameter is rapidly machined and verified successfully. Based on the proposed technique, on-machine measurement with AOI has been realized satisfactorily.

  4. High-resolution liquid patterns via three-dimensional droplet shape control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Rishi; Adera, Solomon; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2014-09-25

    Understanding liquid dynamics on surfaces can provide insight into nature's design and enable fine manipulation capability in biological, manufacturing, microfluidic and thermal management applications. Of particular interest is the ability to control the shape of the droplet contact area on the surface, which is typically circular on a smooth homogeneous surface. Here, we show the ability to tailor various droplet contact area shapes ranging from squares, rectangles, hexagons, octagons, to dodecagons via the design of the structure or chemical heterogeneity on the surface. We simultaneously obtain the necessary physical insights to develop a universal model for the three-dimensional droplet shape by characterizing the droplet side and top profiles. Furthermore, arrays of droplets with controlled shapes and high spatial resolution can be achieved using this approach. This liquid-based patterning strategy promises low-cost fabrication of integrated circuits, conductive patterns and bio-microarrays for high-density information storage and miniaturized biochips and biosensors, among others.

  5. Fine needle diagnosis in lumbar osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, K.B.; Brinker, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Lumbar vertebral body and disk infection, presenting as low back pain, is a relatively uncommon disease but is seen more often in drug addicts. Radiographs show typical changes of infection of the lumbar vertebrae and adjacent disc. Under local anesthesia a fine needle is placed, saline injected, and aspirated. The entire needle-syringe unit is submitted to the bacteriology department. Pseudomonas infection is usually found. This method of diagnosis is simple, cost effective, well accepted by the patients, and can be done on outpatients. (orig.)

  6. Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.

  7. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  8. Relativistic corrections to fine structure of positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Faustov, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the quasipotential method, we have calculated the relativistic corrections in the positronium fine structure intervals 2 3 S 1 -2 3 P J . The contributions of order of mα 6 for the positronium S-levels were obtained from the one-photon, two-photon interactions and the second-order perturbation theory. We have obtained also the contribution of the two-photon annihilation diagrams to the interaction operator of the P-wave positronium. The corrections of order of α 5 R ∞ and α 5 1nαR ∞ to the P-wave energy levels of positronium were calculated

  9. Pre - big bang inflation requires fine tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Michael S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Weinberg, Erick J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The pre-big-bang cosmology inspired by superstring theories has been suggested as an alternative to slow-roll inflation. We analyze, in both the Jordan and Einstein frames, the effect of spatial curvature on this scenario and show that too much curvature --- of either sign --- reduces the duration of the inflationary era to such an extent that the flatness and horizon problems are not solved. Hence, a fine-tuning of initial conditions is required to obtain enough inflation to solve the cosmological problems.

  10. Fine structure of 25 extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittels, J.J.; Knight, C.A.; Shapiro, I.I.; Hinteregger, H.F.; Rogers, A.E.E.; Whitney, A.R.; Clark, T.A.; Hutton, L.K.; Marandino, G.E.; Neill, A.E.; Ronnang, B.G.; Rydbeck, O.E.H.; Klemperer, W.K.; Warnock, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    Between 1972 April and 1973 May, 25 extragalactic radio sources were observed interferometrically at 7.8 GHz(lambdaapprox. =3.8 cm) with five pairings of antennas. These sources exhibit a broad variety of fine structures from very simple to complex. Although the structure and the total power of some of these sources have remained unchanged within the sensitivity of our measurements during the year of observations, both the total flux and the correlated flux of others have undergone large changes in a few weeks

  11. Fine structure in deformed proton emitting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; Davids, C. N.; Woods, P. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ressler, J. J.; Schwartz, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Walters, W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In a recent experiment to study the proton radioactivity of the highly deformed 131 Eu nucleus, two proton lines were detected. The higher energy one was assigned to the ground-state to ground-state decay, while the lower energy, to the ground-state to the 2 + state decay. This constitutes the first observation of fine structure in proton radioactivity. With these four measured quantities, proton energies, half-life and branching ratio, it is possible to determine the Nilsson configuration of the ground state of the proton emitting nucleus as well as the 2 + energy and nuclear deformation of the daughter nucleus. These results will be presented and discussed

  12. Resolution 1540, ten years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Adopted on the 28 April 2004 by the United Nations Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, Resolution 1540 is a composite tool that was hitherto unprecedented. To recap, States are bound to 'refrain from providing any form of support to non-State actors that attempt to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery' (par. 1), and to prohibit and prevent non-State actors from the aforementioned through 'appropriate and effective' (par. 2,3) legal, judiciary, and administrative means. A Committee was established to which States had to submit a first report outlining the steps 'they have taken or intend to take to implement this resolution' (par. 4). This Committee was initially established for two years and has been regularly renewed since, and its mandate was extended in 2011 for ten years. It is not a surveillance mechanism. Finally, with the aim of remedying difficulties that certain States may experience in implementing the Resolution, 'States in a position to do so' are invited to offer assistance (par. 7). The level of the application of Resolution 1540 was originally based on a delicate three-pronged balance of obligation, good will, and partnership. It is not a matter of designating certain States to the rest of the international community, whilst avoiding that the exercise be limited to the submission of national reports, instead aiming to initiate a dynamic. The wager was a risky one. Ten years on, 90% of UN member States have submitted one or several implementation reports. 170 States and 50 international and regional organisations have taken part in outreach and implementation support events. Whatever quantitative or qualitative conclusions that can be reached, we should continue to promote the Re-solution's universal adoption, and to ensure that the implementation of its provisions is undertaken in a lasting manner, taking account of the national

  13. Impact of meteorological conditions on airborne fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics in urban area during winter-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schäfer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of airborne fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics in the case of Augsburg, Germany, during winter (31 January–12 March 2010 is studied on the basis of aerosol mass spectrometry (3 non-refractory components and organic matter, 3 positive matrix factorizations (PMF factors, particle size distributions (PSD, 5 size modes, 5 PMF factors, further air pollutant mass concentrations (7 gases and VOC, black carbon, PM10, PM2.5 and meteorological measurements, including mixing layer height (MLH, with one-hourly temporal resolution. Data were subjectively assigned to 10 temporal phases which are characterised by different meteorological influences and air pollutant concentrations. In each phase hierarchical clustering analysis with the Ward method was applied to the correlations of air pollutants, PM components, PM source contributions and PSD modes and correlations of these data with all meteorological parameters. This analysis resulted in different degrees of sensitivities of these air pollutant data to single meteorological parameters. It is generally found that wind speed (negatively, MLH (negatively, relative humidity (positively and wind direction influence primary pollutant and accumulation mode particle (size range 100–500 nm concentrations. Temperature (negatively, absolute humidity (negatively and also relative humidity (positively are relevant for secondary compounds of PM and particle (PM2.5, PM10 mass concentrations. NO, nucleation and Aitken mode particle and the fresh traffic aerosol concentrations are only weakly dependent on meteorological parameters and thus are driven by emissions. These daily variation data analyses provide new, detailed meteorological influences on air pollutant data with the focus on fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics and can explain major parts of certain PM component and gaseous pollutant exposure.

  14. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  15. Fine-tuning and the stability of recurrent neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David MacNeil

    Full Text Available A central criticism of standard theoretical approaches to constructing stable, recurrent model networks is that the synaptic connection weights need to be finely-tuned. This criticism is severe because proposed rules for learning these weights have been shown to have various limitations to their biological plausibility. Hence it is unlikely that such rules are used to continuously fine-tune the network in vivo. We describe a learning rule that is able to tune synaptic weights in a biologically plausible manner. We demonstrate and test this rule in the context of the oculomotor integrator, showing that only known neural signals are needed to tune the weights. We demonstrate that the rule appropriately accounts for a wide variety of experimental results, and is robust under several kinds of perturbation. Furthermore, we show that the rule is able to achieve stability as good as or better than that provided by the linearly optimal weights often used in recurrent models of the integrator. Finally, we discuss how this rule can be generalized to tune a wide variety of recurrent attractor networks, such as those found in head direction and path integration systems, suggesting that it may be used to tune a wide variety of stable neural systems.

  16. Hearing aid fine-tuning based on Dutch descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielemans, Thijs; Pans, Donné; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to derive an independent fitting assistant based on expert consensus. Two questions were asked: (1) what (Dutch) terms do hearing impaired listeners use nowadays to describe their specific hearing aid fitting problems? (2) What is the expert consensus on how to resolve these complaints by adjusting hearing aid parameters? Hearing aid dispensers provided descriptors that impaired listeners use to describe their reactions to specific hearing aid fitting problems. Hearing aid fitting experts were asked "How would you adjust the hearing aid if its user reports that the aid sounds…?" with the blank filled with each of the 40 most frequently mentioned descriptors. 112 hearing aid dispensers and 15 hearing aid experts. The expert solution with the highest weight value was considered the best solution for that descriptor. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify a factor structure in fitting problems. Nine fitting problems could be identified resulting in an expert-based, hearing aid manufacturer independent, fine-tuning fitting assistant for clinical use. The construction of an expert-based, hearing aid manufacturer independent, fine-tuning fitting assistant to be used as an additional tool in the iterative fitting process is feasible.

  17. Modern Cosmology and Anthropic Fine-Tuning: Three approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robin

    The anthropic fine-tuning of the cosmos refers to the claim that the laws of nature, the constants of physics, and the initial conditions of the universe must be set to an enormous degree of precision for embodied conscious agents to exist. Three major responses have been offered to this fine-tuning: the multiverse explanation; theism; and the claim that it is just a brute fact that requires no further explanation. In this chapter, I will consider each explanation in turn, and provide some novel arguments for the superiority of a theistic or related explanation. In the last section, I will show how whether or not one adopts a theistic or related explanation can significantly influence what features of the universe one considers in need of further scientific explanation, and the type of scientific explanation that one should find satisfactory. In particular, I will argue that in some cases atheism, not theism, serves as a science stopper in discouraging a search for deeper scientific explanations of phenomena.

  18. Rotating drum tests of particle suspensions within a fines dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Gollin, Devis; Kaitna, Roland; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Natural flows like mudflows, debris flow, and hyperconcentrated flows are commonly composed by a matrix of particles suspended in a viscous fluid. The nature of the interactions between particles immersed in a fluid is related to its size. While coarse particles (sand, gravel, and boulders) interact with each other or with the surrounding fluid, a dispersion of fine particles interacts with each other through colloidal forces or Brownian motion effects (Coussot and Piau, 1995, and Ancey and Jorrot, 2001). The predominance of one of the previous interactions defines the rheology of the flow. On this sense, experimental insight is required to validate the limits where the rheology of a dispersion of fines is valid. For this purpose, an experimental program in a rotating drum is performed over samples of sand, loess, and kaolin. The solid concentration and angular velocity of the rotating drum are varied. Height and normal loads are measured during flow. High-speed videos are performed to obtain the flow patterns of the mixtures. The experiments provide new laboratory evidence of granular mixture behaviour within an increased viscous fluid phase and its characterization. The results show an apparent threshold in terms of solid concentration, in which the mixtures started to behave as a shear-dependent material.

  19. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  20. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  1. The gating cycle of a K+ channel at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Luis G. [Center for Membrane Protein Research, Department of Cell Physiology and Molecular Biophysics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, United States; Cortes, D. Marien [Center for Membrane Protein Research, Department of Cell Physiology and Molecular Biophysics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, United States; Perozo, Eduardo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, United States

    2017-11-22

    C-type inactivation in potassium channels helps fine-tune long-term channel activity through conformational changes at the selectivity filter. Here, through the use of cross-linked constitutively open constructs, we determined the structures of KcsA’s mutants that stabilize the selectivity filter in its conductive (E71A, at 2.25 Å) and deep C-type inactivated (Y82A at 2.4 Å) conformations. These structural snapshots represent KcsA’s transient open-conductive (O/O) and the stable open deep C-type inactivated states (O/I), respectively. The present structures provide an unprecedented view of the selectivity filter backbone in its collapsed deep C-type inactivated conformation, highlighting the close interactions with structural waters and the local allosteric interactions that couple activation and inactivation gating. Together with the structures associated with the closed-inactivated state (C/I) and in the well-known closed conductive state (C/O), this work recapitulates, at atomic resolution, the key conformational changes of a potassium channel pore domain as it progresses along its gating cycle.

  2. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  3. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  4. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  5. A study of spatial resolution in pollution exposure modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Susanna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of several ongoing projects concerning epidemiological research into the effects on health of exposure to air pollutants in the region of Scania, southern Sweden. The aim is to investigate the optimal spatial resolution, with respect to temporal resolution, for a pollutant database of NOx-values which will be used mainly for epidemiological studies with durations of days, weeks or longer periods. The fact that a pollutant database has a fixed spatial resolution makes the choice critical for the future use of the database. Results The results from the study showed that the accuracy between the modelled concentrations of the reference grid with high spatial resolution (100 m, denoted the fine grid, and the coarser grids (200, 400, 800 and 1600 meters improved with increasing spatial resolution. When the pollutant values were aggregated in time (from hours to days and weeks the disagreement between the fine grid and the coarser grids were significantly reduced. The results also illustrate a considerable difference in optimal spatial resolution depending on the characteristic of the study area (rural or urban areas. To estimate the accuracy of the modelled values comparison were made with measured NOx values. The mean difference between the modelled and the measured value were 0.6 μg/m3 and the standard deviation 5.9 μg/m3 for the daily difference. Conclusion The choice of spatial resolution should not considerably deteriorate the accuracy of the modelled NOx values. Considering the comparison between modelled and measured values we estimate that an error due to coarse resolution greater than 1 μg/m3 is inadvisable if a time resolution of one day is used. Based on the study of different spatial resolutions we conclude that for urban areas a spatial resolution of 200–400 m is suitable; and for rural areas the spatial resolution could be coarser (about 1600 m. This implies that we should develop a pollutant

  6. High resolution field study of sediment dynamics on a strongly heterogeneous bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly Du Bois, P.; Blanpain, O.; Lafite, R.; Cugier, P.; Lunven, M.

    2010-12-01

    Extensive field measurements have been carried out at several stations in a macrotidal inner continental shelf in the English Channel (around 25 m depth) during spring tide period. The strong tidal current measured (up to 1.6 m.s-1) allowed sediment dynamics on a bed characterised by a mixture of size with coarse grains to be dominant. Data acquired in such hydro-sedimentary conditions are scarce. A new instrument, the DYnamic Sediment Profile Imagery (DySPI) system, was specifically conceived and implemented in-situ to observe and measure, with a high temporal resolution, the dynamics of a strongly heterogeneous mixture of particles in a grain-size scale. The data collected covered: 1) grain size range (side scan sonar, video observations, Shipeck grab samples, DySPI images) and vertical sorting (stratigraphic sampling by divers) of sediment cover, 2) hydrodynamic features (acoustic Doppler velocimeter, acoustic Doppler profiler), 3) suspended load nature and dynamics (optical backscatter, chlorophyll fluorometer, particle size analyser, Niskin bottles, scanning electron microscopy), 4) sand and gravel bedload transport estimates (DySPI image processing), 5) transfer dynamics of fine grains within a coarse matrix and their depth of penetration (radionuclides measurements in stratigraphic samples). The four stations present different grain size vertical sorting from a quasi-permanent armouring to a homogenous distribution. The sediment cover condition is directly linked to hydrodynamic capacity and sediment availability. Fine grain ratio within deep sediment layers (up to 10 cm) is higher when the bed armouring is durable. However, fine sediments are not permanently depth trapped: deep layers are composed of few years-old radionuclide tracers fixed on fine grains and a vertical mixing coefficient has been evaluated for each sediment cover. Fine grain dynamics within a coarse matrix is inversely proportional to the robustness of the armour layer. For current

  7. Picobubble column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Samuel Yu; Xiaohua Zhou; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh (0.6 mm) or -100 mesh (0.15 mm) fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range, nominally 10-100 {mu}m, beyond which the flotation efficiency drops sharply. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. Experimental results have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 5-cm diameter column flotation increased the combustible recovery of a highly floatable coal by up to 10% and that of a poorly floatable coal by up to 40%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. 14 refs.

  8. Extramedullary plasmacytoma. Fine needle aspiration findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P V; Owji, S M; Talei, A R; Malekhusseini, S A

    1997-01-01

    To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma. The study group consisted of 13 patients with palpable masses at various sites. The tumors were aspirated for cytologic study. The smears revealed groups of mature and immature plasma cells at various stages of maturation. Mature plasma cells showed an eccentric nucleus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with a paranuclear halo. Plasmablasts (immature plasma cells) showed a prominent, eccentric nucleus with single, large nucleolus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with no paranuclear halo. Binucleate and multinucleate forms were also seen quite often. The tumors were excised, and the histologic sections confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. All the patients received radiotherapy. One patient (18 years old) developed recurrence and died due to extensive infiltration into the maxilla and mandible. Two patients (57 and 62 years) developed multiple myeloma one to two years after the excision of tumors, and both died two to three months later. The remaining 10 patients were alive and well at this writing. The smears from all 13 patients were diagnosed as extramedullary plasmacytomas by fine needle aspiration cytology.

  9. Communication Optimizations for Fine-Grained UPCApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Iancu, Costin; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-07-08

    Global address space languages like UPC exhibit high performance and portability on a broad class of shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. The most scalable applications use bulk memory copies rather than individual reads and writes to the shared space, but finer-grained sharing can be useful for scenarios such as dynamic load balancing, event signaling, and distributed hash tables. In this paper we present three optimization techniques for global address space programs with fine-grained communication: redundancy elimination, use of split-phase communication, and communication coalescing. Parallel UPC programs are analyzed using static single assignment form and a data flow graph, which are extended to handle the various shared and private pointer types that are available in UPC. The optimizations also take advantage of UPC's relaxed memory consistency model, which reduces the need for cross thread analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the analysis and optimizations using several benchmarks, which were chosen to reflect the kinds of fine-grained, communication-intensive phases that exist in some larger applications. The optimizations show speedups of up to 70 percent on three parallel systems, which represent three different types of cluster network technologies.

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parapharyngeal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Palash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties due to their location and plethora of presentations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the occurrence in the population and to evaluate the exact nature by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Materials and Methods: A total of five hundred and six cases of lateral neck lesions were studied over three and half years. Of these 56 suspected parapharyngeal masses were selected by clinical and radiological methods. Cytopathology evaluation was done by fine needle aspiration cytology with computed tomography and ultrasonography guidance wherever necessary. Histopathology confirmation was available in all the cases. Results: On FNAC diagnosis could be established in 54 cases while in two cases the material was insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The tumors encountered were, pleomorphic adenoma (33, schwannoma (3, neurofibroma (11, paraganglioma (5, angiofibroma (1 and adenoid cystic carcinoma (1. Four false positives and two false negative cases were encountered. Overall sensitivity was 96%, with specificity of 99% and accuracy being 98.8%. Conclusions: With proper clinical and radiological assessment, FNAC can be extremely useful in diagnosing most of these lesions except a few which need histopathological and even immunohistochemical confirmation.

  11. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.

  12. Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokuda, K.; Shimada, K.; Ichitsubo, T.; Oishi, M.; Mizuki, J.; Matsubara, E.

    2014-01-01

    The diffraction anomalous fine structure method has been revisited by applying this measurement technique to polycrystalline samples and using an analytical method with the logarithmic dispersion relation. The diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) method that is a spectroscopic analysis combined with resonant X-ray diffraction enables the determination of the valence state and local structure of a selected element at a specific crystalline site and/or phase. This method has been improved by using a polycrystalline sample, channel-cut monochromator optics with an undulator synchrotron radiation source, an area detector and direct determination of resonant terms with a logarithmic dispersion relation. This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe 3 O 4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method

  13. Fine particle magnetic mineralogy of archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D; King, J A

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the magnetic mineralogy of a worldwide collection of archaeological pottery. The mineral types, the mass fractions and the domain states of the constituent magnetic fine particles were elucidated from a range of measurements including magnetic hysteresis behaviour, the acquisition of isothermal remanence, low field susceptibility and thermomagnetic curves. The magnetic mineralogy of most samples was dominated by magnetite. Titanomagnetites with limited titanium substitution and cation deficient magnetites (indicative of low temperature oxidation) were dominant in some samples. Haematite was detected in 53% of the samples, but seldom contributed much to the saturation magnetization. Magnetic particle sizes are skewed to smaller sizes, with sherds mostly having a large superparamagnetic or a stable single domain fraction. Low temperature susceptibility data suggest that 30% of samples had some multidomain component. The percentage by mass of magnetic material in the ancient pottery studied was less than 0.8% for all but one of the samples and the majority of samples contain less than 0.3% by weight of magnetic fine particles. The presence of low temperature oxidation in many samples and the occurrence of a multidomain component in a third of the collection suggest that ancient pottery may not always be suitable for determining the intensity of the ancient geomagnetic field

  14. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Akio, E-mail: akio.yoneyama.bu@hitachi.com; Baba, Rika [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry Showa University, Ota-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  15. Resolution 1540 (2004) overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk, N.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the Resolution 1540, its features and its status of implementation. Resolution 1540 is a response to the risk that non-State actors may acquire, develop, traffic in weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. Resolution 1540 was adopted on 28 April 2004 by the U.N. Security Council at the unanimity of its members. Resolution 1540 deals with the 3 kinds of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical and biological weapons) as well as 'related materials'. This resolution implies 3 sets of obligations: first no support of non-state actors concerning weapons of mass destruction, secondly to set national laws that prohibit any non-state actors to deal with weapons of mass destruction and thirdly to enforce domestic control to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery. Four working groups operated by the 1540 Committee have been settled: - Implementation (coordinator: Germany); - Assistance (coordinator: France); - International cooperation (interim coordinator: South Africa); and - Transparency and media outreach (coordinator: USA). The status of implementation of the resolution continues to improve since 2004, much work remains to be done and the gravity of the threat remains considerable. (A.C.)

  16. Towards breaking the spatial resolution barriers: An optical flow and super-resolution approach for sea ice motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Zisis I.; Xian, Yang; Tian, YingLi

    2018-04-01

    Estimation of sea ice motion at fine scales is important for a number of regional and local level applications, including modeling of sea ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere and climate dynamics, as well as safe navigation and sea operations. In this study, we propose an optical flow and super-resolution approach to accurately estimate motion from remote sensing images at a higher spatial resolution than the original data. First, an external example learning-based super-resolution method is applied on the original images to generate higher resolution versions. Then, an optical flow approach is applied on the higher resolution images, identifying sparse correspondences and interpolating them to extract a dense motion vector field with continuous values and subpixel accuracies. Our proposed approach is successfully evaluated on passive microwave, optical, and Synthetic Aperture Radar data, proving appropriate for multi-sensor applications and different spatial resolutions. The approach estimates motion with similar or higher accuracy than the original data, while increasing the spatial resolution of up to eight times. In addition, the adopted optical flow component outperforms a state-of-the-art pattern matching method. Overall, the proposed approach results in accurate motion vectors with unprecedented spatial resolutions of up to 1.5 km for passive microwave data covering the entire Arctic and 20 m for radar data, and proves promising for numerous scientific and operational applications.

  17. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  18. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  19. Marvels of enzyme catalysis at true atomic resolution: distortions, bond elongations, hidden flips, protonation states and atom identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Piotr; Tittmann, Kai

    2014-12-01

    Although general principles of enzyme catalysis are fairly well understood nowadays, many important details of how exactly the substrate is bound and processed in an enzyme remain often invisible and as such elusive. In fortunate cases, structural analysis of enzymes can be accomplished at true atomic resolution thus making possible to shed light on otherwise concealed fine-structural traits of bound substrates, intermediates, cofactors and protein groups. We highlight recent structural studies of enzymes using ultrahigh-resolution X-ray protein crystallography showcasing its enormous potential as a tool in the elucidation of enzymatic mechanisms and in unveiling fundamental principles of enzyme catalysis. We discuss the observation of seemingly hyper-reactive, physically distorted cofactors and intermediates with elongated scissile substrate bonds, the detection of 'hidden' conformational and chemical equilibria and the analysis of protonation states with surprising findings. In delicate cases, atomic resolution is required to unambiguously disclose the identity of atoms as demonstrated for the metal cluster in nitrogenase. In addition to the pivotal structural findings and the implications for our understanding of enzyme catalysis, we further provide a practical framework for resolution enhancement through optimized data acquisition and processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Spatial Resolution in the Computer Modelling of Atmospheric Flow over a Double-Hill Forested Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J. L.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Lopes, A. S.; Carneiro, A. M. C.; Coelho, R. P. C.; Gomes, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    With the ever increasing accuracy required from numerical weather forecasts, there is pressure to increase the resolution and fidelity employed in computational micro-scale flow models. However, numerical studies of complex terrain flows are fundamentally bound by the digital representation of the terrain and land cover. This work assess the impact of the surface description on micro-scale simulation results at a highly complex site in Perdigão, Portugal, characterized by a twin parallel ridge topography, densely forested areas and an operating wind turbine. Although Coriolis and stratification effects cannot be ignored, the study is done under neutrally stratified atmosphere and static inflow conditions. The understanding gained here will later carry over to WRF-coupled simulations, where those conditions do not apply and the flow physics is more accurately modelled. With access to very fine digital mappings (wind turbine, c) the canopy cover, as either body forces or added surface roughness (akin to meso-scale modelling), d) high resolution topography and surface cover mapping. Each of these individually will have an impact near the surface, including the rotor swept area of modern wind turbines. Combined they will considerably change flow up to boundary layer heights. Sensitivity to these elements cannot be generalized and should be assessed case-by-case. This type of in-depth study, unfeasible using WRF-coupled simulations, should provide considerable insight when spatially allocating mesh resolution for accurate resolution of complex flows.

  1. Formation of fine sediment deposit from a flash flood river in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Gracia, Vicenç; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Guillén, Jorge; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We identify the mechanisms controlling fine deposits on the inner-shelf in front of the Besòs River, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. This river is characterized by a flash flood regime discharging large amounts of water (more than 20 times the mean water discharge) and sediment in very short periods lasting from hours to few days. Numerical model output was compared with bottom sediment observations and used to characterize the multiple spatial and temporal scales involved in offshore sediment deposit formation. A high-resolution (50 m grid size) coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment transport model was applied to the initial stages of the sediment dispersal after a storm-related flood event. After the flood, sediment accumulation was predominantly confined to an area near the coastline as a result of preferential deposition during the final stage of the storm. Subsequent reworking occurred due to wave-induced bottom shear stress that resuspended fine materials, with seaward flow exporting them toward the midshelf. Wave characteristics, sediment availability, and shelf circulation determined the transport after the reworking and the final sediment deposition location. One year simulations of the regional area revealed a prevalent southwestward average flow with increased intensity downstream. The circulation pattern was consistent with the observed fine deposit depocenter being shifted southward from the river mouth. At the southern edge, bathymetry controlled the fine deposition by inducing near-bottom flow convergence enhancing bottom shear stress. According to the short-term and long-term analyses, a seasonal pattern in the fine deposit formation is expected.

  2. Dual-resolution dose assessments for proton beamlet using MCNPX 2.6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. C.; Wei, S. C.; Wu, S. W.; Tung, C. J.; Tu, S. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Lee, C. C.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to access proton dose distribution in dual resolution phantoms using MCNPX 2.6.0. The dual resolution phantom uses higher resolution in Bragg peak, area near large dose gradient, or heterogeneous interface and lower resolution in the rest. MCNPX 2.6.0 was installed in Ubuntu 10.04 with MPI for parallel computing. FMesh1 tallies were utilized to record the energy deposition which is a special designed tally for voxel phantoms that converts dose deposition from fluence. 60 and 120 MeV narrow proton beam were incident into Coarse, Dual and Fine resolution phantoms with pure water, water-bone-water and water-air-water setups. The doses in coarse resolution phantoms are underestimated owing to partial volume effect. The dose distributions in dual or high resolution phantoms agreed well with each other and dual resolution phantoms were at least 10 times more efficient than fine resolution one. Because the secondary particle range is much longer in air than in water, the dose of low density region may be under-estimated if the resolution or calculation grid is not small enough.

  3. Fining of glass melts: what we know about fining processes today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses the mechanisms of fining (removal of gases from melt) and the effect of batch composition, oxidation state of the melt and furnace atmosphere on bubble removal processes for commercial glass types, such as float glass and container glass compositions. The mechanisms of the

  4. A variable resolution nonhydrostatic global atmospheric semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, George Antoine

    2000-10-01

    topographic data set and the variable resolution grid, sets of experiments with increasing resolution were performed over specific regions of interest. Using realistic initial conditions derived from re-analysis fields, nonhydrostatic effects were significant for grid spacings on the order of 0.1 degrees with orographic forcing. If the model code was adapted for use in a message passing interface (MPI) on a parallel supercomputer today, it was estimated that a global grid spacing of 0.1 degrees would be achievable for a global model. In this case, nonhydrostatic effects would be significant for most areas. A variable resolution grid in a global model provides a unified and flexible approach to many climate and numerical weather prediction problems. The ability to configure the model from very fine to very coarse resolutions allows for the simulation of atmospheric phenomena at different scales using the same code. We have developed a dynamical core illustrating the feasibility of using a variable resolution in a global model.

  5. Observations of coastal sediment dynamics of the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project, Imperial Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lam, Angela; Ferreiera, Joanne; Miller, Ian M.; Rippy, Meg; Svejkovsky, Jan; Mustain, Neomi

    2012-01-01

    Coastal restoration and management must address the presence, use, and transportation of fine sediment, yet little information exists on the patterns and/or processes of fine-sediment transport and deposition for these systems. To fill this information gap, a number of State of California, Federal, and private industry partners developed the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project ("Demonstration Project") with the purpose of monitoring the transport, fate, and impacts of fine sediment from beach-sediment nourishments in 2008 and 2009 near the Tijuana River estuary, Imperial Beach, California. The primary purpose of the Demonstration Project was to collect and provide information about the directions, rates, and processes of fine-sediment transport along and across a California beach and nearshore setting. To achieve these goals, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored water, beach, and seafloor properties during the 2008–2009 Demonstration Project. The project utilized sediment with ~40 percent fine sediment by mass so that the dispersal and transport of fine sediment would be easily recognizable. The purpose of this report is to present and disseminate the data collected during the physical monitoring of the Demonstration Project. These data are available online at the links noted in the "Additional Digital Information" section. Synthesis of these data and results will be provided in subsequent publications.

  6. Coupling physics and biogeochemistry thanks to high-resolution observations of the phytoplankton community structure in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrec, Pierre; Grégori, Gérald; Doglioli, Andrea M.; Dugenne, Mathilde; Della Penna, Alice; Bhairy, Nagib; Cariou, Thierry; Hélias Nunige, Sandra; Lahbib, Soumaya; Rougier, Gilles; Wagener, Thibaut; Thyssen, Melilotus

    2018-03-01

    Fine-scale physical structures and ocean dynamics strongly influence and regulate biogeochemical and ecological processes. These processes are particularly challenging to describe and understand because of their ephemeral nature. The OSCAHR (Observing Submesoscale Coupling At High Resolution) campaign was conducted in fall 2015 in which a fine-scale structure (1-10 km/1-10 days) in the northwestern Mediterranean Ligurian subbasin was pre-identified using both satellite and numerical modeling data. Along the ship track, various variables were measured at the surface (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations) with ADCP current velocity. We also deployed a new model of the CytoSense automated flow cytometer (AFCM) optimized for small and dim cells, for near real-time characterization of the surface phytoplankton community structure of surface waters with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers and an hourly temporal resolution. For the first time with this optimized version of the AFCM, we were able to fully resolve Prochlorococcus picocyanobacteria in addition to the easily distinguishable Synechococcus. The vertical physical dynamics and biogeochemical properties of the studied area were investigated by continuous high-resolution CTD profiles thanks to a moving vessel profiler (MVP) during the vessel underway associated with a high-resolution pumping system deployed during fixed stations allowing sampling of the water column at a fine resolution (below 1 m). The observed fine-scale feature presented a cyclonic structure with a relatively cold core surrounded by warmer waters. Surface waters were totally depleted in nitrate and phosphate. In addition to the doming of the isopycnals by the cyclonic circulation, an intense wind event induced Ekman pumping. The upwelled subsurface cold nutrient-rich water fertilized surface waters and was marked by an increase in Chl a concentration. Prochlorococcus and pico- and nano-eukaryotes were more

  7. Coupling physics and biogeochemistry thanks to high-resolution observations of the phytoplankton community structure in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marrec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale physical structures and ocean dynamics strongly influence and regulate biogeochemical and ecological processes. These processes are particularly challenging to describe and understand because of their ephemeral nature. The OSCAHR (Observing Submesoscale Coupling At High Resolution campaign was conducted in fall 2015 in which a fine-scale structure (1–10 km∕1–10 days in the northwestern Mediterranean Ligurian subbasin was pre-identified using both satellite and numerical modeling data. Along the ship track, various variables were measured at the surface (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations with ADCP current velocity. We also deployed a new model of the CytoSense automated flow cytometer (AFCM optimized for small and dim cells, for near real-time characterization of the surface phytoplankton community structure of surface waters with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers and an hourly temporal resolution. For the first time with this optimized version of the AFCM, we were able to fully resolve Prochlorococcus picocyanobacteria in addition to the easily distinguishable Synechococcus. The vertical physical dynamics and biogeochemical properties of the studied area were investigated by continuous high-resolution CTD profiles thanks to a moving vessel profiler (MVP during the vessel underway associated with a high-resolution pumping system deployed during fixed stations allowing sampling of the water column at a fine resolution (below 1 m. The observed fine-scale feature presented a cyclonic structure with a relatively cold core surrounded by warmer waters. Surface waters were totally depleted in nitrate and phosphate. In addition to the doming of the isopycnals by the cyclonic circulation, an intense wind event induced Ekman pumping. The upwelled subsurface cold nutrient-rich water fertilized surface waters and was marked by an increase in Chl a concentration. Prochlorococcus and pico

  8. Fine structure in fast drift storm bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.; Ellis, G.R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations with high time resolution of fast drift storm (FDS) solar bursts are described. A new variety of FDS bursts characterised by intensity maxima regularly placed in the frequency domain is reported. Possible interpretations of this are mentioned and the implications of the short duration of FDS bursts are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): A Different Framework for Conflict Resolution in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Selahattin; Taylor, Charles

    This paper briefly introduces alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes and their fundamental principles. The paper provides a review of the literature on ADR and discusses its applicability in educational settings. The concept of conflict is explained, along with analysis of the limitations of traditional conflict resolution processes. The…

  10. Medical service provider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2018-05-17

    In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null. Although all providers join the network under any-willing-provider contracting in the absence of third-party payment, an asymmetric equilibrium may exist when this billing arrangement is implemented. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.; Hosegood, P.; Wynn, R. B.; De Boer, M. N.; Butler-Cowdry, S.; Embling, C. B.

    2014-11-01

    The coastal Runnelstone Reef, off southwest Cornwall (UK), is characterised by complex topography and strong tidal flows and is a known high-density site for harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena); a European protected species. Using a multidisciplinary dataset including: porpoise sightings from a multi-year land-based survey, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiling (ADCP), vertical profiling of water properties and high-resolution bathymetry; we investigate how interactions between tidal flow and topography drive the fine-scale porpoise spatio-temporal distribution at the site. Porpoise sightings were distributed non-uniformly within the survey area with highest sighting density recorded in areas with steep slopes and moderate depths. Greater numbers of sightings were recorded during strong westward (ebbing) tidal flows compared to strong eastward (flooding) flows and slack water periods. ADCP and Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) data identified fine-scale hydrodynamic features, associated with cross-reef tidal flows in the sections of the survey area with the highest recorded densities of porpoises. We observed layered, vertically sheared flows that were susceptible to the generation of turbulence by shear instability. Additionally, the intense, oscillatory near surface currents led to hydraulically controlled flow that transitioned from subcritical to supercritical conditions; indicating that highly turbulent and energetic hydraulic jumps were generated along the eastern and western slopes of the reef. The depression and release of isopycnals in the lee of the reef during cross-reef flows revealed that the flow released lee waves during upslope currents at specific phases of the tidal cycle when the highest sighting rates were recorded. The results of this unique, fine-scale field study provide new insights into specific hydrodynamic features, produced through tidal forcing, that may be important for creating predictable foraging opportunities for porpoises at a

  12. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  13. An Example-Based Super-Resolution Algorithm for Selfie Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jino Hans William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A selfie is typically a self-portrait captured using the front camera of a smartphone. Most state-of-the-art smartphones are equipped with a high-resolution (HR rear camera and a low-resolution (LR front camera. As selfies are captured by front camera with limited pixel resolution, the fine details in it are explicitly missed. This paper aims to improve the resolution of selfies by exploiting the fine details in HR images captured by rear camera using an example-based super-resolution (SR algorithm. HR images captured by rear camera carry significant fine details and are used as an exemplar to train an optimal matrix-value regression (MVR operator. The MVR operator serves as an image-pair priori which learns the correspondence between the LR-HR patch-pairs and is effectively used to super-resolve LR selfie images. The proposed MVR algorithm avoids vectorization of image patch-pairs and preserves image-level information during both learning and recovering process. The proposed algorithm is evaluated for its efficiency and effectiveness both qualitatively and quantitatively with other state-of-the-art SR algorithms. The results validate that the proposed algorithm is efficient as it requires less than 3 seconds to super-resolve LR selfie and is effective as it preserves sharp details without introducing any counterfeit fine details.

  14. Fine Scale ANUClimate Data for Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment of Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Kesteven, J. L.; Xu, T.; Evans, B. J.; Togashi, H. F.; Stein, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution spatially extended values of climate variables play a central role in the assessment of climate and projected future climate in ecosystem modeling. The ground based meteorological network remains a key resource for deriving these spatially extended climate variables. We report on the production, and applications, of new anomaly based fine scale spatial interpolations of key climate variables at daily and monthly time scale, across the Australian continent. The methods incorporate several innovations that have significantly improved spatial predictive accuracy, as well as providing a platform for the incorporation of additional remotely sensed data. The interpolated climate data are supporting many continent-wide ecosystem modeling applications and are playing a key role in testing optimality hypotheses associated with plant functional types (PFTs). The accuracy, and robustness to data error, of anomaly-based interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating physical process aspects of the different climate variables and employing robust statistical methods implemented in the ANUSPLIN package. New regression procedures have also been developed to estimate "background" monthly climate normals from all stations with minimal records to substantially increase the density of supporting spatial networks. Monthly mean temperature interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating process based coastal effects that have reduced predictive error by around 10%. Overall errors in interpolated monthly temperature fields are around 25% less than errors reported by an earlier study. For monthly and daily precipitation, a new anomaly structure has been devised to take account of the skewness in precipitation data and the large proportion of zero values that present significant challenges to standard interpolation methods. The many applications include continent-wide Gross Primary Production modeling and assessing constraints on light and water use efficiency derived

  15. Fine-grained, local maps and coarse, global representations support human spatial working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu

    Full Text Available While sensory processes are tuned to particular features, such as an object's specific location, color or orientation, visual working memory (vWM is assumed to store information using representations, which generalize over a feature dimension. Additionally, current vWM models presume that different features or objects are stored independently. On the other hand, configurational effects, when observed, are supposed to mainly reflect encoding strategies. We show that the location of the target, relative to the display center and boundaries, and overall memory load influenced recall precision, indicating that, like sensory processes, capacity limited vWM resources are spatially tuned. When recalling one of three memory items the target distance from the display center was overestimated, similar to the error when only one item was memorized, but its distance from the memory items' average position was underestimated, showing that not only individual memory items' position, but also the global configuration of the memory array may be stored. Finally, presenting the non-target items at recall, consequently providing landmarks and configurational information, improved precision and accuracy of target recall. Similarly, when the non-target items were translated at recall, relative to their position in the initial display, a parallel displacement of the recalled target was observed. These findings suggest that fine-grained spatial information in vWM is represented in local maps whose resolution varies with distance from landmarks, such as the display center, while coarse representations are used to store the memory array configuration. Both these representations are updated at the time of recall.

  16. Fine-Grained, Local Maps and Coarse, Global Representations Support Human Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    While sensory processes are tuned to particular features, such as an object's specific location, color or orientation, visual working memory (vWM) is assumed to store information using representations, which generalize over a feature dimension. Additionally, current vWM models presume that different features or objects are stored independently. On the other hand, configurational effects, when observed, are supposed to mainly reflect encoding strategies. We show that the location of the target, relative to the display center and boundaries, and overall memory load influenced recall precision, indicating that, like sensory processes, capacity limited vWM resources are spatially tuned. When recalling one of three memory items the target distance from the display center was overestimated, similar to the error when only one item was memorized, but its distance from the memory items' average position was underestimated, showing that not only individual memory items' position, but also the global configuration of the memory array may be stored. Finally, presenting the non-target items at recall, consequently providing landmarks and configurational information, improved precision and accuracy of target recall. Similarly, when the non-target items were translated at recall, relative to their position in the initial display, a parallel displacement of the recalled target was observed. These findings suggest that fine-grained spatial information in vWM is represented in local maps whose resolution varies with distance from landmarks, such as the display center, while coarse representations are used to store the memory array configuration. Both these representations are updated at the time of recall. PMID:25259601

  17. Regional Scale High Resolution δ18O Prediction in Precipitation Using MODIS EVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cho-Ying; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Shou-De; Lo, Yi-Chen; Huang, Bo-Wen; Hatch, Kent A.; Shiu, Hau-Jie; You, Cheng-Feng; Chang, Yuan-Mou; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The natural variation in stable water isotope ratio data, also known as water isoscape, is a spatiotemporal fingerprint and a powerful natural tracer that has been widely applied in disciplines as diverse as hydrology, paleoclimatology, ecology and forensic investigation. Although much effort has been devoted to developing a predictive water isoscape model, it remains a central challenge for scientists to generate high accuracy, fine scale spatiotemporal water isoscape prediction. Here we develop a novel approach of using the MODIS-EVI (the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer-Enhanced Vegetation Index), to predict δ18O in precipitation at the regional scale. Using a structural equation model, we show that the EVI and precipitated δ18O are highly correlated and thus the EVI is a good predictor of precipitated δ18O. We then test the predictability of our EVI-δ18O model and demonstrate that our approach can provide high accuracy with fine spatial (250×250 m) and temporal (16 days) scale δ18O predictions (annual and monthly predictabilities [r] are 0.96 and 0.80, respectively). We conclude the merging of the EVI and δ18O in precipitation can greatly extend the spatial and temporal data availability and thus enhance the applicability for both the EVI and water isoscape. PMID:23029053

  18. Western Lake Erie Basin: Soft-data-constrained, NHDPlus resolution watershed modeling and exploration of applicable conservation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Haw; White, Michael J; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Keitzer, S Conor; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Atwood, Jay D; Daggupati, Prasad; Herbert, Matthew E; Sowa, Scott P; Ludsin, Stuart A; Robertson, Dale M; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Rewa, Charles A

    2016-11-01

    Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Western Lake Erie Basin: Soft-data-constrained, NHDPlus resolution watershed modeling and exploration of applicable conservation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Haw; White, Michael J.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Keitzer, S. Conor; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Atwood, Jay D.; Daggupati, Prasad; Herbert, Matthew E.; Sowa, Scott P.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Robertson, Dale M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Rewa, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2012) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation.

  20. Experimental determination of the relativistic fine-structure splitting in pionic Ti and Fe atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.; Boehm, F.; Bovet, E.; Hahn, A.A.; Henrikson, H.E.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.; Kunselman, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Using a high-resolution crystal spectrometer we have measured the relativistic angular-momentum splittings of the 5g-4f and 5f-4d transitions in pionic Ti and Fe atoms. The observed fine-structure splittings of 85.3 +- 3.0 eV in π - Ti and 158.5 +- 7.8 eV in π - Fe agree with the calculated splittings of 88.5 and 167.6 eV, respectively, arising from the Klein-Gordon equation and from small corrections due to vacuum polarization, strong interaction, and electron screening

  1. Fine structure and optical pumping of spins in individual semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel; Korenev, Vladimir L.

    2008-11-01

    We review spin properties of semiconductor quantum dots and their effect on optical spectra. Photoluminescence and other types of spectroscopy are used to probe neutral and charged excitons in individual quantum dots with high spectral and spatial resolution. Spectral fine structure and polarization reveal how quantum dot spins interact with each other and with their environment. By taking advantage of the selectivity of optical selection rules and spin relaxation, optical spin pumping of the ground state electron and nuclear spins is achieved. Through such mechanisms, light can be used to process spins for use as a carrier of information.

  2. Fine structure and optical pumping of spins in individual semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracker, Allan S; Gammon, Daniel; Korenev, Vladimir L

    2008-01-01

    We review spin properties of semiconductor quantum dots and their effect on optical spectra. Photoluminescence and other types of spectroscopy are used to probe neutral and charged excitons in individual quantum dots with high spectral and spatial resolution. Spectral fine structure and polarization reveal how quantum dot spins interact with each other and with their environment. By taking advantage of the selectivity of optical selection rules and spin relaxation, optical spin pumping of the ground state electron and nuclear spins is achieved. Through such mechanisms, light can be used to process spins for use as a carrier of information

  3. Fine-granularity electromagnetic calorimeter using plastic scintillator strip-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, A.; Yamauchi, S.; Matsunaga, H.; Kim, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Uchida, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Garutti, E.; Iba, S.; Itoh, S.; Kajino, F.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kallies, W.; Kanzaki, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kishimoto, S.; Miyata, H.; Mzavia, D.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, R.; Ono, H.; Samoilov, V.; Sanchez, A.L.C.; Takeshita, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tsamalaidze, Z.

    2006-01-01

    For the future linear collider calorimetry, fine-granularity is indispensable for energy measurements based on particle flow algorithm, which could achieve better energy resolution for jets than the conventional method. To explore the possibility for such a calorimeter using scintillator, an electromagnetic calorimeter test module, made of scintillator-strips and lead plates, was constructed and tested with test beams. Performance of the test module is presented in this article, in terms of the shower profile studies as well as energy and spatial measurements

  4. 12 CFR 360.1 - Least-cost resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Least-cost resolution. 360.1 Section 360.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.1 Least-cost resolution. (a) General rule. Except as provided in...

  5. Fostering Creativity: A Multiple Intelligences Approach to Designing Learning in Undergraduate Fine Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela; Cripps, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum and pedagogy in undergraduate fine art can promote an approach to learning creativity that is more about being an artist than knowing about art. Lecturers can provide a road map for developing particular dispositions, in relation to student ideas and perceptions, to foster personalised creativity. This requires that lecturers have an…

  6. Development of water scrubbers to reduce fine dust emission from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Melse, R.W.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2010-01-01

    Poultry housings with litter are a major contributor to fine dust emissions (PM10/PM2.5) in the Netherlands. Poultry producers are in need of dust mitigation options that are cost effective. Such an option could be provided by adequately designed water scrubbers. Catchment of dust particles by water

  7. Deficits in Fine Motor Skills and Their Influence on Persistence among Gifted Elementary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the causes of underachievement in scholastic education. Whereas many studies have been able to show that motivational deficits provide an explanation for underachievement, little research has yet explored the possible influences of deficits in fine motor skills. The aim of our empirical study was, therefore, to investigate…

  8. Construction of Fine Particles Source Spectrum Bank in Typical Region and Empirical Research of Matching Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Sun, Wenliang; Guo, Min; Li, Minjiao; Li, Wan

    2018-01-01

    The research object of this paper is fine particles in typical region. The construction of component spectrum bank is based on the technology of online source apportionment, then the result of the apportionment is utilized to verify the effectiveness of fine particles component spectrum bank and which also act as the matching basis of online source apportionment receptor sample. On the next, the particle source of air pollution is carried through the matching diagnosis empirical research by utilizing online source apportionment technology, to provide technical support for the cause analysis and treatment of heavy pollution weather.

  9. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  10. Resolution Enhancement Algorithm for Spaceborn SAR Based on Hanning Function Weighted Sidelobe Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Zhou, X.; Tang, D.; Zhu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Resolution and sidelobe are mutual restrict for SAR image. Usually sidelobe suppression is based on resolution reduction. This paper provide a method for resolution enchancement using sidelobe opposition speciality of hanning window and SAR image. The method can keep high resolution on the condition of sidelobe suppression. Compare to traditional method, this method can enchance 50 % resolution when sidelobe is -30dB.

  11. Status report on roadmap headquarters issue resolution activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Roadmap Project Office (RPO), under the Office of Planning (EM-14), continues to review headquarters (HQ) issues raised by the field in their roadmap documents. Currently, twenty-nine HQ issues are in the ''resolution'' process or are being defined for resolution. The resolution process involves an Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (EM) HQ person, the Action Officer (AO), as the leader in the resolution process. The RPO is responsible to EM-14 for reporting on the progress of issue resolution activities and also to provide contractor support to each Action Officer: the contractor support person is identifies as the Issue Resolution Facilitator (IF). Field contacts also are identified for each issue. This document provides current information on HQ issues actively in the ''resolution'' process or being defined for resolution. The issues are primarily institutional rather than technical and mainly involve regulatory, coordination, prioritization, policy and management concerns

  12. Testing SUSY at the LHC: Electroweak and Dark matter fine tuning at two-loop order

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, S; Ross, G G

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) we evaluate the electroweak fine tuning measure that provides a quantitative test of supersymmetry as a solution to the hierarchy problem. Taking account of current experimental constraints we compute the fine tuning at two-loop order and determine the limits on the CMSSM parameter space and the measurements at the LHC most relevant in covering it. Without imposing the LEPII bound on the Higgs mass, it is shown that the fine tuning computed at two-loop has a minimum $\\Delta=8.8$ corresponding to a Higgs mass $m_h=114\\pm 2$ GeV. Adding the constraint that the SUSY dark matter relic density should be within present bounds we find $\\Delta=15$ corresponding to $m_h=114.7\\pm 2$ GeV and this rises to $\\Delta=17.8$ ($m_h=115.9\\pm 2$ GeV) for SUSY dark matter abundance within 3$\\sigma$ of the WMAP constraint. We extend the analysis to include the contribution of dark matter fine tuning. In this case the overall fine tuning and Higgs mas...

  13. Spatial Downscaling of TRMM Precipitation Using Geostatistics and Fine Scale Environmental Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    No-Wook Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A geostatistical downscaling scheme is presented and can generate fine scale precipitation information from coarse scale Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. Within the geostatistical framework, the TRMM precipitation data are first decomposed into trend and residual components. Quantitative relationships between coarse scale TRMM data and environmental variables are then estimated via regression analysis and used to derive trend components at a fine scale. Next, the residual components, which are the differences between the trend components and the original TRMM data, are then downscaled at a target fine scale via area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components are finally added to generate fine scale precipitation estimates. Stochastic simulation is also applied to the residual components in order to generate multiple alternative realizations and to compute uncertainty measures. From an experiment using a digital elevation model (DEM and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, the geostatistical downscaling scheme generated the downscaling results that reflected detailed characteristics with better predictive performance, when compared with downscaling without the environmental variables. Multiple realizations and uncertainty measures from simulation also provided useful information for interpretations and further environmental modeling.

  14. Can an Eternal Life Start From the Minimal Fine-Tuning for Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Blondé

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since modern physicists made more and more advances in precisely measuring the fundamental constants in nature, cosmologists have been confronted with this problem: how do we declare that nature’s constants are fine-tuned for the emergence of life? Many cosmologists assume nowadays that the big bang universe originates from a multiverse that consists of very many universes. Some of these must be fine-tuned for life. A fascinating question arises: Would there be any chance on a life after our death in this multiverse? In this paper, I show two things about the multiverse. First, universes in the multiverse acquire an unlimited amount of additional fine-tuning for intelligent life over the course of many universe generations. Such additional fine-tuning may consist of travelling between universes and an afterlife on a distant planet. Second, evolutionary conservation in the evolution of universes in the multiverse provides a declaration why we observe a universe that roughly has the minimal fine-tuning to support intelligent life.

  15. The effect of fine motor skills on handwriting legibility in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted. [Results] The results of the study showed a high level of correlation between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility. The study revealed that the accuracy of hand and in-hand manipulation skills is factors that have an effect on handwriting legibility. [Conclusion] Through the current research, occupational therapists can provide activities that aid the development of fine motor precision and in-hand manipulation skills for children during the instruction and treatment of handwriting to preschool age children, which helps to conduct better legibility in their handwriting.

  16. A fortunate universe life in a finely tuned cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geraint F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last forty years, scientists have uncovered evidence that if the Universe had been forged with even slightly different properties, life as we know it - and life as we can imagine it - would be impossible. Join us on a journey through how we understand the Universe, from its most basic particles and forces, to planets, stars and galaxies, and back through cosmic history to the birth of the cosmos. Conflicting notions about our place in the Universe are defined, defended and critiqued from scientific, philosophical and religious viewpoints. The authors' engaging and witty style addresses what fine-tuning might mean for the future of physics and the search for the ultimate laws of nature. Tackling difficult questions and providing thought-provoking answers, this volumes challenges us to consider our place in the cosmos, regardless of our initial convictions.

  17. Robust retrieval of fine art paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Bogdan; Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    The rapid growth of image archives increases the need for efficient and fast tools that can retrieve and search through large amount of visual data. In this paper we propose an efficient method of extracting the image color content, which serves as an image digital signature, allowing to efficiently index and retrieve the content of large, heterogeneous multimedia databases. We apply the proposed method for the retrieval of images from the WEBMUSEUM Internet database, containing the collection of fine art images and show that the new method of image color representation is robust to image distorsions caused by resizing and compression and can be incorporated into existing retrieval systems which exploit the information on color content in digital images.

  18. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  19. Urban Fitness, Gendered Practices, and Fine Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The author re-examines claims in the literature on Antonio Lopez that from the 1970s this fashion illustrator had significantly influenced the sporty styling of fashion. However, Antonio's 1960s swimsuit-, motorcycling- and varsity-themed ads reveal some prior links with sport. Antonio's later......'s portrayals of masculine exhibitionism and homoeroticism. For Antonio, the appeal of sport can be explained by an envious appropriation of the athletic physique as well as a personal re-imaging along sporty lines. The "horsetails" and "centaurs" which figure in Antonio's work hint at his spirited sexuality....... It is concluded that from the mid-1960s Antonio had already been illustrating sportswear, that he was inspired by depictions of sport and corporeal physicality by fine artists, and that his true significance for the sporty styling of fashion consisted in a "Warholian" edginess in choice of themes and treatment...

  20. Fine particles in the Soufriere eruption plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, D. C.; Chuan, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The size distributions of fine particles measured at tropospheric altitudes in the periphery of the eruption plume formed during the April 17, 1979 eruption of Soufriere Volcano and in the low-level effluents on May 15, 1979 were found to be bimodal, having peak concentrations at geometric mean diameters of 1.1 and 0.23 micrometers. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the samples revealed an abundance of aluminum and silicon and traces of sodium, magnesium, chlorine, potassium, calcium, and iron in the large-particle mode. The submicrometer-sized particles were covered with liquid containing sulfur, assumed to be in the form of liquid sulfuric acid.

  1. The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltodano, Pablo A.; Weinberg, Maxene H.; Whipple, Lauren A.; Gemmiti, Amanda L.; Whipple, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Flexor tenolysis surgery for flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis adhesions is a common procedure performed by hand surgeons. Releasing these adhered tendons can greatly improve hand function and improve quality of life. Recent evidence, however, has shown that the outcomes of tenolysis surgeries are often suboptimal and can result in relapsing adhesions or even tendon ruptures. Methods: This article describes a new technique with potential for reduced complication rates: The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis (FWT). Results: Following FWT, the patient detailed in this article had an excellent recovery of function and no complications: including tendon rupture, infection, hematomas, or any other complications. She reported a major improvement from her preoperative functionality and continues to have this level of success. The wire’s thinness allows for a swift tenolysis. Conclusions: The FWT is a new option available to the hand surgeon associated with good functional results. The wire is readily available to the clinician and is also inexpensive. PMID:29263961

  2. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  3. The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Matthew K; Baltodano, Pablo A; Weinberg, Maxene H; Whipple, Lauren A; Gemmiti, Amanda L; Whipple, Richard E

    2017-11-01

    Flexor tenolysis surgery for flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis adhesions is a common procedure performed by hand surgeons. Releasing these adhered tendons can greatly improve hand function and improve quality of life. Recent evidence, however, has shown that the outcomes of tenolysis surgeries are often suboptimal and can result in relapsing adhesions or even tendon ruptures. This article describes a new technique with potential for reduced complication rates: The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis (FWT). Following FWT, the patient detailed in this article had an excellent recovery of function and no complications: including tendon rupture, infection, hematomas, or any other complications. She reported a major improvement from her preoperative functionality and continues to have this level of success. The wire's thinness allows for a swift tenolysis. The FWT is a new option available to the hand surgeon associated with good functional results. The wire is readily available to the clinician and is also inexpensive.

  4. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  5. Automatic Learning of Fine Operating Rules for Online Power System Security Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Weiyong; Guo, Qinglai; Zhang, Boming; Wehenkel, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min.

  6. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  7. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  8. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  9. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  10. Evaluating the effect of remote sensing image spatial resolution on soil exchangeable potassium prediction models in smallholder farm settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P

    2017-09-15

    Major end users of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) such as policy makers and agricultural extension workers are faced with choosing the appropriate remote sensing data. The objective of this research is to analyze the spatial resolution effects of different remote sensing images on soil prediction models in two smallholder farms in Southern India called Kothapally (Telangana State), and Masuti (Karnataka State), and provide empirical guidelines to choose the appropriate remote sensing images in DSM. Bayesian kriging (BK) was utilized to characterize the spatial pattern of exchangeable potassium (K ex ) in the topsoil (0-15 cm) at different spatial resolutions by incorporating spectral indices from Landsat 8 (30 m), RapidEye (5 m), and WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A images (2 m). Some spectral indices such as band reflectances, band ratios, Crust Index and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index from multiple images showed relatively strong correlations with soil K ex in two study areas. The research also suggested that fine spatial resolution WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A-based and RapidEye-based soil prediction models would not necessarily have higher prediction performance than coarse spatial resolution Landsat 8-based soil prediction models. The end users of DSM in smallholder farm settings need select the appropriate spectral indices and consider different factors such as the spatial resolution, band width, spectral resolution, temporal frequency, cost, and processing time of different remote sensing images. Overall, remote sensing-based Digital Soil Mapping has potential to be promoted to smallholder farm settings all over the world and help smallholder farmers implement sustainable and field-specific soil nutrient management scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  12. A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Nalon, Cláudia; Zhang, Lan; Dixon, Clare; Hustadt, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and prese...

  13. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-11-01

    Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Example-Based Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shu; Han, Boran; Kutz, J Nathan

    2018-04-23

    Capturing biological dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution demands the advancement in imaging technologies. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy offers spatial resolution surpassing the diffraction limit to resolve near-molecular-level details. While various strategies have been reported to improve the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging, all super-resolution techniques are still fundamentally limited by the trade-off associated with the longer image acquisition time that is needed to achieve higher spatial information. Here, we demonstrated an example-based, computational method that aims to obtain super-resolution images using conventional imaging without increasing the imaging time. With a low-resolution image input, the method provides an estimate of its super-resolution image based on an example database that contains super- and low-resolution image pairs of biological structures of interest. The computational imaging of cellular microtubules agrees approximately with the experimental super-resolution STORM results. This new approach may offer potential improvements in temporal resolution for experimental super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and provide a new path for large-data aided biomedical imaging.

  15. Fine motor skills in children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Memišević Haris; Mačak Amra

    2014-01-01

    Fine motor skills are very important for children's overall functioning. Their development is necessary for many everyday activities such as dressing, feeding, holding objects, etc. Moreover, fine motor skills are also correlated to the children's academic success at school. Recent research suggests a close relationship between motor skills and intelligence. Given the relative paucity of literature on fine motor skills in different etiological groups of children with intellectual disability (...

  16. SHAPE ANALYSIS OF FINE AGGREGATES USED FOR CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Huan; Courard, Luc; Pirard, Eric; Michel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Fine aggregate is one of the essential components in concrete and significantly influences the material properties. As parts of natures, physical characteristics of fine aggregate are highly relevant to its behaviors in concrete. The most of previous studies are mainly focused on the physical properties of coarse aggregate due to the equipment limitations. In this paper, two typical fine aggregates, i.e. river sand and crushed rock, are selected for shape characterization. The new developed d...

  17. CONTACT STRENGTH OF MECHANOACTIVATED FINE CONCRETES FROM GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bolshakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Strengthening of fine concrete contact zone by mechanical processing of all components of the concrete mix in a mixer-activator and aggregate application with rough surface. Methodology. Rotary activator PC-06, developed by Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Technology, was used as a mixer-activator to achieve this purpose. Granulated blast furnace slag, having a more developed rough surface than sand, was used as fine aggregate. This apparatus provides intensive homogeneous mixing of concrete mix components, processing of raw materials (purification of their particles from contaminants, and mechanical destruction of granulated blast furnace slag surface layers and other components of the mix. Findings. During the preparation work, experimental research of new formations composition of fine concretes, using differential thermal and x-ray phase analysis methods, and physical-mechanical properties of fine concretes in accordance with the applicable standards of Ukraine, were carried out. It is established that the phase composition of new formations of fine concretes made from activated and non-activated mixes, is not changed. Their main difference is the size of generated effects and temperature intervals of occurrence of these peaks. Thus, in fine concretes made on the basis of the activated mixes, magnitude of effects is less, indicating a higher hydration degree of its components. Besides, TG curves of concrete specimens show that weight loss of gel calcium hydrosilicate of concrete from a mechanically activated mix is 0.5...0.7 % more than of concrete from a non-activated mix, which indicates a larger number of these formations in concrete from activated mixes. In general, concretes of different composition, made from a mix, processed in the mixer-activator, have higher mechanical strength. Originality. Ideas about the influence of mechanical activation of components of fine concrete mixes with forming humidity in a

  18. Benchmarking NaI(Tl) Electron Energy Resolution Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, Wondwosen; Valentine, J D.

    2002-01-01

    A technique for validating electron energy resolution results measured using the modified Compton coincidence technique (MCCT) has been developed. This technique relies on comparing measured gamma-ray energy resolution with calculated values that were determined using the measured electron energy resolution results. These gamma-ray energy resolution calculations were based on Monte Carlo photon transport simulations, the measured NaI(Tl) electron response, a simplified cascade sequence, and the measured electron energy resolution results. To demonstrate this technique, MCCT-measured NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution results were used along with measured gamma-ray energy resolution results from the same NaI(Tl) crystal. Agreement to within 5% was observed for all energies considered between the calculated and measured gamma-ray energy resolution results for the NaI(Tl) crystal characterized. The calculated gamma-ray energy resolution results were also compared with previously published gamma-ray energy resolution measurements with good agreement (<10%). In addition to describing the validation technique that was developed in this study and the results, a brief review of the electron energy resolution measurements made using the MCCT is provided. Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the MCCT-measured electron energy resolution results are reliable. Thus, the MCCT and this validation technique can be used in the future to characterize the electron energy resolution of other scintillators and to determine NaI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution

  19. Meeting the challenge - solutions for managing oil sands tailings: report of the fine tailings fundamentals consortium 1989-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The development and demonstration of effective alternatives for the management of fine tailings in the oil sands industry were discussed in a report describing the work of the Fine Tailings Fundamentals Consortium during the period from 1989 to 1995. The final report of the Consortium is a four-volume publication entitled 'Advances in Oil Sands Tailings Research' which is the state-of-the-art reference to key issues in the reclamation of fine tailings. Government regulations now make it the responsibility of industry to integrate the fine tailings into reclaimed landscapes, so that the final landscape is equal in productive capability to the pre-disturbed state. Impressive progress has been made in understanding the formation of fine tailings and in characterizing their properties, much of it through the work of this Consortium. Fundamental research on the clay particles within fine tailings provides a better understanding of how to manage them. Although there is no 'magic bullet', research has demonstrated that an integrated approach incorporating fine tailings with a variety of elements, uplands, lakes and wetlands, offer the best hope for an environmentally sound solution. figs

  20. Resolving fine spectral features in lattice vibrational modes using femtosecond coherent spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Card

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We show resolution of fine spectral features within several Raman active vibrational modes in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP crystal. Measurements are performed using a femtosecond time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique that is capable of delivering equivalent spectral resolution of 0.1 cm−1. The Raman spectra retrieved from our measurements show several spectral components corresponding to vibrations of different symmetry with distinctly different damping rates. In particular, linewidths for unassigned optical phonon mode triplet centered at around 820 cm−1 are found to be 7.5 ± 0.2 cm−1, 9.1 ± 0.3 cm−1, and 11.2 ± 0.3 cm−1. Results of our experiments will ultimately help to design an all-solid-state source for sub-optical-wavelength waveform generation that is based on stimulated Raman scattering.

  1. Using DNase Hi-C techniques to map global and local three-dimensional genome architecture at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxiu; Ay, Ferhat; Lee, Choli; Gulsoy, Gunhan; Deng, Xinxian; Cook, Savannah; Hesson, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B; Krumm, Anton; Shendure, Jay; Blau, C Anthony; Disteche, Christine M; Noble, William S; Duan, ZhiJun

    2018-06-01

    The folding and three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromatin in the nucleus critically impacts genome function. The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in genomic tools for delineating 3D genome architecture. Among them, chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods such as Hi-C are the most widely used techniques for mapping chromatin interactions. However, traditional Hi-C protocols rely on restriction enzymes (REs) to fragment chromatin and are therefore limited in resolution. We recently developed DNase Hi-C for mapping 3D genome organization, which uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation. DNase Hi-C overcomes RE-related limitations associated with traditional Hi-C methods, leading to improved methodological resolution. Furthermore, combining this method with DNA capture technology provides a high-throughput approach (targeted DNase Hi-C) that allows for mapping fine-scale chromatin architecture at exceptionally high resolution. Hence, targeted DNase Hi-C will be valuable for delineating the physical landscapes of cis-regulatory networks that control gene expression and for characterizing phenotype-associated chromatin 3D signatures. Here, we provide a detailed description of method design and step-by-step working protocols for these two methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  3. Sweeping at the Martin boundary of a fine domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Kadiri, Mohamed; Fuglede, Bent

    2016-01-01

    We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical.......We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical....

  4. Fine structure of charge exchange lines observed in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, K.; Nishimura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the fine structure of charge exchange lines appears only at the plasma edge or in the recombining phase where the ion temperature is low enough. The observed spectra in Li III and C VI are consistent with the sum of fine-structure components populated by statistical weights (assuming complete l-mixing) not by direct charge exchange cross sections. Some discrepancy was observed in the intensity ratio of fine-structure components between the observation and calculation for C VI in the recombining phase. The fine-structure of charge exchange lines gives an apparent Doppler shift in plasma rotation velocity measurement using charge exchange spectroscopy. (author)

  5. Fine Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Adverse cardiovascular events have been linked with PM2.5 exposure obtained primarily from air quality monitors, which rarely co-locate with participant residences. Modeled PM2.5 predictions at finer resolution may more accurately predict residential exposure; however few studies have compared results across different exposure assessment methods. Methods We utilized a cohort of 5679 patients who had undergone a cardiac catheterization between 2002–2009 and resided in NC. Exposure to PM2.5 for the year prior to catheterization was estimated using data from air quality monitors (AQS), Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) fused models at the census tract and 12 km spatial resolutions, and satellite-based models at 10 km and 1 km resolutions. Case status was either a coronary artery disease (CAD) index >23 or a recent myocardial infarction (MI). Logistic regression was used to model odds of having CAD or an MI with each 1-unit (μg/m3) increase in PM2.5, adjusting for sex, race, smoking status, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status. Results We found that the elevated odds for CAD>23 and MI were nearly equivalent for all exposure assessment methods. One difference was that data from AQS and the census tract CMAQ showed a rural/urban difference in relative risk, which was not apparent with the satellite or 12 km-CMAQ models. Conclusions

  6. System of an analysis of a fine time structure of X-ray solar flares in the RGS-1M spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazutkov, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    The possibilities of RGS-1M spectral equipment intended for determination of more detailed data on the solar flare structure are discussed. Spectrometer modernization permits to record the fine time structure of solar events in the hard X-ray range (50-90 keV). The main requirement for fine time analysis of nonstationary processes is determination of the maximum possible resolution at the maximum available length of the signal under investigation. The scheme of the time analyzer of splash events with the time resolution Δt=62.5 ms and the length of the range processed T=27.6 s is given and described. Operation of the spectrometer telemetric apparatus is considered in detail. The fine solar flare structure occurred on 14.04.79 with visually chosen periodic structure is shown as an example [ru

  7. Opposite Effects of Capacity Load and Resolution Load on Distractor Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the load theory of attention, an increased perceptual load reduces distractor processing whereas an increased working memory load facilitates distractor processing. Here we raise the possibility that the critical distinction may instead be between an emphasis on resolution and an emphasis on capacity. That is, perceptual load manipulations typically emphasize resolution (fine-grained discriminations), whereas working memory load manipulations typically emphasize capacity (simulta...

  8. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schuler, Timothy, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [State University of New York College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  9. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent

  10. Credential Service Provider (CSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides a VA operated Level 1 and Level 2 credential for individuals who require access to VA applications, yet cannot obtain a credential from another VA accepted...

  11. MAX Provider Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MAX Provider Characteristics (PC) File Implementation Report describes the design, implementation, and results of the MAXPC prototype, which was based on three...

  12. Fine scale mapping of the 17q22 breast cancer locus using dense SNPs, genotyped within the Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (COGs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Darabi (Hatef); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A. Droit (Arnaud); S. Kar (Siddhartha); S. Nord (Silje); M.M. Marjaneh (Mahdi Moradi); Soucy, P. (Penny); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M. Ghoussaini (Maya); Wahl, H.F. (Hanna Fues); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet K.); Wang, Q. (Qin); J. Dennis (Joe); M.R. Alonso (Rosario); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); Arndt, V. (Volker); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Benítez (Javier); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); H. Brenner (Hermann); A. Broeks (Annegien); T. Brüning (Thomas); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); Choi, J.-Y. (Ji-Yeob); D. Conroy (Don); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); K. Czene (Kamila); P. Devilee (Peter); T. Dörk (Thilo); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); P.A. Fasching (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); O. Fletcher (Olivia); H. Flyger (Henrik); Galle, E. (Eva); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); A. González-Neira (Anna); P. Guénel (Pascal); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); Hallberg, E. (Emily); U. Hamann (Ute); J.M. Hartman (Joost); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); J.L. Hopper (John); H. Ito (Hidemi); A. Jakubowska (Anna); Johnson, N. (Nichola); D. Kang (Daehee); S. Khan (Sofia); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); Kriege, M. (Mieke); V. Kristensen (Vessela); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); L. Le Marchand (Loic); Lee, S.C. (Soo Chin); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Mannermaa (Arto); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); S. Margolin (Sara); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); Mayes, R. (Rebecca); McKay, J. (James); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.L. Milne (Roger); K.R. Muir (K.); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); C. Olswold (Curtis); Orr, N. (Nick); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); G. Pita (Guillermo); K. Pykäs (Katri); Rudolph, A. (Anja); Sangrajrang, S. (Suleeporn); Sawyer, E.J. (Elinor J.); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); Shah, M. (Mitul); C.-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); M.C. Southey (Melissa); Stram, D.O. (Daniel O.); H. Surowy (Harald); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); D. Torres (Diana); T. Truong (Thérèse); C. Vachon (Celine); D. Vincent (Daniel); R. Winqvist (Robert); A.H. Wu (Anna); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); W. Zheng (Wei); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); P. Hall (Per); S.L. Edwards (Stacey); J. Simard (Jacques); J.D. French (Juliet); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.M. Dunning (Alison)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies have found SNPs at 17q22 to be associated with breast cancer risk. To identify potential causal variants related to breast cancer risk, we performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis that involved genotyping 517 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect

  13. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Dark energy and equivalence principle constraints from astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.; Pinho, A.M.M.; Alves, R.F.C.; Pino, M.; Rocha, C.I.S.A.; Wietersheim, M. von

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant α, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, ζ, to the electromagnetic sector) the α variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of ζ and the present dark energy equation of state w 0 . Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the α dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the Eötvös parameter η that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints

  15. Dark energy and equivalence principle constraints from astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.; Pinho, A.M.M.; Alves, R.F.C. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Pino, M. [Institut Domènech i Montaner, C/Maspujols 21-23, 43206 Reus (Spain); Rocha, C.I.S.A. [Externato Ribadouro, Rua de Santa Catarina 1346, 4000-447 Porto (Portugal); Wietersheim, M. von, E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt, E-mail: Ana.Pinho@astro.up.pt, E-mail: up201106579@fc.up.pt, E-mail: mpc_97@yahoo.com, E-mail: cisar97@hotmail.com, E-mail: maxivonw@gmail.com [Institut Manuel Sales i Ferré, Avinguda de les Escoles 6, 43550 Ulldecona (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant α, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, ζ, to the electromagnetic sector) the α variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of ζ and the present dark energy equation of state w{sub 0}. Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the α dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the Eötvös parameter η that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints.

  16. Oversampling in the computed tomography measurements applied for bone structure studies as a method of spatial resolution improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatoń, Grzegorz; Rokita, Eugeniusz; Rok, Tomasz; Beckmann, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to check the potential ability of oversampling as a method for computed tomography axial resolution improvement. The method of achieving isotropic and fine resolution, when the scanning system is characterized by anisotropic resolutions is proposed. In case of typical clinical system the axial resolution is much lower than the planar one. The idea relies on the scanning with a wide overlapping layers and subsequent resolution recovery on the level of scanning step. Simulated three-dimensional images, as well as the real microtomographic images of rat femoral bone were used in proposed solution tests. Original high resolution images were virtually scanned with a wide beam and a small step in order to simulate the real measurements. The low resolution image series were subsequently processed in order to back to the original fine one. Original, virtually scanned and recovered images resolutions were compared with the use of modulation transfer function (MTF). A good ability of oversampling as a method for the resolution recovery was showed. It was confirmed by comparing the resolving powers after and before resolution recovery. The MTF analysis showed resolution improvement. The resolution improvement was achieved but the image noise raised considerably, which is clearly visible on image histograms. Despite this disadvantage the proposed method can be successfully used in practice, especially in the trabecular bone studies because of high contrast between trabeculae and intertrabecular spaces

  17. NCAR High-resolution Land Data Assimilation System and Its Recent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Manning, K.; Barlage, M.; Gochis, D.; Tewari, M.

    2008-05-01

    A High-Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS) has been developed at NCAR to meet the need for high-resolution initial conditions of land state (soil moisture and temperature) by today's numerical weather prediction models coupled to a land surface model such as the WRF/Noah coupled modeling system. Intended for conterminous US application, HRLDAS uses observed hourly 4-km national precipitation analysis and satellite-derived surface-solar-downward radiation to drive, in uncoupled mode, the Noah land surface model to simulate long-term evolution of soil state. The advantage of HRLDAS is its use of 1-km resolution land-use and soil texture maps and 4-km rainfall data. As a result, it is able to capture fine-scale heterogeneity at the surface and in the soil. The ultimate goal of HRLDAS development is to characterize soil moisture/temperature and vegetation variability at small scales (~4km) over large areas to provide improved initial land and vegetation conditions for the WRF/Noah coupled model. Hence, HRLDAS is configured after the WRF/Noah coupled model configuration to ensure the consistency in model resolution, physical configuration (e.g., terrain height), soil model, and parameters between the uncoupled soil initialization system and its coupled forecast counterpart. We will discuss various characteristics of HRLDAS, including its spin-up and sensitivity to errors in forcing data. We will describe recent enhancement in terms of hydrological modeling and the use of remote sensing data. We will discuss recent applications of HRLDAS for flood forecast, agriculture, and arctic land system.

  18. Hydrogen Reduction of Hematite Ore Fines to Magnetite Ore Fines at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surplus coke oven gases (COGs and low grade hematite ores are abundant in Shanxi, China. Our group proposes a new process that could simultaneously enrich CH4 from COG and produce separated magnetite from low grade hematite. In this work, low-temperature hydrogen reduction of hematite ore fines was performed in a fixed-bed reactor with a stirring apparatus, and a laboratory Davis magnetic tube was used for the magnetic separation of the resulting magnetite ore fines. The properties of the raw hematite ore, reduced products, and magnetic concentrate were analyzed and characterized by a chemical analysis method, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results indicated that, at temperatures lower than 400°C, the rate of reduction of the hematite ore fines was controlled by the interfacial reaction on the core surface. However, at temperatures higher than 450°C, the reaction was controlled by product layer diffusion. With increasing reduction temperature, the average utilization of hydrogen initially increased and tended to a constant value thereafter. The conversion of Fe2O3 in the hematite ore played an important role in the total iron recovery and grade of the concentrate. The grade of the concentrate decreased, whereas the total iron recovery increased with the increasing Fe2O3 conversion.

  19. Towards secure name resolution on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothoff, C.; Wachs, M.; Ermert, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    2018-01-01

    The Domain Name System (DNS) provides crucial name resolution functions for most Internet services. As a result, DNS traffic provides an important attack vector for spy agencies, as demonstrated by the QUANTUMDNS and MORECOWBELL programs of the NSA. This article reviews how DNS works, and explains

  20. Limited Effects of Variable-Retention Harvesting on Fungal Communities Decomposing Fine Roots in Coastal Temperate Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Timothy J; Barker, Jason S; Prescott, Cindy E; Grayston, Sue J

    2018-02-01

    Fine root litter is the principal source of carbon stored in forest soils and a dominant source of carbon for fungal decomposers. Differences in decomposer capacity between fungal species may be important determinants of fine-root decomposition rates. Variable-retention harvesting (VRH) provides refuge for ectomycorrhizal fungi, but its influence on fine-root decomposers is unknown, as are the effects of functional shifts in these fungal communities on carbon cycling. We compared fungal communities decomposing fine roots (in litter bags) under VRH, clear-cut, and uncut stands at two sites (6 and 13 years postharvest) and two decay stages (43 days and 1 year after burial) in Douglas fir forests in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Fungal species and guilds were identified from decomposed fine roots using high-throughput sequencing. Variable retention had short-term effects on β-diversity; harvest treatment modified the fungal community composition at the 6-year-postharvest site, but not at the 13-year-postharvest site. Ericoid and ectomycorrhizal guilds were not more abundant under VRH, but stand age significantly structured species composition. Guild composition varied by decay stage, with ruderal species later replaced by saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal abundance on decomposing fine roots may partially explain why fine roots typically decompose more slowly than surface litter. Our results indicate that stand age structures fine-root decomposers but that decay stage is more important in structuring the fungal community than shifts caused by harvesting. The rapid postharvest recovery of fungal communities decomposing fine roots suggests resiliency within this community, at least in these young regenerating stands in coastal British Columbia. IMPORTANCE Globally, fine roots are a dominant source of carbon in forest soils, yet the fungi that decompose this material and that drive the sequestration or respiration of this carbon remain largely