WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing fine resolution

  1. Bandwidth requirements for fine resolution squinted SAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2000-03-01

    The conventional rule-of-thumb for Synthetic Aperture Radar is that an RF bandwidth of c/(2{rho}{sub r}) is required to image a scene at the desired slant-range resolution {rho}{sub r}, and perhaps a little more to account for window functions and sidelobe control. This formulation is based on the notion that the total bandwidth required is the same bandwidth that is required for a single pulse. What is neglected is that efficient processing of an entire synthetic aperture of pulses will often require different frequency content for each of the different pulses that makeup a synthetic aperture. Consequently, the total RF bandwidth required of a Synthetic Aperture Radar may then be substantially wider than the bandwidth of any single pulse. The actual RF bandwidth required depends strongly on flight geometry, owing to the desire for a radar to maintain a constant projection of the Fourier space collection surface onto the {omega}{sub y} axis. Long apertures required for fine azimuth resolution, and severe squint angles with steep depression angles may require total RF bandwidths well beyond the minimum bandwidth required of any single transmitted pulse, perhaps even by a factor of two or more. Accounting for this is crucial to designing efficient versatile high-performance imaging radars. This paper addresses how a data set conducive to efficient processing might increase the total RF bandwidth, and presents examples of how a fixed RF bandwidth might then limit SAR geometries.

  2. Fine resolution AMS {sup 14}C chronology for Lunette-Lake sediment sequences, Lake Bolac, Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre for Palynology and Palaeoecology, Department of Geography and Environmental Science

    1998-12-31

    This study aims to provide a fine-resolution chronology for lake sediment records from Lakes Bolac and Turangmoroke, located within the drier part of the Western Plains, Victoria. These lakes are expected to be sensitive to subtle climate and vegetation variability and have long been recognised as archaeologically rich, bearing stone tools, hearth and other cultural materials dated to the late Pleistocene (Horton, 1984; former Victorian Aboriginal Survey, unpublished data). Fine-resolution chronological control has rarely been attempted in this sedimentary and (semi-arid) climatic context owing to the paucity of material available for conventional {sup 14}C dating. However, pollen and microscopic charcoal in the lake sediments at Bolac and Turangmoroke are suitable for AMS age determination with the most important sedimentary section well within the range of {sup 14}C making them ideal records for such a study. Recent dating results, which have substantially increased chronostratigraphic interpretation of concurrent palaeoecological and sedimentological work in progress, are presented

  3. Downscaling Surface Water Inundation from Coarse Data to Fine-Scale Resolution: Methodology and Accuracy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water surface inundation with high spatial resolution is of fundamental importance in several applications such as hydrology, meteorology and ecology. Medium spatial resolution sensors, like MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, exhibit a significant potential to study inundation dynamics over large areas because of their high temporal resolution. However, the low spatial resolution provided by MODIS is not appropriate to accurately delineate inundation over small scale. Successful downscaling of water inundation from coarse to fine resolution would be crucial for improving our understanding of complex inundation characteristics over the regional scale. Therefore, in this study, we propose an innovative downscaling method based on the normalized difference water index (NDWI statistical regression algorithm towards generating small-scale resolution inundation maps from MODIS data. The method was then applied to the Poyang Lake of China. To evaluate the performance of the proposed downscaling method, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were conducted between the inundation extent of MODIS (250 m, Landsat (30 m and downscaled MODIS (30 m. The results indicated that the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation showed significant improvement over the original MODIS observations when compared with simultaneous Landsat (30 m inundation. The edges of the lakes become smoother than the results from original MODIS image and some undetected water bodies were delineated with clearer shapes in the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation map. With respect to high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inundation, the downscaling procedure has significantly increased the R2 and reduced RMSE and MAE both for the inundation area and for the value of landscape metrics. The main conclusion of this study is that the downscaling algorithm is promising and quite feasible for the inundation mapping over small-scale lakes.

  4. Towards a Fine-Resolution Global Coupled Climate System for Prediction on Decadal/Centennial Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClean, Julie L. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    2013-11-14

    The over-arching goal of this project was to contribute to the realization of a fully coupled fine resolution Earth System Model simulation in which a weather-scale atmosphere is coupled to an ocean in which mesoscale eddies are largely resolved. Both a prototype fine-resolution fully coupled ESM simulation and a first-ever multi-decadal forced fine-resolution global coupled ocean/ice simulation were configured, tested, run, and analyzed as part of this grant. Science questions focused on the gains from the use of high horizontal resolution, particularly in the ocean and sea-ice, with respect to climatically important processes. Both these fine resolution coupled ocean/sea ice and fully-coupled simulations and precedent stand-alone eddy-resolving ocean and eddy-permitting coupled ocean/ice simulations were used to explore the high resolution regime. Overall, these studies showed that the presence of mesoscale eddies significantly impacted mixing processes and the global meridional overturning circulation in the ocean simulations. Fourteen refereed publications and a Ph.D. dissertation resulted from this grant.

  5. Genome-wide and fine-resolution association analysis of malaria in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallow, Muminatou; Teo, Yik Ying; Small, Kerrin S; Rockett, Kirk A; Deloukas, Panos; Clark, Taane G; Kivinen, Katja; Bojang, Kalifa A; Conway, David J; Pinder, Margaret; Sirugo, Giorgio; Sisay-Joof, Fatou; Usen, Stanley; Auburn, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Campino, Susana; Coffey, Alison; Dunham, Andrew; Fry, Andrew E; Green, Angela; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hunt, Sarah E; Inouye, Michael; Jeffreys, Anna E; Mendy, Alieu; Palotie, Aarno; Potter, Simon; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Rogers, Jane; Rowlands, Kate; Somaskantharajah, Elilan; Whittaker, Pamela; Widden, Claire; Donnelly, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Marchini, Jonathan; Morris, Andrew; SanJoaquin, Miguel; Achidi, Eric Akum; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Allen, Angela; Amodu, Olukemi; Corran, Patrick; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Drakeley, Chris; Dunstan, Sarah; Evans, Jennifer; Farrar, Jeremy; Fernando, Deepika; Hien, Tran Tinh; Horstmann, Rolf D; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Karunaweera, Nadira; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Koram, Kwadwo A; Lemnge, Martha; Makani, Julie; Marsh, Kevin; Michon, Pascal; Modiano, David; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Mueller, Ivo; Parker, Michael; Peshu, Norbert; Plowe, Christopher V; Puijalon, Odile; Reeder, John; Reyburn, Hugh; Riley, Eleanor M; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Sirima, Sodiomon; Tall, Adama; Taylor, Terrie E; Thera, Mahamadou; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Williams, Thomas N; Wilson, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2009-06-01

    We report a genome-wide association (GWA) study of severe malaria in The Gambia. The initial GWA scan included 2,500 children genotyped on the Affymetrix 500K GeneChip, and a replication study included 3,400 children. We used this to examine the performance of GWA methods in Africa. We found considerable population stratification, and also that signals of association at known malaria resistance loci were greatly attenuated owing to weak linkage disequilibrium (LD). To investigate possible solutions to the problem of low LD, we focused on the HbS locus, sequencing this region of the genome in 62 Gambian individuals and then using these data to conduct multipoint imputation in the GWA samples. This increased the signal of association, from P = 4 × 10(-7) to P = 4 × 10(-14), with the peak of the signal located precisely at the HbS causal variant. Our findings provide proof of principle that fine-resolution multipoint imputation, based on population-specific sequencing data, can substantially boost authentic GWA signals and enable fine mapping of causal variants in African populations.

  6. A High Angular Resolution Survey of Massive Stars in Cygnus OB2: Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Printed in the U.S.A. A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF MASSIVE STARS IN CYGNUS OB2: RESULTS FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FINE GUIDANCE SENSORS...angular resolution survey of massive OB stars in the Cygnus OB2 association that we conducted with the fine guidance sensor 1R (FGS1r) on the Hubble Space...al. 2009) and imaging observations (Maı́z Apellániz 2010). The fine guidance sensors (FGSs) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provide us with

  7. Fine tuning of track impact parameter resolution of the DELPHI detector

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, G

    1996-01-01

    The fine tuning of the charged track impact parameter resolution for data and simulation in the DELPHI detector at LEP is described. This tuning was implemented in the software for the tagging of $B$ hadrons and has been applied in many precise measurements.

  8. Spatial spin-up of fine scales in a regional climate model simulation driven by low-resolution boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Dominic; Laprise, René; Thériault, Julie M.; Lucas-Picher, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    In regional climate modelling, it is well known that domains should be neither too large to avoid a large departure from the driving data, nor too small to provide a sufficient distance from the lateral inflow boundary to allow the full development of the small-scale (SS) features permitted by the finer resolution. Although most practitioners of dynamical downscaling are well aware that the jump of resolution between the lateral boundary condition (LBC) driving data and the nested regional climate model affects the simulated climate, this issue has not been fully investigated. In principle, as the jump of resolution becomes larger, the region of interest in the limited-area domain should be located further away from the lateral inflow boundary to allow the full development of the SS features. A careless choice of domain might result in a suboptimal use of the full finer resolution potential to develop fine-scale features. To address this issue, regional climate model (RCM) simulations using various resolution driving data are compared following the perfect-prognostic Big-Brother protocol. Several experiments were carried out to evaluate the width of the spin-up region (i.e. the distance between the lateral inflow boundary and the domain of interest required for the full development of SS transient eddies) as a function of the RCM and LBC resolutions, as well as the resolution jump. The spin-up distance turns out to be a function of the LBC resolution only, independent of the RCM resolution. When varying the RCM resolution for a given resolution jump, it is found that the spin-up distance corresponds to a fixed number of RCM grid points that is a function of resolution jump only. These findings can serve a useful purpose to guide the choice of domain and RCM configuration for an optimal development of the small scales allowed by the increased resolution of the nested model.

  9. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, V A; Atkinson, P M; Pezzulo, C; Sorichetta, A; Weiss, D; Bird, T; Erbach-Schoenberg, E; Tatem, A J

    2015-04-06

    The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × 1 km using a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model. Results showed that land cover, travel time to major settlements, night-time lights and vegetation index were good predictors and that accounting for fine-scale variation, rather than assuming a uniform proportion of under 5 year olds can result in significant differences in health metrics. The largest gaps in estimated bednet and vaccination coverage were in Kano, Katsina and Jigawa. Geolocated household surveys are a valuable resource for providing detailed, contemporary and regularly updated population age-structure data in the absence of recent census data. By combining these with covariate layers, age-structure maps of unprecedented detail can be produced to guide the targeting of interventions in resource-poor settings.

  10. Anthropic Reasoning about Fine-Tuning, and Neoclassical Cosmology: Providence, Omnipresence, and Observation Selection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropic reasoning about observation selection effects upon the appearance of cosmic providential fine-tuning (fine-tuning that provides for life) is often motivated by a desire to avoid theological implications (implications favoring the idea of a divine cosmic provider) without appealing to sheer lucky-for-us-cosmic-jackpot happenstance and coincidence. Cosmic coincidence can be rendered less incredible by appealing to a multiverse context. Cosmic providence can be rendered non-theological by appealing to an agent-less providential purpose, or by appealing to less-than-omnipresent/local providers, such as alien intelligences creating life- providing baby universes. Instead of choosing either cosmic coincidence or cosmic providence, as though they were mutually exclusive; it is better to accept both. Neoclassical thought accepts coincidence and providence, plus many local providers and one omnipresent provider. Moreover, fundamental observation selection theory should distinguish the many local observers of some events from the one omnipresent observer of all events. Accepting both coincidence and providence avoids classical theology (providence without coincidence) and classical atheism (coincidence without providence), but not neoclassical theology (providence with coincidence). Cosmology cannot avoid the idea of an all-inclusive omnipresent providential dice-throwing living-creative whole of reality, an idea essential to neoclassical theology, and to neoclassical cosmology.

  11. Evaluation of the Chinese Fine Spatial Resolution Hyperspectral Satellite TianGong-1 in Urban Land-Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueke Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Chinese high spatial resolution hyperspectral satellite TianGong-1 (TG-1 opens up new possibilities for applications of remotely-sensed satellite imagery. One of the main goals of the TG-1 mission is to provide observations of surface attributes at local and landscape spatial scales to map urban land cover accurately using the hyperspectral technique. This study attempted to evaluate the TG-1 datasets for urban feature analysis, using existing data over Beijing, China, by comparing the TG-1 (with a spatial resolution of 10 m to EO-1 Hyperion (with a spatial resolution of 30 m. The spectral feature of TG-1 was first analyzed and, thus, finding out optimal hyperspectral wavebands useful for the discrimination of urban areas. Based on this, the pixel-based maximum likelihood classifier (PMLC, pixel-based support vector machine (PSVM, hybrid maximum likelihood classifier (HMLC, and hybrid support vector machine (HSVM were implemented, as well as compared in the application of mapping urban land cover types. The hybrid classifier approach, which integrates the pixel-based classifier and the object-based segmentation approach, was demonstrated as an effective alternative to the conventional pixel-based classifiers for processing the satellite hyperspectral data, especially the fine spatial resolution data. For TG-1 imagery, the pixel-based urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 89.1%, whereas the hybrid urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 91.8%. For Hyperion imagery, the pixel-based urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 85.9%, whereas the hybrid urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 86.7%. Overall, it can be concluded that the fine spatial resolution satellite hyperspectral data TG-1 is promising in delineating complex urban scenes, especially when using an appropriate classifier, such as the

  12. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  13. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  14. Enabling Large Scale Fine Resolution Flood Modeling Using SWAT and LISFLOOD-FP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Rajib, A.; Merwade, V.

    2016-12-01

    Due to computational burden, most large scale hydrologic models are not created to generate streamflow hydrographs for lower order ungauged streams. Similarly, most flood inundation mapping studies are performed at major stream reaches. As a result, it is not possible to get reliable flow estimates and flood extents for vast majority of the areas where no stream gauging stations are available. The objective of this study is to loosely couple spatially distributed hydrologic model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), with a 1D/2D hydrodynamic model, LISFLOOD-FP, for large scale fine resolution flood inundation modeling. The model setup is created for the 491,000 km2 drainage area of the Ohio River Basin in the United States. In the current framework, SWAT model is calibrated with historical streamflow data over the past 80 years (1935-2014) to provide streamflow time-series for more than 100,000 NHDPlus stream reaches in the basin. The post-calibration evaluation shows that the simulated daily streamflow has a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency in the range of 0.4-0.7 against observed records across the basin. Streamflow outputs from the calibrated SWAT are subsequently used to drive LISFLOOD-FP and routed along the streams/floodplain using the built-in subgrid solver. LISFLOOD-FP is set up for the Ohio River Basin using 90m digital elevation model, and is executed on high performance computing resources at Purdue University. The flood extents produced by LISFLOOD-FP show good agreement with observed inundation. The current modeling framework lays foundation for near real-time streamflow forecasting and prediction of time-varying flood inundation maps along the NHDPlus network.

  15. Automatic sleep spindle detection: benchmarking with fine temporal resolution using open science tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindle properties index cognitive faculties such as memory consolidation and diseases such as major depression. For this reason, scoring sleep spindle properties in polysomnographic recordings has become an important activity in both research and clinical settings. The tediousness of this manual task has motivated efforts for its automation. Although some progress has been made, increasing the temporal accuracy of spindle scoring and improving the performance assessment methodology are two aspects needing more attention. In this paper, four open-access automated spindle detectors with fine temporal resolution are proposed and tested against expert scoring of two proprietary and two open-access databases. Results highlight several findings: (1) that expert scoring and polysomnographic databases are important confounders when comparing the performance of spindle detectors tested using different databases or scorings; (2) because spindles are sparse events, specificity estimates are potentially misleading for assessing automated detector performance; (3) reporting the performance of spindle detectors exclusively with sensitivity and specificity estimates, as is often seen in the literature, is insufficient; including sensitivity, precision and a more comprehensive statistic such as Matthew's correlation coefficient, F1-score, or Cohen's κ is necessary for adequate evaluation; (4) reporting statistics for some reasonable range of decision thresholds provides a much more complete and useful benchmarking; (5) performance differences between tested automated detectors were found to be similar to those between available expert scorings; (6) much more development is needed to effectively compare the performance of spindle detectors developed by different research teams. Finally, this work clarifies a long-standing but only seldomly posed question regarding whether expert scoring truly is a reliable gold standard for sleep spindle assessment.

  16. An approach for generating synthetic fine temporal resolution solar radiation time series from hourly gridded datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Perry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A tool has been developed to statistically increase the temporal resolution of solar irradiance time series. Fine temporal resolution time series are an important input into the planning process for solar power plants, and lead to increased understanding of the likely short-term variability of solar energy. The approach makes use of the spatial variability of hourly gridded datasets around a location of interest to make inferences about the temporal variability within the hour. The unique characteristics of solar irradiance data are modelled by classifying each hour into a typical weather situation. Low variability situations are modelled using an autoregressive process which is applied to ramps of clear-sky index. High variability situations are modelled as a transition between states of clear sky conditions and different levels of cloud opacity. The methods have been calibrated to Australian conditions using 1 min data from four ground stations for a 10 year period. These stations, together with an independent dataset, have also been used to verify the quality of the results using a number of relevant metrics. The results show that the method generates realistic fine resolution synthetic time series. The synthetic time series correlate well with observed data on monthly and annual timescales as they are constrained to the nearest grid-point value on each hour. The probability distributions of the synthetic and observed global irradiance data are similar, with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic less than 0.04 at each station. The tool could be useful for the estimation of solar power output for integration studies.

  17. Studies of X-pinch Plasma Fine Structure Using High Resolution Optical and Imaging Spectroscopy Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Sarkisov, G. S.; Hammer, D. A.; Acton, D. F.; Kalantar, D. H.

    1996-11-01

    An X-pinch is formed by placing two or more fine wires between the output electrodes of a high current pulser so that the wires cross and touch in mid-gap. The predictable position of a neck in the resulting plasma at the wire cross point enables the use of high resolution optical systems for studies of the neck-forming plasma dynamics(D.H. Kalantar and D.A. Hammer, Phys. Rev. Lett 71), 3806 (1993); S.A. Pikuz et al., JQSRT 51, 291 (1994)., as well as high resolution imaging x-ray spectroscopy(A.Ya. Faenov et al., X-ray Sci. & Tech. 5), 323 (1995). for studying the internal structure of the neck. The position of the neck in the relation to the cross-point of the X-pinch wires, the neck structure during pinching, plasma parameters in the vicinity of the neck and in the plasma around of the wires cores were investigating using pulsed lasers. The internal structure of the bright spot near the cross point was studied with spatial resolution better than 10 microns using a time integrated pin-hole camera and the radiation of individual spectral lines of highly charged ions such as He-like Ni and Al. Work supported by Sandia Contact AJ-6400.

  18. A Fine-Resolution Radar for Mapping Near-Surface Isochronous Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, T. P.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Braaten, D.; Zimmerman, K.; Akins, T.; Gogineni, S.

    2005-12-01

    Information on the spatial and temporal variation of snow accumulation is required for interpreting satellite-based radar and laser surface elevation measurements made by CryoSAT and ICESAT altimeters. Current methods of using ice cores and analyzing snow pit stratigraphy is time consuming and prone to errors in spatial representation due to the sparse sampling. Remote sensing methods that can map near-surface internal layers for estimating spatial and temporal variation are required. To accomplish this, we developed a 12-18 GHz FMCW radar to map near-surface layers with 3 cm vertical resolution to a depth of about 10 m. We developed the system to be mobile and self-contained so that spatial variability of the accumulation over a large area can be characterized. The fine resolution of this radar is achieved by its wide bandwidth and by illuminating the target area with a plane-wave, which is implemented using an offset-fed parabolic reflector. Traditional wide-beamwidth antennas are susceptible to spherical wave scattering from off-vertical targets that can potentially mask weaker reflections from internal layers. The radar features a fast transmit waveform synthesizer implemented using a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a phase-locked loop (PLL) using a linear chirp as the reference. The highly linear reference chirp was generated by a direct digital synthesis (DDS) waveform generator and compared against the instantaneous output of the VCO to create a highly linear 12 to 18 GHz transmit chirp. The waveform synthesizer can be swept from 12 to 18 GHz in 500 microseconds. The antenna was mounted on a sled and the radar system was integrated with the antenna feed. We designed and built the sled with a gimbaled antenna mount and sensing control system to ensure that the antenna points at nadir. The radar system was successfully tested at the Summit camp, Greenland, in July 2005. We collected a large amount of data from various locations around Summit camp. The

  19. A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildanger, D; Medda, R; Kastrup, L; Hell, S W

    2009-10-01

    The advent of supercontinuum laser sources has enabled the implementation of compact and tunable stimulated emission depletion fluorescence microscopes for imaging far below the diffraction barrier. Here we report on an enhanced version of this approach displaying an all-physics based resolution down to (19 +/- 3) nm in the focal plane. Alternatively, this single objective lens system can be configured for 3D imaging with resolution down to 45 x 45 x 108 nm in a cell. The obtained results can be further improved by mathematical restoration algorithms. The far-field optical nanoscale resolution is attained in a variety of biological samples featuring strong variations in the local density of features.

  20. GIS Modeling of Solar Neighborhood Potential at a Fine Spatiotemporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a 3D geographic information systems (GIS modeling approach at a fine spatiotemporal resolution to assess solar potential for the development of smart net-zero energy communities. It is important to be able to accurately identify the key areas on the facades and rooftops of buildings that receive maximum solar radiation, in order to prevent losses in solar gain due to obstructions from surrounding buildings and topographic features. A model was created in ArcGIS, in order to efficiently compute and iterate the hourly solar modeling and mapping process over a simulated year. The methodology was tested on a case study area located in southern Ontario, where two different 3D models of the site plan were analyzed. The accuracy of the work depends on the resolution and sky size of the input model. Future work is needed in order to create an efficient iterative function to speed the extraction process of the pixelated solar radiation data.

  1. Fine-Scale Temporal Resolution of Sediment Source by Be-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Whiting, P. J.; Fondran, C. L.; Matisoff, G.

    2005-05-01

    Understanding of erosional processes occurring at fine scales (cm) and over short time periods (min) in agricultural settings is essential for efforts to minimize landscape scarring, conserve surface nutrients, and reduce off-site impacts. Cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides have been successfully used in a variety of settings to determine sediment source and sediment transport processes. In this study we used the short-lived radionuclide Be-7 (t1/2= 53 d) to investigate erosional processes occurring during runoff from a 4 m by 9 m erosion plot. The plot was established in a 9.8% slope no-till corn field at the USDA ARS Deep Loess Research Station in Treynor, Iowa. Before and after the rainfall, fine resolution soil profiles were collected to determine the distribution of radionuclides and soil nutrients with depth. Be-7 was concentrated near the soil surface. Prior to the rainfall event, rare earth tagged soil particles were applied in three discrete strips, 0.5 m wide, along the contour. Forty runoff samples were collected during the course of a 5.7 cm thunderstorm event. Runoff efficiency was 25% and sediment yield was 0.234 kg m-2. Be-7 activities in runoff varied with hydrologic conditions and rainfall intensity, ranging from 0.06-0.6 Bq gm-1. Dominant erosional processes observed were rain splash erosion, overland flow and rill transport. Be-7 rich sediment was delivered at times corresponding corresponded to peaks in rainfall intensity, onset of overland flow, and development of hydrologic connectivity. Sediment had lower Be-7 activity during peak sediment delivery, probably due to dilution by large volumes of Be-7 poor sediment derived from deeper rill erosion. Soil tagged with the rare earth elements Ho, Tb, and Eu showed downslope movement in interrill areas, supporting conclusion of rain splash and sheetflow erosive mechanisms.

  2. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els De Roeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of <5m resolution was acquired in the spring of 2013 for the area around Bruges, Belgium, a region where dairy farms suffer from liver fluke infections transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs, such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations.

  3. Fine-resolution conservation planning with limited climate-change information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Payal; Mallory, Mindy L; Ando, Amy W; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2017-04-01

    Climate-change induced uncertainties in future spatial patterns of conservation-related outcomes make it difficult to implement standard conservation-planning paradigms. A recent study translates Markowitz's risk-diversification strategy from finance to conservation settings, enabling conservation agents to use this diversification strategy for allocating conservation and restoration investments across space to minimize the risk associated with such uncertainty. However, this method is information intensive and requires a large number of forecasts of ecological outcomes associated with possible climate-change scenarios for carrying out fine-resolution conservation planning. We developed a technique for iterative, spatial portfolio analysis that can be used to allocate scarce conservation resources across a desired level of subregions in a planning landscape in the absence of a sufficient number of ecological forecasts. We applied our technique to the Prairie Pothole Region in central North America. A lack of sufficient future climate information prevented attainment of the most efficient risk-return conservation outcomes in the Prairie Pothole Region. The difference in expected conservation returns between conservation planning with limited climate-change information and full climate-change information was as large as 30% for the Prairie Pothole Region even when the most efficient iterative approach was used. However, our iterative approach allowed finer resolution portfolio allocation with limited climate-change forecasts such that the best possible risk-return combinations were obtained. With our most efficient iterative approach, the expected loss in conservation outcomes owing to limited climate-change information could be reduced by 17% relative to other iterative approaches. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced...... Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA...... by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted...

  5. Simple sensors to achieve fine spatial resolution in continuous measurements of soil moisture and salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Konukcu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly necessary to be able to measure, simultaneously, continuously and at fine spatial resolution, the salinity and water content of soil. This paper reports the design, construction, calibration and laboratory testing of two simple but robust instruments that enable this to be achieved. Salinity in solution was measured reliably, at 10-mm spacing, by multi-electrode resistivity probes up to saturation with NaCl (c. 6 mol l–1, though these probes required individual calibration and were unable to detect precipitated salt. Volumetric water content was measured with great sensitivity over a wide range, from air-dryness (0.06 m3m–3 to saturation (0.55 m3m–3 in a sandy loam, using thermal-conductivity probes that used a common calibration and were unaffected by the salinity of the soil solution, by temperature and by ageing. Keywords: soil moisture, soil salinity, thermal-conductivity moisture probe, four-electrode salinity probe

  6. Fine-Resolution Precipitation Mapping in a Mountainous Watershed: Geostatistical Downscaling of TRMM Products Based on Environmental Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyuan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate precipitation data at a high spatial resolution are essential for hydrological, meteorological, and ecological research at regional scales. This study presented a geostatistical downscaling-calibration procedure to derive the high spatial resolution maps of precipitation over a mountainous watershed affected by a monsoon climate. Based on the relationships between precipitation and other environmental variables, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and digital elevation model (DEM, a regression model with a residual correction method was applied to downscale the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B43 product from coarse resolution (25 km to fine resolution (1 km. Two methods, geographical difference analysis (GDA and geographical ratio analysis (GRA, were used to calibrate the downscaled TRMM precipitation data. Monthly 1 km precipitation data were obtained by disaggregating 1 km annual downscaled and calibrated precipitation data using monthly fractions derived from original TRMM data. The downscaled precipitation datasets were validated against ground observations measured by rain gauges. According to the comparison of different regression models and residual interpolation methods, a geographically-weighted regression kriging (GWRK method was accepted to conduct the downscaling of TRMM data. The downscaled TRMM precipitation data obtained using GWRK described the spatial patterns of precipitation reasonably well at a spatial resolution of 1 km with more detailed information when compared with the original TRMM precipitation. The results of validation indicated that the GRA method provided results with higher accuracy than that of the GDA method. The final annual and monthly downscaled precipitation not only had significant improvement in spatial resolution, but also agreed well with data from the validation rain gauge stations (i.e., R2 = 0.72, RMSE = 161.0 mm, MAE = 127.5 mm, and Bias = 0.050 for annual

  7. Fine Resolution Air Quality Monitoring from a Small Satellite: CHRIS/PROBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Current remote sensing techniques fail to address the task of air quality monitoring over complex regions where multiple pollution sources produce high spatial variability. This is due to a lack of suitable satellite-sensor combinations and appropriate aerosol optical thickness (AOT retrieval algorithms. The new generation of small satellites, with their lower costs and greater flexibility has the potential to address this problem, with customised platform-sensor combinations dedicated to monitoring single complex regions or mega-cities. This paper demonstrates the ability of the European Space Agency’s small satellite sensor CHRIS/PROBA to provide reliable AOT estimates at a spatially detailed level over Hong Kong, using a modified version of the dense dark vegetation (DDV algorithm devised for MODIS. Since CHRIS has no middle-IR band such as the MODIS 2,100 nm band which is transparent to fine aerosols, the longest waveband of CHRIS, the 1,019 nm band was used to approximate surface reflectance, by the subtraction of an offset derived from synchronous field reflectance spectra. Aerosol reflectance in the blue and red bands was then obtained from the strong empirical relationship observed between the CHRIS 1,019 nm, and the blue and red bands respectively. AOT retrievals for three different dates were shown to be reliable, when compared with AERONET and Microtops II sunphotometers, and a Lidar, as well as air quality data at ground stations. The AOT images exhibited considerable spatial variability over the 11 x 11km image area and were able to indicate both local and long distance sources.

  8. Health impact assessment of particulate pollution in Tallinn using fine spatial resolution and modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Teinemaa, Erik; Lai, Taavi; Tamm, Tanel; Kaasik, Marko; Kimmel, Veljo; Kangur, Kati; Merisalu, Eda; Forsberg, Bertil

    2009-03-03

    Health impact assessments (HIA) use information on exposure, baseline mortality/morbidity and exposure-response functions from epidemiological studies in order to quantify the health impacts of existing situations and/or alternative scenarios. The aim of this study was to improve HIA methods for air pollution studies in situations where exposures can be estimated using GIS with high spatial resolution and dispersion modeling approaches. Tallinn was divided into 84 sections according to neighborhoods, with a total population of approx. 390,000 persons. Actual baseline rates for total mortality and hospitalization with cardiovascular and respiratory diagnosis were identified. The exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) from local emissions was defined as the modeled annual levels. The model validation and morbidity assessment were based on 2006 PM10 or PM2.5 levels at 3 monitoring stations. The exposure-response coefficients used were for total mortality 6.2% (95% CI 1.6-11%) per 10 microg/m3 increase of annual mean PM2.5 concentration and for the assessment of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations 1.14% (95% CI 0.62-1.67%) and 0.73% (95% CI 0.47-0.93%) per 10 microg/m3 increase of PM10. The direct costs related to morbidity were calculated according to hospital treatment expenses in 2005 and the cost of premature deaths using the concept of Value of Life Year (VOLY). The annual population-weighted-modeled exposure to locally emitted PM2.5 in Tallinn was 11.6 microg/m3. Our analysis showed that it corresponds to 296 (95% CI 76528) premature deaths resulting in 3859 (95% CI 10236636) Years of Life Lost (YLL) per year. The average decrease in life-expectancy at birth per resident of Tallinn was estimated to be 0.64 (95% CI 0.17-1.10) years. While in the polluted city centre this may reach 1.17 years, in the least polluted neighborhoods it remains between 0.1 and 0.3 years. When dividing the YLL by the number of premature deaths, the decrease in life expectancy

  9. Health impact assessment of particulate pollution in Tallinn using fine spatial resolution and modeling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel Veljo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health impact assessments (HIA use information on exposure, baseline mortality/morbidity and exposure-response functions from epidemiological studies in order to quantify the health impacts of existing situations and/or alternative scenarios. The aim of this study was to improve HIA methods for air pollution studies in situations where exposures can be estimated using GIS with high spatial resolution and dispersion modeling approaches. Methods Tallinn was divided into 84 sections according to neighborhoods, with a total population of approx. 390 000 persons. Actual baseline rates for total mortality and hospitalization with cardiovascular and respiratory diagnosis were identified. The exposure to fine particles (PM2.5 from local emissions was defined as the modeled annual levels. The model validation and morbidity assessment were based on 2006 PM10 or PM2.5 levels at 3 monitoring stations. The exposure-response coefficients used were for total mortality 6.2% (95% CI 1.6–11% per 10 μg/m3 increase of annual mean PM2.5 concentration and for the assessment of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations 1.14% (95% CI 0.62–1.67% and 0.73% (95% CI 0.47–0.93% per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10. The direct costs related to morbidity were calculated according to hospital treatment expenses in 2005 and the cost of premature deaths using the concept of Value of Life Year (VOLY. Results The annual population-weighted-modeled exposure to locally emitted PM2.5 in Tallinn was 11.6 μg/m3. Our analysis showed that it corresponds to 296 (95% CI 76528 premature deaths resulting in 3859 (95% CI 10236636 Years of Life Lost (YLL per year. The average decrease in life-expectancy at birth per resident of Tallinn was estimated to be 0.64 (95% CI 0.17–1.10 years. While in the polluted city centre this may reach 1.17 years, in the least polluted neighborhoods it remains between 0.1 and 0.3 years. When dividing the YLL by the number of

  10. Historic Low Wall Detection via Topographic Parameter Images Derived from Fine-Resolution DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coral walls protect vegetation gardens from strong winds that sweep across Xiji Island, Taiwan Strait for half the year. Topographic parameters based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR-based high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM provide obvious correspondence with the expected form of landscape features. The information on slope, curvature, and openness can help identify the location of landscape features. This study applied the automatic landscape line detection to extract historic vegetable garden wall lines from a LiDAR-derived DEM. The three rapid processes used in this study included the derivation of topographic parameters, line extraction, and aggregation. The rules were extracted from a decision tree to check the line detection from multiple topographic parameters. Results show that wall line detection with multiple topographic parameter images is an alternative means of obtaining essential historic wall feature information. Multiple topographic parameters are highly related to low wall feature identification. Furthermore, the accuracy of wall feature detection is 74% compared with manual interpretation. Thus, this study provides rapid wall detection systems with multiple topographic parameters for further historic landscape management.

  11. Sensitivity to open boundary forcing in a fine-resolution model of the Iberian shelf-slope region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Stevens

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A fine-resolution primitive equation numerical model is constructed for the Iberian continental shelf and slope region, with open boundaries to the north, south and west. The model is forced by climatological wind fields and relaxed at the surface to climatological temperature and salinity fields. A series of numerical experiments is conducted to investigate the influence of the open boundary conditions. The numerical results include coastal upwelling in summer and a poleward current in winter. The effects of advection of Mediterranean Water and eastern North Atlantic Central Water feature in the circulation. Qualitative comparisons are made with observations.

  12. Advances of Fine Resolution SSTs for Small Ocean Basins: Evaluation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-07

    of information if it does not display a currently valid 0MB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE...daily temporal resolution much colder than those over the sea. For example, clima - with improved transitions in time and space across cloud- tological...SST differences and mean biases for each zero in comparison to the finest resolution PATHF clima - climatology are calculated with respect to the inter

  13. New insights into the formation and resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kok Lung; Hickson, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    Recent data indicate an unexpected requirement for proteins that were hitherto considered to be dedicated to DNA repair to facilitate the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in anaphase. These include the Bloom's syndrome gene product, BLM and its partners, as well as a number of proteins...... that are important for preventing Fanconi anemia (FA) in man. As part of an analysis of the roles of these proteins in mitosis, we identified a novel class of anaphase bridge structure, called an ultra-fine anaphase bridge (UFB). These UFBs are also defined by the presence of a SNF2 family protein called PICH...

  14. Fine-resolution conservation planning with limited climate-change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Payal; Mallory, Mindy L.; Ando , Amy W.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change related uncertainty in future spatial patterns of conservation-related outcomes make it difficult to implement standard conservation and land-use planning paradigms. A recent study translates Markowitz’s risk diversification strategy from finance to conservation settings, enabling policy makers and conservation agents to use this diversification strategy for allocating conservation and restoration investments across space to overcome such uncertainty. However this method is information intensive and requires a large number of climate change scenarios for carrying out fine scale conservation planning. We develop an iterative portfolio 47 analysis technique that enables policy makers and conservation agents to allocate scarce conservation resources across a desired level of sub-regions in a planning landscape in the absence of sufficient number of climate scenarios. We use a case study of the Prairie Pothole Region to show that lack of sufficient information prevents a conservation agent from attaining the most efficient risk-return conservation outcomes. However, our iterative approach enables a decision maker to do fine-scale portfolio allocation with limited available climate change forecasts in a manner that obtains the best possible risk-return combinations, especially when targeting low risk opportunities.

  15. Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hailiang; Fang, Ming; Jostins, Luke

    2017-01-01

    are significantly enriched for protein-coding changes (n = 13), direct disruption of transcription-factor binding sites (n = 3), and tissue-specific epigenetic marks (n = 10), with the last category showing enrichment in specific immune cells among associations stronger in Crohn's disease and in gut mucosa among......Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci, but few have been conclusively resolved to specific functional variants. Here we...... report fine-mapping of 94 inflammatory bowel disease loci using high-density genotyping in 67,852 individuals. We pinpoint 18 associations to a single causal variant with greater than 95% certainty, and an additional 27 associations to a single variant with greater than 50% certainty. These 45 variants...

  16. The Potamophylax nigricornis group (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: resolution of phylogenetic species by fine structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Applying the phylogenetic species concept and the sexual selection theory we have reviewed some natal aspects of incipient species and their accelerated evolution. How can we recognise early stages of divergence? Which selection pressures are at work during speciation? Which pathways accelerate the speed of speciation? Which kinds of trait variabilities makes difficult to find initial split criteria? Elaborating the principles of Fine Structure Analysis (FSA and the morphological Initial Split Criteria (ISP it was discovered that the European spring dwelling caddisfly Potamophylax nigricornis doesn’tbelong to a single species. It represents an entire species group with seventeen peripatric species evolving on the southernperipheries of the distributional area. Four new species subgroups have been erected: Potamophylax nigricornis new species subgroup, P. elegantulus new species subgroup, P. horgos new species subgroup, P. simas new species subgroup. Eleven new species have been described: Potamophylax apados sp. nov., P. fules sp. nov., P. fureses sp. nov., P. hasas sp. novov., P. horgos sp. nov., P. kethas sp. nov., P. lemezes sp. nov., P. peremes sp. nov., P. simas sp. nov., P. tuskes sp. nov., P. ureges sp. nov. One Potamophylax sp. nov. has been differentiated and three new species status have been documented:Potamophylax elegantulus (Klapálek stat. n., P. mista (Navás stat. nov., P. testaceus (Zetterstedt stat. nov.

  17. A Prototype Two-Decade Fully-Coupled Fine-Resolution CCSM Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClean, Julie L. [Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Bader, David C [ORNL; Bryan, Frank O. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Maltrud, Matthew E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dennis, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mirin, Arthur A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Jones, Philip W [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Vertenstein, Mariana [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Ivanova, Detelina P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Kim, Yoo Yin [Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Boyle, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Jacob, Robert L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Norton, Nancy [IBM and National Center for Atmospheric Research; Craig, Anthony [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Worley, Patrick H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A fully coupled global simulation using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) was configured using grid resolutions of 0.1{sup o} for the ocean and sea-ice, and 0.25{sup o} for the atmosphere and land, and was run under present-day greenhouse gas conditions for 20 years. It represents one of the first efforts to simulate the planetary system at such high horizontal resolution. The climatology of the circulation of the atmosphere and the upper ocean were compared with observational data and reanalysis products to identify persistent mean climate biases. Intensified and contracted polar vortices, and too cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the subpolar and mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere were the dominant biases produced by the model. Intense category 4 cyclones formed spontaneously in the tropical North Pacific. A case study of the ocean response to one such event shows the realistic formation of a cold SST wake, mixed layer deepening, and warming below the mixed layer. Too many tropical cyclones formed in the North Pacific however, due to too high SSTs in the tropical eastern Pacific. In the North Atlantic anomalously low SSTs lead to a dearth of hurricanes. Agulhas eddy pathways are more realistic than in equivalent stand-alone ocean simulations forced with atmospheric reanalysis.

  18. High resolution characterizations of fine structure of semiconductor device and material using scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yasuo

    2017-10-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can easily distinguish the dopant type (PN) and has a wide dynamic range of sensitivity from low to high concentrations of dopants, because it has a high sensitivity to capacitance variation on the order of 10-22 F/\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}} . It is also applicable to the analysis of compound semiconductors with much lower signal levels than Si. We can avoid misjudgments from the two-valued function (contrast reversal) problem of dC/dV signals. Under an ultrahigh-vacuum condition, SNDM has atomic resolution. As the extended versions of SNDM, super-higher-order SNDM, local-deep-level transient spectroscopy, noncontact SNDM, and scanning nonlinear dielectric potentiometory have been developed and introduced. The favorable features of SNDM originate from its significantly high sensitivity.

  19. New PSM optimized for stable resolution of fine holes in FPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashiki, Nobuhisa; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Hayase, Michihiko

    2017-07-01

    Recently, due to increases in the definition of high function panels for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, LCD panel TFT and OLED (organic electro luminescence display) circuits are becoming increasingly denser and more miniaturized by the year. TFT and OLED circuits are composed of several layers, such as gate, semiconductor and contact hole (C / H). It is particularly difficult to obtain a stable resolution for C/H due to the decrease in the C/H process margin (EL, DOF, MEEF) as a result of increases in the density of the circuit. Moreover, C/H productivity has also markedly decreased due to an increase in the exposure dose. In response to this, attenuated phase shift mask (Att. PSM) for large size photomasks have been proposed as a means to improve the process margin in FPD. We have developed new PSM that can further improve the process margin and the productivity of C/H via the effective positioning of a high transmittance phase shift film. Using a 1.5um sized hole as the target, we confirmed the improvement effect of the optimized PSM via a software simulation and an exposure test. Hereafter it is necessary for us to optimize the new PSM for each panel process so as to allow us to use this mask in actual processes.

  20. Identification of fine scale and landscape scale drivers of urban aboveground carbon stocks using high-resolution modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Johansen, Kasper; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A; Wu, Dan; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    Urban areas are sources of land use change and CO 2 emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite this, assessments of urban vegetation carbon stocks often fail to identify important landscape-scale drivers of variation in urban carbon, especially the potential effects of landscape structure variables at different spatial scales. We combined field measurements with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data to build high-resolution models of woody plant aboveground carbon across the urban portion of Brisbane, Australia, and then identified landscape scale drivers of these carbon stocks. First, we used LiDAR data to quantify the extent and vertical structure of vegetation across the city at high resolution (5×5m). Next, we paired this data with aboveground carbon measurements at 219 sites to create boosted regression tree models and map aboveground carbon across the city. We then used these maps to determine how spatial variation in land cover/land use and landscape structure affects these carbon stocks. Foliage densities above 5m height, tree canopy height, and the presence of ground openings had the strongest relationships with aboveground carbon. Using these fine-scale relationships, we estimate that 2.2±0.4 TgC are stored aboveground in the urban portion of Brisbane, with mean densities of 32.6±5.8MgCha -1 calculated across the entire urban land area, and 110.9±19.7MgCha -1 calculated within treed areas. Predicted carbon densities within treed areas showed strong positive relationships with the proportion of surrounding tree cover and how clumped that tree cover was at both 1km 2 and 1ha resolutions. Our models predict that even dense urban areas with low tree cover can have high carbon densities at fine scales. We conclude that actions and policies aimed at increasing urban carbon should focus on those areas where urban tree cover is most fragmented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A linearised pixel-swapping method for mapping rural linear land cover features from fine spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, M. W.; Atkinson, P. M.; Holland, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    Accurate maps of rural linear land cover features, such as paths and hedgerows, would be useful to ecologists, conservation managers and land planning agencies. Such information might be used in a variety of applications (e.g., ecological, conservation and land management applications). Based on the phenomenon of spatial dependence, sub-pixel mapping techniques can be used to increase the spatial resolution of land cover maps produced from satellite sensor imagery and map such features with increased accuracy. Aerial photography with a spatial resolution of 0.25 m was acquired of the Christchurch area of Dorset, UK. The imagery was hard classified using a simple Mahalanobis distance classifier and the classification degraded to simulate land cover proportion images with spatial resolutions of 2.5 and 5 m. A simple pixel-swapping algorithm was then applied to each of the proportion images. Sub-pixels within pixels were swapped iteratively until the spatial correlation between neighbouring sub-pixels for the entire image was maximised. Visual inspection of the super-resolved output showed that prediction of the position and dimensions of hedgerows was comparable with the original imagery. The maps displayed an accuracy of 87%. To enhance the prediction of linear features within the super-resolved output, an anisotropic modelling component was added. The direction of the largest sums of proportions was calculated within a moving window at the pixel level. The orthogonal sum of proportions was used in estimating the anisotropy ratio. The direction and anisotropy ratio were then used to modify the pixel-swapping algorithm so as to increase the likelihood of creating linear features in the output map. The new linear pixel-swapping method led to an increase in the accuracy of mapping fine linear features of approximately 5% compared with the conventional pixel-swapping method.

  2. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  3. RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestan, Laura; Gosselin, Thierry; Perrier, Charles; Sainte-Marie, Bernard; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species' range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs using RAD sequencing to delineate genetic structure and perform population assignment for 586 American lobsters collected in 17 locations distributed across a large portion of the species' natural distribution range. Our results revealed the existence of a hierarchical genetic structure, first separating lobsters from the northern and southern part of the range (FCT  = 0.0011; P-value = 0.0002) and then revealing a total of 11 genetically distinguishable populations (mean FST  = 0.00185; CI: 0.0007-0.0021, P-value < 0.0002), providing strong evidence for weak, albeit fine-scale population structuring within each region. A resampling procedure showed that assignment success was highest with a subset of 3000 SNPs having the highest FST . Applying Anderson's (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010, 10, 701) method to avoid 'high-grading bias', 94.2% and 80.8% of individuals were correctly assigned to their region and location of origin, respectively. Lastly, we showed that assignment success was positively associated with sample size. These results demonstrate that using a large number of SNPs improves fine-scale population structure delineation and population assignment success in a context of weak genetic structure. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation and management of highly connected marine species, particularly regarding the geographic scale of demographic independence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessment of Acacia Koa Forest Health across Environmental Gradients in Hawai‘i Using Fine Resolution Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Martinez Morales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Koa (Acacia koa forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai‘ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600–1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua‘i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17–20 °C mean annual temperature and 750–1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai‘i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species.

  5. Acacia koa forest classification and productivity assessment across environmental gradients in Hawaii using fine resolution remotely sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Morales, R.; Idol, T.; Chen, Q.

    2009-05-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is an important native tree species in Hawaii economically and ecologically. Different Acacia koa (koa) forest types are found across the elevation and rainfall gradients typical of the Hawaiian Islands. The purpose of this study was to develop methodologies to differentiate these forests and to assess indices and indicators of forest productivity across these gradients using fine resolution remotely sensed imagery. IKONOS satellite imagery was analyzed using advanced statistical modeling and compared to field measurements of productivity indices. The calculation of several vegetation indices that are commonly used in vegetation studies, allowed classification of various koa forest types into micro-regions in wet and dry locations across elevation gradients ranging from 300-850 m. Vegetation indices and image texture parameters strongly related to tree height, N, P and specific leaf area and less strongly with leaf area index and basal area across gradient sites. This allowed development of statistical models that can be used in the assessment of koa forest productivity indices at landscape and regional scales. This will also allow for the application of specific forest management strategies suitable to the environmental conditions and plant requirements for optimal tree growth in each micro-region.

  6. Comprehensive Validation of Street Canyon PM2.5 Simulation in Complex Asian Residential Community with Fine Resolution using a Micro-scale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong; Lung, Shih-Chun; Uhrner, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Since complex building settings and deep street canyons, significant spatial variation of PM exists in Asian community. To study the dispersion of PM with complex topography, and to quantitatively assess residents' PM exposure, a coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian model GRAL is applied. In this work, a typical Asian residential community in Taiwan is selected to demonstrate the PM10 and PM2.5 simulation with a 5 m × 5 m resolution topography dataset. The objectives of this work are to optimize critical parameters and to estimate the GRAL performance of PM simulation in complicate micro-environment. Fine resolution building data is provided by a three-dimensional urbanization index dataset to resolve the topographical feature. Sensitivity test is implemented with different settings of dispersion time, released particles numbers, building resolution and roughness length, respectively. Particularly, an empirical algorithm is used to calculate the roughness length of the single community on the basis of 5 m × 5 m topography dataset. Subsequently with optimal parameter settings, the PM10 and PM2.5 simulation within street canyon is validated by both in-situ and mobile observation. The values of Normalised Mean Square Error (NMSE) and Fractional Bias (FB) in this study is quite good comparing to the reported PM simulation by four other models. Good agreements are found between simulation and observation in different types of street canyon with different wind condition, as well as the applicable scope and the limitation of the model are pointed out. On the basis of this work, PM simulation of GRAL in street canyon is comprehensively validated, and it is also demonstrated as a good tool for PM research in complex Asian residential community. Since similar characters, this modelling approach could be applied in the community of other cities in Asia.

  7. Applying GIS and fine-resolution digital terrain models to assess three-dimensional population distribution under traffic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2012-01-01

    Pollution exhibits significant variations horizontally and vertically within cities; therefore, the size and three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of population are significant determinants of urban health. This paper presents a novel methodology, 3D digital geography (3DIG) methodology, for investigating 3D spatial distributions of population in close proximity to traffic, thus the potential highly exposed population under traffic impacts. 3DIG applies geographic information system and fine-resolution (5 m) digital terrain models to obtain the number of building floors in residential zones of the Taipei metropolis; the vertical distribution of population at different floors was estimated based on demographic data in each census tract. In addition, population within 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 m from the roadways was estimated. Field validation indicated that model results were reliable and accurate; the final population estimation differs only by 0.88% from the demographic database. The results showed that among the total 6.5 million Taipei residents, 0.8 (12.3%), 1.5 (22.9%), 2.3 (34.9), and 2.7 (41.1%) million residents live on the first or second floor within 5, 10, 20, and 50 m, respectively, of municipal roads. There are 22 census tracts with more than half of their residents living on the first or second floor within 5 m of municipal roads. In addition, half of the towns in Taipei city and county with >13.9% and 12.1% of residents live on the first and second floors within 5 m of municipal roads, respectively. These findings highlight the huge number of Taipei residents in close proximity to traffic and have significant implications for exposure assessment and environmental epidemiological studies. This study demonstrates that 3DIG is a versatile methodology for various research and policy planning in which 3D spatial population distribution is the central focus.

  8. Developing fine-pixel CdTe detectors for the next generation of high-resolution hard x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven

    Over the past decade, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been improving the angular resolution of hard X-ray (HXR; 20 "70 keV) optics to the point that we now routinely manufacture optics modules with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec Half Power Diameter (HDP), almost three times the performance of NuSTAR optics (Ramsey et al. 2013; Gubarev et al. 2013a; Atkins et al. 2013). New techniques are currently being developed to provide even higher angular resolution. High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For the HERO mirrors, where the HPD is 26 arcsec over a 6-m focal length converts to 750 μm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 μm. At a 10-m focal length these detectors can support a 16 arcsec HPD. Of course, the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage (Ramsey 2001). The ability to handle high counting rates is also desirable for efficient calibration. A collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MSFC, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK is developing precisely such detectors under an ongoing, funded APRA program (FY2015 to FY2017). The detectors use the RALdeveloped Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology. These HEXITEC ASICs can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) to create a fine (250 μm pitch) HXR detector (Jones et al. 2009; Seller et al. 2011). The objectives of this funded effort are to develop and test a HEXITEC

  9. Providing grief resolution as an oncology nurse retention strategy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Lori

    2012-12-01

    Oncology nurses play a pivotal role in optimizing care provided to patients at the end of life (EOL). Although oncology nurses commonly provide EOL care and witness deaths of patients that they have maintained long-standing relationships with, they are frequently excluded from grief resolution endeavors. With a worldwide shortage of oncology nurses, retention is paramount to ensuring that the care patients with cancer receive is not jeopardized. Various strategies were identified to resolve grief and increase nurse retention, including creating supportive work environments, debriefing with colleagues, providing EOL and grief education, and altering patient care assignments. Future research on emerging technologies and their effects on oncology nurse coping and retention strategies also was suggested.

  10. Projected Future Vegetation Changes for the Northwest United States and Southwest Canada at a Fine Spatial Resolution Using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Elizabeth M Gray; Richard T Pelltier

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topogr...

  11. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION LANDCOVER MODELLING WITH PLÉIADES IMAGERY AND DEM DATA IN SUPPORT OF FINE SCALE LANDSCAPE THERMAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of air-borne thermal infrared imaging sensors, the use of simulated spectral infrared scenery is a cost-effective way to provide input to the sensor. The benefit of simulated scenes includes control over parameters governing the spectral and related thermal behaviour of the terrain as well as atmospheric conditions. Such scenes need to have a high degree of radiometric and geometric accuracy, as well as high resolution to account for small objects having different spectral and associated thermal properties. In support of this, innovative use of tri-stereo, ultra-high resolution Pléiades satellite imagery is being used to generated high detail, small scale quantitative terrain surface data to compliment comparable optical data in order to produce detailed urban and rural landscape datasets representative of different landscape features, within which spectrally defined characteristics can be subsequently matched to thermal signatures. Pléiades tri-stereo mode, acquired from the same orbit during the same pass, is particularly favourable for reaching the required metric accuracy because images are radiometrically and geometrically very homogeneous, which allows a very good radiometric matching for relief computation. The tri-stereo approach reduces noise and allows significantly enhanced relief description in landscapes where simple stereo imaging cannot see features, such as in dense urban areas or valley bottoms in steep, mountainous areas. This paper describes the datasets that have been generated for DENEL over the Hartebeespoort Dam region, west of Pretoria, South Africa. The final terrain datasets are generated by integrated modelling of both height and spectral surface characteristics within an object-based modelling environment. This approach provides an operational framework for rapid and highly accurate mapping of building and vegetation structure of wide areas, as is required in support of the evaluation of thermal

  13. Projected future vegetation changes for the northwest United States and southwest Canada at a fine spatial resolution using a dynamic global vegetation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Sarah; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Pelltier, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0–58.0°N latitude by 136.6–103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070–2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas.

  14. DNA barcodes from four loci provide poor resolution of taxonomic groups in the genus Crataegus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrei, Mehdi; Talent, Nadia; Kuzmina, Maria; Lee, Jeanette; Lund, Jensen; Shipley, Paul R.; Stefanović, Saša; Dickinson, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcodes can facilitate identification of organisms especially when morphological characters are limited or unobservable. To what extent this potential is realized in specific groups of plants remains to be determined. Libraries of barcode sequences from well-studied authoritatively identified plants represented by herbarium voucher specimens are needed in order for DNA barcodes to serve their intended purpose, where this is possible, and to understand the reasons behind their failure to do so, when this occurs. We evaluated four loci, widely regarded as universal DNA barcodes for plants, for their utility in hawthorn species identification. Three plastid regions, matK, rbcLa and psbA-trnH, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA discriminate only some of the species of Crataegus that can be recognized on the basis of their morphology etc. This is, in part, because in Rosaceae tribe Maleae most individual plastid loci yield relatively little taxonomic resolution and, in part, because the effects of allopolyploidization have not been eliminated by concerted evolution of the ITS regions. Although individual plastid markers provided generally poor resolution of taxonomic groups in Crataegus, a few species were notable exceptions. In contrast, analyses of concatenated sequences of the 3 plastid barcode loci plus 11 additional plastid loci gave a well-resolved maternal phylogeny. In the ITS2 tree, different individuals of some species formed groups with taxonomically unrelated species. This is a sign of lineage sorting due to incomplete concerted evolution in ITS2. Incongruence between the ITS2 and plastid trees is best explained by hybridization between different lineages within the genus. In aggregate, limited between-species variation in plastid loci, hybridization and a lack of concerted evolution in ITS2 all combine to limit the utility of standard barcoding markers in Crataegus. These results have implications for authentication

  15. An innovative computer design for modeling forest landscape change in very large spatial extents with fine resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson; Yangjian. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Although forest landscape models (FLMs) have benefited greatly from ongoing advances of computer technology and software engineering, computing capacity remains a bottleneck in the design and development of FLMs. Computer memory overhead and run time efficiency are primary limiting factors when applying forest landscape models to simulate large landscapes with fine...

  16. Development of a sub-cm high resolution ion Doppler tomography diagnostics for fine structure measurement of guide field reconnection in TS-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; Koike, Hideya; Hatano, Hironori; Hayashi, Takumi; Cao, Qinghong; Himeno, Shunichi; Kaneda, Taishi; Akimitsu, Moe; Sawada, Asuka; Ono, Yasushi

    2017-10-01

    A new type of high-throughput/high-resolution 96CH ion Doppler tomography diagnostics has been developed using ``multi-slit'' spectroscopy technique for detailed investigation of fine structure formation during high guide field magnetic reconnection. In the last three years, high field merging experiment in MAST pioneered new frontiers of reconnection heating: formation of highly peaked structure around X-point in high guide field condition (Bt > 0.3 T), outflow dissipation under the influence of better plasma confinement to form high temperature ring structure which aligns with closed flux surface of toroidal plasma, and interaction between ion and electron temperature profile during transport/confinement phase to form triple peak structure (τeiE 4 ms). To investigate more detailed mechanism with in-situ magnetic measurement, the university of Tokyo starts the upgrade of plasma parameters and spatial resolution of optical diagnostics as in MAST. Now, a new type of high-throughput/high-resolution 96CH ion Doppler tomography diagnostics system construction has been completed and it successfully resolved fine structure of ion heating downstream, aligned with closed flux surface formed by reconnected field. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 15H05750, 15K14279 and 17H04863.

  17. Impact of grid resolution on the predicted fine PM by a regional 3-D chemical transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Koraj, D.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Charalampidis, P.E.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the role of horizontal grid resolution on the performance of the regional three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) PMCAMx. Two cases were investigated. First, the model was applied over the Northeastern United States with grid resolutions of 36 and 12 km during both a

  18. A dynamic domain partitioning strategy for parallel two-dimensional, large-scale and fine resolution flood inundation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, G. M.; Bates, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional flood inundation models have long been used as a pivotal instrument in flood management and risk assessment. The computational time of these models usually scales with the length L and resolution Δx of the computational domain raised to the power of 2 and 3, respectively; and therefore grows very fast with increases in domain size or grid refinements. This imposes a serious limitation to a number of highly relevant applications, including problems involving flood propagation over large areas at high resolution (which is usually needed in topographically complex domains such as urban areas) and probabilistic risk assessment requiring a large number of model realizations. With increasing availability of large computer clusters, parallelization techniques emerge as a powerful solution to improve the performance of these models, paving the way to a range of applications that have long been hindered by unfeasibly high computational times. A number of parallel inundation models have been developed over the last years, the great majority of which adopt the domain decomposition method. In this method a large computational domain is decomposed into smaller sub-domains that are treated individually by each of the computational cores available. The domain partitioning is sometimes performed by simply dividing the domain into sub-domains of equal size (regular partitioning) or alternatively by accounting for the number of wet and dry cells in each sub-domain (non-regular domain partitioning). This second method provides a more balanced distribution of the computational load across all cores and, as a result, improved efficiency. On the other hand, these strategies typically neglect dynamic changes of the flooded areas. This simplification can lead to considerably unbalanced distributions of computational load during the propagation of floods, which negatively impacts the model's performance. In order to overcome this limitation, this study proposes, analyses

  19. Can high resolution 3D topographic surveys provide reliable grain size estimates in gravel bed rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E.; Smith, M. W.; Klaar, M. J.; Brown, L. E.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution topographic surveys such as those provided by Structure-from-Motion (SfM) contain a wealth of information that is not always exploited in the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In particular, several authors have related sub-metre scale topographic variability (or 'surface roughness') to sediment grain size by deriving empirical relationships between the two. In fluvial applications, such relationships permit rapid analysis of the spatial distribution of grain size over entire river reaches, providing improved data to drive three-dimensional hydraulic models, allowing rapid geomorphic monitoring of sub-reach river restoration projects, and enabling more robust characterisation of riverbed habitats. However, comparison of previously published roughness-grain-size relationships shows substantial variability between field sites. Using a combination of over 300 laboratory and field-based SfM surveys, we demonstrate the influence of inherent survey error, irregularity of natural gravels, particle shape, grain packing structure, sorting, and form roughness on roughness-grain-size relationships. Roughness analysis from SfM datasets can accurately predict the diameter of smooth hemispheres, though natural, irregular gravels result in a higher roughness value for a given diameter and different grain shapes yield different relationships. A suite of empirical relationships is presented as a decision tree which improves predictions of grain size. By accounting for differences in patch facies, large improvements in D50 prediction are possible. SfM is capable of providing accurate grain size estimates, although further refinement is needed for poorly sorted gravel patches, for which c-axis percentiles are better predicted than b-axis percentiles.

  20. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.

    2016-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. The EMODnet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting from SeaDataNet the Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the Sextant data products catalogue service. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards such as ISO and OGC. The SeaDataNet portal provides users a number of interrelated meta directories, an extensive range of controlled vocabularies, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools. SeaDataNet at present gives overview and access to more than 1.8 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM has a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use is made of available and gathered surveys and already more than 13.000 surveys have been indexed by 27 European data providers from 15 countries. Also use is made of composite DTMs as generated and maintained by several data providers for their areas of interest. Already 44 composite DTMs are included in the Sextant data products catalogue. For areas without coverage use is made of the latest global DTM of GEBCO who is partner in the EMODnet Bathymetry project. In return GEBCO integrates the EMODnet

  1. Calibrating R-LINE model results with observational data to develop annual mobile source air pollutant fields at fine spatial resolution: Application in Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G.; Sampath, Poornima; Mulholland, James A.; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Yunhee; D'Onofrio, David

    2016-12-01

    calibrated fields of PM2.5 were compared with 4 km resolution mobile source impact fields obtained from an indicator method using the observation-CMAQ fields, with an R2 value of 0.53 found. The method developed provides high-resolution annual average spatial fields in a computationally efficient manner with low bias. The method is being applied in air quality planning efforts and the pollutant concentration fields are being used in long-term, fine spatial scale health studies.

  2. Aptamers provide superior stainings of cellular receptors studied under super-resolution microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomes de Castro, Maria Angela; Höbartner, Claudia; Opazo, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    ...) can be used to detect cellular proteins under super-resolution imaging. However, a direct comparison between several aptamers and antibodies is needed, to clearly show the advantages and/or disadvantages of the different probes...

  3. Experimental evaluation of the resolution improvement provided by a silicon PET probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, K; Oliver, J F; Gillam, J; Rafecas, M; Studen, A; Grkovski, M; Kagan, H; Smith, S; Llosá, G; Lacasta, C; Clinthorne, N H

    2016-09-01

    A high-resolution PET system, which incorporates a silicon detector probe into a conventional PET scanner, has been proposed to obtain increased image quality in a limited region of interest. Detailed simulation studies have previously shown that the additional probe information improves the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image and increases lesion detectability, with no cost to other image quality measures. The current study expands on the previous work by using a laboratory prototype of the silicon PET-probe system to examine the resolution improvement in an experimental setting. Two different versions of the probe prototype were assessed, both consisting of a back-to-back pair of 1-mm thick silicon pad detectors, one arranged in 32 × 16 arrays of 1.4 mm × 1.4 mm pixels and the other in 40 × 26 arrays of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm pixels. Each detector was read out by a set of VATAGP7 ASICs and a custom-designed data acquisition board which allowed trigger and data interfacing with the PET scanner, itself consisting of BGO block detectors segmented into 8 × 6 arrays of 6 mm × 12 mm × 30 mm crystals. Limited-angle probe data was acquired from a group of Na-22 point-like sources in order to observe the maximum resolution achievable using the probe system. Data from a Derenzo-like resolution phantom was acquired, then scaled to obtain similar statistical quality as that of previous simulation studies. In this case, images were reconstructed using measurements of the PET ring alone and with the inclusion of the probe data. Images of the Na-22 source demonstrated a resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM in the probe data, the PET ring resolution being approximately 6 mm. Profiles taken through the image of the Derenzo-like phantom showed a clear increase in spatial resolution. Improvements in peak-to-valley ratios of 50% and 38%, in the 4.8 mm and 4.0 mm phantom features respectively, were observed, while previously unresolvable 3.2 mm features were brought to light by the

  4. Uncertainty Analysis in the Creation of a Fine-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI Reference Map for Validation of Moderate Resolution LAI Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Iiames

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The validation process for a moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI product (i.e., MODIS involves the creation of a high spatial resolution LAI reference map (Lai-RM, which when scaled to the moderate LAI resolution (i.e., > 1 km allows for comparison and analysis with this LAI product. This research addresses two major sources of uncertainty in the creation of the LAI-RM: (1 the uncertainty associated with the indirect in situ optical measurements of southeastern United States needle-leaf LAI and (2 the uncertainty in the process of classifying land cover (LC. Uncertainty within the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda in situ data collection was highest for the assessment of the plant area index (PAI, Le (27.2%, and the woody-to-total ratio, α, (30.6%. The needle-to-shoot ratio, λE, and the element clumping index, ΩE, contributed 14.9% and 9.3%, respectively, to the uncertainty in the calculation of LAI. Combining LC differences (3.4% with the uncertainty within the loblolly pine component resulted in doubling the LAI-RM variability (σ = 0.50 to σ = 0.97 at the 1 km2 validation site located in Appomattox, Virginia, USA.

  5. High-resolution phylogeny providing insights towards the epidemiology, zoonotic aspects and taxonomy of sapoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, A.F.; Durães-Carvalho, R.; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F.; Alfieri, A.; Poel, Van der W.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution, epidemiology and zoonotic aspects of Sapoviruses (SaV) are still not well explored. In this study, we applied high-resolution phylogeny to investigate the epidemiological and zoonotic origins as well as taxonomic classification of animal and human SaV. Bayesian framework analyses

  6. Analysis of fine-scale mammalian evolutionary breakpoints provides new insight into their relation to genome organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaghloul Lamia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Intergenic Breakage Model, which is the current model of structural genome evolution, considers that evolutionary rearrangement breakages happen with a uniform propensity along the genome but are selected against in genes, their regulatory regions and in-between. However, a growing body of evidence shows that there exists regions along mammalian genomes that present a high susceptibility to breakage. We reconsidered this question taking advantage of a recently published methodology for the precise detection of rearrangement breakpoints based on pairwise genome comparisons. Results We applied this methodology between the genome of human and those of five sequenced eutherian mammals which allowed us to delineate evolutionary breakpoint regions along the human genome with a finer resolution (median size 26.6 kb than obtained before. We investigated the distribution of these breakpoints with respect to genome organisation into domains of different activity. In agreement with the Intergenic Breakage Model, we observed that breakpoints are under-represented in genes. Surprisingly however, the density of breakpoints in small intergenes (1 per Mb appears significantly higher than in gene deserts (0.1 per Mb. More generally, we found a heterogeneous distribution of breakpoints that follows the organisation of the genome into isochores (breakpoints are more frequent in GC-rich regions. We then discuss the hypothesis that regions with an enhanced susceptibility to breakage correspond to regions of high transcriptional activity and replication initiation. Conclusion We propose a model to describe the heterogeneous distribution of evolutionary breakpoints along human chromosomes that combines natural selection and a mutational bias linked to local open chromatin state.

  7. Juicer Provides a One-Click System for Analyzing Loop-Resolution Hi-C Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Neva C; Shamim, Muhammad S; Machol, Ido; Rao, Suhas S P; Huntley, Miriam H; Lander, Eric S; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2016-07-01

    Hi-C experiments explore the 3D structure of the genome, generating terabases of data to create high-resolution contact maps. Here, we introduce Juicer, an open-source tool for analyzing terabase-scale Hi-C datasets. Juicer allows users without a computational background to transform raw sequence data into normalized contact maps with one click. Juicer produces a hic file containing compressed contact matrices at many resolutions, facilitating visualization and analysis at multiple scales. Structural features, such as loops and domains, are automatically annotated. Juicer is available as open source software at http://aidenlab.org/juicer/. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Merging fine and coarse resolution remotely sensed data with household-level survey data to evaluate small-scale vulnerability to climate change in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change, in the form of increasingly variable temperatures and rainfall, is anticipated to have potentially dramatic impacts on subsistence agricultural communities throughout the world. Poor people who depend on rainfall to produce food or to produce products to sell to buy food are expected to be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts associated with climate change. Poor people have extremely limited resources that can be used to cope with weather events and these resources are even more strained when the individuals live in poor countries. While poor and rural producers are most likely to face high levels of vulnerability to food insecurity due to their dependence on rainfall for their agricultural production, annual agricultural censuses are virtually non-existent. Surveying all of the producers in a country each year is extremely costly owing to difficulties in accessing farmers and the costs associated with extensive surveys. The result, however, is very limited information on the spatial and temporal variation in production and the resulting impacts on micro-scale food insecurity and livelihood stability. In this project we use a combination of fine and coarse resolution remotely sensed data ( 1m data, 250m NDVI data and 10km rainfall data, and others) and recently collected survey data from the World Bank to estimate agricultural and land use characteristics at a fine spatial scale in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. The analysis will produce estimates of cultivated area that incorporate spatially dynamic climate and vegetation data but that also account for the variation in agricultural practices associated with the different ethnic and religious groups within each country. The survey data will help to calibrate the models and will also serve as a way to validate the statistical models used to estimate on the ground agricultural practices. The models will then be used to evaluate fine-scale agricultural response to climate change in the form

  9. Fine-scale planktonic habitat partitioning at a shelf-slope front revealed by a high-resolution imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Adam T.; Cowen, Robert K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Hare, Jonathan A.

    2015-02-01

    Ocean fronts represent productive regions of the ocean, but predator-prey interactions within these features are poorly understood partially due to the coarse-scale and biases of net-based sampling methods. We used the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) to sample across a front near the Georges Bank shelf edge on two separate sampling days in August 2010. Salinity characterized the transition from shelf to slope water, with isopycnals sloping vertically, seaward, and shoaling at the thermocline. A frontal feature defined by the convergence of isopycnals and a surface temperature gradient was sampled inshore of the shallowest zone of the shelf-slope front. Zooplankton and larval fishes were abundant on the shelf side of the front and displayed taxon-dependent depth distributions but were rare in the slope waters. Supervised automated particle counting showed small particles with high solidity, verified to be zooplankton (copepods and appendicularians), aggregating near surface above the front. Salps were most abundant in zones of intermediate chlorophyll-a fluorescence, distinctly separate from high abundances of other grazers and found almost exclusively in colonial form (97.5%). Distributions of gelatinous zooplankton differed among taxa but tended to follow isopycnals. Fine-scale sampling revealed distinct habitat partitioning of various planktonic taxa, resulting from a balance of physical and biological drivers in relation to the front.

  10. Localized adenosine signaling provides fine-tuned negative feedback over a wide dynamic range of neocortical network activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the patterns of activity produced by neocortical networks are now better understood, how these states are activated, sustained, and terminated still remains unclear. Negative feedback by the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine may potentially play an important role, as it can be released by activity and there is dense A1 receptor expression in the neocortex. Using electrophysiology, biosensors, and modeling, we have investigated the properties of adenosine signaling during physiological and pathological network activity in rat neocortical slices. Both low- and high-rate network activities were reduced by A1 receptor activation and enhanced by block of A1 receptors, consistent with activity-dependent adenosine release. Since the A1 receptors were neither saturated nor completely unoccupied during either low- or high-rate activity, adenosine signaling provides a negative-feedback mechanism with a wide dynamic range. Modeling and biosensor experiments show that during high-rate activity increases in extracellular adenosine concentration are highly localized and are uncorrelated over short distances that are certainly adenosine release during low-rate activity, although it is present, is probably a consequence of small localized increases in adenosine concentration that are rapidly diminished by diffusion and active removal mechanisms. Saturation of such removal mechanisms when higher concentrations of adenosine are released results in the accumulation of inosine, explaining the strong purine signal during high-rate activity. PMID:25392170

  11. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shun; Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei; Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori

    2017-02-01

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm2 pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  12. Facial primer provides immediate and long-term improvements in mild-to-moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines associated with photoaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts WE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wendy E Roberts,1 Lily I Jiang,2 James H Herndon Jr3 1Generational and Cosmetic Dermatology, Rancho Mirage, CA, 2Thomas J Stephens and Associates, Richardson, 3Dermatology Center of Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA Background: Photoaged skin results from various environmental factors, most importantly chronic sun exposure. Dyschromia and fine lines/wrinkles are common clinical manifestations of photodamaged skin. Purpose: This single-center clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a new multifunctional facial primer (camouflage, broad-spectrum SPF 50, and a treatment for hyperpigmentation when used by females with mild-to-moderate facial hyperpigmentation and fine lines due to photoaging over a course of 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Subjects were provided test material (Even Up-Clinical Pigment Perfector and supporting products to use on their face and neck. Products were used according to specific application instructions. Clinical grading for efficacy and tolerability assessments were performed by an expert grader at baseline, baseline (post-application primer, week 4, week 8, week 12, and week 12 (post-application primer. Standardized digital photographs were taken, and self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. Results: Twenty-eight female subjects completed the 12-week trial. The facial primer improved scores for the appearance of hyperpigmentation and other photoaging parameters immediately after the first application. The treatment also showed a progressive improvement in the clinical assessment of hyperpigmentation and other photoaging parameters over the 12-week trial. These long-term benefits can be attributed to an improvement in the underlying skin condition. The facial primer was well tolerated. Subject questionnaires showed that the product was highly rated at all visits. Conclusion: The facial primer was shown to be effective and well tolerated for immediate and long-term improvement in the appearance

  13. Effects of providing and withholding postfitting fine-tuning adjustments on outcome measures in novice hearing aid users: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D R; Williams, K J; Goldsmith, L J

    2001-06-01

    This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of either providing or withholding subject-driven, postfitting electroacoustic changes (fine tuning) on hearing aid performance as measured by tests of speech recognition in noise, sound quality, and benefit. A group of adult first-time hearing aid users with moderate, high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss was studied over a 5-month postfitting period. Half of the group served as a control group; half constituted the treatment group. Treatment consisted of making as many postfitting electroacoustic manipulations as the participants' complaints/observations required. These adjustments were withheld from the control group individuals. Group performance differences were assessed using the COSI, two versions of the APHAB, a Satisfaction scale, a Sound Quality tool, and the SIN test. Analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in the control and treatment groups' performances or perceived benefit at any of the five postfitting test sessions. These data suggested that there was no measurable advantage to be derived from making postfitting frequency-gain adjustments of 10 dB or less to hearing aids with wide dynamic range compression fitted in the manner described in this article. Definitive studies of the effects of postfitting electroacoustic fine tuning must be undertaken.

  14. Accounting for downscaling and model uncertainty in fine-resolution seasonal climate projections over the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid; Rana, Arun

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts on natural systems as well as various socio-economic aspects of human life. This has urged scientific communities to improve the understanding of future climate and reduce the uncertainties associated with projections. In the present study, ten statistically downscaled CMIP5 GCMs at 1/16th deg. spatial resolution from two different downscaling procedures are utilized over the Columbia River Basin (CRB) to assess the changes in climate variables and characterize the associated uncertainties. Three climate variables, i.e. precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature, are studied for the historical period of 1970-2000 as well as future period of 2010-2099, simulated with representative concentration pathways of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is employed to reduce the model uncertainty and develop a probabilistic projection for each variable in each scenario. Historical comparison of long-term attributes of GCMs and observation suggests a more accurate representation for BMA than individual models. Furthermore, BMA projections are used to investigate future seasonal to annual changes of climate variables. Projections indicate significant increase in annual precipitation and temperature, with varied degree of change across different sub-basins of CRB. We then characterized uncertainty of future projections for each season over CRB. Results reveal that model uncertainty is the main source of uncertainty, among others. However, downscaling uncertainty considerably contributes to the total uncertainty of future projections, especially in summer. On the contrary, downscaling uncertainty appears to be higher than scenario uncertainty for precipitation.

  15. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Min [National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhou, Zhe [ThermoFisher Scientific China Co., Ltd, No 6 Building, 27 Xinjinqiao Road, Shanghai 201206 (China); Guo, De-an, E-mail: daguo@simm.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2015-09-24

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the {sup 34}S isotopic ion is drastically affected by {sup 13}C{sub 2} and {sup 18}O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ({sup 12}C{sub x}{sup 1}H{sub y}{sup 16}O{sub z}{sup 32}S{sup 13}C{sub 2}{sup 18}O, {sup 12}C{sub x+2}{sup 1}H{sub y}{sup 16}O{sub z+1}{sup 34}S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS{sup n}). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field. - Highlights: • We provide a new strategy for specifically screening of sulfurous compounds. • The fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) bases on separation of {sup 13}C{sub 2}+{sup 18}O and {sup 34}S. • Ultra high resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) is essential

  16. Trans-ethnic meta-regression of genome-wide association studies accounting for ancestry increases power for discovery and improves fine-mapping resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mägi, Reedik; Horikoshi, Momoko; Sofer, Tamar; Mahajan, Anubha; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Franceschini, Nora; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2017-09-15

    Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across diverse populations can increase power to detect complex trait loci when the underlying causal variants are shared between ancestry groups. However, heterogeneity in allelic effects between GWAS at these loci can occur that is correlated with ancestry. Here, a novel approach is presented to detect SNP association and quantify the extent of heterogeneity in allelic effects that is correlated with ancestry. We employ trans-ethnic meta-regression to model allelic effects as a function of axes of genetic variation, derived from a matrix of mean pairwise allele frequency differences between GWAS, and implemented in the MR-MEGA software. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate increased power to detect association for MR-MEGA over fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis across a range of scenarios of heterogeneity in allelic effects between ethnic groups. We also demonstrate improved fine-mapping resolution, in loci containing a single causal variant, compared to these meta-analysis approaches and PAINTOR, and equivalent performance to MANTRA at reduced computational cost. Application of MR-MEGA to trans-ethnic GWAS of kidney function in 71,461 individuals indicates stronger signals of association than fixed-effects meta-analysis when heterogeneity in allelic effects is correlated with ancestry. Application of MR-MEGA to fine-mapping four type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci in 22,086 cases and 42,539 controls highlights: (i) strong evidence for heterogeneity in allelic effects that is correlated with ancestry only at the index SNP for the association signal at the CDKAL1 locus; and (ii) 99% credible sets with six or fewer variants for five distinct association signals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. High-density intracortical microelectrode arrays with multiple metallization layers for fine-resolution neuromonitoring and neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Dian, Joshua; El-Hayek, Youssef; Perez Velazquez, J L; Genov, Roman; Carlen, Peter L; Salama, M M A; Mansour, Raafat R

    2013-11-01

    Intracortical microelectrodes play a prominent role in the operation of neural interfacing systems. They provide an interface for recording neural activities and modulating their behavior through electric stimulation. The performance of such systems is thus directly meliorated by advances in electrode technology. We present a new architecture for intracortical electrodes designed to increase the number of recording/stimulation channels for a given set of shank dimensions. The architecture was implemented on silicon using microfabrication process and fabricated 3-mm-long electrode shanks with six relatively large (110 μm ×110 μm) pads in each shank for electrographic signal recording to detect important precursors with potential clinical relevance and electrical stimulation to correct neural behavior with low-power dissipation in an implantable device. Moreover, an electrode mechanical design was developed to increase its stiffness and reduce shank deflection to improve spatial accuracy during an electrode implantation. Furthermore, the pads were post-processed using pulsated low current electroplating and reduced their impedances by ≈ 30 times compared to the traditionally fabricated pads. The paper also presents microfabrication process, electrodes characterization, comparison to the commercial equivalents, and in vitro and in vivo validations.

  18. High-resolution respirometry of fine-needle muscle biopsies in pre-manifest Huntington's disease expansion mutation carriers shows normal mitochondrial respiratory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buck

    Full Text Available Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD, one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain. The integrated respiratory chain function of the human vastus lateralis muscle was measured by high-resolution respirometry (HRR in freshly taken fine-needle biopsies from seven pre-manifest HD expansion mutation carriers and nine controls. The respiratory parameters were unaffected. For comparison skeletal muscle isolated from HD knock-in mice (HdhQ111 as well as a broader spectrum of tissues including cortex, liver and heart muscle were examined by HRR. Significant changes of mitochondrial respiration in the HdhQ knock-in mouse model were restricted to the liver and the cortex. Mitochondrial mass as quantified by mitochondrial DNA copy number and citrate synthase activity was stable in murine HD-model tissue compared to control. mRNA levels of key enzymes were determined to characterize mitochondrial metabolic pathways in HdhQ mice. We demonstrated the feasibility to perform high-resolution respirometry measurements from small human HD muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we conclude that alterations in respiratory parameters of pre-manifest human muscle biopsies are rather limited and mirrored by a similar absence of marked alterations in HdhQ skeletal muscle. In contrast, the HdhQ111 murine cortex and liver did show respiratory alterations highlighting the tissue specific nature of mutant huntingtin effects on respiration.

  19. Characterization of DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2005-01-01

    The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is revealed, when measuring DPOAE with a very fine frequency resolution. It is characterized by consistent maxima and minima with notches of up to 20 dB depth. The fine structure is known also from absolute hearing thresholds...

  20. Impacts of 21st century sea-level rise on a Danish major city - an assessment based on fine-resolution digital topography and a new flooding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenskjold Moeslund, Jesper; Klith Bøcher, Peder; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Mølhave, Thomas; Arge, Lars

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the potential impact of 21st century sea-level rise on Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, emphasizing the economic risk to the city's real estate. Furthermore, it assesses which possible adaptation measures that can be taken to prevent flooding in areas particularly at risk from flooding. We combine a new national Digital Elevation Model in very fine resolution (~2 meter), a new highly computationally efficient flooding algorithm that accurately models the influence of barriers, and geospatial data on real-estate values to assess the economic real-estate risk posed by future sea-level rise to Aarhus. Under the A2 and A1FI (IPCC) climate scenarios we show that relatively large residential areas in the northern part of the city as well as areas around the river running through the city are likely to become flooded in the event of extreme, but realistic weather events. In addition, most of the large Aarhus harbour would also risk flooding. As much of the area at risk represent high-value real estate, it seems clear that proactive measures other than simple abandonment should be taken in order to avoid heavy economic losses. Among the different possibilities for dealing with an increased sea level, the strategic placement of flood-gates at key potential water-inflow routes and the construction or elevation of existing dikes seems to be the most convenient, most socially acceptable, and maybe also the cheapest solution. Finally, we suggest that high-detail flooding models similar to those produced in this study will become an important tool for a climate-change-integrated planning of future city development as well as for the development of evacuation plans.

  1. Drone with thermal infrared camera provides high resolution georeferenced imagery of the Waikite geothermal area, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J. V.; Luketina, K. M.

    2016-10-01

    Drones are now routinely used for collecting aerial imagery and creating digital elevation models (DEM). Lightweight thermal sensors provide another payload option for generation of very high-resolution aerial thermal orthophotos. This technology allows for the rapid and safe survey of thermal areas, often present in inaccessible or dangerous terrain. Here we present a 2.2 km2 georeferenced, temperature-calibrated thermal orthophoto of the Waikite geothermal area, New Zealand. The image represents a mosaic of nearly 6000 thermal images captured by drone over a period of about 2 weeks. This is thought by the authors to be the first such image published of a significant geothermal area produced by a drone equipped with a thermal camera. Temperature calibration of the image allowed calculation of heat loss (43 ± 12 MW) from thermal lakes and streams in the survey area (loss from evaporation, conduction and radiation). An RGB (visible spectrum) orthomosaic photo and digital elevation model was also produced for this area, with ground resolution and horizontal position error comparable to commercially produced LiDAR and aerial imagery obtained from crewed aircraft. Our results show that thermal imagery collected by drones has the potential to become a key tool in geothermal science, including geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys, environmental baseline and monitoring studies, geotechnical studies and civil works.

  2. In-depth compositional analysis of water-soluble and -insoluble organic substances in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles using ultra-high-resolution 15T FT-ICR MS and GC×GC-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Hoon; Ryu, Jijeong; Jeon, Sodam; Seo, Jungju; Yang, Yung-Hun; Pack, Seung Pil; Choung, Sungwook; Jang, Kyoung-Soon

    2017-06-01

    Airborne particulate matter consisting of ionic species, salts, heavy metals and carbonaceous material is one of the most serious environmental pollutants owing to its impacts on the environment and human health. Although elemental and organic carbon compounds are known to be major components of aerosols, information on the elemental composition of particulate matter remains limited because of the broad range of compounds involved and the limits of analytical instruments. In this study, we investigated water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles collected during winter in Korea to better understand the elemental compositions and distributions of these compounds. To collect ultra-high-resolution mass profiles, we analyzed water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds, extracted with water and dichloromethane, respectively, using an ultra-high-resolution 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (15T FT-ICR) mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (via both electrospray ionization [ESI] and atmospheric pressure photoionization [APPI] for water-extracts and via APPI for dichloromethane-extracts). In conjunction with the FT-ICR mass spectrometry (MS) data, subsequent two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data were used to identify potentially hazardous organic components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This analysis provided information on the sources of ambient particles collected during winter season and partial evidence of contributions to the acidity of organic content in PM2.5 particles. The compositional and structural features of water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds from PM2.5 particles are important for understanding the potential impacts of aerosol-carried organic substances on human health and global ecosystems in future toxicological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paleobiogeography, high-resolution stratigraphy, and the future of Paleozoic biostratigraphy: Fine-scale diachroneity of the Wenlock (Silurian) conodont Kockelella walliseri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Kleffner, Mark A.; Brett, Carlton E.; McLaughlin, P.I.; Jeppsson, Lennart; Munnecke, Axel; Samtleben, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The Wenlock Epoch of the Silurian Period has become one of the chronostratigraphically best-constrained intervals of the Paleozoic. The integration of multiple chronostratigraphic tools, such as conodont and graptolite biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, and ??13Ccarb chemostratigraphy, has greatly improved global chronostratigraphic correlation and portions of the Wenlock can now be correlated with precision better than ??100kyr. Additionally, such detailed and integrated chronostratigraphy provides an opportunity to evaluate the fidelity of individual chronostratigraphic tools. Here, we use conodont biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) chemostratigraphy to demonstrate that the conodont Kockelella walliseri, an important guide fossil for middle and upper Sheinwoodian strata (lower stage of the Wenlock Series), first appears at least one full stratigraphic sequence lower in Laurentia than in Baltica. Rather than serving as a demonstration of the unreliability of conodont biostratigraphy, this example serves to demonstrate the promise of high-resolution Paleozoic stratigraphy. The temporal difference between the two first occurrences was likely less than 1million years, and although it is conceptually understood that speciation and colonization must have been non-instantaneous events, Paleozoic paleobiogeographic variability on such short timescales (tens to hundreds of kyr) traditionally has been ignored or considered to be of little practical importance. The expansion of high-resolution Paleozoic stratigraphy in the future will require robust biostratigraphic zonations that embrace the integration of multiple chronostratigraphic tools as well as the paleobiogeographic variability in ranges that they will inevitably demonstrate. In addition, a better understanding of the paleobiogeographic migration histories of marine organisms will provide a unique tool for future Paleozoic paleoceanography and paleobiology research. ?? 2010

  4. Dynamic time warping assessment of high-resolution melt curves provides a robust metric for fungal identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Sayali S.; Li, Dongmei; Luka, Janos; Calderone, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Fungal infections are a global problem imposing considerable disease burden. One of the unmet needs in addressing these infections is rapid, sensitive diagnostics. A promising molecular diagnostic approach is high-resolution melt analysis (HRM). However, there has been little effort in leveraging HRM data for automated, objective identification of fungal species. The purpose of these studies was to assess the utility of distance methods developed for comparison of time series data to classify HRM curves as a means of fungal species identification. Dynamic time warping (DTW), first introduced in the context of speech recognition to identify temporal distortion of similar sounds, is an elastic distance measure that has been successfully applied to a wide range of time series data. Comparison of HRM curves of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region from 51 strains of 18 fungal species using DTW distances allowed accurate classification and clustering of all 51 strains. The utility of DTW distances for species identification was demonstrated by matching HRM curves from 243 previously identified clinical isolates against a database of curves from standard reference strains. The results revealed a number of prior misclassifications, discriminated species that are not resolved by routine phenotypic tests, and accurately identified all 243 test strains. In addition to DTW, several other distance functions, Edit Distance on Real sequence (EDR) and Shape-based Distance (SBD), showed promise. It is concluded that DTW-based distances provide a useful metric for the automated identification of fungi based on HRM curves of the ITS region and that this provides the foundation for a robust and automatable method applicable to the clinical setting. PMID:28264030

  5. Performance of a four-element Si drift detector for X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy: resolution, maximum count rate, and dead-time correction with incorporation into the ATHENA data analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woicik, J C; Ravel, B; Fischer, D A; Newburgh, W J

    2010-05-01

    The performance of a four-element Si drift detector for energy-dispersive fluorescence-yield X-ray absorption fine-structure measurements is reported, operating at the National Institute of Standards and Technology beamline X23A2 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The detector can acquire X-ray absorption fine-structure spectra with a throughput exceeding 4 x 10(5) counts per second per detector element (>1.6 x 10(6) total counts per second summed over all four channels). At this count rate the resolution at 6 keV is approximately 220 eV, which adequately resolves the Mn Kalpha and Kbeta fluorescence lines. Accurate dead-time correction is demonstrated, and it has been incorporated into the ATHENA data analysis program. To maintain counting efficiency and high signal to background, it is suggested that the incoming count rate should not exceed approximately 70% of the maximum throughput.

  6. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, Ronan, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-09-14

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  7. Evaluation of Landsat-Based METRIC Modeling to Provide High-Spatial Resolution Evapotranspiration Estimates for Amazonian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaya Numata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While forest evapotranspiration (ET dynamics in the Amazon have been studied both as point estimates using flux towers, as well as spatially coarse surfaces using satellite data, higher resolution (e.g., 30 m resolution ET estimates are necessary to address finer spatial variability associated with forest biophysical characteristics and their changes by natural and human impacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of the Landsat-based METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration model to estimate high-resolution (30 m forest ET by comparing to flux tower ET (FT ET data collected over seasonally dry tropical forests in Rondônia, the southwestern region of the Amazon. Analyses were conducted at daily, monthly and seasonal scales for the dry seasons (June–September for Rondônia of 2000–2002. Overall daily ET comparison between FT ET and METRIC ET across the study site showed r2 = 0.67 with RMSE = 0.81 mm. For seasonal ET comparison, METRIC-derived ET estimates showed an agreement with FT ET measurements during the dry season of r2 >0.70 and %MAE <15%. We also discuss some challenges and potential applications of METRIC for Amazonian forests.

  8. A high en-face resolution AS-OCT providing quantitative ability to measure layered corneal opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Li; Tsai, Cheng-Tsung; Yang, Chang-Hao; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2017-07-01

    An in-vivo anterior-segment optical coherence tomography with sub-micron isotropic resolutions is demonstrated on rat cornea. The opacity of the layered cornea was quantitatively analyzed. The morphology of corneal layers was well-depicted by the en-face image.

  9. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, A. C.; Foy, B. de; Wiedinmyer, C.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Wehrli, M. N.; Szidat, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Noda, J.; Wacker, L.; Volkamer, R.; Fortner, E. C.; Wang, J.; Laskin, A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, J.

    2010-01-01

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates wit...

  10. PROVIDING STRINGENT STAR FORMATION RATE LIMITS OF z ∼ 2 QSO HOST GALAXIES AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Do, Tuan [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Larkin, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-04-10

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ∼ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host. We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ∼0.″2 (∼1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (z{sub Hα} = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (z{sub Hα} = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290–350 km s{sup −1}. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ∼7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%–40% of the Eddington rate, if

  11. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    colonization in tomato roots, indicating that, besides hormonal interactions, a fine-tuning of each hormone level is required for AM development.

  12. Fine-scale application of WRF-CAM5 during a dust storm episode over East Asia: Sensitivity to grid resolutions and aerosol activation parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2018-03-01

    An advanced online-coupled meteorology and chemistry model WRF-CAM5 has been applied to East Asia using triple-nested domains at different grid resolutions (i.e., 36-, 12-, and 4-km) to simulate a severe dust storm period in spring 2010. Analyses are performed to evaluate the model performance and investigate model sensitivity to different horizontal grid sizes and aerosol activation parameterizations and to examine aerosol-cloud interactions and their impacts on the air quality. A comprehensive model evaluation of the baseline simulations using the default Abdul-Razzak and Ghan (AG) aerosol activation scheme shows that the model can well predict major meteorological variables such as 2-m temperature (T2), water vapor mixing ratio (Q2), 10-m wind speed (WS10) and wind direction (WD10), and shortwave and longwave radiation across different resolutions with domain-average normalized mean biases typically within ±15%. The baseline simulations also show moderate biases for precipitation and moderate-to-large underpredictions for other major variables associated with aerosol-cloud interactions such as cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud liquid water path (LWP) due to uncertainties or limitations in the aerosol-cloud treatments. The model performance is sensitive to grid resolutions, especially for surface meteorological variables such as T2, Q2, WS10, and WD10, with the performance generally improving at finer grid resolutions for those variables. Comparison of the sensitivity simulations with an alternative (i.e., the Fountoukis and Nenes (FN) series scheme) and the default (i.e., AG scheme) aerosol activation scheme shows that the former predicts larger values for cloud variables such as CDNC and COT across all grid resolutions and improves the overall domain-average model performance for many cloud/radiation variables and precipitation. Sensitivity simulations using the FN series scheme also have large impacts on

  13. Performance of a four-element Si drift detector for X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy: resolution, maximum count rate, and dead-time correction with incorporation into the ATHENA data analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, J.C.; Newburgh, W.; Ravel, B.; Fischer, D.A.

    2010-03-09

    The performance of a four-element Si drift detector for energy-dispersive fluorescence-yield X-ray absorption fine-structure measurements is reported, operating at the National Institute of Standards and Technology beamline X23A2 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The detector can acquire X-ray absorption fine-structure spectra with a throughput exceeding 4 x 10{sup 5} counts per second per detector element (>1.6 x 10{sup 6} total counts per second summed over all four channels). At this count rate the resolution at 6 keV is approximately 220 eV, which adequately resolves the Mn K{sub {alpha}} and K{sup {beta}} fluorescence lines. Accurate dead-time correction is demonstrated, and it has been incorporated into the ATHENA data analysis program. To maintain counting efficiency and high signal to background, it is suggested that the incoming count rate should not exceed {approx}70% of the maximum throughput.

  14. Improving retrievals of regional fine particulate matter concentrations from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) multisatellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A W; Chatfield, R B; Legg, M; Scarnato, B; Esswein, R

    2013-12-01

    A combination of multiplatform satellite observations and statistical data analysis are used to improve the correlation between estimates of PM2.5 (particulate mass with aerodynamic diameter less that 2.5 microm) retrieved from satellite observations and ground-level measured PM2.5. Accurate measurements of PM2.5 can be used to assess the impact of air pollution levels on human health and the environment and to validate air pollution models. The area under study is California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) that has a history of poor particulate air quality. Attempts to use simple linear regressions to estimate PM2.5 from satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) have not yielded good results. The period of study for this project was from October 2004 to July 2008 for six sites in the SJV. A simple linear regression between surface-measured PM2.5 and satellite-observed AOD (from MODIS [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer]) yields a correlation coefficient of about 0.17 in this region. The correlation coefficient between the measured PM2.5 and that retrieved combining satellite observations in a generalized additive model (GAM) resulted in an improved correlation coefficient of 0.77. The model used combinations of MODIS AOD, OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) AOD, NO2 concentration, and a seasonal variable as parameters. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that the PM2.5 retrieved using the GAM captures many of the PM2.5 exceedances that were not seen in the simple linear regression model.

  15. Combined Analysis of Variation in Core, Accessory and Regulatory Genome Regions Provides a Super-Resolution View into the Evolution of Bacterial Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan McNally

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could provide unparalleled detail of the evolution of a bacterial population. Here we demonstrate this principle by applying it to a worldwide multi-host sample of the important pathogenic E. coli lineage ST131. Our approach reveals the existence of multiple circulating subtypes of the major drug-resistant clade of ST131 and provides the first ever population level evidence of core genome substitutions in gene regulatory regions associated with the acquisition and maintenance of different accessory genome elements.

  16. Future changes in the climatology of the Great Plains low-level jet derived from fine resolution multi-model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Winkler, Julie; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi; Doubler, Dana; Yu, Lejiang; Walters, Claudia

    2017-07-10

    The southerly Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ) is one of the most significant circulation features of the central U.S. linking large-scale atmospheric circulation with the regional climate. GPLLJs transport heat and moisture, contribute to thunderstorm and severe weather formation, provide a corridor for the springtime migration of birds and insects, enhance wind energy availability, and disperse air pollution. We assess future changes in GPLLJ frequency using an eight member ensemble of dynamically-downscaled climate simulations for the mid-21st century. Nocturnal GPLLJ frequency is projected to increase in the southern plains in spring and in the central plains in summer, whereas current climatological patterns persist into the future for daytime and cool season GPLLJs. The relationship between future GPLLJ frequency and the extent and strength of anticyclonic airflow over eastern North America varies with season. Most simulations project a westward shift of anticyclonic airflow in summer, but uncertainty is larger for spring with only half of the simulations suggesting a westward expansion. The choice of regional climate model and the driving lateral boundary conditions have a large influence on the projected future changes in GPLLJ frequency and highlight the importance of multi-model ensembles to estimate the uncertainty surrounding the future GPLLJ climatology.

  17. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  18. High-Resolution Crystal Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Nicotinamidase with Trapped Intermediates Provide Insights into the Catalytic Mechanism and Inhibition by Aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Cen, Yana; Sauve, Anthony A.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Weill-Med)

    2010-11-11

    Nicotinamidases are salvage enzymes that convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are essential for the recycling of nicotinamide into NAD{sup +} in most prokaryotes and most single-cell and multicellular eukaryotes, but not in mammals. The significance of these enzymes for nicotinamide salvage and for NAD{sup +} homeostasis has stimulated interest in nicotinamidases as possible antibiotic targets. Nicotinamidases are also regulators of intracellular nicotinamide concentrations, thereby regulating signaling of downstream NAD{sup +}-consuming enzymes, such as the NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases (sirtuins). Here, we report several high-resolution crystal structures of the nicotinamidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpNic) in unliganded and ligand-bound forms. The structure of the C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide provides details about substrate binding, while a trapped nicotinoyl thioester in a complex with SpNic reveals the structure of the proposed thioester reaction intermediate. Examination of the active site of SpNic reveals several important features, including a metal ion that coordinates the substrate and the catalytically relevant water molecule and an oxyanion hole that both orients the substrate and offsets the negative charge that builds up during catalysis. Structures of this enzyme with bound nicotinaldehyde inhibitors elucidate the mechanism of inhibition and provide further details about the catalytic mechanism. In addition, we provide a biochemical analysis of the identity and role of the metal ion that orients the ligand in the active site and activates the water molecule responsible for hydrolysis of the substrate. These data provide structural evidence of several proposed reaction intermediates and allow for a more complete understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.

  19. High-speed assembly language (80386/80387) programming for laser spectra scan control and data acquisition providing improved resolution water vapor spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An assembly language program using the Intel 80386 CPU and 80387 math co-processor chips was written to increase the speed of data gathering and processing, and provide control of a scanning CW ring dye laser system. This laser system is used in high resolution (better than 0.001 cm-1) water vapor spectroscopy experiments. Laser beam power is sensed at the input and output of white cells and the output of a Fabry-Perot. The assembly language subroutine is called from Basic, acquires the data and performs various calculations at rates greater than 150 faster than could be performed by the higher level language. The width of output control pulses generated in assembly language are 3 to 4 microsecs as compared to 2 to 3.7 millisecs for those generated in Basic (about 500 to 1000 times faster). Included are a block diagram and brief description of the spectroscopy experiment, a flow diagram of the Basic and assembly language programs, listing of the programs, scope photographs of the computer generated 5-volt pulses used for control and timing analysis, and representative water spectrum curves obtained using these programs.

  20. Arctic Climate Forcing Observations to Improve Earth System Models: Measurements at High Frequency, Fine Spatial Resolution, and Climatically Relevant Spatial Scales with the use of the Recently Deployed NGEE-Arctic Tram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J. B.; Serbin, S.; Dafflon, B.; Raz Yaseef, N.; Torn, M. S.; Cook, P. J.; Lewin, K. F.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the representation of the land surface and subsurface properties and their associated feedbacks with climate forcings, climate change, and drivers in Earth System Models (ESMs), detailed observations need to be made at climatically relevant spatial and temporal scales. Pan-Arctic spatial heterogeneity and temporal variation present major challenges to the current generation of ESMs. To enable highly spatially resolved and high temporal frequency measurements for the independent validation of modeled energy and greenhouse gas surface fluxes at core to intermediate scales, we have developed, tested, and deployed an automated observational platform, the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE)-Arctic Tram. The NGEE-Arctic Tram, installed on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) near Barrow, AK in mid May 2014, consists of 65 meters of elevated track and a fully automated cart carrying a suite of radiation and remote sensing instrumentation. The tram transect is located within the NGEE eddy covariance tower footprint to help better understand the relative contribution of different landforms (e.g. low center vs high center polygonal tundra and associated vegetation) to the overall energy budget of the footprint. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), soil moisture, and soil temperature sensors are acquired autonomously and co-located with the tram to link subsurface properties with surface observations. To complement the high frequency and fine spatial resolution of the tram, during the summer field seasons of 2013 and 2014 a portable version of the NGEE-Arctic Tram (also know as the portable energy pole or PEP); was used to characterize surface albedo, NDVI, surface temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) across two ~500 m BEO transects co-located with subsurface ERT and ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. In addition, a ~ 3 Km transect across three drained thaw-lake basins (DTLB) of different climate

  1. Climcor: Paleoclimatic Coring: High Resolution and Innovations.Cnrs Gathers the Present Coring Equipment , and Coordinates the Different Efforts Provided By the Concerned Communities (ocean, ice and continent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzas, M.; Rousseau, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate changes have been evidenced in various ways since the start of paleoclimatology in the 70s. The access to past atmosphere conditions in the air bubbles trapped in ice-cores gave an important impulse as it made the green-house gases concentrations accessible a prerequisite for climate modelers. Indeed since the publication of CO2 and CH4 variations over the last climate cycle in Vostok ice-cores, our knowledge of the past climate conditions has improved tremendously. However, improvements in technical equipment and approaches indicate that more is still to come inducing expected new findings in terms of mechanisms. The IMAGES program yielded very good quality and long marine cores that permitted to compare marine and ice-core records with high confidence. Moreover they permitted to improve the knowledge of past oceans dynamics, especially those linked to the massive discharges of icebergs in the oceans, impacting the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. On the continent, various environments are drilled and cored to provide also comparable and reliable records of past climate: lakes, peatbogs, speleothems and loess. These records are complementary yielding important dataset to feed the earth system models necessary for a better understanding of past climate dynamics. Technical limitation of the present equipments does not allow such important jump in the quality of the data, and therefore in the knowledge of i, past climate variations at extremely high resolution and ii, of the behavior of the different domains as studied in IPCC experiments while societal requirements are more and more expressed by policy makers. C2FN initiative at CNRS gathers the present coring equipments located in labs or at the technical division of INSU, and coordinates the different efforts provided by the concerned communities (ocean, ice and continent). Valorization of the results obtained are published in high ranked scientific journals and presented in scientific

  2. Experimental growth pattern calibration of Antarctic bivalves shells to provide a biogenic archive of long-term high-resolution records of environmental and climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartaud, F.; Toulot, A.; Paulet, Y. M.

    2009-04-01

    . elliptica. Shell size measurements show that A. colbecki have a high growth rate, at least throughout the juvenile state. The big L. elliptica bivalves exhibit a lower shell growth rate than the pectinids. The counting of growth increments additionally to the use of calcein markings helps us to establish a chronological time scale in those polar bivalves. This sclerochronologic approach can be now used for geochemistry analyses. A. colbecki shells seem more appropriate for high-resolution archive and L. elliptica will provide information on a longer time scale. Berkman P.A., Cattaneo-Vietti R., Chiantore M.,Howard-Williams C., 2004. Polar emergence ad the influence of increased sea-ice extent on the Cenozoic biogeography of pectinid molluscs in Antarctic coastal areas. Deep-Sea Research II 51, 1839-1855. Heilmayer O., Brey T., Chiantore M., Cattaneo-Vietti R. and Arntz W.E., 2003. Age and productivity of the Antarctic scallop, Adamussium colbecki, in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica).Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 288, 239-256. Wanamaker A.D., Richardson C.A., Scourse J.D. and Butler P.G., 2008. Ashell based reconstruction of environmental change on the North Icelandic shelf. EGU General Assembly.

  3. Large-scale microfluidics providing high-resolution and high-throughput screening of Caenorhabditis elegans poly-glutamine aggregation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudip; Hegarty, Evan; Martin, Chris; Gökçe, Sertan Kutal; Ghorashian, Navid; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-10-01

    Next generation drug screening could benefit greatly from in vivo studies, using small animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans for hit identification and lead optimization. Current in vivo assays can operate either at low throughput with high resolution or with low resolution at high throughput. To enable both high-throughput and high-resolution imaging of C. elegans, we developed an automated microfluidic platform. This platform can image 15 z-stacks of ~4,000 C. elegans from 96 different populations using a large-scale chip with a micron resolution in 16 min. Using this platform, we screened ~100,000 animals of the poly-glutamine aggregation model on 25 chips. We tested the efficacy of ~1,000 FDA-approved drugs in improving the aggregation phenotype of the model and identified four confirmed hits. This robust platform now enables high-content screening of various C. elegans disease models at the speed and cost of in vitro cell-based assays.

  4. An analysis of patient-provider secure messaging at two Veterans Health Administration medical centers: message content and resolution through secure messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Stephanie L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Rothendler, James A; Zirkle, Maryan; Zhao, Shibei; Feng, Hua; Fix, Gemmae M; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Martin, Tracey; Johnson, Sharon A; Tulu, Bengisu; Gordon, Howard S; Simon, Steven R; Woods, Susan S

    2017-09-01

    We sought to understand how patients and primary care teams use secure messaging (SM) to communicate with one another by analyzing secure message threads from 2 Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. We coded 1000 threads of SM communication sampled from 40 primary care teams. Most threads (94.5%) were initiated by patients (90.4%) or caregivers (4.1%); only 5.5% were initiated by primary care team members proactively reaching out to patients. Medication renewals and refills (47.2%), scheduling requests (17.6%), medication issues (12.9%), and health issues (12.7%) were the most common patient-initiated requests, followed by referrals (7.0%), administrative issues (6.5%), test results (5.4%), test issues (5.2%), informing messages (4.9%), comments about the patient portal or SM (4.1%), appreciation (3.9%), self-reported data (2.8%), life issues (1.5%), and complaints (1.5%). Very few messages were clinically urgent (0.7%) or contained other potentially challenging content. Message threads were mostly short (2.7 messages), comprising an average of 1.35 discrete content types. A substantial proportion of issues (24.2%) did not show any evidence of being resolved through SM. Time to response and extent of resolution via SM varied by message content. Proactive SM use by teams varied, but was most often for test results (32.7%), medication-related issues (21.8%), medication renewals (16.4%), or scheduling issues (18.2%). The majority of messages were transactional and initiated by patients or caregivers. Not all content categories were fully addressed over SM. Further education and training for both patients and clinical teams could improve the quality and efficiency of SM communication.

  5. Accomplishments of the MUSICA project to provide accurate, long-term, global and high-resolution observations of tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; Wiegele, Andreas; Barthlott, Sabine; González, Yenny; Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; García, Omaira E.; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Andrey, Javier

    2016-07-01

    In the lower/middle troposphere, {H2O,δD} pairs are good proxies for moisture pathways; however, their observation, in particular when using remote sensing techniques, is challenging. The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) addresses this challenge by integrating the remote sensing with in situ measurement techniques. The aim is to retrieve calibrated tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs from the middle infrared spectra measured from ground by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and the thermal nadir spectra measured by IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) aboard the MetOp satellites. In this paper, we present the final MUSICA products, and discuss the characteristics and potential of the NDACC/FTIR and MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs. First, we briefly resume the particularities of an {H2O,δD} pair retrieval. Second, we show that the remote sensing data of the final product version are absolutely calibrated with respect to H2O and δD in situ profile references measured in the subtropics, between 0 and 7 km. Third, we reveal that the {H2O,δD} pair distributions obtained from the different remote sensors are consistent and allow distinct lower/middle tropospheric moisture pathways to be identified in agreement with multi-year in situ references. Fourth, we document the possibilities of the NDACC/FTIR instruments for climatological studies (due to long-term monitoring) and of the MetOp/IASI sensors for observing diurnal signals on a quasi-global scale and with high horizontal resolution. Fifth, we discuss the risk of misinterpreting {H2O,δD} pair distributions due to incomplete processing of the remote sensing products.

  6. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Holt, Joseph B.; Kingman, Donald D.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  7. OUVERTURE - FINE ARTIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dini

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Recensione di due prodotti software destinati alla "produzione" che possono rappresentare un valido supporto alle attivita’ didattiche nell’ambito della musica e della grafica: OUVERTURE e FINE ARTIST.

  8. Fine Arts Database (FAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  9. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  10. Fine-resolution repeat topographic surveying of dryland landscapes using UAS-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry: Assessing accuracy and precision against traditional ground-based erosion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and finer spatial resolution compared to airborne laser scanning. Accuracy and precision of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from UAS imagery have been explored in many studies, typically by comparing image coordinates to surveyed check points or LiDAR datasets. In addition to traditional check points, this study compared 5 cm resolution DTMs derived from fixed-wing UAS imagery with a traditional ground-based method of measuring soil surface change called erosion bridges. We assessed accuracy by comparing the elevation values between DTMs and erosion bridges along thirty topographic transects each 6.1 m long. Comparisons occurred at two points in time (June 2014, February 2015) which enabled us to assess vertical accuracy with 3314 data points and vertical precision (i.e., repeatability) with 1657 data points. We found strong vertical agreement (accuracy) between the methods (RMSE 2.9 and 3.2 cm in June 2014 and February 2015, respectively) and high vertical precision for the DTMs (RMSE 2.8 cm). Our results from comparing SfM-generated DTMs to check points, and strong agreement with erosion bridge measurements suggests repeat UAS imagery and SfM processing could replace erosion bridges for a more synoptic landscape assessment of shifting soil surfaces for some studies. However, while collecting the UAS imagery and generating the SfM DTMs for this study was faster than collecting erosion bridge measurements, technical challenges related to the need for ground control networks and image processing requirements must be addressed before this technique could be applied effectively to large landscapes.

  11. Wind Farm Large-Eddy Simulations on Very Coarse Grid Resolutions using an Actuator Line Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, L.A.; Meneveau, C.; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this work the accuracy of the Actuator Line Model (ALM) in Large Eddy Simula- tions of wind turbine flow is studied under the speci c conditions of very coarse spatial resolutions. For finely-resolved conditions, it is known that ALM provides better accuracy compared to the standard Actuator Disk

  12. Modeling fire behavior on tropical islands with high-resolution weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Benoit; Francis M. Fujioka; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we consider fire behavior simulation in tropical island scenarios such as Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The development of a system to provide real-time fire behavior prediction in Hawaii is discussed. This involves obtaining fuels and topography information at a fine scale, as well as supplying daily high-resolution weather forecast data for the area of...

  13. Fine 5 lavastab Venemaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tantsuteatru Fine 5 koreograafid Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik toovad Jekaterinburgis välja lavastuse "... and Red", esitajaks Venemaa nimekas nüüdistantsutrupp Provintsialnõje Tantsõ. Lavastuses kõlab Taavo Remmeli kontrabassiimprovisatsioon "12.12.2006"

  14. The Fine Dutch Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Publication of the exhibition and symposium on water adaptive urban planning and architecture in Bangkok. The Urban Fine Dutch Tradition is a dynamic tradition of making urban designs using the parameters of the natural system – incorperating in an efficient way the hydrological cycle, the soil and

  15. Imeilus Fine 5

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Vaba Lava teatrikeskuse laval esineb Fine 5 oma lavastusega "Imeilus". Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik, tantsulavastuse autorid on koreograafid, õppejõud, lavastajad ja kogemustega tantsijad. 29. jaanuaril korraldavad Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik Tallinna Ülikoolis kaasaegse liikumismõtlemise töötoa, mis on pühendatud lavastusele "Imeilus"

  16. Left atrial thrombus resolution in atrial fibrillation or flutter: Results of a prospective study with rivaroxaban (X-TRA) and a retrospective observational registry providing baseline data (CLOT-AF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Marin, Francisco; Cappato, Riccardo; Meng, Isabelle Ling; Kirsch, Bodo; van Eickels, Martin; Cohen, Ariel

    2016-08-01

    Data on left atrial/left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus resolution after non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulant treatment are scarce. The primary objective of X-TRA was to explore the use of rivaroxaban for the resolution of LA/LAA thrombi in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter, with the CLOT-AF registry providing retrospective data after standard-of-care therapy in this setting. X-TRA was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study that investigated rivaroxaban treatment for 6 weeks for LA/LAA thrombus resolution in patients with nonvalvular AF or atrial flutter and LA/LAA thrombus confirmed at baseline on a transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE). CLOT-AF retrospectively collected thrombus-related patient outcome data after standard-of-care anticoagulant treatment for 3 to 12 weeks in patients with nonvalvular AF or atrial flutter who had LA/LAA thrombi on TEE recorded in their medical file. In X-TRA, patients were predominantly (95.0%) from Eastern European countries. The adjudicated thrombus resolution rate was 41.5% (22/53 modified intention-to-treat [mITT] patients, 95% CI 28.1%-55.9%) based on central TEE assessments. Resolved or reduced thrombus was evident in 60.4% (32/53 mITT patients, 95% CI 46.0%-73.6%) of patients. In CLOT-AF, the reported thrombus resolution rate was 62.5% (60/96 mITT patients, 95% CI 52.0%-72.2%) and appeared better in Western European countries (34/50; 68.0%) than in Eastern European countries (26/46; 56.5%). X-TRA is the first prospective, multicenter study examining LA/LAA thrombus resolution with a non-VKA oral anticoagulant in VKA-naïve patients or in patients with suboptimal VKA therapy. Rivaroxaban could be a potential option for the treatment of LA/LAA thrombi. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.

    2013-10-15

    the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in the cold season. Especially in the residential areas local wood combustion emissions were occasionally substantial. A notable contribution of particles originating from wood combustion was detected both at suburban and urban areas caused by emissions that were distributed regionally or they were long-range transported. In addition to the wood combustion emissions, transported smokes from open-land fires in Russia and the Baltic countries affected the air quality in Helsinki in the warm season. Source-specific tracer compounds were used in the thesis for identifying the biomass burning source of fine particles. The most used tracer compounds were anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan) that originate specifically in the pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, the main components of plant biomass. In summary, the sampling and analytical methods needed for the online chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning were developed in order to provide precise and prompt high-time-resolution information on biomass burning emissions. The results and the implications of this thesis provide new information on the concentrations and sources of fine particles in the boreal region. (orig.)

  18. Simultaneous Speciation, Structure, and Equilibrium Constant Determination in the Ni2+-EDTA-CN-Ternary System via High-Resolution Laboratory X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnóczi, Éva G; Németh, Zoltán; Vankó, György

    2017-11-20

    Even quite simple chemical systems can involve many components and chemical states, and sometimes it can be very difficult to differentiate them by their hardly separable physical-chemical properties. The Ni II -EDTA-CN - (EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) ternary system is a good example for this problem where, in spite of its fairly simple components and numerous investigations, several molecular combinations can exist, all of them not having been identified unambiguously yet. In order to achieve a detailed understanding of the reaction steps and chemical equilibria, methods are required in which the structural transitions in the different reaction steps can be followed via element-selective complex spectral feature sets. With the help of our recently developed von Hámos type high-resolution laboratory X-ray absorption spectrometer, both the structural variations and stability constants of the forming complexes were determined from the same measurement series, proving that X-ray absorption spectroscopy can be considered as a multifaced, table-top tool in coordination chemistry. Furthermore, with the help of theoretical calculations, independent structural evidence was also given for the formation of the [NiEDTA(CN)] 3- mixed complex.

  19. Estimating the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration using the water balance model WAVE and fine spatial resolution airborne remote sensing images from the DAIS-sensor: Experimental set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Veroustraete, F.; Feyen, J.

    2003-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ET) of agricultural land and forestland surfaces play an important role in the redistribution of water on the Earth's surface. Any change in evapotranspiration, either through change in vegetation or climate change, directly effects the available water resources. For quantifying these effects physical models need to be constructed. Most hydrological models have to deal with a lack of good spatial resolution, despite their good temporal information. Remote sensing techniques on the contrary determine the spatial pattern of landscape features and hence are very useful on large scales. The main objective of this research is the combination of the spatial pattern of remote sensing (using visible and thermal infrared spectrum) with the temporal pattern of the water balance model WAVE (Vanclooster et al., 1994 and 1996). To realise this, the following objectives are formulated: (i) relate soil and vegetation surface temperatures to actual evapotranspiration of forest and crops simulated with the water balance model WAVE using remote sensing derived parameters. Three methods will be used and mutually compared. Both airborne and satellite imagery will be implemented; (1) compare the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration, as a result of the three methods, with the energy balance model SEBAL (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) and finally; (2) subject the up-scaled WAVE and SEBAL models to an uncertainty analysis using the GLUE-approach (Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimate) (Beven en Binley, 1992). To study the behaviour of the model beyond the field-scale (micro-scale), a meso-scale study was conducted at the test-site of DURAS (50°50'38"N, 5°08'50"W, Sint-Truiden). Airborne imagery from the DAIS/ROSIS sensor are available. For the determination of the spatial pattern of actual evapotranspiration the next two methods are considered: (1) relations between surface temperature, surface albedo and vegetation indices are linked with field

  20. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in providing a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i1.15 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  2. Imaging spectroscopy of solar radio burst fine structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E P; Yu, S; Kuznetsov, A A; Emslie, A G; Alcock, B; Jeffrey, N L S; Melnik, V N; Bian, N H; Subramanian, P

    2017-11-15

    Solar radio observations provide a unique diagnostic of the outer solar atmosphere. However, the inhomogeneous turbulent corona strongly affects the propagation of the emitted radio waves, so decoupling the intrinsic properties of the emitting source from the effects of radio wave propagation has long been a major challenge in solar physics. Here we report quantitative spatial and frequency characterization of solar radio burst fine structures observed with the Low Frequency Array, an instrument with high-time resolution that also permits imaging at scales much shorter than those corresponding to radio wave propagation in the corona. The observations demonstrate that radio wave propagation effects, and not the properties of the intrinsic emission source, dominate the observed spatial characteristics of radio burst images. These results permit more accurate estimates of source brightness temperatures, and open opportunities for quantitative study of the mechanisms that create the turbulent coronal medium through which the emitted radiation propagates.

  3. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  4. Dispersal of fine sediment in nearshore coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Fine sediment (silt and clay) plays an important role in the physical, ecological, and environmental conditions of coastal systems, yet little is known about the dispersal and fate of fine sediment across coastal margin settings outside of river mouths. Here I provide simple physical scaling and detailed monitoring of a beach nourishment project near Imperial Beach, California, with a high portion of fines (40% silt and clay by weight). These results provide insights into the pathways and residence times of fine sediment transport across a wave-dominated coastal margin. Monitoring of the project used physical, optical, acoustic, and remote sensing techniques to track the fine portion of the nourishment sediment. The initial transport of fine sediment from the beach was influenced strongly by longshore currents of the surf zone that were established in response to the approach angles of the waves. The mean residence time of fine sediment in the surf zone—once it was suspended—was approximately 1 hour, and rapid decreases in surf zone fine sediment concentrations along the beach resulted from mixing and offshore transport in turbid rip heads. For example, during a day with oblique wave directions and surf zone longshore currents of approximately 25 cm/s, the offshore losses of fine sediment in rips resulted in a 95% reduction in alongshore surf zone fine sediment flux within 1 km of the nourishment site. However, because of the direct placement of nourishment sediment on the beach, fine suspended-sediment concentrations in the swash zone remained elevated for several days after nourishment, while fine sediment was winnowed from the beach. Once offshore of the surf zone, fine sediment settled downward in the water column and was observed to transport along and across the inner shelf. Vertically sheared currents influenced the directions and rates of fine sediment transport on the shelf. Sedimentation of fine sediment was greatest on the seafloor directly offshore

  5. High-resolution Observations of Active Region Moss and its Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper, we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of 440 ± 190 km (FWHM). The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere. The emission decreases along the features, implying that the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation of physical displacements of the moss fine structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic behavior, which we interpret as a signature of kink (Alfvénic) waves. Measurements of the properties of the transverse motions are made and the wave motions have means and standard deviations of 55 ± 37 km for the transverse displacement amplitude, 77 ± 33 s for the period, and 4.7 ± 2.5 km s-1 for the velocity amplitude. The presence of waves in the transition region of hot loops could have important implications for the heating of active regions.

  6. A Fine Resolution Model of the Leeuwin Current System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boedeker, Scott

    2001-01-01

    .../s to 1 cm/s in the LCS. The second experiment, which highlights the effect of annual wind forcing on a flat bottom with horizontally averaged climatology, portrays some classical features of eastern boundary currents...

  7. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    losses than puretone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stimulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  8. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    losses than pure-tone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stiumulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  9. New leads to resolutions : the family approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afraz, Marcel Cyrus

    2003-01-01

    The thesis is about the resolution of racemates, which is still the most convenient and commonly applied method to obtain optically pure products, both in the fine-chemical industry and in the laboratory. From an industrial point of view classical resolution using diastereomeric salts still

  10. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  11. Identifying fine sediment sources to alleviate flood risk caused by fine sediments through catchment connectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Sarah; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2017-04-01

    Fine sediment poses a significant threat to UK river systems in terms of vegetation, aquatic habitats and morphology. Deposition of fine sediment onto the river bed reduces channel capacity resulting in decreased volume to contain high flow events. Once the in channel problem has been identified managers are under pressure to sustainably mitigate flood risk. With climate change and land use adaptations increasing future pressures on river catchments it is important to consider the connectivity of fine sediment throughout the river catchment and its influence on channel capacity, particularly in systems experiencing long term aggradation. Fine sediment erosion is a continuing concern in the River Eye, Leicestershire. The predominately rural catchment has a history of flooding within the town of Melton Mowbray. Fine sediment from agricultural fields has been identified as a major contributor of sediment delivery into the channel. Current mitigation measures are not sustainable or successful in preventing the continuum of sediment throughout the catchment. Identifying the potential sources and connections of fine sediment would provide insight into targeted catchment management. 'Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling Analysis Platforms' (SCIMAP) is a tool often used by UK catchment managers to identify potential sources and routes of sediment within a catchment. SCIMAP is a risk based model that combines hydrological (rainfall) and geomorphic controls (slope, land cover) to identify the risk of fine sediment being transported from source into the channel. A desktop version of SCIMAP was run for the River Eye at a catchment scale using 5m terrain, rainfall and land cover data. A series of SCIMAP model runs were conducted changing individual parameters to determine the sensitivity of the model. Climate Change prediction data for the catchment was used to identify potential areas of future connectivity and erosion risk for catchment managers. The results have been

  12. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  13. 'RAT' Leaves a Fine Mess

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the light signatures, or spectra, of two sides of the rock dubbed 'Bounce,' located at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The spectra were taken by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The left side of this rock is covered by fine dust created when the rover drilled into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. These 'fines' produce a layer of pyroxene dust that can be detected here in the top spectrum. The right side of the rock has fewer fines and was used to investigate the composition of this basaltic rock.

  14. Measure theory and fine properties of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence Craig

    2015-01-01

    Measure Theory and Fine Properties of Functions, Revised Edition provides a detailed examination of the central assertions of measure theory in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The book emphasizes the roles of Hausdorff measure and capacity in characterizing the fine properties of sets and functions. Topics covered include a quick review of abstract measure theory, theorems and differentiation in ℝn, Hausdorff measures, area and coarea formulas for Lipschitz mappings and related change-of-variable formulas, and Sobolev functions as well as functions of bounded variation.The text provides complete proofs of many key results omitted from other books, including Besicovitch's covering theorem, Rademacher's theorem (on the differentiability a.e. of Lipschitz functions), area and coarea formulas, the precise structure of Sobolev and BV functions, the precise structure of sets of finite perimeter, and Aleksandrov's theorem (on the twice differentiability a.e. of convex functions).This revised edition includes countl...

  15. Fine 5 kolib Kumu lavale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kumu kunstimuuseumi auditooriumis toimub 21. veebruaril Fine 5 kaasaegse tantsu etendus "Panus". Esinevad Tiina Ollesk, Irina Pähn, žonglöör Dimitri Kruus, disainer Rain Saukas ja muusik Mattias Siitan

  16. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  17. Which tributaries disrupt downstream fining along gravel-bed rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stephen

    1998-02-01

    Tributaries and other lateral sediment sources can have a significant impact on river bed sediment texture and, in turn, on channel form. Sufficiently voluminous or distinct sediment inputs redefine the mainstem grain-size distribution, punctuating downstream maturation and isolating a sequence of discrete sedimentary links. Within these links fining processes usually dominate, such that models of sorting and abrasion, when applied to individual links, provide reasonable predictions of grain-size change. Links represent the fundamental natural unit within which fining models can be tested, developed and applied. Identification of significant lateral sources is therefore important, yet, beyond vague references to relative tributary size, sediment load, and sediment calibre, no criteria exist for the a priori discrimination of such sources. In this paper a procedure for identifying significant lateral (tributary) sources, without the benefit of grain-size information, is outlined. A high-resolution characterisation of bed material texture along two Canadian gravel-bed rivers facilitated classification of all their perennial tributaries as either significant or insignificant. Three absolute tributary basin parameters and their relative counterparts, chosen to reflect the likely controls on tributary significance, are then used to develop a discriminant function which isolates a large proportion of significant tributaries while minimising incorrect classifications. Examination of consistently misclassified (anomalous) tributaries reveals the importance of lateral source spacing and of inconsistencies in the geomorphic history of the contributing basins. In turn, a general tributary categorisation procedure is suggested which includes a logistic regression model for attaching probability statements to individual classifications. The generality of the discriminant and logistic functions cannot be assessed because of the lack of other suitable data sets.

  18. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  19. 8 CFR 1280.1 - Notice of intention to fine; administrative proceedings not exclusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of intention to fine; administrative... of intention to fine; administrative proceedings not exclusive. Whenever a district director or the... Act, he shall cause a Notice of Intention to Fine, Form I-79, to be served as provided in this part...

  20. Resolution and super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J R

    2017-06-01

    Many papers have claimed the attainment of super-resolution, i.e. resolution beyond that achieved classically, by measurement of the profile of a feature in the image. We argue that measurement of the contrast of the image of a dark bar on a bright background does not give a measure of resolution, but of detection sensitivity. The width of a bar that gives an intensity at the center of the bar of 0.735 that in the bright region (the same ratio as in the Rayleigh resolution criterion) is λ/(13.9×numerical aperture) for the coherent case with central illumination. This figure, which compares with λ/(numerical aperture) for the Abbe resolution limit with central illumination, holds for the classical case, and so is no indication of super-resolution. Theoretical images for two points, two lines, arrays of lines, arrays of bars, and grating objects are compared. These results can be used a reference for experimental results, to determine if super-resolution has indeed been attained. The history of the development of the theory of microscope resolution is outlined. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Optimal Design of Experiments by Combining Coarse and Fine Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A.; Brenner, Michael P.; Colwell, Lucy J.

    2017-11-01

    In many contexts, it is extremely costly to perform enough high-quality experimental measurements to accurately parametrize a predictive quantitative model. However, it is often much easier to carry out large numbers of experiments that indicate whether each sample is above or below a given threshold. Can many such categorical or "coarse" measurements be combined with a much smaller number of high-resolution or "fine" measurements to yield accurate models? Here, we demonstrate an intuitive strategy, inspired by statistical physics, wherein the coarse measurements are used to identify the salient features of the data, while the fine measurements determine the relative importance of these features. A linear model is inferred from the fine measurements, augmented by a quadratic term that captures the correlation structure of the coarse data. We illustrate our strategy by considering the problems of predicting the antimalarial potency and aqueous solubility of small organic molecules from their 2D molecular structure.

  2. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  3. The care of fine books

    CERN Document Server

    Greenfield, Jane; Basbanes, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    The Care of Fine Books is a thorough, readable guide to caring for books of value. From a discussion of the various techniques and materials used in bookbinding to advice on handling and storage, Jane Greenfield has created a succinct yet complete resource for anyone who wants to preserve and protect their fine books. Whether you are a collector, a librarian, or a conservation professional, you will benefit from this expert advice. Learn about appropriate levels of light, temperature, relative humidity, and pollution; how to secure a collection against fire, insect infestation, flood, and theft; and methods for cleaning and repairing books that have already been damaged. Always practical and amply illustrated, this is a must-have reference for anyone who loves fine books.

  4. Comparision of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Fine Needle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Open biopsy of the breast used to be the main traditional method of diagnosis of breast lumps. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was later introduced which depends on suction and thus yields hemorrhagic material for cytological study.This study was undertaken to find out if there is a difference in ...

  5. Cooperation between humans and robots in fine assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Konold, P.; Rapp, I.; Mann, C.; Muminovic, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ever smaller components in manufacturing processes require handling, assembling and testing of miniature similar components. The human eye meets its optical limits with ongoing miniaturization of parts, due to the fact that it is not able to detect particles with a size smaller than 0.11 mm or register distances below 0.07 mm - like separating gaps. After several hours of labour, workers cannot accurately differentiate colour nuances as well as constant quality of work cannot be guaranteed. Assembly is usually done with tools, such as microscopes, magnifiers or digital measuring devices. Due to the enormous mental concentration, quickly a fatigue process sets in. This requires breaks or change of task and reduces productivity. Dealing with handling devices such as grippers, guide units and actuators for component assembling, requires a time consuming training process. Often productivity increase is first achieved after years of daily training. Miniaturizations are ubiquitously needed, for instance in the surgery. Very small add-on instruments must be provided. In measurement, e.g. it is a technological must and a competitive advantage, to determine required data with a small-as-possible, highest-possible-resolution sensor. Solution: The realization of a flexible universal workstation, using standard robotic systems and image processing devices in cooperation with humans, where workers are largely freed up from highly strenuous physical and fine motoric work, so that they can do productive work monitoring and adjusting the machine assisted production process.

  6. How fine is fine enough when doing CFD terrain simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    The present work addresses the problem of establishing the necessary grid resolution to obtain a given level of numerical accuracy using a CFD model for prediction of flow over terrain. It is illustrated, that a very high resolution may be needed if the numerical difference between consecutive...

  7. How fine is fine enough when doing CFD terrain simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2012-01-01

    The present work addresses the problemof establishing the necessary grid resolution to obtain a given level of numerical accuracy using a CFD model for prediction of flow over terrain. It is illustrated, that a very high resolution may be needed if the numerical difference between consecutive...

  8. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-04-01

    This is the second quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others.

  9. Fine Shades of a Sombrero

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    In addition to their scientific value, many of the exposures now being obtained by visiting astronomers to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) are also very beautiful. This is certainly true for this new image of the famous early-type spiral galaxy Messier 104 , widely known as the "Sombrero" (the Mexican hat) because of its particular shape. The colour image was made by a combination of three CCD images from the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on VLT ANTU , recently obtained by Peter Barthel from the Kapteyn Institute (Groningen, The Netherlands) during an observing run at the Paranal Observatory. He and Mark Neeser , also from the Kapteyn Institute, produced the composite images. The galaxy fits perfectly into the 6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 field-of-view of the FORS1 camera. A great amount of fine detail is revealed, from the structures in the pronounced dust band in the equatorial plane, to many faint background galaxies that shine through the outer regions. The "Sombrero" is located in the constellation Virgo (The Virgin), at a distance of about 50 million light-years. The overall "sharpness" of this colour image corresponds to about 0.7 arcsec which translates into a resolution of about 170 light-years at that distance. About Messier 104 Messier 104 is the 104th object in the famous catalogue of nebulae by French astronomer Charles Messier (1730 - 1817). It was not included in the first two editions (with 45 objects in 1774; 103 in 1781), but Messier soon thereafter added it by hand in his personal copy as a "very faint nebula". The recession velocity, about 1000 km/sec, was first measured by American astronomer Vesto M. Slipher at the Lowell Observatory in 1912; he was also the first to detect the galaxy's rotation. ESO Press Photo 07c/00 ESO Press Photo 07c/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 307; 59k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 614; 308k] [Full-Res; JPEG: 2028 x 1556; 2.3Mb] PR Photo 07c/00 has been processed to show the numerous dust bands in the central plane of the Sombrero galaxy (see

  10. Unary resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Clément; Bagnol, Marc; Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We give a characterization of deterministic polynomial time computation based on an algebraic structure called the resolution semiring, whose elements can be understood as logic programs or sets of rewriting rules over first-order terms. This construction stems from an interactive interpretation ...

  11. Fine-Grained Concrete of Composite Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Pak, A.; Kuzmin, D.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the application of industrial wastes for the production of high-quality concretes with specified characteristics. The composite binders with low water demand (BLW) have been developed. Their strength is approximately twice the strength of the initial cement, and dilute BLW with 50 - 70% of the ground slag or quartz sand in their composition provide the same strength as the original Portland cement. It was proved that the quartzite sand screening can be used as a filler in the preparation of fine-grained concretes.

  12. A Nonlinear Transmission Line Model of the Cochlea With Temporal Integration Accounts for Duration Effects in Threshold Fine Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko L.; Mauermann, Manfred; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    For normal-hearing listeners, auditory pure-tone thresholds in quiet often show quasi periodic fluctuations when measured with a high frequency resolution, referred to as threshold fine structure. Threshold fine structure is dependent on the stimulus duration, with smaller fluctuations for short ...

  13. Interactions Between Pinus taeda (loblolly) Fine Roots and Soil Fungi: Impacts of Elevated CO2, N Availability, and Spatial Distribution of Fungi on Fine Root Persistence and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, A.; Beidler, K.; McGlinn, D.; Pritchard, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Fine root turnover represents the most significant mode of flux from plants into soil C pools. Unfortunately fine root senescence and decomposition, processes critical in turnover, are particularly understudied. For example, little is known about either the factors that influence fine-root decomposition or the fate of compounds they contain during root death. Better understanding fine root senescence and decomposition should reduce uncertainty associated with global climate models; including re-uptake of materials in dying leaves into these models has already been shown to increase their accuracy. Over 4400 individual fine-roots and 4734 rhizomorphs were tracked from initiation until disintegration over 12 years using minirhizotrons at the Duke FACE site. Image-based approaches such as minirhizotrons cannot directly assess fine-root physiological status. To assess fine-root function directly, we are now conducting manipulative experiments in P. taeda in which fine-root senescence is induced through two treatments, steam- and direct hand-girdling. Physiological status is then assessed by examining gene-expression, root anatomy and chemical composition of manipulated roots. Changing [CO2] did not change persistence times for roots, but did impact rhizomorph persistence. Both roots and rhizomorphs showed interactions between effects of N and CO2 on persistence. Most interesting is the interaction between fine-roots and rhizomorphs: fine root persistence times are reduced in the presence of rhizomorphs, but this effect depends on the amount of N available. Finally, we found experimentally inducing senescence via steam girdling to be very effective relative to hand-girdling. These results provide evidence of the importance of priming on function of soil fungi and the role of N availability on fine-root turnover. The ability to stimulate fine-root senescence provides a powerful experimental tool to examine the fates of resources contained in fine-root pools as these

  14. 2fl-f2 DPOAE fine structure for 12 symphony orchestra musicians before and after rehearsal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2005-01-01

    and analyzed for 12 symphony orchestra musicians using the same measurement parameters as in the previous study. Only musicians, without known hearing problems, participated in the study. The purpose of this study was to analyze the DPOAE fine structure characteristics in this group of exposed test subjects......The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is revealed, when measuring DPOAE with a very fine frequency resolution. It is characterized by consistent maxima and minima with notches of up to 20 dB depth. The fine structure is known also from absolute hearing thresholds......, and it has been suggested that the fine structures correlate with hearing level. In a previous study the prevalence and character of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure was analyzed for 40 young, normal-hearing subjects. In this study the DPOAE fine structure was determined...

  15. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  16. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of the resolution volume for the SEQUOIA spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granroth G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations, of direct geometry spectrometers, have been particularly useful in instrument design and characterization. However, these tools can also be useful for experiment planning and analysis. To this end, the McStas Monte Carlo ray tracing model of SEQUOIA, the fine resolution fermi chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL, has been modified to include the time of flight resolution sample and detector components. With these components, the resolution ellipsoid can be calculated for any detector pixel and energy bin of the instrument. The simulation is split in two pieces. First, the incident beamline up to the sample is simulated for 1 × 1011 neutron packets (4 days on 30 cores. This provides a virtual source for the backend that includes the resolution sample and monitor components. Next, a series of detector and energy pixels are computed in parallel. It takes on the order of 30 s to calculate a single resolution ellipsoid on a single core. Python scripts have been written to transform the ellipsoid into the space of an oriented single crystal, and to characterize the ellipsoid in various ways. Though this tool is under development as a planning tool, we have successfully used it to provide the resolution function for convolution with theoretical models. Specifically, theoretical calculations of the spin waves in YFeO3 were compared to measurements taken on SEQUOIA. Though the overall features of the spectra can be explained while neglecting resolution effects, the variation in intensity of the modes is well described once the resolution is included. As this was a single sharp mode, the simulated half intensity value of the resolution ellipsoid was used to provide the resolution width. A description of the simulation, its use, and paths forward for this technique will be discussed.

  18. Observations of substorm fine structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazutin

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field measurements on the CRRES satellite were used, together with geosynchronous satellites and ground-based observations, to investigate the fine structure of a magnetospheric substorm on February 9, 1991. Using the variations in the electron fluxes, the substorm activity was divided into several intensifications lasting about 3–15 minutes each. The two main features of the data were: (1 the intensifications showed internal fine structure in the time scale of about 2 minutes or less. We call these shorter periods activations. Energetic electrons and protons at the closest geosynchronous spacecraft (1990 095 were found to have comparable activation structure. (2 The energetic (>69 keV proton injections were delayed with respect to electron injections, and actually coincided in time with the end of the intensifications and partial returns to locally more stretched field line configuration. We propose that the energetic protons could be able to control the dynamics of the system locally be quenching the ongoing intensification and possibly preparing the final large-scale poleward movement of the activity. It was also shown that these protons originated from the same intensification as the preceeding electrons. Therefore, the substorm instability responsible for the intensifications could introduce a negative feedback loop into the system, creating the observed fine structure with the intensification time scales.Key words. Magnetospheric Physics (Storms and substorms.

  19. Exploring a Multi-resolution Approach Using AMIP Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Koichi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhao, Chun; Yang, Qing; Lu, Jian; Hagos, Samson M.; Rauscher, Sara; Dong, Li; Ringler, Todd; Lauritzen, P. H.

    2015-07-31

    This study presents a diagnosis of a multi-resolution approach using the Model for Prediction Across Scales - Atmosphere (MPAS-A) for simulating regional climate. Four AMIP experiments are conducted for 1999-2009. In the first two experiments, MPAS-A is configured using global quasi-uniform grids at 120 km and 30 km grid spacing. In the other two experiments, MPAS-A is configured using variable-resolution (VR) mesh with local refinement at 30 km over North America and South America embedded inside a quasi-uniform domain at 120 km elsewhere. Precipitation and related fields in the four simulations are examined to determine how well the VR simulations reproduce the features simulated by the globally high-resolution model in the refined domain. In previous analyses of idealized aqua-planet simulations, the characteristics of the global high-resolution simulation in moist processes only developed near the boundary of the refined region. In contrast, the AMIP simulations with VR grids are able to reproduce the high-resolution characteristics across the refined domain, particularly in South America. This indicates the importance of finely resolved lower-boundary forcing such as topography and surface heterogeneity for the regional climate, and demonstrates the ability of the MPAS-A VR to replicate the large-scale moisture transport as simulated in the quasi-uniform high-resolution model. Outside of the refined domain, some upscale effects are detected through large-scale circulation but the overall climatic signals are not significant at regional scales. Our results provide support for the multi-resolution approach as a computationally efficient and physically consistent method for modeling regional climate.

  20. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  1. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  2. A prototype High Purity Germanium detector for high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J., E-mail: rjcooper@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Amman, M.; Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Where energy resolution is paramount, High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors continue to provide the optimum solution for gamma-ray detection and spectroscopy. Conventional large-volume HPGe detectors are typically limited to count rates on the order of ten thousand counts per second, however, limiting their effectiveness for high count rate applications. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel prototype HPGe detector designed to be capable of achieving fine energy resolution and high event throughput at count rates in excess of one million counts per second. We report here on the concept, design, and initial performance of the first prototype device.

  3. Human perception of subresolution fineness of dense textures based on image intensity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Masataka; Nishida, Shin'ya; Shinya, Mikio

    2017-04-01

    We are surrounded by many textures with fine dense structures, such as human hair and fabrics, whose individual elements are often finer than the spatial resolution limit of the visual system or that of a digitized image. Here we show that human observers have an ability to visually estimate subresolution fineness of those textures. We carried out a psychophysical experiment to show that observers could correctly discriminate differences in the fineness of hair-like dense line textures even when the thinnest line element was much finer than the resolution limit of the eye or that of the display. The physical image analysis of the textures, along with a theoretical analysis based on the central limit theorem, indicates that as the fineness of texture increases and the number of texture elements per resolvable unit increases, the intensity contrast of the texture decreases and the intensity histogram approaches a Gaussian shape. Subsequent psychophysical experiments showed that these image features indeed play critical roles in fineness perception; i.e., lowering the contrast made artificial and natural textures look finer, and this effect was most evident for textures with unimodal Gaussian-like intensity distributions. These findings indicate that the human visual system is able to estimate subresolution texture fineness on the basis of diagnostic image features correlated with subresolution fineness, such as the intensity contrast and the shape of the intensity histogram.

  4. Considering Fine Art and Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a close association between picturebook illustrations and works of fine art since the picturebook was first conceived, and many ways these associations among works of fine art and picturebook illustrations and design play out. To make sense of all the various ways picturebook illustrations are associated with works of fine art,…

  5. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a reasonable...

  6. Novel silica stabilization method for the analysis of fine nanocrystals using coherent X-ray diffraction imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteforte, Marianne; Estandarte, Ana K.; Chen, Bo; Harder, Ross; Huang, Michael H.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-06-23

    High-energy X-ray Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) is a well established synchrotron-based technique used to quantitatively reconstruct the three-dimensional morphology and strain distribution in nanocrystals. The BCDI technique has become a powerful analytical tool for quantitative investigations of nanocrystals, nanotubes, nanorods and more recently biological systems. BCDI has however typically failed for fine nanocrystals in sub-100?nm size regimes ? a size routinely achievable by chemical synthesis ? despite the spatial resolution of the BCDI technique being 20?30?nm. The limitations of this technique arise from the movement of nanocrystals under illumination by the highly coherent beam, which prevents full diffraction data sets from being acquired. A solution is provided here to overcome this problem and extend the size limit of the BCDI technique, through the design of a novel stabilization method by embedding the fine nanocrystals into a silica matrix. Chemically synthesized FePt nanocrystals of maximum dimension 20?nm and AuPd nanocrystals in the size range 60?65?nm were investigated with BCDI measurement at beamline 34-ID-C of the APS, Argonne National Laboratory. Novel experimental methodologies to elucidate the presence of strain in fine nanocrystals are a necessary pre-requisite in order to better understand strain profiles in engineered nanocrystals for novel device development.

  7. Paste thickening of fine coal refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Patil; R. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2007-10-15

    The coal industry is being subjected to increasing public scrutiny with regards to its effect on the environment and impact on public health and safety. Recently, disposal and storage of fine coal waste slurry has drawn considerable public attention. This article discusses the emerging paste thickening technology as a possible solution to the fine coal waste slurry disposal problem. Paste-thickening studies were conducted on thickener underflow slurry from a central Appalachia preparation plant. Initial experiments were conducted with a laboratory scale T-Floc apparatus to optimize flocculant dosages to obtain maximum settling flux and underflow solids concentration. Results showed that the addition of anionic flocculant (400 g/t) to the slurry followed by cationic flocculant (100 g/t) provided the highest settling flux (3.85 tonnes/hr/m{sup 2}) and solids concentration (35% by weight). Pilot-scale paste thickening tests were conducted using a Dorr-Oliver Eimco Deepcone{trademark} thickener. The thickener concentrated the solids from 10% to 50% by weight using about 450 g/t of anionic and 150 g/t of cationic flocculants. The thickened paste had a yield stress of about 165 Pa that is sufficiently low to allow transport using a conventional positive displacement pump to a disposal area. The clarity of the overflow stream was similar to that currently obtained with a conventional thickener.

  8. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  9. Designing and establishing a fine hardwood timber plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McKenna; Lenny D. Farlee

    2013-01-01

    Today, new tools and lessons learned from established plantations of black walnut and other fine hardwoods can provide landowners with guidelines to design and establish successful plantations to produce quality timber for the future. From earlier plantations now maturing, we can recognize design features critical during establishment. Current production practices...

  10. Construction of high resolution model consistent pseudo-observations of precipitation and their use for bias correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Bosshard, Thomas; Yang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    There is often a lack of suitable observational data at high time and space resolution for evaluation and bias correction of regional climate model (RCM) simulations. This is clearly the case for regions of very poor data records of e.g. only monthly resolution, but also occurs when going to very high space and time resolutions. Here, we present a method to construct pseudo-observational precipitation data by merging a large scale constrained (here through spectral nudging) RCM reanalysis downscaling simulation with coarse time and space resolution observations. The spectral nudging synchronizes the inner domain solution to the driving reanalysis model, such that the simulated weather is similar to observations on a monthly time scale, for which corrections are made to a monthly data set using a simple scaling factor. In order to retain the fine scale information of the RCM, a low-pass filter is applied to the correction factors. The method is evaluated for a 12.5 km RCM simulation over Sweden and shown to produce a reasonable alternative to available data sets for this rather well observed region. In a second step, the pseudo-observations are used as reference data for a quantile mapping bias correction of the same RCM, but driven by a GCM. The use of the pseudo-observations retains the fine scale features, which are otherwise destroyed or changed depending on the reference data set. The proposed method provides a high resolution forcing data set for impact models and also allows bias correction of high resolution model simulations without changing the fine scale spatial features, i.e. retaining the very information required by many impact models.

  11. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  12. Fine Tuning Mission to reach those influenced by Darwinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientifically aware section of the South African population is increasing. Many are being exposed to the concept of Darwinian evolution. Exposure has generated a religious sub �people group� who have problems with Christianity because they have been influenced by the naturalistic element in Darwinian philosophy. Christian antagonism towards evolution has often prejudiced them unfavourably towards the gospel. Recent discoveries concerning the fine-tuning of the universe have now presented a window of opportunity for overcoming this. It may enable the church to �fine-tune� its missionary approach to present them with the gospel in a more acceptable manner. It is suggested that Paul�s Areopagus speech provides a model for such cross-cultural evangelism. A section is included at the end, describing some objections that have been raised against the cosmological fine-tuning apologetic.

  13. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2002-01-31

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October--December, 2001 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The persistent daily trends described in the previous quarterly report are seen in the fall particulate data, superimposed on the seasonal trend toward lower concentrations in the cooler months. Some instrumental issues were noted with the APS and the sulfate monitoring instruments, as described in the main report.

  14. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  15. Dispersal patterns in the North Sea, insights from a high resolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga Adame, Claudia Gabriela; Polton, Jeff; Holt, Jason; Graham, Jennifer; Henry, Lea-Anne

    2017-04-01

    Lagrangian particle tracking simulations are useful to elucidate the fate of materials transported by ocean currents ( i.e. larvae, pollutants, debris, drifters), and can therefore be useful to study important process in coastal seas. Dispersal patterns should be improved by the new generation of high horizontal resolution (<2 km) ocean circulation models which provide an improved, more dynamic representation of the coastal ocean. We used the new high resolution Northwest European Shelf NEMO ocean circulation model and LTRANS, a particle tracking code, to study the effects of the increased resolution on the dispersion of Lagrangian particles in the North Sea. Particles were released at the locations of offshore oil and gas platforms in the North Sea and tracked for periods similar to the larval duration of benthic organisms that have colonized the subsea platforms. Dispersal patterns and spatio-temporal scales are identified for the summer (stratified) and winter (mixed) oceanographic regimes. The high resolution of the new NEMO model allows for fine scale detail of flow speed and variability. The small scale features (i.e. eddies and fronts) now represented in the model trap particles, decreasing their dispersal and increasing retention times in comparison to simulations done on a previous coarser resolution NEMO version (7 km AMM7). We isolated the effects of resolution from those due to different representations of the circulation in the different versions of the ocean circulation model by averaging the high resolution model velocity fields to the coarser (7 km) grid, and comparing the results of identical particle tracking experiments using these two flow fields. Our results provide a measure of the importance of high resolution flow fields when estimating transport of materials in an enclosed sea and provide a more realistic characterisation of dispersion in the North Sea.

  16. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure as an early hearing loss predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are a promising method to monitor early noise-induced hearing losses. When distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are obtained with a high-frequency resolution, a ripple structure across frequency can be seen, called DPOAE fine structure. In this study DPOAE...... fine structures are obtained from 74 normal-hearing humans using primary levels of L1/L2=65/45 dB. The subjects belong to groups with different ages and exposure histories. A classification algorithm is developed, which quantifies the fine structure by the parameter's ripple place, ripple width, ripple...... and vary from subject to subject within groups. The results do not indicate that the DPOAE fine structure alters with the state of hearing, as it is suggested in the literature. The data analysis is still in process at this stage.  ...

  17. Fine-scale spatial variability of different stages of pelagic fish eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stage-dependent spatial distributions of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine Sardinops sagax and round herring Etrumeus whiteheadi eggs over the western Agulhas Bank South Africa were examined from samples collected at a fine-scale (1.8 km) resolution using a continuous underway fish egg sampler (CUFES).

  18. Diagnostic yield of fine needle aspiration biopsy in HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... these, 228 (77.8%) had positive MGIT cultures while in 65 (22%) cases with negative MGIT cultures, ... the 228 positive cultures, 226 were Mycobacterium tuberculosis,. 1 M. avium-intracellulare, and 1 M. .... Combining fine-needle aspiration biopsy and high-resolution melt analysis to reduce diagnostic ...

  19. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were

  20. METHODS OF RECEIVING OF FINE-GRAINED STRUCTURE OF CASTINGS AT CRYSTALLIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tolochko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for fine-grained structure of ingots during crystallization depending on the used foundry technologies. It is shown that by using modern scientific and technological advances may improve the traditional and the development of new casting processes, providing production of cast parts with over fine-grained structure and enhanced properties.

  1. The quality of specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-27

    Oct 27, 2011 ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) can be defined as the removal of a sample of cells, using a fine needle, from a suspicious mass for diagnostic purposes.1 The first description of the use of needles for therapeutic purposes was provided by an Arab physician, Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas ...

  2. Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Income and human development indices provide even less confirmation of the development/democracy ... 'Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance' of the new African Union and ... good governance and multi—party democratisation, as well as economic struc- tural adjustment. In its view ...

  3. Fine mapping of gene regions regulating neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Swanberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Damage to nerve cells and axons leading to neurodegeneration is a characteristic feature of many neurological diseases. The degree of genetic influence on susceptibility to axotomy-induced neuronal death has so far been unknown. We have examined two gene regions, Vra1 and Vra2, previously linked to nerve cell loss after ventral root avulsion in a rat F2 intercross between the DA and PVG inbred rat strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we use two generations (G8 and G10 cohorts of an advanced intercross line between DA and PVG(av1 to reproduce linkage to Vra1 and to fine-map this region. By isolating the effect from Vra1 in congenic strains, we demonstrate that Vra1 significantly regulates the loss of motoneurons after avulsion. The regulatory effect mediated by Vra1 thus resides in a congenic fragment of 9 megabases. Furthermore, we have used the advanced intercross lines to give more support to Vra2, originally detected as a suggestive QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated here show that naturally occurring allelic variations affect susceptibility to axotomy-induced nerve cell death. Vra1 and Vra2 represent the first quantitative trait loci regulating this phenotype that are characterized and fine mapped in an advanced intercross line. In addition, congenic strains provide experimental evidence for the Vra1 effect on the extent of injury-induced neurodegeneration. Identification of the underlying genetic variations will increase our understanding of the regulation and mechanisms of neurodegeneration.

  4. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Min Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  5. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2017-10-10

    Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  6. Hand/Eye Coordination For Fine Robotic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Anatole M.

    1992-01-01

    Fine motions of robotic manipulator controlled with help of visual feedback by new method reducing position errors by order of magnitude. Robotic vision subsystem includes five cameras: three stationary ones providing wide-angle views of workspace and two mounted on wrist of auxiliary robot arm. Stereoscopic cameras on arm give close-up views of object and end effector. Cameras measure errors between commanded and actual positions and/or provide data for mapping between visual and manipulator-joint-angle coordinates.

  7. Extreme Resolution Ecohydrologic Modeling for Understanding Micro-topographic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of extremely high-resolution data such as lidar DEM enables us to use fine resolution topographic attributes over large spatial areas for understanding micro-topographic controls on the land-surface. These relate to impacts of micro-topography on surface runoff paths, moisture availability to plants and biota, and the exchange fluxes between surface and subsurface water flow. To address such challenges by taking advantage of extreme-resolution data, a new class of models are required that explicitly resolve processes at high resolution over large areas, including micro-topographic effects, while at the same time maintaining fidelity to governing principles. To this end a modeling system that links MLCan, a vertically resolved model of canopy-root-soil biophysical processes, with GPU-based fully conjunctive surface-subsurface flow model (GCSFlow) has been developed. The MLCan model incorporates both C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways and resolves the vertical radiation, thermal, and environmental regimes within the canopy. In addition to plant water uptake, hydraulic redistribution is included to simulate the passive transport of moisture throughout the root and soil column following water potential gradients. The GCSFlow model simulates both surface runoff and vertical and lateral transport of moisture belowground. Modifications of the conjunctive flow model for utilizing GPU parallel computing capability significantly enhance the performance of the simulations. Several comparisons with analytical solutions and other numerical models have been carried out for a number of soil properties, flow conditions, and domain geometries to benchmark the physical responses of the conjunctive flow model. An application to a real-world catchment, the Goose Creek watershed located in central Illinois, USA, is also presented to demonstrate the scalability of the parallel, coupled model and its robust performance. The coupled model thus provides more capabilities to

  8. Flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang; Wang, Chong-qing

    2018-01-01

    The flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils were investigated through microflotation test, turbidity measurements, infrared spectroscopy, and interfacial interaction calculations. The results of the flotation test show that at pH 2-11, the floatability of molybdenite fines in the presence of transformer oil is markedly better than that in the presence of kerosene and diesel oil. The addition of transformer oil, which enhances the floatability of molybdenite fines, promotes the aggregation of molybdenite particles. Fourier transform infrared measurements illustrate that physical interaction dominates the adsorption mechanism of neutral oil on molybdenite. Interfacial interaction calculations indicate that hydrophobic attraction is the crucial force that acts among the oil collector, water, and molybdenite. Strong hydrophobic attraction between the oily collector and water provides the strong dispersion capability of the collector in water. Furthermore, the dispersion capability of the collector, not the interaction strength between the oily collectors and molybdenite, has a highly significant role in the flotation system of molybdenite fines. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of molybdenite flotation.

  9. Photon-efficient super-resolution laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongeek; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Goyal, Vivek K.

    2017-08-01

    The resolution achieved in photon-efficient active optical range imaging systems can be low due to non-idealities such as propagation through a diffuse scattering medium. We propose a constrained optimization-based frame- work to address extremes in scarcity of photons and blurring by a forward imaging kernel. We provide two algorithms for the resulting inverse problem: a greedy algorithm, inspired by sparse pursuit algorithms; and a convex optimization heuristic that incorporates image total variation regularization. We demonstrate that our framework outperforms existing deconvolution imaging techniques in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio. Since our proposed method is able to super-resolve depth features using small numbers of photon counts, it can be useful for observing fine-scale phenomena in remote sensing through a scattering medium and through-the-skin biomedical imaging applications.

  10. Resolution analysis of archive films for the purpose of their optimal digitization and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek

    2017-09-01

    With recent high demand for ultra-high-definition (UHD) content to be screened in high-end digital movie theaters but also in the home environment, film archives full of movies in high-definition and above are in the scope of UHD content providers. Movies captured with the traditional film technology represent a virtually unlimited source of UHD content. The goal to maintain complete image information is also related to the choice of scanning resolution and spatial resolution for further distribution. It might seem that scanning the film material in the highest possible resolution using state-of-the-art film scanners and also its distribution in this resolution is the right choice. The information content of the digitized images is however limited, and various degradations moreover lead to its further reduction. Digital distribution of the content in the highest image resolution might be therefore unnecessary or uneconomical. In other cases, the highest possible resolution is inevitable if we want to preserve fine scene details or film grain structure for archiving purposes. This paper deals with the image detail content analysis of archive film records. The resolution limit in captured scene image and factors which lower the final resolution are discussed. Methods are proposed to determine the spatial details of the film picture based on the analysis of its digitized image data. These procedures allow determining recommendations for optimal distribution of digitized video content intended for various display devices with lower resolutions. Obtained results are illustrated on spatial downsampling use case scenario, and performance evaluation of the proposed techniques is presented.

  11. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Holon

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m. It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures

  12. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  13. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  14. Fine scale mapping of the 17q22 breast cancer locus using dense SNPs, genotyped within the Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (COGs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; Darabi, Hatef; Beesley, Jonathan; Droit, Arnaud; Kar, Siddhartha; Nord, Silje; Moradi Marjaneh, Mahdi; Soucy, Penny; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Ghoussaini, Maya; Fues Wahl, Hanna; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Alonso, M Rosario; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Conroy, Don M; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Easton, Douglas F; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Galle, Eva; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G; Goldberg, Mark S; González-Neira, Anna; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hartman, Mikael; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Johnson, Nichola; Kang, Daehee; Khan, Sofia; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kriege, Mieke; Kristensen, Vessela; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Soo Chin; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mayes, Rebecca; McKay, James; Meindl, Alfons; Milne, Roger L; Muir, Kenneth; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pita, Guillermo; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C; Stram, Daniel O; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Teo, Soo H; Tessier, Daniel C; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    .... To identify potential causal variants related to breast cancer risk, we performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis that involved genotyping 517 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS...

  15. High Resolution Helium Ion Scanning Microscopy of the Rat Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William L.; Van Hoek, Alfred N.; Păunescu, Teodor G.; Huynh, Chuong; Goetze, Bernhard; Singh, Bipin; Scipioni, Larry; Stern, Lewis A.; Brown, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details and provide

  16. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William L; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Păunescu, Teodor G; Huynh, Chuong; Goetze, Bernhard; Singh, Bipin; Scipioni, Larry; Stern, Lewis A; Brown, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details and provide

  17. High resolution helium ion scanning microscopy of the rat kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Rice

    Full Text Available Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture. We found that high contrast, high resolution imaging of the renal tubule surface is possible with a relatively simple processing procedure that consists of transcardial perfusion with aldehyde fixatives, vibratome tissue sectioning, tissue dehydration with graded methanol solutions and careful critical point drying. Coupled with the helium ion system, fine details such as membrane texture and membranous nanoprojections on the glomerular podocytes were visualized, and pores within the filtration slit diaphragm could be seen in much greater detail than in previous scanning EM studies. In the collecting duct, the extensive and striking apical microplicae of the intercalated cells were imaged without the shrunken or distorted appearance that is typical with conventional sample processing and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane depressions visible on principal cells suggest possible endo- or exocytotic events, and central cilia on these cells were imaged with remarkable preservation and clarity. We also demonstrate the use of colloidal gold probes for highlighting specific cell-surface proteins and find that 15 nm gold labels are practical and easily distinguishable, indicating that external labels of various sizes can be used to detect multiple targets in the same tissue. We conclude that this technology represents a technical breakthrough in imaging the topographical ultrastructure of animal tissues. Its use in future studies should allow the study of fine cellular details

  18. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp

    2017-03-11

    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  19. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  20. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research papers, each developing a new super-resolution algorithm for a specific purpose. The current...... comprehensive survey provides an overview of most of these published works by grouping them in a broad taxonomy. For each of the groups in the taxonomy, the basic concepts of the algorithms are first explained and then the paths through which each of these groups have evolved are given in detail, by mentioning...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  1. Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Neil H.; Shrestha, Binoj K.; Karki, Jhamak B.; Pradhan, Narendra Man Babu; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Many wildlife species face imminent extinction because of human impacts, and therefore, a prevailing belief is that some wildlife species, particularly large carnivores and ungulates, cannot coexist with people at fine spatial scales (i.e., cannot regularly use the exact same point locations). This belief provides rationale for various conservation programs, such as resettling human communities outside protected areas. However, quantitative information on the capacity and mechanisms for wildlife to coexist with humans at fine spatial scales is scarce. Such information is vital, because the world is becoming increasingly crowded. Here, we provide empirical information about the capacity and mechanisms for tigers (a globally endangered species) to coexist with humans at fine spatial scales inside and outside Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, a flagship protected area for imperiled wildlife. Information obtained from field cameras in 2010 and 2011 indicated that human presence (i.e., people on foot and vehicles) was ubiquitous and abundant throughout the study site; however, tiger density was also high. Surprisingly, even at a fine spatial scale (i.e., camera locations), tigers spatially overlapped with people on foot and vehicles in both years. However, in both years, tigers offset their temporal activity patterns to be much less active during the day when human activity peaked. In addition to temporal displacement, tiger–human coexistence was likely enhanced by abundant tiger prey and low levels of tiger poaching. Incorporating fine-scale spatial and temporal activity patterns into conservation plans can help address a major global challenge—meeting human needs while sustaining wildlife. PMID:22949642

  2. Tradeoffs in pushing the spatial resolution of fMRI for the 7T Human Connectome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Vu, An; Jamison, Keith; Glasser, Matthew F; Smith, Stephen M; Coalson, Timothy; Moeller, Steen; Auerbach, Edward J; Uğurbil, Kamil; Yacoub, Essa

    2017-07-01

    Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with multiband acceleration, has played an important role in mapping the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (7T and above) allow functional imaging with even higher functional contrast-to-noise ratios for improved spatial resolution and specificity compared to traditional field strengths (1.5T and 3T). High-resolution 7T fMRI, however, has primarily been constrained to smaller brain regions given the amount of time it takes to acquire the number of slices necessary for high resolution whole brain imaging. Here we evaluate a range of whole-brain high-resolution resting state fMRI protocols (0.9, 1.25, 1.5, 1.6 and 2mm isotropic voxels) at 7T, obtained with both in-plane and slice acceleration parallel imaging techniques to maintain the temporal resolution and brain coverage typically acquired at 3T. Using the processing pipeline developed by the Human Connectome Project, we demonstrate that high resolution images acquired at 7T provide increased functional contrast to noise ratios with significantly less partial volume effects and more distinct spatial features, potentially allowing for robust individual subject parcellations and descriptions of fine-scaled patterns, such as visuotopic organization. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. INFLUENCE OF FINING AGENTS ON GLASS MELTING: A REVIEW, PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Hujova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass melting is significantly influenced by two processes: the dissolution of particles and the fining of glass. Because these processes are time- and energy-consuming in industry, fining agents are used. Although much literature has been reported about the use of fining agents, no extensive overview of such literature has yet been published. In this paper, we provide such a review, targeting articles that describe the influence of fining agents on (i the dissolution of particles, (ii the bubble nucleation and removal, (iii colour of glass at reduced melting conditions, and (iv the foaming of glass. We cover the history of fining agent usage from the earliest research in the field to the most recent cutting-edge discoveries. The advantages and disadvantages of all the traditional fining agents are described, with attention paid to the most widely used agent, sodium sulphate. In addition, sodium sulphate is considered as a surface-active compound and colouring substance. Furthermore, we include the influence of redox conditions on the process of fining. We believe that our review provides an ideal introduction to the use of fining agents, both for researchers and industry professionals.

  4. Multi-resolution statistical image reconstruction for mitigation of truncation effects: application to cone-beam CT of the head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hao; Webster Stayman, J.; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Xu, Jennifer; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    A prototype cone-beam CT (CBCT) head scanner featuring model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) has been recently developed and demonstrated the potential for reliable detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), which is vital to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic stroke. However, data truncation (e.g. due to the head holder) can result in artifacts that reduce image uniformity and challenge ICH detection. We propose a multi-resolution MBIR method with an extended reconstruction field of view (RFOV) to mitigate truncation effects in CBCT of the head. The image volume includes a fine voxel size in the (inner) nontruncated region and a coarse voxel size in the (outer) truncated region. This multi-resolution scheme allows extension of the RFOV to mitigate truncation effects while introducing minimal increase in computational complexity. The multi-resolution method was incorporated in a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) reconstruction framework previously developed for CBCT of the head. Experiments involving an anthropomorphic head phantom with truncation due to a carbon-fiber holder were shown to result in severe artifacts in conventional single-resolution PWLS, whereas extending the RFOV within the multi-resolution framework strongly reduced truncation artifacts. For the same extended RFOV, the multi-resolution approach reduced computation time compared to the single-resolution approach (viz. time reduced by 40.7%, 83.0%, and over 95% for an image volume of 6003, 8003, 10003 voxels). Algorithm parameters (e.g. regularization strength, the ratio of the fine and coarse voxel size, and RFOV size) were investigated to guide reliable parameter selection. The findings provide a promising method for truncation artifact reduction in CBCT and may be useful for other MBIR methods and applications for which truncation is a challenge.

  5. Geo-Parcel Based Crop Identification by Integrating High Spatial-Temporal Resolution Imagery from Multi-Source Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingpin Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geo-parcel based crop identification plays an important role in precision agriculture. It meets the needs of refined farmland management. This study presents an improved identification procedure for geo-parcel based crop identification by combining fine-resolution images and multi-source medium-resolution images. GF-2 images with fine spatial resolution of 0.8 m provided agricultural farming plot boundaries, and GF-1 (16 m and Landsat 8 OLI data were used to transform the geo-parcel based enhanced vegetation index (EVI time-series. In this study, we propose a piecewise EVI time-series smoothing method to fit irregular time profiles, especially for crop rotation situations. Global EVI time-series were divided into several temporal segments, from which phenological metrics could be derived. This method was applied to Lixian, where crop rotation was the common practice of growing different types of crops, in the same plot, in sequenced seasons. After collection of phenological features and multi-temporal spectral information, Random Forest (RF was performed to classify crop types, and the overall accuracy was 93.27%. Moreover, an analysis of feature significance showed that phenological features were of greater importance for distinguishing agricultural land cover compared to temporal spectral information. The identification results indicated that the integration of high spatial-temporal resolution imagery is promising for geo-parcel based crop identification and that the newly proposed smoothing method is effective.

  6. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

  7. Compositions of coarse and fine particles in martian soils at gale: A window into the production of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, A.; Meslin, P. Y.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Mangold, N.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Tokar, R.; Ollila, A.; Schröder, S.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Le Mouélic, S.; Dyar, D.; Berger, G.; Blaney, D.; Nachon, M.; Dromart, G.; Lanza, N.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Goetz, W.; Berger, J.; Barraclough, B.; Delapp, D.

    2015-03-01

    The ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover provides for the first time an opportunity to study martian soils at a sub-millimeter resolution. In this work, we analyzed 24 soil targets probed by ChemCam during the first 250 sols on Mars. Using the depth profile capability of the ChemCam LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) technique, we found that 45% of the soils contained coarse grains (>500 μm). Three distinct clusters have been detected: Cluster 1 shows a low SiO2 content; Cluster 2 corresponds to coarse grains with a felsic composition, whereas Cluster 3 presents a typical basaltic composition. Coarse grains from Cluster 2 have been mostly observed exposed in the vicinity of the landing site, whereas coarse grains from Clusters 1 and 3 have been detected mostly buried, and were found all along the rover traverse. The possible origin of these coarse grains was investigated. Felsic (Cluster 2) coarse grains have the same origin as the felsic rocks encountered near the landing site, whereas the origin of the coarse grains from Clusters 1 and 3 seems to be more global. Fine-grained soils (particle size Gale. Although they contain a certain amount of hydrated amorphous component depleted in SiO2, possibly present as a surface coating, their overall chemical homogeneity and their close-to-basaltic composition suggest limited, or isochemical alteration, and a limited interaction with liquid water. Fine particles and coarse grains from Cluster 1 have a similar composition, and the former could derive from weathering of the latter. Overall martian soils have a bulk composition between that of fine particles and coarse grains. This work shows that the ChemCam instrument provides a means to study the variability of soil composition at a scale not achievable by bulk chemical analyses.

  8. Single Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals at Low Temperature: Fast Single-Photon Emission, Reduced Blinking, and Exciton Fine Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainò, Gabriele; Nedelcu, Georgian; Protesescu, Loredana; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Mahrt, Rainer F; Stöferle, Thilo

    2016-02-23

    Metal-halide semiconductors with perovskite crystal structure are attractive due to their facile solution processability, and have recently been harnessed very successfully for high-efficiency photovoltaics and bright light sources. Here, we show that at low temperature single colloidal cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, where X = Cl/Br) nanocrystals exhibit stable, narrow-band emission with suppressed blinking and small spectral diffusion. Photon antibunching demonstrates unambiguously nonclassical single-photon emission with radiative decay on the order of 250 ps, representing a significant acceleration compared to other common quantum emitters. High-resolution spectroscopy provides insight into the complex nature of the emission process such as the fine structure and charged exciton dynamics.

  9. The influence of model resolution on ozone in industrial volatile organic compound plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Barron H; Jeffries, Harvey E; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Vizuete, William G

    2010-09-01

    Regions with concentrated petrochemical industrial activity (e.g., Houston or Baton Rouge) frequently experience large, localized releases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aircraft measurements suggest these released VOCs create plumes with ozone (O3) production rates 2-5 times higher than typical urban conditions. Modeling studies found that simulating high O3 productions requires superfine (1-km) horizontal grid cell size. Compared with fine modeling (4-kmin), the superfine resolution increases the peak O3 concentration by as much as 46%. To understand this drastic O3 change, this study quantifies model processes for O3 and "odd oxygen" (Ox) in both resolutions. For the entire plume, the superfine resolution increases the maximum O3 concentration 3% but only decreases the maximum Ox concentration 0.2%. The two grid sizes produce approximately equal Ox mass but by different reaction pathways. Derived sensitivity to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and VOC emissions suggests resolution-specific sensitivity to NOx and VOC emissions. Different sensitivity to emissions will result in different O3 responses to subsequently encountered emissions (within the city or downwind). Sensitivity of O3 to emission changes also results in different simulated O3 responses to the same control strategies. Sensitivity of O3 to NOx and VOC emission changes is attributed to finer resolved Eulerian grid and finer resolved NOx emissions. Urban NOx concentration gradients are often caused by roadway mobile sources that would not typically be addressed with Plume-in-Grid models. This study shows that grid cell size (an artifact of modeling) influences simulated control strategies and could bias regulatory decisions. Understanding the dynamics of VOC plume dependence on grid size is the first step toward providing more detailed guidance for resolution. These results underscore VOC and NOx resolution interdependencies best addressed by finer resolution. On the basis of these results, the

  10. Resolution Of A Shadow Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Harold E.

    1982-02-01

    The 19th century art of shadow imaging, as started by Wedgwood (1803), and as used by William Henry Fox-Talbot (1851) in England, has been revived by using a small-area electronic flash lamp and fine grain film. One immediate application has been the photographic recording of large samples of living plankton. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the resolution of the shadow system, and to describe some of the strobe light sources that are presently available. Also, a modified method of shadow photography is described where enhanced color images give interesting and, perhaps, important color effects that may be useful in the study of plankton and other semitrans-parent subjects.

  11. Resolved complex coastlines and land-sea contrasts in a high-resolution regional climate model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Tian; Boberg, Fredrik; Christensen, Ole BøSsing

    2013-01-01

    system, and (2) examine different ocean responses in coarse and fine grids to atmospheric forcing. The experiments were performed covering the years 1990-2010, both using ERAI lateral boundary conditions. ERAI SSTs generally agree well with satellite SSTs in summer with differences within 1o......C, but the ERAI overestimates the ice extent by 72% in winter due to the coarse resolution in the Baltic Sea. The atmosphere in the Baltic land-sea transition was more sensitive to high-resolution modelled SSTs with a significant improvement in winter, but it also provided a cold bias in summer as a combination...... of errors from both atmospheric and ocean models. Overall, the coupled simulation without observational constraints showed only minor deviations in the air-sea interface in the Baltic coastal region compared to the prescribed simulation, with seasonal mean differences within 2oCin2m air temperatures and 1o...

  12. Estimating uncertainty in resolution tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available frequencies yields a biased estimate, and we provide an improved estimator. An application illustrates how the results derived can be incorporated into a larger un- certainty analysis. ? 2006 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. H20851DOI: 10....1117/1.2202914H20852 Subject terms: resolution testing; USAF 1951 test target; resolution uncertainity. Paper 050404R received May 20, 2005; revised manuscript received Sep. 2, 2005; accepted for publication Sep. 9, 2005; published online May 10, 2006. 1...

  13. OMI NO2 column densities over North American urban cities: the effect of satellite footprint resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Pius; Judd, Laura; Pan, Li; Lefer, Barry

    2016-03-01

    coefficient R = 0.89. This study suggests that satellite footprint sizes might have a considerable effect on the measurement of fine-scale urban NO2 plumes. The impact of satellite footprint resolution should be considered when using satellite observations in emission policy making, and the new downscaling approach can provide a reference uncertainty for the use of satellite NO2 measurements over most cities.

  14. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various ...

  15. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  16. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEW RSW Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Note that the CGNS file is very...

  17. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RSW Fine Mixed Element Grid with viscous root wind tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 38016 Tria Surface Faces=...

  18. The Execution of Criminal Fine Penalty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cosmin Peneoașu

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at dissecting the criminal provisions on criminal enforcement of fines in current Romanian criminal law with the goal of highlighting the new penal policy stated in the larger field of criminal penalties...

  19. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultra-Fine Grained Dual-Phase Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Militzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on obtaining low-carbon ultra-fine grained dual-phase steels through rapid intercritical annealing of cold-rolled sheet as improved materials for automotive applications. A laboratory processing route was designed that involves cold-rolling of a tempered martensite structure followed by a second tempering step to produce a fine grained aggregate of ferrite and carbides as the initial microstructure for rapid intercritical annealing. The intercritical annealing step was performed with heating and cooling rates of at least 100 °C/s and a holding time of 30 s. The intercritical temperature was selected to result in 20- 35% martensite in the final microstructures for C-Mn steels with carbon contents of 0.06, 0.12 and 0.17 wt%, respectively. The proposed processing routes produced an ultra-fine grained ferrite-martensite structure withgrain sizes of approximately 1 ?m for all three steels. The tensile strength of these ultra-fine grained dualphase steels can be increased by up to 200 MPa as compared to coarse-grained dual-phase steels while maintaining uniform elongation values. The rather narrow processing window necessary to obtain these properties was evaluated by determining the effect of intercritical annealing conditions on microstructure evolution. Further, the experimental results were confirmed with phase field simulations of austenite formation indicating that rapid heat treatment cycles are essential to obtain fine grained intercritical austenite that leads to martensite islands with sizes of 1 ?m and below in the final microstructure.

  1. Fine 5 Eesti tantsuväljal / Iiris Viirpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viirpalu, Iiris, 1992-

    2017-01-01

    Nüüdistantsuteatril Fine 5 täitub tänavu 25. tegutsemisaasta. Fine 5 käekirjast. Vestlusest Fine 5 tantsuteatri ja -kooli kauaaegsete kunstiliste juhtide Renee Nõmmiku ja Tiina Olleskiga Eesti tantsukunstist

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy uses sound waves ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the ...

  3. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute. Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair. Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States. Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  4. Working Safe and Feeling Fine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the problem of repetitive stress disorders in the administrative workplace and shares some quick fixes to aid ergonomics. Some thoughts on the ergonomics of office chairs are provided as is the use of professional guidance in furniture purchasing. (GR)

  5. Progress Toward A Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendyke, Clarence M.; Vourlidas, A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Klimchuck, J.

    2007-07-01

    Recent imaging at arcsecond (TRACE) and sub-arcsecond (VAULT) spatial resolution clearly show that structures with fine spatial scales play a key role in the physics of the upper solar atmosphere. Both theoretical and observational considerations point to the importance of small spatial scales, impulsive energy release, strong dynamics, and extreme plasma nonuniformity. Fundamental questions regarding the nature, structure, properties and dynamics of loops and filamentary structures in the upper atmosphere have been raised. To address these questions, we are developing a next generation, VEry high angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) as a sounding rocket instrument. VERIS will obtain the necessary high spatial resolution, high fidelity measurements of plasma temperatures, densities and velocities. With broad simultaneous temperature coverage, the VERIS observations will directly address unresolved issues relating to interconnections of various temperature solar plasmas. VERIS will provide the first ever subarcsecond spectra of transition region and coronal structures. It will do so with a sufficient spectral resolution of to allow centroided Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Finally, in addition to the spectra, VERIS will simultaneously obtain spectrally pure slot images (10x150 arcsec) in the +/-1 grating orders, which can be combined to make instantaneous line-of-sight velocity maps with 8km/s accuracy over an unprecedented field of view. The VERIS program is beginning the second year of its three year development cycle. All design activities and reviews are complete. Fabrication of all major components has begun. Brassboard electronics cards have been fabricated, assembled and tested. The paper presents the essential scientific

  6. A closer look at dynamic speckles and the use of their fine-structure for object measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Iversen, Theis F.Q.; Jakobsen, Michael Linde

    2010-01-01

    The possibility to “dress up” the speckles and thereby providing them with a fine structure will be discussed. As these speckles arise from scattering off solid targets, the dynamics of the speckles and their inherent fine structure might vary, providing information on different aspects of the su...

  7. On the creation of high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy data from multi-temporal low spatial resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei; van Aardt, Jan; Messinger, David

    2017-05-01

    The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission aims to provide global imaging spectroscopy data to the benefit of especially ecosystem studies. The onboard spectrometer will collect radiance spectra from the visible to short wave infrared (VSWIR) regions (400-2500 nm). The mission calls for fine spectral resolution (10 nm band width) and as such will enable scientists to perform material characterization, species classification, and even sub-pixel mapping. However, the global coverage requirement results in a relatively low spatial resolution (GSD 30m), which restricts applications to objects of similar scales. We therefore have focused on the assessment of sub-pixel vegetation structure from spectroscopy data in past studies. In this study, we investigate the development or reconstruction of higher spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy data via fusion of multi-temporal data sets to address the drawbacks implicit in low spatial resolution imagery. The projected temporal resolution of the HyspIRI VSWIR instrument is 15 days, which implies that we have access to as many as six data sets for an area over the course of a growth season. Previous studies have shown that select vegetation structural parameters, e.g., leaf area index (LAI) and gross ecosystem production (GEP), are relatively constant in summer and winter for temperate forests; we therefore consider the data sets collected in summer to be from a similar, stable forest structure. The first step, prior to fusion, involves registration of the multi-temporal data. A data fusion algorithm then can be applied to the pre-processed data sets. The approach hinges on an algorithm that has been widely applied to fuse RGB images. Ideally, if we have four images of a scene which all meet the following requirements - i) they are captured with the same camera configurations; ii) the pixel size of each image is x; and iii) at least r2 images are aligned on a grid of x/r - then a high-resolution image, with a pixel

  8. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  9. High resolution spectroscopy of the disk chromosphere. I - Observing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J. M.; Mauter, H. A.; Mann, G. R.; Brown, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Review of some of the main features of a high resolution spectroscopy program aimed at the precise photometric observation of chromospheric fine structures using the Sacramento Peak vacuum telescope. The observing procedures are described, and a sample of the first observational results is presented.

  10. Censored rainfall modelling for estimation of fine-scale extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cross

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of rainfall extremes is essential for drainage system design, flood mitigation, and risk quantification. However, traditional techniques lack physical realism and extrapolation can be highly uncertain. In this study, we improve the physical basis for short-duration extreme rainfall estimation by simulating the heavy portion of the rainfall record mechanistically using the Bartlett–Lewis rectangular pulse (BLRP model. Mechanistic rainfall models have had a tendency to underestimate rainfall extremes at fine temporal scales. Despite this, the simple process representation of rectangular pulse models is appealing in the context of extreme rainfall estimation because it emulates the known phenomenology of rainfall generation. A censored approach to Bartlett–Lewis model calibration is proposed and performed for single-site rainfall from two gauges in the UK and Germany. Extreme rainfall estimation is performed for each gauge at the 5, 15, and 60 min resolutions, and considerations for censor selection discussed.

  11. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  12. Tracing fine sediment sources in small mountain catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhpeima, A; Feiznia, S; Ahmadi, H

    2011-01-01

    Fine sediment represents an important diffuse source pollutant in surface waters, due to its role in governing the transfer and fate of many substances, including nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and other organic contaminants, and its influence on aquatic ecology. Therefore, catchment management strategies frequently need to include provision for the control of sediment mobilization and delivery. The sediment tracing concept provides a valuable framework for assisting the management and control of diffuse source sediment pollution by identifying the key sources and demonstrating the importance of intermediate storages and the likely impact of upstream mitigation strategies on downstream sediment and sediment associated contaminant fluxes. In this research, fine sediment sources were identified using tracing method. By field works, sediments were sampled from dam reservoir, different sources were also sampled. Fifteen tracers were first selected for tracing which are: The amounts of N, P, C, Cr, Co, Mg, K, Na, smectite, chlorite, illite, kaolinite, and two magnetic properties consisting of LOW Frequency Magnetic Susceptibility (X(LF)) and Frequency Dependent Magnetic Susceptibility (X(FD)). The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for these parameters and different statistical methods were applied to the data including Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and Stepwise Discriminant function analysis. The results provide important information on the relative importance of fine sediment sources to the reservoir sediments, which can be used to support model validation and the targeting of management and control strategies.

  13. Technical Proposal for the ALICE START Fast Timing Detector Based on Fine-Mesh Phototubes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplin, V A; CERN. Geneva; Loginov, V A; Strikhanov, M N; Gavrilov, Yu K; Filippov, S N; Kurepin, A B; Mayevskaya, A I

    1997-01-01

    Technical Proposal for the ALICE START Fast Timing Detector Based on Fine-Mesh Phototubes A scintillation detector based on fine-mesh phototubes with good timing proporties ( ~ 50 ps) is proposed as a complementary detector for two existing options of the ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector. Experimental results show high time resolution (up to 35 ps) and high gain in a magnetic field up to 0.5 T of fine-mesh Russian phototubes FEU-527. The proposed detector consists of two arrays of scintillation (or Cherenkov) counters, 24 counters each. The Monte-Carlo simulations made for the proposed design of the detector for p-p collisions give the average efficiency of the detector about 80%. The physical characteristics of the proposed detector are compared with those expected for the MCP version of the FMD.

  14. Protecting buyers from fine print

    OpenAIRE

    D'Agostino, Elena; Daniel J. Seidmann

    2016-01-01

    Buyers typically do not read the …ne print in contracts, providing an incentive for a monopolist to draft terms which are unfavorable to buyers. We model this problem, proving that trade must then be inefficient. We show that regulation which mandates efficient terms raises welfare. More interestingly, regulations which prohibit the least efficient terms may reduce welfare by inducing the monopolist not to other favorable terms. We extend these results to markets in which some buyers are naiv...

  15. Resolution of gene regulatory conflicts caused by combinations of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbach, Tobias; Kishony, Roy

    2011-05-20

    Regulatory conflicts occur when two signals that individually trigger opposite cellular responses are present simultaneously. Here, we investigate regulatory conflicts in the bacterial response to antibiotic combinations. We use an Escherichia coli promoter-GFP library to study the transcriptional response of many promoters to either additive or antagonistic drug pairs at fine two-dimensional (2D) resolution of drug concentration. Surprisingly, we find that this data set can be characterized as a linear sum of only two principal components. Component one, accounting for over 70% of the response, represents the response to growth inhibition by the drugs. Component two describes how regulatory conflicts are resolved. For the additive drug pair, conflicts are resolved by linearly interpolating the single drug responses, while for the antagonistic drug pair, the growth-limiting drug dominates the response. Importantly, for a given drug pair, the same conflict resolution strategy applies to almost all genes. These results provide a recipe for predicting gene expression responses to antibiotic combinations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of the spatial resolution of climatic data and soil physical properties on regional corn yield predictions using the STICS crop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, Guillaume; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mesbah, S. Morteza; Liu, Jiangui; Duchesne, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The assimilation of Earth observation (EO) data into crop models has proven to be an efficient way to improve yield prediction at a regional scale by estimating key unknown crop management practices. However, the efficiency of prediction depends on the uncertainty associated with the data provided to crop models, particularly climatic data and soil physical properties. In this study, the performance of the STICS (Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard) crop model for predicting corn yield after assimilation of leaf area index derived from EO data was evaluated under different scenarios. The scenarios were designed to examine the impact of using fine-resolution soil physical properties, as well as the impact of using climatic data from either one or four weather stations across the region of interest. The results indicate that when only one weather station was used, the average annual yield by producer was predicted well (absolute error <5%), but the spatial variability lacked accuracy (root mean square error = 1.3 t ha-1). The model root mean square error for yield prediction was highly correlated with the distance between the weather stations and the fields, for distances smaller than 10 km, and reached 0.5 t ha-1 for a 5-km distance when fine-resolution soil properties were used. When four weather stations were used, no significant improvement in model performance was observed. This was because of a marginal decrease (30%) in the average distance between fields and weather stations (from 10 to 7 km). However, the yield predictions were improved by approximately 15% with fine-resolution soil properties regardless of the number of weather stations used. The impact of the uncertainty associated with the EO-derived soil textures and the impact of alterations in rainfall distribution were also evaluated. A variation of about 10% in any of the soil physical textures resulted in a change in dry yield of 0.4 t ha-1. Changes in rainfall distribution

  17. Super-resolution mapping using multi-viewing CHRIS/PROBA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Manish; Kumar, Vinay

    2016-04-01

    High-spatial resolution Remote Sensing (RS) data provides detailed information which ensures high-definition visual image analysis of earth surface features. These data sets also support improved information extraction capabilities at a fine scale. In order to improve the spatial resolution of coarser resolution RS data, the Super Resolution Reconstruction (SRR) technique has become widely acknowledged which focused on multi-angular image sequences. In this study multi-angle CHRIS/PROBA data of Kutch area is used for SR image reconstruction to enhance the spatial resolution from 18 m to 6m in the hope to obtain a better land cover classification. Various SR approaches like Projection onto Convex Sets (POCS), Robust, Iterative Back Projection (IBP), Non-Uniform Interpolation and Structure-Adaptive Normalized Convolution (SANC) chosen for this study. Subjective assessment through visual interpretation shows substantial improvement in land cover details. Quantitative measures including peak signal to noise ratio and structural similarity are used for the evaluation of the image quality. It was observed that SANC SR technique using Vandewalle algorithm for the low resolution image registration outperformed the other techniques. After that SVM based classifier is used for the classification of SRR and data resampled to 6m spatial resolution using bi-cubic interpolation. A comparative analysis is carried out between classified data of bicubic interpolated and SR derived images of CHRIS/PROBA and SR derived classified data have shown a significant improvement of 10-12% in the overall accuracy. The results demonstrated that SR methods is able to improve spatial detail of multi-angle images as well as the classification accuracy.

  18. Condensed mitotic chromosome structure at nanometer resolution using PALM and EGFP- histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Matsuda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM and related fluorescent biological imaging methods are capable of providing very high spatial resolutions (up to 20 nm. Two major demands limit its widespread use on biological samples: requirements for photoactivatable/photoconvertible fluorescent molecules, which are sometimes difficult to incorporate, and high background signals from autofluorescence or fluorophores in adjacent focal planes in three-dimensional imaging which reduces PALM resolution significantly. We present here a high-resolution PALM method utilizing conventional EGFP as the photoconvertible fluorophore, improved algorithms to deal with high levels of biological background noise, and apply this to imaging higher order chromatin structure. We found that the emission wavelength of EGFP is efficiently converted from green to red when exposed to blue light in the presence of reduced riboflavin. The photon yield of red-converted EGFP using riboflavin is comparable to other bright photoconvertible fluorescent proteins that allow <20 nm resolution. We further found that image pre-processing using a combination of denoising and deconvolution of the raw PALM images substantially improved the spatial resolution of the reconstruction from noisy images. Performing PALM on Drosophila mitotic chromosomes labeled with H2AvD-EGFP, a histone H2A variant, revealed filamentous components of ∼70 nm. This is the first observation of fine chromatin filaments specific for one histone variant at a resolution approximating that of conventional electron microscope images (10-30 nm. As demonstrated by modeling and experiments on a challenging specimen, the techniques described here facilitate super-resolution fluorescent imaging with common biological samples.

  19. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3. Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable.

  20. High resolution ultrasound elastomicroscopy imaging of soft tissues: system development and feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y P [Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Bridal, S L [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, UMR CNRS 7623, University of Paris VI, Paris (France); Shi, J [Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Saied, A [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, UMR CNRS 7623, University of Paris VI, Paris (France); Lu, M H [Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Jaffre, B [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, UMR CNRS 7623, University of Paris VI, Paris (France); Mak, A F T [Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Laugier, P [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, UMR CNRS 7623, University of Paris VI, Paris (France)

    2004-09-07

    Research in elasticity imaging typically relies on 1-10 MHz ultrasound. Elasticity imaging at these frequencies can provide strain maps with a resolution in the order of millimetres, but this is not sufficient for applications to skin, articular cartilage or other fine structures. We developed a prototype high resolution elastomicroscopy system consisting of a 50 MHz ultrasound backscatter microscope system and a calibrated compression device using a load cell to measure the pressure applied to the specimen, which was installed between a rigidly fixed face-plate and a specimen platform. Radiofrequency data were acquired in a B-scan format (10 mm wide x 3 mm deep) in specimens of mouse skin and bovine patellar cartilage. The scanning resolution along the B-scan plane direction was 50 {mu}m, and the ultrasound signals were digitized at 500 MHz to achieve a sensitivity better than 1 {mu}m for the axial displacement measurement. Because of elevated attenuation of ultrasound at high frequencies, special consideration was necessary to design a face-plate permitting efficient ultrasound transmission into the specimen and relative uniformity of the compression. Best results were obtained using a thin plastic film to cover a specially shaped slit in the face-plate. Local tissue strain maps were constructed by applying a cross-correlation tracking method to signals obtained at the same site at different compression levels. The speed of sound in the tissue specimen (1589.8 {+-} 7.8 m s{sup -1} for cartilage and 1532.4 {+-} 4.4 m s{sup -1} for skin) was simultaneously measured during the compression test. Preliminary results demonstrated that this ultrasound elastomicroscopy technique was able to map deformations of the skin and articular cartilage specimens to high resolution, in the order of 50 {mu}m. This system can also be potentially used for the assessment of other biological tissues, bioengineered tissues or biomaterials with fine structures.

  1. High resolution ultrasound elastomicroscopy imaging of soft tissues: system development and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y. P.; Bridal, S. L.; Shi, J.; Saied, A.; Lu, M. H.; Jaffre, B.; Mak, A. F. T.; Laugier, P.

    2004-09-01

    Research in elasticity imaging typically relies on 1-10 MHz ultrasound. Elasticity imaging at these frequencies can provide strain maps with a resolution in the order of millimetres, but this is not sufficient for applications to skin, articular cartilage or other fine structures. We developed a prototype high resolution elastomicroscopy system consisting of a 50 MHz ultrasound backscatter microscope system and a calibrated compression device using a load cell to measure the pressure applied to the specimen, which was installed between a rigidly fixed face-plate and a specimen platform. Radiofrequency data were acquired in a B-scan format (10 mm wide × 3 mm deep) in specimens of mouse skin and bovine patellar cartilage. The scanning resolution along the B-scan plane direction was 50 µm, and the ultrasound signals were digitized at 500 MHz to achieve a sensitivity better than 1 µm for the axial displacement measurement. Because of elevated attenuation of ultrasound at high frequencies, special consideration was necessary to design a face-plate permitting efficient ultrasound transmission into the specimen and relative uniformity of the compression. Best results were obtained using a thin plastic film to cover a specially shaped slit in the face-plate. Local tissue strain maps were constructed by applying a cross-correlation tracking method to signals obtained at the same site at different compression levels. The speed of sound in the tissue specimen (1589.8 ± 7.8 m s-1 for cartilage and 1532.4 ± 4.4 m s-1 for skin) was simultaneously measured during the compression test. Preliminary results demonstrated that this ultrasound elastomicroscopy technique was able to map deformations of the skin and articular cartilage specimens to high resolution, in the order of 50 µm. This system can also be potentially used for the assessment of other biological tissues, bioengineered tissues or biomaterials with fine structures.

  2. Fine particles in welding workshop; Hitsaamon pienhiukkaset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, H.; Koskinen, A. [Helsinki Unviv. of Technology, Materials Sciences and Engineering, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-10-15

    The objectives of the project were to research ultra- fine particles developed in the welding and cutting processes, to classify the particles in the welding fume, as well as to assess how they transform in air and drift in the internal air. Also it was attempted to decrease the amount of ultra-fine particles in the welding processes and in the internal air. Experiments were performed in the laboratory environments so that the results are valid and comparable. The fine particles in the fumes were measured and sampled by cascade impactors (ELPI, DLPI), by SMPS and by filter samplers (personal and area). The composition, size, shape and activity of the particles were determined. During the project efficiency of personal welding helmets, fume extraction welding guns and MFI-precipitator were tested. Tests were carried out in the laboratory and in the industrial workshops. The three-year project started in the beginning of February 2003. (orig.)

  3. 76 FR 31307 - Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS Commission of Fine Arts; Notice of Meeting The next meeting of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts is scheduled... oral statements should be addressed to Thomas Luebke, Secretary, U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, at the...

  4. Diamond-machined ZnSe immersion grating for NIR high-resolution spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Yasui, C; Kondo, S; Minami, A; Motohara, K

    2008-07-25

    ZnSe immersion gratings (n {approx} 2.45) provide the possibility of high-resolution spectroscopy for the near-infrared (NIR) region. Since ZnSe has a lower internal attenuation than other NIR materials, it is most suitable for immersion grating, particularly in short NIR region (0.8-1.4 {micro}m). We are developing an extremely high-resolution spectrograph with {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 100,000, WINERED, customized for the short NIR region, using ZnSe (or ZnS) immersion grating. However, it had been very difficult to make fine grooves on ZnSe substrate with a small pitch of less than 50 {micro}m because ZnSe is a soft/brittle material. We have overcome this problem and successfully machined sharp grooves with fine pitch on ZnSe substrates by nano precision fly-cutting technique at LLNL. The optical testing of the sample grating with HeNe laser shows an excellent performance: the relative efficiency more than 87.4 % at 0.633 {micro}m for a classical grating configuration. The diffraction efficiency when used as an immersion grating is estimated to be more than 65 % at 1 {micro}m. Following this progress, we are about to start machining a grating on a large ZnSe prism with an entrance aperture of 23mm x 50mm and the blaze angle of 70{sup o}.

  5. Development model of the fine dining restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Miško Radjenović

    2014-01-01

    Purpose –The purpose of this work is to support the hypothesis that the Fine dining restaurants are important part of hotel offer. Design –In the first and second part of this work the special focus is given on the history and positive and negative aspects offline dining restaurant business. In the third and fourth part, this paper will present the model for fine dining development by analyzing practical examples and steps needed to be taken for opening this type of restaurant. Methodology –H...

  6. The nature and impacts of fines in smelter-grade alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Perander, Linus M.; Zujovic, Zoran D.; Kemp, Thomas F.; Mark E. Smith; Metson, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Fines in smelter-grade aluminas art recognized (is a significant process problem in aluminum smelting. However understanding the nature of this fine material and how it impacts the reduction process arc, less clearly understood The combination of new analytical methods such as variable pressure scanning electron microscopy and very; high field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance provide new insights into the phases present and their spatial distribution within aluminas, and suggest how suc...

  7. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monozon, B.S., E-mail: borismonozon@mail.ru [Physics Department, Marine Technical University, 3 Lotsmanskaya Str., 190008 St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  8. Feature Importance in Nonlinear Embeddings (FINE): Applications in Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B; Lee, George; Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative histomorphometry (QH) refers to the process of computationally modeling disease appearance on digital pathology images by extracting hundreds of image features and using them to predict disease presence or outcome. Since constructing a robust and interpretable classifier is challenging in a high dimensional feature space, dimensionality reduction (DR) is often implemented prior to classifier construction. However, when DR is performed it can be challenging to quantify the contribution of each of the original features to the final classification result. We have previously presented a method for scoring features based on their importance for classification on an embedding derived via principal components analysis (PCA). However, nonlinear DR involves the eigen-decomposition of a kernel matrix rather than the data itself, compounding the issue of classifier interpretability. In this paper we present feature importance in nonlinear embeddings (FINE), an extension of our PCA-based feature scoring method to kernel PCA (KPCA), as well as several NLDR algorithms that can be cast as variants of KPCA. FINE is applied to four digital pathology datasets to identify key QH features for predicting the risk of breast and prostate cancer recurrence. Measures of nuclear and glandular architecture and clusteredness were found to play an important role in predicting the likelihood of recurrence of both breast and prostate cancers. Compared to the t-test, Fisher score, and Gini index, FINE was able to identify a stable set of features that provide good classification accuracy on four publicly available datasets from the NIPS 2003 Feature Selection Challenge.

  9. A Modelling Approach on Fine Particle Spatial Distribution for Street Canyons in Asian Residential Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Uhrner, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Rapidly increasing urban pollution poses severe health risks.Especially fine particles pollution is considered to be closely related to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. In this work, ambient fine particles are studied in street canyons of a typical Asian residential community using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) dispersion modelling approach. The community is characterised by an artery road with a busy traffic flow of about 4000 light vehicles (mainly cars and motorcycles) per hour at rush hours, three streets with hundreds light vehicles per hour at rush hours and several small lanes with less traffic. The objective is to study the spatial distribution of the ambient fine particle concentrations within micro-environments, in order to assess fine particle exposure of the people living in the community. The GRAL modelling system is used to simulate and assess the emission and dispersion of the traffic-related fine particles within the community. Traffic emission factors and traffic situation is assigned using both field observation and local emissions inventory data. High resolution digital elevation data (DEM) and building height data are used to resolve the topographical features. Air quality monitoring and mobile monitoring within the community is used to validate the simulation results. By using this modelling approach, the dispersion of fine particles in street canyons is simulated; the impact of wind condition and street orientation are investigated; the contributions of car and motorcycle emissions are quantified respectively; the residents' exposure level of fine particles is assessed. The study is funded by "Taiwan Megacity Environmental Research (II)-chemistry and environmental impacts of boundary layer aerosols (Year 2-3) (103-2111-M-001-001-); Spatial variability and organic markers of aerosols (Year 3)(104-2111-M-001 -005 -)"

  10. Spatially detailed retrievals of spring phenology from single-season high-resolution image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; Meroni, Michele; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; O'Connor, Brian; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Heurich, Marco; Shepherd, Anita; Paganini, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Vegetation indices derived from satellite image time series have been extensively used to estimate the timing of phenological events like season onset. Medium spatial resolution (≥250 m) satellite sensors with daily revisit capability are typically employed for this purpose. In recent years, phenology is being retrieved at higher resolution (≤30 m) in response to increasing availability of high-resolution satellite data. To overcome the reduced acquisition frequency of such data, previous attempts involved fusion between high- and medium-resolution data, or combinations of multi-year acquisitions in a single phenological reconstruction. The objectives of this study are to demonstrate that phenological parameters can now be retrieved from single-season high-resolution time series, and to compare these retrievals against those derived from multi-year high-resolution and single-season medium-resolution satellite data. The study focuses on the island of Schiermonnikoog, the Netherlands, which comprises a highly-dynamic saltmarsh, dune vegetation, and agricultural land. Combining NDVI series derived from atmospherically-corrected images from RapidEye (5 m-resolution) and the SPOT5 Take5 experiment (10m-resolution) acquired between March and August 2015, phenological parameters were estimated using a function fitting approach. We then compared results with phenology retrieved from four years of 30 m Landsat 8 OLI data, and single-year 100 m Proba-V and 250 m MODIS temporal composites of the same period. Retrieved phenological parameters from combined RapidEye/SPOT5 displayed spatially consistent results and a large spatial variability, providing complementary information to existing vegetation community maps. Retrievals that combined four years of Landsat observations into a single synthetic year were affected by the inclusion of years with warmer spring temperatures, whereas adjustment of the average phenology to 2015 observations was only feasible for a few pixels

  11. Coupling fine particle and bedload transport in gravel-bedded streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsu; Hunt, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Fine particles in the silt- and clay-size range are important determinants of surface water quality. Since fine particle loading rates are not unique functions of stream discharge this limits the utility of the available models for water quality assessment. Data from 38 minimally developed watersheds within the United States Geological Survey stream gauging network in California, USA reveal three lines of evidence that fine particle release is coupled with bedload transport. First, there is a transition in fine particle loading rate as a function of discharge for gravel-bedded sediments that does not appear when the sediment bed is composed of sand, cobbles, boulders, or bedrock. Second, the discharge at the transition in the loading rate is correlated with the initiation of gravel mobilization. Third, high frequency particle concentration and discharge data are dominated by clockwise hysteresis where rising limb discharges generally have higher concentrations than falling limb discharges. These three observations across multiple watersheds lead to a conceptual model that fine particles accumulate within the sediment bed at discharges less than the transition and then the gravel bed fluidizes with fine particle release at discharges above the transition discharge. While these observations were individually recognized in the literature, this analysis provides a consistent conceptual model based on the coupling of fine particle dynamics with filtration at low discharges and gravel bed fluidization at higher discharges.

  12. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  13. The NEMO-AROME WMED high-resolution air-sea coupled system: impact on dense water formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    The North-Western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur, especially during winter when the succession of strong northerly and north-westerly wind boosts the dense water formation. The second Special Observation Period (SOP2) of the HyMeX program, which took place between 1st February and 15th March 2013, was dedicated to the observation of the dense water formation and ocean deep convection processes. During this period, several platforms sampled the area, providing a unique dataset to better identify the coupled processes leading to dense water formation. This study investigates the impacts of the fine scale ocean-atmosphere coupled processes on dense water formation during winter 2012-2013. We developed the coupling between the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36° resolution) and the AROME-WMED numerical weather prediction model (2.5 km resolution) and ran the high-resolution air-sea coupled system over SOP2. The coupled simulation is compared to an ocean-only simulation forced by AROME-WMED operational forecasts and to air-sea observations collected during the HyMeX SOP2. The results show small differences in term of surface fluxes. Dense water formation is slightly changed in the coupled simulation, whereas fine-scale ocean processes are significantly modified.

  14. Tree species fine-root demography parallels habitat specialization across a sandhill soil resource gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeleta, Javier F; West, Jason B; Donovan, Lisa A

    2009-07-01

    Single species can substantially alter belowground processes in ecosystems via differential root production and death. However, information on species differences in fine-root demography is virtually absent for natural communities. In this field study, we recorded species-specific fine-root (demography in adults of four tree species (Pinus palustris, Quercus laevis, Q. incana, and Q. margaretta) that are distributed differentially along soil resource gradients in the fall-line sandhills of the southeastern United States. At a subxeric habitat where all four species co-occur, roots of individual trees of each species were isolated in rhizotrons and tracked individually for three years. Quercus species had similar fine-root morphology but differed substantially for fine-root demography and architecture. Quercus laevis and Q. incana, the species from xeric habitats, showed lower fine-root production, death, percentage mortality, turnover rates, and risk of death, and greater life span and mean root segment length (MRSL) than Q. margaretta, the species from subxeric habitats. Fine roots of P. palustris (a generalist) showed high production and intermediate mortality, turnover rate, longevity, and MRSL. Fine-root survival increased with root order (first to fourth in centripetal order), but the degree of change was species specific. Q. margaretta showed greater increases in survival with order, but all species had similar demography of third- and fourth-order roots. Mycorrhizal roots had greater longevity than non-mycorrhizal roots only in Q. laevis. Species differences were also seasonal. Although these Quercus species are leaf deciduous, some growth of fine roots occurred in Q. margaretta during the "leaf-dormant" season. In our narrow-scale species comparison, species differences in ecological distribution were consistent with the observed variation in fine-root demography and architecture with greater resolution than leaf characters or other root traits such as

  15. Fine-Mapping the HOXB Region Detects Common Variants Tagging a Rare Coding Allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Edward J; Dadaev, Tokhir; Leongamornlert, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs u...

  16. Application of Dynamical and Statistical Downscaling to East Asian Summer Precipitation for Finely Resolved Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Bin Yhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various downscaling approaches have been developed to overcome the limitation of the coarse spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs. Such techniques can be grouped into two approaches of dynamical and statistical downscaling. In this study, we investigated the performances of different downscaling methods, focusing on East Asian summer monsoon precipitation to obtain more finely resolved and value added datasets. The dynamical downscaling was conducted by the Regional Model Program (RMP of the Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs, while the statistical downscaling was performed through coupled pattern-based simple linear regression. The dynamical downscaling resulted in a better representation of the spatial distribution and long-term trend than the GCM produced; however, it tended to overestimate precipitation over East Asia. In contrast, the application of the statistical downscaling resulted in a bias in the amount of precipitation, due to low variance that is inherent in regression-based downscaling. A combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling produced the best results in time and space. This study provides a guideline for determining the most effective and robust downscaling method in the hydrometeorological applications, which are quite sensitive to the accuracy of downscaled precipitation.

  17. The insulator protein SU(HW fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke G van Bemmel

    Full Text Available Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW weakens genome - NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions.

  18. Many-body dissipative particle dynamics modeling of fluid flow in fine-grained nanoporous shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yidong; Goral, Jan; Huang, Hai; Miskovic, Ilija; Meakin, Paul; Deo, Milind

    2017-05-01

    A many-body dissipative particle dynamics model, namely, MDPD, is applied for simulation of pore-scale, multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in fine-grained, nanoporous shales. Since this model is able to simultaneously capture the discrete features of fluid molecules in nanometer size pores and continuum fluid dynamics in larger pores, and is relatively easy to parameterize, it has been recognized as being particularly suitable for simulating complex fluid flow in multi-length-scale nanopore networks of shales. A remarkable feature of this work is the integration of a high-resolution FIB-SEM (focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy) digital imaging technique to the MDPD model for providing 3D voxel data that contain the invaluable geometrical and compositional information of shale samples. This is the first time that FIB-SEM is seamlessly linked to a Lagrangian model like MDPD for fluid flow simulation, which offers a robust approach to bridging gaps between the molecular- and continuum-scales, since the relevant spatial and temporal scales are too big for molecular dynamics, and too small for computational fluid dynamics with known constitutive models. Simulations ranging from a number of benchmark problems to a forced two-fluid flow in a Woodford shale sample are presented. Results indicate that this model can be used to deliver reasonable simulations for multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in arbitrarily complex pore networks in shales.

  19. Belowground Biomass Sampling to Estimate Fine Root Mass across NEON Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J. J.; Meier, C. L.; Abercrombie, H.; Everhart, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Production of belowground biomass is an important and relatively uncharacterized component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystems. Fine root productivity makes up a significant portion of total belowground production because fine roots turn over rapidly, and therefore contribute disproportionately to annual estimates of belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). One of the major goals of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to quantify above- and below-ground NPP at 60 sites within 20 different eco-climactic regions. NEON's Terrestrial Observation System will carry out belowground biomass sampling throughout the life of the observatory to estimate fine root production. However, belowground biomass sampling during NEON operations will be constrained to a maximum depth of 50cm. This limited depth range leaves the question of what proportion of total fine root mass is being collected and how to optimally characterize belowground biomass given sampling depth limitations. During the construction period, NEON is characterizing fine root biomass distribution at depth down to 2m at each site, as well as physical and chemical properties in each soil horizon. Each sampling unit is a pit (2m deep and approximately 1.5m wide), dug in the site's dominant vegetation type where fine root biomass sampling will also occur during Operations. To sample fine root biomass in each pit, soil samples of a known volume are taken from three vertical profiles down the face of the pit. Samples are then wet sieved to extract fine root mass, and roots are dried at 65°C for 48 hours and then weighed. The soil pit data are used to estimate the proportion of total fine root biomass from each site as a function of depth. Non-linear curves are fitted to the data to calculate total fine root mass at depth and to provide estimates of the proportion of the total fine root mass that is sampled at each site during NEON's 30 year operational sampling. The belowground

  20. Crowdsourced online dispute resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimov, D.V.

    2017-01-01

    Solving disputes often takes a considerable amount of time and money. That holds for everyone involved. A new type of dispute resolution called Crowdsourced Online Dispute Resolution (CODR) seems to have the potential to offer a cheap, fast, and democratic dispute resolution procedure. Since it is

  1. Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we propose a definition of approximation property which is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable dis- crete metric space. Moreover, we use the techniques of Ozawa's to prove that a fine hyperbolic graph has the metric invariant translation approximation property.

  2. The Last Taboo: Abolishing Library Fines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Sifton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Many libraries have implemented progressive policies to encourage and increase library usage. In this context of change in this article looks at the small but growing number of libraries that have abolished overdues fines in favour of item replacement charges, similar to those found at video rental outlets and encourages other libraries to do the same.

  3. Testing with fine fragrances in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2001-01-01

    The frequencies of contact allergic reactions to 2 fine fragrances were studied by patch testing. Further, a comparison was made of test results before and after evaporation of the solvent. A total of 480 consecutive eczema patients were included, 100 in the Dortmund clinic and 380 in the Gentoft...

  4. Field validation of recycled concrete fines usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The amount of recycled concrete fines permitted in concrete mixing water is limited by ASTM C 1602 to 5.0 percent of the mixing : water, by mass, in order to avoid detrimental effects on concrete properties. Depending upon the exact nature of the rec...

  5. Fine-Tuning in a Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Foo Him; Toh, Pee Choon; Toh, Tin Lam

    2013-01-01

    Quek, Tay, Toh, Leong, and Dindyal (2011) proposed that a design-theory-practice troika should always be considered for a designed package to be acceptable to the research users who, in this case, are teachers and schools. This paper describes the fine-tuning to the MProSE problem-solving design made by the teachers in the school after first round…

  6. Local Alignments for Fine-Grained Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavves, E.; Fernando, B.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Tuytelaars, T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is fine-grained categorization without human interaction. Different from prior work, which relies on detectors for specific object parts, we propose to localize distinctive details by roughly aligning the objects using just the overall shape. Then, one may proceed to the

  7. Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a definition of approximation property which is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable discrete metric space. Moreover, we use the techniques of Ozawa's to prove that a fine hyperbolic graph has the metric invariant translation approximation property.

  8. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Fine needle aspiration cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The increasing prevalence of extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis with the HIV scourge is a cause for concern. Objective: To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Patients and Methods: This is a consecutive 9-year analysis of ...

  9. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IN TUMOUR DIAGNOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    INTRODUCTION. Fine needle aspiration cytology. (FNAC), a technique for obtaining cellular material for cytological examination and diagnosis using a 21- gauge or smaller needle, is performed using a 5, 10, or 20ml syringe either freehand or using special syringe holders. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of ...

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of cutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of cutaneous sporotrichosis diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The cytologic findings had features which included presence of fungal elements compatible with Sporothrix morphology that allowed a correct diagnosis in our case. It is concluded that the FNA cytology of sporotrichosis is ...

  11. Super-resolution of facial images in forensics scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satiro, Joao; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Correia, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Forensics facial images are usually provided by surveillance cameras and are therefore of poor quality and resolution. Simple upsampling algorithms can not produce artifact-free higher resolution images from such low-resolution (LR) images. To deal with that, reconstruction-based super-resolution......Forensics facial images are usually provided by surveillance cameras and are therefore of poor quality and resolution. Simple upsampling algorithms can not produce artifact-free higher resolution images from such low-resolution (LR) images. To deal with that, reconstruction-based super...

  12. Seasonal changes of fine root density in the Southern Californian chaparral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Jochen; Krause, David; Jow, William

    1978-01-01

    Fine root extractions from soil cores of a south facing slope in the Southern Californian chaparral were used to study the dynamics of feeder root growth in a summer-dry area. The studies were concentrated on the root systems of Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos glauca, Ceanothus greggii, and Rhus ovata. The total fine root biomass of Adenostoma fasciculatum increased from 0.6 g dm-3 in early spring to 3.6 g dm-3 in late summer. Considering the specific soil conditions at this site and earlier gained information on fine root distribution with depth, the value of 3.6 g dm-3 converts to 1.58 kg m-2 of ground shaded by the shrub canopy. The observed seasonal biomass increase is mainly due to the accumulation of dead root material in the soil when low soil moisture contents presumably inhibited decomposition processes. The total length of living fine roots also increased during the season, e.g. from 0.8 m dm-3 to more than 5 m dm-3 (0.35 km m-2 to 2.2 km m-2) in A. fasciculatum. Unusual summer rains in the research year stimulated vigorous fine root growth at a time when the normally low soil moisture would prohibit further fine root growth. The average fine root diameters and total lengths of fine roots beneath one square meter of ground surface allowed an estimate of root area indices (RAI) analogous to the leaf area indices (LAI). The data provide evidence for a significant fine root turnover in the chaparral.

  13. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  14. Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2005-08-30

    Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

  15. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Chlorophyll and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Maslova, I.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, that provides spatial resolution as fine as 6 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant chlorophyll, plant nitrogen, and other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of a crop of oats (Avena sativa) and formulated machine learning regression models of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant chlorophyll and plant nitrogen. We tested two, separate relevance vector machines (RVM) and a single multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant chlorophyll and nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the different models and a comparison of the RVM modeling methods against more traditional approaches that have been used for estimation of plant chlorophyll and nitrogen.

  16. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Soil and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, which provides spatial resolution as fine as 15 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant and soil nitrogen among other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of oats and formulated a machine learning regression model of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant nitrogen and soil nitrogen. A multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) was used to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant and soil nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the model.

  17. A Resolution Analysis of Two Geophysical Imaging Methods For Characterizing and Monitoring Hydrologic Conditions in the Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alumbaugh, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Geological Engineering Program; LaBreque, D. [Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV (United States); Brainard, J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-08-02

    The objective of this research project was to analyze the resolution of two geophysical imaging techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) for monitoring subsurface flow and transport processes within the vadose zone. This was accomplished through a coupled approach involving very fine-scale unsaturated flow forward modeling, conversion of the resultant flow and solute fields to geophysical property models, forward geophysical modeling using the property model obtained from the last step to obtain synthetic geophysical data, and finally inversion of this synthetic data. These geophysical property models were then compared to those derived from the conversion of the hydrologic forward modeling to provide an understanding of the resolution and limitations of the geophysical techniques.

  18. Studies of relative gain and timing response of fine-mesh photomultiplier tubes in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulkosky, V.; Allison, L.; Barber, C.; Cao, T.; Ilieva, Y.; Jin, K.; Kalicy, G.; Park, K.; Ton, N.; Zheng, X.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the use of Hamamatsu fine-mesh photomultiplier tube assemblies H6152-70 and H6614-70 with regards to their gain and timing resolution in magnetic fields up to 1.9 T. Our results show that the H6614-70 assembly can operate reliably in magnetic fields exceeding 1.5 T, while preserving a reasonable timing resolution even with a gain reduction of a factor of ~100. The reduction of the relative gain of the H6152-70 is similar to the H6614-70's near 1.5 T, but its timing resolution worsens considerably at this high field.

  19. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  20. Experimental research of the fine foil explosion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigalin, A. S.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Kuznetsov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The work is devoted to studying of substances properties at high specific deposit energy using double-frame pulsed backlighting system. The high specific deposit energy was reached at electrical conductor explosion (ECE). Fast mode of ECE was investigated. Fine foils of aluminum, cooper, titanium and nickel were used as conductors. Experiments were carried out on the experimental complex consisting of three current generators. The first generator WEG-' was used for explosion of the fine conductors. This generator represents fast capacitor with capacity 250 nF, which was charged to voltage 10 to 30 kV. The investigated conductor was mounted in special holder and the foil contacts with the electrodes were soldered. Two other generators - radiographs XPG-1 and G2 with x-pinch load were used two frame X-ray backlighting imaging. The generators current pulses had amplitude 300 kA and rising time 180 ns with a low inductance load. Four crossed molybdenum wires with diameter of 25 μm were used to form an x-pinch. Using of the x-pinches soft x-ray radiation the images of exploded foil were registered with temporal resolution of 2 ns. The images were detected by a photo film located behind the filter. The x-ray imaging, together with the measurements of the current flowing through a conductor and voltage on the exploded conductor had allowed inferring of the energy deposited into the conductor, delay time of the bubbles formation relative to the moment of current- cutoff and the time dependence of the vapor bubbles quantity.

  1. High-Resolution Soil Moisture Retrieval using SMAP-L Band Radiometer and RISAT-C band Radar Data for the Indian Subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Das, N. N.; Panda, R. K.; Mohanty, B.; Entekhabi, D.; Bhattacharya, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture status at high resolution (1-10 km) is vital for hydrological, agricultural and hydro-metrological applications. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission had potential to provide reliable soil moisture estimate at finer spatial resolutions (3 km and 9 km) at the global extent, but suffered a malfunction of its radar, consequently making the SMAP mission observations only from radiometer that are of coarse spatial resolution. At present, the availability of high-resolution soil moisture product is limited, especially in developing countries like India, which greatly depends on agriculture for sustaining a huge population. Therefore, an attempt has been made in the reported study to combine the C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) with the SMAP mission L-band radiometer data to obtain high-resolution (1 km and 3 km) soil moisture estimates. In this study, a downscaling approach (Active-Passive Algorithm) implemented for the SMAP mission was used to disaggregate the SMAP radiometer brightness temperature (Tb) using the fine resolution SAR backscatter (σ0) from RISAT. The downscaled high-resolution Tb was then subjected to tau-omega model in conjunction with high-resolution ancillary data to retrieve soil moisture at 1 and 3 km scale. The retrieved high-resolution soil moisture estimates were then validated with ground based soil moisture measurement under different hydro-climatic regions of India. Initial results show tremendous potential and reasonable accuracy for the retrieved soil moisture at 1 km and 3 km. It is expected that ISRO will implement this approach to produce high-resolution soil moisture estimates for the Indian subcontinent.

  2. Fine-scale climate change: modelling spatial variation in biologically meaningful rates of warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Ilya M D; Suggitt, Andrew J; Wilson, Robert J; Duffy, James P; Bennie, Jonathan J

    2017-01-01

    The existence of fine-grain climate heterogeneity has prompted suggestions that species may be able to survive future climate change in pockets of suitable microclimate, termed 'microrefugia'. However, evidence for microrefugia is hindered by lack of understanding of how rates of warming vary across a landscape. Here, we present a model that is applied to provide fine-grained, multidecadal estimates of temperature change based on the underlying physical processes that influence microclimate. Weather station and remotely derived environmental data were used to construct physical variables that capture the effects of terrain, sea surface temperatures, altitude and surface albedo on local temperatures, which were then calibrated statistically to derive gridded estimates of temperature. We apply the model to the Lizard Peninsula, United Kingdom, to provide accurate (mean error = 1.21 °C; RMS error = 1.63 °C) hourly estimates of temperature at a resolution of 100 m for the period 1977-2014. We show that rates of warming vary across a landscape primarily due to long-term trends in weather conditions. Total warming varied from 0.87 to 1.16 °C, with the slowest rates of warming evident on north-east-facing slopes. This variation contributed to substantial spatial heterogeneity in trends in bioclimatic variables: for example, the change in the length of the frost-free season varied from +11 to -54 days and the increase in annual growing degree-days from 51 to 267 °C days. Spatial variation in warming was caused primarily by a decrease in daytime cloud cover with a resulting increase in received solar radiation, and secondarily by a decrease in the strength of westerly winds, which has amplified the effects on temperature of solar radiation on west-facing slopes. We emphasize the importance of multidecadal trends in weather conditions in determining spatial variation in rates of warming, suggesting that locations experiencing least warming may not remain

  3. Magnification's effect on endodontic fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, David J; Glickman, Gerald N; Solomon, Eric S; He, Jianing

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effect of magnification on fine motor skills used in endodontics. This study used a novel manual dexterity test that was performed with and without magnification. An 8x operating microscope and 2.5x dental loupes were used for the magnification tests. Forty subjects, 20 with microscope experience and 20 without, participated in the study. Performance on the test was evaluated by using an accuracy scoring system, and the time needed to complete the test was recorded for each subject. A significant increase in accuracy score with each level of magnification was demonstrated (P magnification to enhance fine motor skills was supported in all age groups and experience levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Fine Structure of Herman Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We study the geometric structure of the boundary of Herman rings in a model family of Blaschke products of degree 3 (up to quasiconformal deformation). Shishikura’s quasiconformal surgery relates the Herman ring to the Siegel disk of a quadratic polynomial. By studying the regularity properties...... of the maps involved, we transfer McMullen’s results on the fine local geometry of Siegel disks to the Herman ring setting....

  5. Fractal aggregation and breakup of fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakup may exert a controlling influence on particle size distributions and particles either are fractured or are eroded particle-by-particle through shear. The shear-induced breakage of fine particles in turbulent conditions is investigated using Taylor-expansion moment method. Their equations have been derived in continuous form in terms of the number density function with particle volume. It suitable for future implementation in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  6. BepiColombo fine sun sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslooper, Erik; van der Heiden, Nico; Naron, Daniël.; Schmits, Ruud; van der Velde, Jacob Jan; van Wakeren, Jorrit

    2017-11-01

    Design, development and verification of the passive Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) for the BepiColombo spacecraft is described. Major challenge in the design is to keep the detector at acceptable temperature levels while exposed to a solar flux intensity exceeding 10 times what is experienced in Earth orbit. A mesh type Heat Rejection Filter has been developed. The overall sensor design and its performance verification program is described.

  7. A solution defined by fine vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, G.; Sun, H.; Sun, H.; Hoede, C.; Driessen, Theo

    Bumb and Hoede have shown that a cooperative game can be split into two games, the reward game and the fine game, by considering the sign of quantities $c_v^S$ in the c-diagram of the game. One can then define a solution $x$ for the original game as $x = x_r - x_f$ , where $x_r$ is a solution for

  8. Distributed Magnetic Actuators for Fine Shape Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    1988 Authors: SatCon Technology Corporation G. Anastas 71 Rogers Street D. Elsenhaure Cambridge, NA 02142 R. Hockney B. Johnson RO1-88 K. Misovec F04611...Security Classification) -2 Distributed Magnetic Actuators for Fine Shape Control (U) 12, PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) George Anastas, David Eisenhaure, Richard... Hockney , Bruce Johnson, Kathleen Misovec 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF"REPORT (ear, Month,Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Final FROM R7/7 TO

  9. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  10. Fine-grained Dutch named entity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Desmet, Bart; Hoste, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of a fine-grained named entity annotation scheme and corpus for Dutch, and experiments on automatic main type and subtype named entity recognition. We give an overview of existing named entity annotation schemes, and motivate our own, which describes six main types (persons, organizations, locations, products, events and miscellaneous named entities) and finer-grained information on subtypes and metonymic usage. This was applied to a one-million-word subset o...

  11. Specification of the fineness of coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, B.P. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Specifications for the size distribution of coal ash usually consider one size, for example the mass retained on a 45{mu}m sieve, and ignore the general particle distribution. This over-simplified approach had tended to persist because alternative parameters, such as specific surface obtained from air permeability tests as used for cements, have been found to be even more unsatisfactory. However, if the size distribution is determined satisfactorily using modern techniques then it can be shown that a suitable parameter for the size distribution can be a valuable aid in characterising the material. The paper reviews the reasons for the deficiencies in the earlier tests for determining the fineness of PFA and then describes a technique for specifying PFA fineness which overcomes the problems associated with the above. The application of a suitable grading parameter for PFA is illustrated by reference to mix design for PFA concrete. Only by reference to the relevant characteristics of all the constituents of the concrete is it possible to design for a required property in the resulting concrete with any reasonable accuracy. A comprehensive method of mix design capable of accommodating different cements and PFAs as well as different fine and coarse aggregates and entrained air contents is outlined and it is seen that similar grading parameters can also be utilised for the aggregates to facilitate proportioning of constituents to achieve a required concrete workability in terms of Vebe time. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Computer games and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.

  13. Defending The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Stenger, Victor J

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, I published a popular-level book, The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. It investigated a common claim found in contemporary religious literature that the parameters of physics and cosmology are so delicately balanced, so "fine-tuned," that any slight change and life in the universe would have been impossible. I concluded that while the precise form of life we find on Earth would not exist with slight changes in these parameters, some form of life could have evolved over a parameter range that is not infinitesimal, as often claimed. Postdoctoral fellow Luke Barnes has written a lengthy, highly technical review [arXiv:1112.4647] of the scientific literature on the fine-tuning problem. I have no significant disagreement with that literature and no prominent physicist or cosmologist has disputed my basic conclusions. Barnes does not invalidate these conclusions and misunderstands and misrepresents much of what is in the book.

  14. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250

  15. Advantages of Fine Resolution SSTs for Small Ocean Basins: Evaluation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1...slope determined over 1993–2001 (0.008C/month) were extrapolated over the Pathfinder interval, the warm bias of MODAS clima - tology relative to...temperatures over land are typically much colder than those over the sea. For example, clima - tological mean of PATHF SST is >6C in the easternmost part of

  16. Genome-wide and fine resolution association studies of 14 agronomic traits in rice land races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report genome sequences of 517 diverse rice land races and the identification of ~3.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. A high-density haplotype map of rice genome was constructed using a highly accurate imputation method developed for next-generation sequencing data. Initial genome-w...

  17. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay S; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-08-06

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework.

  18. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahadevan, Vijay S; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    ...-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently...

  19. Mapping land cover in urban residential landscapes using fine resolution imagery and object-oriented classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A knowledge of different types of land cover in urban residential landscapes is important for building social and economic city-wide policies including landscape ordinances and water conservation programs. Urban landscapes are typically heterogeneous, so classification of land cover in these areas ...

  20. Fine-resolution remote-sensing and modelling of Himalayan catchment sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quincey, D.J.; Luckman, A.; Hessel, R.; Davies, R.; Sankhayan, P.L.; Balla, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have reported on environmental degradation in the Nepal Himalaya as a result of large-scale deforestation and the associated agricultural extension. In contrast to many previous regional scale studies, we consider land cover and its environmental impact on an individual

  1. Empirical downscaling of daily minimum air temperature at very fine resolutions in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; John T. Abatzoglou; Charles H. Luce; L. Scott Baggett

    2011-01-01

    Available air temperature models do not adequately account for the influence of terrain on nocturnal air temperatures. An empirical model for night time air temperatures was developed using a network of one hundred and forty inexpensive temperature sensors deployed across the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana. A principle component analysis (PCA) on minimum...

  2. Fine-resolution mapping by haplotype evaluation : the examples of PFIC1 and BRIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, L N; Juijn, J A; Liao, M; van Eijk, M J; Sinke, R J; Stricker, N L; DeYoung, J A; Carlton, V E; Baharloo, S; Klomp, L W; Abukawa, D; Barton, D E; Bass, N M; Bourke, B; Drumm, B; Jankowska, I; Lovisetto, P; McQuaid, S; Pawlowska, J; Tazawa, Y; Villa, E; Tygstrup, N; Berger, R; Knisely, A S; Freimer, N B

    Loci for two inherited liver diseases, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), have previously been mapped to 18q21 by a search for shared haplotypes in patients in two isolated populations. This paper describes the use of

  3. RSW Fully Tet Cell-Centered Fine Mesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW dataset for a fine fully tetrahedral grid designed for a cell-centered unstructured solver. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_fine_tetcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad...

  4. Improvement on the visualization of cytoskeletal structures of protozoan parasites using high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Celso; Campanati, Loraine; Gadelha, Catarina; Lourenço, Daniela; Labati-Terra, Letícia; Bittencourt-Silvestre, Joana; Benchimol, Marlene; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa Leal; De Souza, Wanderley

    2005-07-01

    The association of high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), with a more efficient system of secondary electron (SE) collection and in-lens specimen position, provided a great improvement in the specimen's topographical contrast and in the generation of high-resolution images. In addition, images obtained with the use of the high-resolution backscattered electrons (BSE) detector provided a powerful tool for immunocytochemical analysis of biological material. In this work, we show the contribution of the FESEM to the detailed description of cytoskeletal structures of the protozoan parasites Herpetomonas megaseliae, Trypanosoma brucei and Giardia lamblia. High-resolution images of detergent extracted H. megaseliae and T. brucei showed the profile of the cortical microtubules, also known as sub-pellicular microtubules (SPMT), and protein bridges cross-linking them. Also, it was possible to visualize fine details of the filaments that form the lattice-like structure of the paraflagellar rod (PFR) and its connection with the axoneme. In G. lamblia, it was possible to observe the intricate structure of the adhesive disk, funis (a microtubular array) and other cytoskeletal structures poorly described previously. Since most of the stable cytoskeletal structures of this protozoan rely on tubulin, we used the BSE images to accurately map immunolabeled tubulin in its cytoskeleton. Our results suggest that the observation of detergent extracted parasites using FESEM associated to backscattered analysis of immunolabeled specimens represents a new approach for the study of parasite cytoskeletal elements and their protein associations.

  5. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  6. Texture measurements in fine grained polyphase aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.

    2009-04-01

    When analyzing natural and experimental microstructures, we routinely use the two methods for orientation imaging and texture measurements: (a) the computer-integrated polarization microscopy (CIP, Panozzo Heilbronner & Pauli, 1993) and (b) the electron back scatter diffractometry (EBSD, e.g. Kunze et al., 1994). The CIP method yields orientation maps and pole figures of c-axes (of uni-axial materials), while the EBSD method yields complete textural data for all crystallographic orientations. In order to compare the orientation images the Euler maps (obtained from EBSD) are recalculated and presented with the more intuitive colour look-up tables (CLUTs) of the CIP method. In this contribution we compare and contrast the results achieved by these two methods using two different samples taken from a metagranodiorite (Kilian et al., 2009): (1) a coarse grained mylonitic rock with polycrystalline quartz aggregates and (2) a very fine grained ultramylonitic rock with single quartz grains dispersed in a polymineralic matrix. For the coarse grained sample (1) both methods yield the same (strong) c-axis pole figure: the geometry of the c-axis polefigure as well as the texture intensity (maximum of polefigure) are identical. The texture of sample (2) - where small quartz grains are dispersed in the polymineralic matrix - is very weak to random. The CIP and EBSD c-axis pole figures are different and - as noted previously - these differences arise from a machine specific bias of the EBSD (Schmocker 2002). In addition to texture analysis, both methods are capable of image segmentation (identification and separation of individual grains in the orientation image) as well as shape and grain size analysis. However due to the entirely different approach taken, the results may differ significantly. For example, when deriving the grain size distribution for sample (2) EBSD (combined with with the OIM® analysis software) yields a positively skewed histogram (with the mode occurring

  7. Fine-temporal forecasting of outbreak probability and severity: Ross River virus in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhof, I S; Bettiol, S; Carver, S

    2017-10-01

    Health warnings of mosquito-borne disease risk require forecasts that are accurate at fine-temporal resolutions (weekly scales); however, most forecasting is coarse (monthly). We use environmental and Ross River virus (RRV) surveillance to predict weekly outbreak probabilities and incidence spanning tropical, semi-arid, and Mediterranean regions of Western Australia (1991-2014). Hurdle and linear models were used to predict outbreak probabilities and incidence respectively, using time-lagged environmental variables. Forecast accuracy was assessed by model fit and cross-validation. Residual RRV notification data were also examined against mitigation expenditure for one site, Mandurah 2007-2014. Models were predictive of RRV activity, except at one site (Capel). Minimum temperature was an important predictor of RRV outbreaks and incidence at all predicted sites. Precipitation was more likely to cause outbreaks and greater incidence among tropical and semi-arid sites. While variable, mitigation expenditure coincided positively with increased RRV incidence (r 2 = 0·21). Our research demonstrates capacity to accurately predict mosquito-borne disease outbreaks and incidence at fine-temporal resolutions. We apply our findings, developing a user-friendly tool enabling managers to easily adopt this research to forecast region-specific RRV outbreaks and incidence. Approaches here may be of value to fine-scale forecasting of RRV in other areas of Australia, and other mosquito-borne diseases.

  8. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  9. A numerical model for super resolution effect in optical discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assafrao, A.C.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Fery, C.; Von Riewel, L.; Knappmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    A simplified computational model for super resolution effect in optical discs is proposed and simulations are compared with experimental results, providing basic understanding of this phenomenon. Simulations show that resolution beyond the diffraction limit is achieved and signal destruction occurs

  10. High-resolution mapping based on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture paleoseismic offsets along the Altyn-Tagh fault, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxing; Xu, Xiwei; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Tapponnier, Paul

    2017-08-15

    The recent dramatic increase in millimeter- to centimeter- resolution topographic datasets obtained via multi-view photogrammetry raises the possibility of mapping detailed offset geomorphology and constraining the spatial characteristics of active faults. Here, for the first time, we applied this new method to acquire high-resolution imagery and generate topographic data along the Altyn Tagh fault, which is located in a remote high elevation area and shows preserved ancient earthquake surface ruptures. A digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 0.065 m and an orthophoto with a resolution of 0.016 m were generated from these images. We identified piercing markers and reconstructed offsets based on both the orthoimage and the topography. The high-resolution UAV data were used to accurately measure the recent seismic offset. We obtained the recent offset of 7 ± 1 m. Combined with the high resolution satellite image, we measured cumulative offsets of 15 ± 2 m, 20 ± 2 m, 30 ± 2 m, which may be due to multiple paleo-earthquakes. Therefore, UAV mapping can provide fine-scale data for the assessment of the seismic hazards.

  11. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure...

  12. abour Dispute Resolution System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA). Even though the Labour. Relations Act 66/95 (LRA) has brought statutory dispute resolution within reach of the ordinary worker, it might actually have compounded the problems relating to dispute resolution in the country. The high rate of individual unfair dismissal cases ...

  13. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  14. Image reconstructions from super-sampled data sets with resolution modeling in PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D

    2014-12-01

    that the reconstructions from super-sampled data sets using a fine system matrix yield improved image quality compared to the reconstructions using a coarse system matrix. Super-sampling reconstructions with different count levels showed that the more spatial-resolution improvement can be obtained with higher count at a larger iteration number. The authors developed a super-sampling reconstruction framework that can reconstruct super-resolution images using the super-sampling data sets simultaneously with known acquisition motion. The super-sampling PET acquisition using the proposed algorithms provides an effective and economic way to improve image quality for PET imaging, which has an important implication in preclinical and clinical region-of-interest PET imaging applications.

  15. High-resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; N. S. Wagenbrenner; J. M. Forthofer; B. K. Lamb; K. S. Shannon; D. Finn; R. M. Eckman; K. Clawson; L. Bradshaw; P. Sopko; S. Beard; D. Jimenez; C. Wold; M. Vosburgh

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical wind flow models have been developed for simulating wind flow at relatively fine spatial resolutions (e.g., 100 m); however, there are very limited observational data available for evaluating these high-resolution models. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The...

  16. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of High-Resolution Satellite ZY-3 TLC Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Heng; Ying, Shen

    2017-05-07

    Super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction is a technique used to recover a high-resolution image using the cumulative information provided by several low-resolution images. With the help of SR techniques, satellite remotely sensed images can be combined to achieve a higher-resolution image, which is especially useful for a two- or three-line camera satellite, e.g., the ZY-3 high-resolution Three Line Camera (TLC) satellite. In this paper, we introduce the application of the SR reconstruction method, including motion estimation and the robust super-resolution technique, to ZY-3 TLC images. The results show that SR reconstruction can significantly improve both the resolution and image quality of ZY-3 TLC images.

  17. Conflict Resolution, Can It Really Make a Difference in the Classroom: Conflict Resolution Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollan, Savannah; Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses conflict and provides five resolutions for teachers on managing negative behaviors within the classroom. Acknowledging and implementing conflict resolution strategies in the classroom enables every student to fully participate in the learning process.

  18. Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosong Bai

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technology that can provide anatomic, functional, and molecular information about biological tissue. Intravascular spectroscopic and molecular photoacoustic imaging can potentially improve the identification of atherosclerotic plaque composition, the detection of inflammation, and ultimately the risk stratification of atherosclerosis. In this study, a first-of-its-kind intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography (OR-PAT system with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter is developed, offering optical-diffraction limited transverse resolution as fine as 19.6 μm, ∼ 10-fold finer than that of conventional intravascular photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging. To offer complementary imaging information and depth, the system also acquires co-registered intravascular ultrasound images in parallel. Imaging of an iliac stent and a lipid phantom shows that the high resolution and contrast of OR-PAT can enable improved stent implantation guidance and lipid identification. In the future, these capabilities may ultimately improve the diagnosis and interventional treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are prone to cause thrombotic complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke.

  19. SAR System for UAV Operation with Motion Error Compensation beyond the Resolution Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Partida, José-Tomás; Almorox-González, Pablo; Burgos-García, Mateo; Dorta-Naranjo, Blas-Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system that is under development in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. The system uses Linear Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (LFM-CW) radar with a two antenna configuration for transmission and reception. The radar operates in the millimeter-wave band with a maximum transmitted bandwidth of 2 GHz. The proposed system is being developed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operation. Motion errors in UAV operation can be critical. Therefore, this paper proposes a method for focusing SAR images with movement errors larger than the resolution cell. Typically, this problem is solved using two processing steps: first, coarse motion compensation based on the information provided by an Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU); and second, fine motion compensation for the residual errors within the resolution cell based on the received raw data. The proposed technique tries to focus the image without using data of an IMU. The method is based on a combination of the well known Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) for SAR imagery and typical algorithms for translational motion compensation on Inverse SAR (ISAR). This paper shows the first real experiments for obtaining high resolution SAR images using a car as a mobile platform for our radar. PMID:27879884

  20. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  1. SAR System for UAV Operation with Motion Error Compensation beyond the Resolution Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas-Pablo Dorta-Naranjo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR system that is under development in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. The system uses Linear Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (LFM-CW radar with a two antenna configuration for transmission and reception. The radar operates in the millimeter-wave band with a maximum transmitted bandwidth of 2 GHz. The proposed system is being developed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV operation. Motion errors in UAV operation can be critical. Therefore, this paper proposes a method for focusing SAR images with movement errors larger than the resolution cell. Typically, this problem is solved using two processing steps: first, coarse motion compensation based on the information provided by an Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU; and second, fine motion compensation for the residual errors within the resolution cell based on the received raw data. The proposed technique tries to focus the image without using data of an IMU. The method is based on a combination of the well known Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA for SAR imagery and typical algorithms for translational motion compensation on Inverse SAR (ISAR. This paper shows the first real experiments for obtaining high resolution SAR images using a car as a mobile platform for our radar.

  2. Three-dimensional high-resolution ultrasonic imaging of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ronald H.; Lizzi, Frederick L.; Kalisz, Andrew; Coleman, D. J.

    2000-04-01

    Very high frequency (50 MHz) ultrasound provides spatial resolution on the order of 30 microns axially by 60 microns laterally. Our aim was to reconstruct the three-dimensional anatomy of the eye in the full detail permitted by this fine- scale transducer resolution. We scanned the eyes of human subjects and anesthetized rabbits in a sequence of parallel planes 50 microns apart. Within each scan plane, vectors were also spaced 50 microns apart. Radio-frequency data were digitized at a rate of 250 MHz or higher. A series of spectrum analysis and segmentation algorithms was applied to data acquired in each plane; the outputs of these procedures were used to produce color-coded 3-D representations of the sclera, iris and ciliary processes to enhance 3-D volume rendered presentation. We visualized the radial pattern of individual ciliary processes in humans and rabbits and the geodetic web of supporting connections between the ciliary processes and iris that exist only in the rabbit. By acquiring data such that adjacent vectors and planes are separated by less than the transducer's lateral resolution, we were able to visualize structures, such as the ciliary web, that had not been seen before in-vivo. Our techniques offer the possibility of high- precision imaging and measurement of anterior segment structures. This would be relevant in monitoring of glaucoma, tumors, foreign bodies and other clinical conditions.

  3. Super resolution imaging of genetically labelled synapses in Drosophila brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ayumi Spühler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Super resolution imaging of brain tissue harbors difficulties due to light scattering and the density of signals. In order to reduce out of focus signal, we take advantage of the genetic tools available in the Drosophila and have fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins expressed in only a small number of neurons. These neurons form synapses within the calyx of the mushroom body, a distinct brain region involved in associative memory formation. Our results show that super resolution microscopy, in combination with genetically labelled synaptic proteins, is a powerful tool to investigate synapses in a quantitative fashion providing an entry point for studies on synaptic plasticity during learning and memory formation

  4. High-resolution digital brain atlases: a Hubble telescope for the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward G; Stone, James M; Karten, Harvey J

    2011-05-01

    We describe implementation of a method for digitizing at microscopic resolution brain tissue sections containing normal and experimental data and for making the content readily accessible online. Web-accessible brain atlases and virtual microscopes for online examination can be developed using existing computer and internet technologies. Resulting databases, made up of hierarchically organized, multiresolution images, enable rapid, seamless navigation through the vast image datasets generated by high-resolution scanning. Tools for visualization and annotation of virtual microscope slides enable remote and universal data sharing. Interactive visualization of a complete series of brain sections digitized at subneuronal levels of resolution offers fine grain and large-scale localization and quantification of many aspects of neural organization and structure. The method is straightforward and replicable; it can increase accessibility and facilitate sharing of neuroanatomical data. It provides an opportunity for capturing and preserving irreplaceable, archival neurohistological collections and making them available to all scientists in perpetuity, if resources could be obtained from hitherto uninterested agencies of scientific support. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Dustiness of fine and nanoscale powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Douglas E; Turkevich, Leonid A; Roettgers, Cynthia T; Deye, Gregory J; Baron, Paul A

    2013-03-01

    Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3-37.9% and 0.1-31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300 nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100 nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100 nm particle contribution in a workplace.

  6. Pelagic Biocarbonates: Assessing the "Forgotten" Fine Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, G. J. A.

    2016-02-01

    Biocarbonates play an important role in the global carbon cycle and cover over half of the ocean floor. Biocarbonates in the open ocean are best known from planktonic foraminifera, which are relatively large (>150µm), heavy and few and coccoliths, which are very small (<32µm), light and abundant. Both of these components are relatively well studied. The size fraction in between adult foraminifera and coccoliths (32-150µm: the so-called fine fraction) consists of a large but poorly known mixture of particles, which is genarlly assumed to consist primarily of "juvenile" planktonic foraminifera, with minor amounts of calcareous dinoflagellates and various others less well-known microfossils. Abundance, diversity, mass and composition within the fine fraction are poorly constrained, as is the response to acidification/dissolution. This lack of knowledge primarily reflects the gap in size fraction studied by the different disciplinary approaches and techniques, which are not suited for identifying and quantifying these intermediate groups. Comparative ontogeny of planktonic foraminifera now shows that this fine fraction in sediments does not consist of "juveniles" as in the living plankton, but is dominated by mature specimens of small-sized species. First estimates indicate that these small species not only account for about one third of the number of species of planktonic foraminifera but also form about one third of their shell flux and global carbonate production in weight. Still, we hardly know anything on seasonality, depth habitat, shell composition (isotopes, trace metal incorporation), potential autotrophic symbionts, molecular genetics and geological range of these clearly very important species. Estimates from well-preserved sediments, show that the important role of these minute foraminiferal planktonic species may hold for much of the 180Ma long fossil record, opening a new research field pertaining to both modern and past pelagic ecosystems and the role

  7. Volume reduction of Clark hot water extraction fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheeran, E. D. [ed.

    1995-06-01

    The principal focus of this volume is the reduction or elimination of the accumulation of fine tailings produced by the Clark Hot Water Extraction (CHWE) process, the process which is currently employed by commercial oil sands extraction operations in Alberta. Several opportunities in the process where reduction of fine tailings accumulation might be accomplished through either chemical or mechanical modifications, have been examined. Among these are: (1) selective mining, (2) alternate extraction processes, (3) prevention of segregation of coarse and fine tailings, (4) recombination of extraction tailings and fine tailings, (5) extraction of water from mature tailings, and (6) stabilization of mature fine tailings. 77 refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  9. Daily Estimation of High Resolution PM2.5 Concentrations over BTH area by Fusing MODIS AOD and Ground Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Baolei; Hu, Yongtao; Chang, Howard; Russell, Armistead; Bai, Yuqi

    2017-04-01

    The satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) is often used to predict ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. The associated estimation accuracy is always reduced by AOD missing values and by insufficiently accounting for the spatio-temporal PM2.5 variations. This study aims to estimate PM2.5 concentrations at a high resolution with enhanced accuracy by fusing MODIS AOD and ground observations in the polluted and populated Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) area of China in 2014 and 2015. A Bayesian-based statistical downscaler was employed to model the spatio-temporally varied AOD-PM2.5 relationships. We resampled a 3 km MODIS AOD product to a 4 km resolution in a Lambert conic conformal projection, to assist comparison and fusion with CMAQ predictions. A two-step method was used to fill the missing AOD values to obtain a full AOD dataset with complete spatial coverage. The downscaler has a relatively good performance in the fitting procedure (R2 = 0.75) and in the cross validation procedure (with two evaluation methods, R2 = 0.58 by random method and R2 = 0.47 by city-specific method). The number of missing AOD values was serious and related to elevated PM2.5 concentrations. The gap-filled AOD values corresponded well with our understanding of PM2.5 pollution conditions in BTH. The prediction accuracy of PM2.5 concentrations were improved in terms of their annual and seasonal mean. As a result of its fine spatio-temporal resolution and complete spatial coverage, the daily PM2.5 estimation dataset could provide extensive and insightful benefits to related studies in the BTH area. This may include understanding the formation processes of regional PM2.5 pollution episodes, evaluating daily human exposure, and establishing pollution controlling measures.

  10. [High-resolution patch-clamp technique based on feedback control of scanning ion conductance microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Fan; Lu, Hu-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2010-06-25

    The ion channels located on the cell fine structures play an important role in the physiological functions of cell membrane. However, it is impossible to achieve precise positioning on the nanometer scale cellular microstructures by conventional patch-clamp technique, due to the 200 nm resolution limit of optical microscope. To solve this problem, we have established a high-resolution patch-clamp technique, which combined commercial scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and patch-clamp recording through a nanopipette probe, based on SICM feedback control. MDCK cells were used as observation object to test the capability of the technique. Firstly, a feedback controlled SICM nanopipette (approximately 150 MOmega) non-contactly scanned over a selected area of living MDCK cells monolayer to obtain high-resolution topographic images of microvilli and tight-junction microstructures on the MDCK cells monolayer. Secondly, the same nanopipette was non-contactly moved and precisely positioned over the microvilli or tight-junction microstructure under SICM feedback control. Finally, the SICM feedback control was switched off, the nanopipette slowly contacted with the cell membrane to get a patch-clamp giga-ohm sealing in the cell-attached patch-clamp configuration, and then performed ion channel recording as a normal patch-clamp electrode. The ion channel recordings showed that ion channels of microvilli microstructure opened at pipette holding potential of -100, -60, -40, 0, +40, +60, +100 mV (n=11). However, the opening of ion channels of tight-junction microstructure was not detected at pipette holding potential of -100, -40, 0, +40, +100 mV (n=9). These results suggest that our high-resolution patch-clamp technique can achieve accurate nanopipette positioning and nanometer scale high-resolution patch-clamp recording, which may provide a powerful tool to study the spatial distribution and functions of ion channel in the nanometer scale microstructures of living

  11. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available as shown in Figure 5. When the circulating medium density is increased, the density of the feed to both the primary and secondary cyclones is increased, and relatively small increases in the circulating medium density causes fairly large increases... availability to treat the higher grade coal (the bottom layer of coal) from the no. 2 Seam for a local and export metallurgical market. Following the path of evolution, in 2007, Leeuwpan commissioned the first double stage ultra-fines dense medium cyclone...

  12. Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.

  13. Superconducting transition temperature of aluminum fine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, K.; Kuroishi, T.; Fujita, T.

    1976-10-01

    The superconducting transition temperature T/sub C/ of films of aluminium fine particles deposited by gas evaporation method was determined by measuring D.C. electrical resistance. The observed values of T/sub C/ were distributed from 1.5 to 2.5K, about 5/4 = 2 times of that of bulk metal, for the samples of average particle diameter 150 = 50 A. The observed enhancement of T/sub C/ was not explained by the surface softening of the particles only.

  14. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  15. Impact of meteorological conditions on airborne fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics in urban area during winter-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schäfer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of airborne fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics in the case of Augsburg, Germany, during winter (31 January–12 March 2010 is studied on the basis of aerosol mass spectrometry (3 non-refractory components and organic matter, 3 positive matrix factorizations (PMF factors, particle size distributions (PSD, 5 size modes, 5 PMF factors, further air pollutant mass concentrations (7 gases and VOC, black carbon, PM10, PM2.5 and meteorological measurements, including mixing layer height (MLH, with one-hourly temporal resolution. Data were subjectively assigned to 10 temporal phases which are characterised by different meteorological influences and air pollutant concentrations. In each phase hierarchical clustering analysis with the Ward method was applied to the correlations of air pollutants, PM components, PM source contributions and PSD modes and correlations of these data with all meteorological parameters. This analysis resulted in different degrees of sensitivities of these air pollutant data to single meteorological parameters. It is generally found that wind speed (negatively, MLH (negatively, relative humidity (positively and wind direction influence primary pollutant and accumulation mode particle (size range 100–500 nm concentrations. Temperature (negatively, absolute humidity (negatively and also relative humidity (positively are relevant for secondary compounds of PM and particle (PM2.5, PM10 mass concentrations. NO, nucleation and Aitken mode particle and the fresh traffic aerosol concentrations are only weakly dependent on meteorological parameters and thus are driven by emissions. These daily variation data analyses provide new, detailed meteorological influences on air pollutant data with the focus on fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics and can explain major parts of certain PM component and gaseous pollutant exposure.

  16. Temporal and spatial distributions of summer-time ground-level fine particulate matters in Baltimore-DC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Greenwald, R.; Sarnat, J.; Hu, X.; Kewada, P.; Morales, Y.; Goldman, G.; Redman, J.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies have established a robust association between chronic exposure to ambient level fine particulate matters (PM2.5) and adverse health effects such as COPD, cardiorespiratory diseases, and premature death. Population exposure to PM2.5 has historically been estimated using ground measurements which are often sparse and unevenly distributed. There has been much interest as well as suspicion in both the air quality management and research communities regarding the value of satellite retrieved AOD as particle air pollution indicators. A critical step towards the future use of satellite aerosol products in air quality monitoring and management is to better understand the AOD-PM2.5 association. The existing EPA and IMPROVE networks are insufficient to validate AOD-estimated PM2.5 surface especially when higher resolution satellite products become available in the near future. As part of DISCOVER-AQ mission, we deployed 15 portable filter-based samplers alongside of ground-based sun photometers of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) in July 2011. Gravimetric analyses were conducted to estimate 24h PM2.5 mass concentrations, using Teflon filters and Personal Environmental Monitors (PEMs) operated at a flow rate of 4 LPM. Pre- and post-sampling filters were weighed at our weigh room laboratory facilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Our objectives are (1) to examine if AOD measured by ground-based sun-photometers with the support from ground-based lidars can provide the fine scale spatial heterogeneity observed by ground PM monitors, and (2) whether PM2.5 levels estimated by satellite AOD agree with this true PM2.5 surface. Study design, instrumentation, and preliminary results of measured PM2.5 spatial patterns in July 2011 will be presented as well as discussion of further data analysis and model development.

  17. Hyper-temporal LiDAR for tracking fine-scale changes in vegetation structure, phenology, and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.; Greaves, H.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation three-dimensional (3-D) structure is inherently dynamic - plants alter both the allocation of resources within the canopy and branch/shoot morphology at short time-steps to acclimate to local environmental conditions and maximize photosynthetic potential. However, 3-D structure is often ignored in ecological studies because it is difficult to characterize using traditional field methods. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a rapidly maturing technique to complement and enhance traditional field methods for quantifying 3-D geometric properties of ecosystems. Two major limitations of TLS include the low temporal resolution that often exists between each data acquisition, and the relatively high cost of such systems (entry level systems cost >$40,000 USD) that puts this method out of reach for many potential users. Consequently, TLS is currently limited as a mainstream method for capturing 3-D geometric ecosystem dynamics. Over the last several years, we have been developing a field-ready autonomously operating terrestrial laser scanner (ATLS) capable of monitoring fine-scale changes in vegetation structure on a daily time-step. We will present an overview of recent findings using the ATLS to track changes in vegetation structure in low-stature ecosystems - from cropping system dynamics to Arctic tundra phenology. Further, we will discuss the potential for laser intensity return information from both an ATLS and TLS to track changes in plant phenology and physiology (Chlorophyll content, photoprotective mechanisms, moisture) that occur simultaneously - or prior to - changes in vegetation structure. Our results suggest that fine-scale mapping of plant structure, phenology, and physiology using information from TLS and ATLS could provide new insights into vegetation dynamics in space and time.

  18. Coarse-grained and fine-grained parallel optimization for real-time en-face OCT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinchev, Konstantin; Bradu, Adrian; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents parallel optimizations in the en-face (C-scan) optical coherence tomography (OCT) display. Compared with the cross-sectional (B-scan) imagery, the production of en-face images is more computationally demanding, due to the increased size of the data handled by the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. A sequential implementation of the DSP leads to a limited number of real-time generated en-face images. There are OCT applications, where simultaneous production of large number of en-face images from multiple depths is required, such as real-time diagnostics and monitoring of surgery and ablation. In sequential computing, this requirement leads to a significant increase of the time to process the data and to generate the images. As a result, the processing time exceeds the acquisition time and the image generation is not in real-time. In these cases, not producing en-face images in real-time makes the OCT system ineffective. Parallel optimization of the DSP algorithms provides a solution to this problem. Coarse-grained central processing unit (CPU) based and fine-grained graphics processing unit (GPU) based parallel implementations of the conventional Fourier domain (CFD) OCT method and the Master-Slave Interferometry (MSI) OCT method are studied. In the coarse-grained CPU implementation, each parallel thread processes the whole OCT frame and generates a single en-face image. The corresponding fine-grained GPU implementation launches one parallel thread for every data point from the OCT frame and thus achieves maximum parallelism. The performance and scalability of the CPU-based and GPU-based parallel approaches are analyzed and compared. The quality and the resolution of the images generated by the CFD method and the MSI method are also discussed and compared.

  19. Tele-AAC Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kate; Boisvert, Michelle K; Doneski-Nicol, Janis; Gutmann, Michelle L; Hall, Nerissa C; Morelock, Cynthia; Steele, Richard; Cohn, Ellen R

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide. Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation); determine the communication competence levels achieved by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders' perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability); maximize Tele-AAC's capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions.

  20. Tele-AAC Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Anderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide.  Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC systems.  The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation; determine the communication competence levels achieved  by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders’  perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability; maximize Tele-AAC’s capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions. 

  1. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan I; Hanna, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM(2.5) patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM(2.5) concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM(2.5) variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waves and Fine Structure in Expanding Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, Andrew; Gekelman, Walter

    2009-11-01

    The behavior of expanding dense plasmas has long been a topic of interest in space plasma research, particularly in the case of expansion within a magnetized background. Previous laser-plasma experiments at the UCLA Large Plasma Device have observed the creation of strong (δBB > 50%) diamagnetic cavities, along with large-scale wave activity and hints of fine-scale structure. A new series of experiments conducted recently at the LaPD performs direct measurement of the fields inside the expanding plasma via a novel 2D probe drive system. This system combines small-scale (0.5mm-1mm) magnetic and electric field probes with high-accuracy vacuum ceramic motors, to allow measurement of the plasma volume over a 2000-point grid at 1mm resolution. The data reveal both coherent high-amplitude waves associated with the formation of these magnetic features, and complicated small-scale structure in both the magnetic field and floating potential. In addition, we will present correlation techniques using multiple independent B and E field probes. This reveals behavior of turbulent, non-phase-locked phenomena. Both the case of a single expanding plasma and two colliding plasmas were studied.

  3. Near-road enhancement and solubility of fine and coarse ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities near major roadways are disproportionately affected by traffic-related air pollution which can contribute to adverse health outcomes. The specific role of particulate matter (PM) from traffic sources is not fully understood due to complex emissions processes and physical/chemical properties of PM in the near-road environment. To investigate the spatial profile and water solubility of elemental PM species near a major roadway, filter-based measurements of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) PM were simultaneously collected at multiple distances (10 m, 100 m, and 300 m) from Interstate I-96 in Detroit, Michigan during September–November 2010. Filters were extracted in water, followed by a hot acid extraction, and analyzed by magnetic sector field high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS) to quantify water-soluble and acid-soluble trace elements for each PM size fraction. PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 species measured in the near-road samples included elements associated with traffic activity, local industrial sources, and regional pollution. Metals indicative of brake wear (Ba, Cu) were dramatically enriched near the roadway during downwind conditions (factor of 5 concentration increase), with the largest increase within 100 m of the roadway. Moderate near-roadway increases were observed for crustal elements and other traffic-related PM (Fe, Ca), and the lowest increases observed for regional PM species (S). Water solubility varied

  4. Hearing aid fine-tuning based on Dutch descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielemans, Thijs; Pans, Donné; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to derive an independent fitting assistant based on expert consensus. Two questions were asked: (1) what (Dutch) terms do hearing impaired listeners use nowadays to describe their specific hearing aid fitting problems? (2) What is the expert consensus on how to resolve these complaints by adjusting hearing aid parameters? Hearing aid dispensers provided descriptors that impaired listeners use to describe their reactions to specific hearing aid fitting problems. Hearing aid fitting experts were asked "How would you adjust the hearing aid if its user reports that the aid sounds…?" with the blank filled with each of the 40 most frequently mentioned descriptors. 112 hearing aid dispensers and 15 hearing aid experts. The expert solution with the highest weight value was considered the best solution for that descriptor. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify a factor structure in fitting problems. Nine fitting problems could be identified resulting in an expert-based, hearing aid manufacturer independent, fine-tuning fitting assistant for clinical use. The construction of an expert-based, hearing aid manufacturer independent, fine-tuning fitting assistant to be used as an additional tool in the iterative fitting process is feasible.

  5. Multi-Resolution Seismic Tomography Based on Recursive Tessellation Hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, N A; Myers, S C; Ramirez, A

    2009-07-01

    A 3-D global tomographic model that reconstructs velocity structure at multiple scales and incorporates laterally variable seismic discontinuities is currently being developed. The model parameterization is node-based where nodes are placed along vertices defined by triangular tessellations of a spheroidal surface. The triangular tessellation framework is hierarchical. Starting with a tetrahexahedron representing the whole globe (1st level of the hierarchy, 24 faces), they divide each triangle of the tessellation into daughter triangles. The collection of all daughter triangles comprises the 2nd level of the tessellation hierarchy and further recursion produces an arbitrary number of tessellation levels and arbitrarily fine node-spacing. They have developed an inversion procedure that takes advantage of the recursive properties of the tessellation hierarchies by progressively solving for shorter wavelength heterogeneities. In this procedure, we first perform the tomographic inversion using a tessellation level with coarse node spacing. They find that a coarse node spacing of approximately 8{sup o} is adequate to capture bulk regional properties. They then conduct the tomographic inversion on a 4{sup o} tessellation level using the residuals and inversion results from the 8{sup o} run. In practice they find that the progressive tomography approach is robust, providing an intrinsic regularization for inversion stability and avoids the issue of predefining resolution levels. Further, determining average regional properties with coarser tessellation levels enables long-wavelength heterogeneities to account for sparsely sampled regions (or regions of the mantle where longer wavelength patterns of heterogeneity suffice) while allowing shorter length-scale heterogeneities to emerge where necessary. They demonstrate the inversion approach with a set of synthetic test cases that mimic the complex nature of data arrangements (mixed-determined inversion) common to most

  6. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  7. Resolution exchange simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2006-01-20

    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  8. An Inter-Comparison of Techniques for Determining Velocities of Maritime Arctic Glaciers, Svalbard, Using Radarsat-2 Wide Fine Mode Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schellenberger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glacier dynamics play an important role in the mass balance of many glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. In this study we exploit Radarsat-2 (RS-2 Wide Fine (WF data to determine the surface speed of Svalbard glaciers in the winters of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 using Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR offset and speckle tracking. The RS-2 WF mode combines the advantages of the large spatial coverage of the Wide mode (150 × 150 km and the high pixel resolution (9 m of the Fine mode and thus has a major potential for glacier velocity monitoring from space through offset and speckle tracking. Faster flowing glaciers (1.95 m·d−1–2.55 m·d−1 that are studied in detail are Nathorstbreen, Kronebreen, Kongsbreen and Monacobreen. Using our Radarsat-2 WF dataset, we compare the performance of two SAR tracking algorithms, namely the GAMMA Remote Sensing Software and a custom written MATLAB script (GRAY method that has primarily been used in the Canadian Arctic. Both algorithms provide comparable results, especially for the faster flowing glaciers and the termini of slower tidewater glaciers. A comparison of the WF data to RS-2 Ultrafine and Wide mode data reveals the superiority of RS-2 WF data over the Wide mode data.

  9. Communication Optimizations for Fine-Grained UPCApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Iancu, Costin; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-07-08

    Global address space languages like UPC exhibit high performance and portability on a broad class of shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. The most scalable applications use bulk memory copies rather than individual reads and writes to the shared space, but finer-grained sharing can be useful for scenarios such as dynamic load balancing, event signaling, and distributed hash tables. In this paper we present three optimization techniques for global address space programs with fine-grained communication: redundancy elimination, use of split-phase communication, and communication coalescing. Parallel UPC programs are analyzed using static single assignment form and a data flow graph, which are extended to handle the various shared and private pointer types that are available in UPC. The optimizations also take advantage of UPC's relaxed memory consistency model, which reduces the need for cross thread analysis. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the analysis and optimizations using several benchmarks, which were chosen to reflect the kinds of fine-grained, communication-intensive phases that exist in some larger applications. The optimizations show speedups of up to 70 percent on three parallel systems, which represent three different types of cluster network technologies.

  10. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.

  11. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM10) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5)), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM2.5 (Peffect, was estimated at 13.5 µg/m3. We found an association between daily asthma exacerbation in paediatric visits to the ED and fine particulate air pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Extramedullary plasmacytoma. Fine needle aspiration findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P V; Owji, S M; Talei, A R; Malekhusseini, S A

    1997-01-01

    To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma. The study group consisted of 13 patients with palpable masses at various sites. The tumors were aspirated for cytologic study. The smears revealed groups of mature and immature plasma cells at various stages of maturation. Mature plasma cells showed an eccentric nucleus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with a paranuclear halo. Plasmablasts (immature plasma cells) showed a prominent, eccentric nucleus with single, large nucleolus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with no paranuclear halo. Binucleate and multinucleate forms were also seen quite often. The tumors were excised, and the histologic sections confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. All the patients received radiotherapy. One patient (18 years old) developed recurrence and died due to extensive infiltration into the maxilla and mandible. Two patients (57 and 62 years) developed multiple myeloma one to two years after the excision of tumors, and both died two to three months later. The remaining 10 patients were alive and well at this writing. The smears from all 13 patients were diagnosed as extramedullary plasmacytomas by fine needle aspiration cytology.

  13. The gating cycle of a K+ channel at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Luis G. [Center for Membrane Protein Research, Department of Cell Physiology and Molecular Biophysics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, United States; Cortes, D. Marien [Center for Membrane Protein Research, Department of Cell Physiology and Molecular Biophysics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, United States; Perozo, Eduardo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, United States

    2017-11-22

    C-type inactivation in potassium channels helps fine-tune long-term channel activity through conformational changes at the selectivity filter. Here, through the use of cross-linked constitutively open constructs, we determined the structures of KcsA’s mutants that stabilize the selectivity filter in its conductive (E71A, at 2.25 Å) and deep C-type inactivated (Y82A at 2.4 Å) conformations. These structural snapshots represent KcsA’s transient open-conductive (O/O) and the stable open deep C-type inactivated states (O/I), respectively. The present structures provide an unprecedented view of the selectivity filter backbone in its collapsed deep C-type inactivated conformation, highlighting the close interactions with structural waters and the local allosteric interactions that couple activation and inactivation gating. Together with the structures associated with the closed-inactivated state (C/I) and in the well-known closed conductive state (C/O), this work recapitulates, at atomic resolution, the key conformational changes of a potassium channel pore domain as it progresses along its gating cycle.

  14. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Akio, E-mail: akio.yoneyama.bu@hitachi.com; Baba, Rika [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry Showa University, Ota-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  15. LHCb VELO Tracking Resolutions

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The excellent tracking performance of the Vertex Locator (VELO) at LHCb is presented. The resolutions it achieves on single hits, impact parameters, and primary vertex positions are shown, with particular attention paid to measurement of impact parameters.

  16. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  17. Observations of coastal sediment dynamics of the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project, Imperial Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lam, Angela; Ferreiera, Joanne; Miller, Ian M.; Rippy, Meg; Svejkovsky, Jan; Mustain, Neomi

    2012-01-01

    Coastal restoration and management must address the presence, use, and transportation of fine sediment, yet little information exists on the patterns and/or processes of fine-sediment transport and deposition for these systems. To fill this information gap, a number of State of California, Federal, and private industry partners developed the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project ("Demonstration Project") with the purpose of monitoring the transport, fate, and impacts of fine sediment from beach-sediment nourishments in 2008 and 2009 near the Tijuana River estuary, Imperial Beach, California. The primary purpose of the Demonstration Project was to collect and provide information about the directions, rates, and processes of fine-sediment transport along and across a California beach and nearshore setting. To achieve these goals, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored water, beach, and seafloor properties during the 2008–2009 Demonstration Project. The project utilized sediment with ~40 percent fine sediment by mass so that the dispersal and transport of fine sediment would be easily recognizable. The purpose of this report is to present and disseminate the data collected during the physical monitoring of the Demonstration Project. These data are available online at the links noted in the "Additional Digital Information" section. Synthesis of these data and results will be provided in subsequent publications.

  18. Fining of glass melts: what we know about fining processes today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses the mechanisms of fining (removal of gases from melt) and the effect of batch composition, oxidation state of the melt and furnace atmosphere on bubble removal processes for commercial glass types, such as float glass and container glass compositions. The mechanisms of the

  19. Dual-resolution dose assessments for proton beamlet using MCNPX 2.6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. C.; Wei, S. C.; Wu, S. W.; Tung, C. J.; Tu, S. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Lee, C. C.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to access proton dose distribution in dual resolution phantoms using MCNPX 2.6.0. The dual resolution phantom uses higher resolution in Bragg peak, area near large dose gradient, or heterogeneous interface and lower resolution in the rest. MCNPX 2.6.0 was installed in Ubuntu 10.04 with MPI for parallel computing. FMesh1 tallies were utilized to record the energy deposition which is a special designed tally for voxel phantoms that converts dose deposition from fluence. 60 and 120 MeV narrow proton beam were incident into Coarse, Dual and Fine resolution phantoms with pure water, water-bone-water and water-air-water setups. The doses in coarse resolution phantoms are underestimated owing to partial volume effect. The dose distributions in dual or high resolution phantoms agreed well with each other and dual resolution phantoms were at least 10 times more efficient than fine resolution one. Because the secondary particle range is much longer in air than in water, the dose of low density region may be under-estimated if the resolution or calculation grid is not small enough.

  20. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  1. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  2. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  3. Dynamic systemic resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulsombat, Morakot; Zhang, Yan; Ramström, Olof

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic Systemic Resolution is a powerful technique for selecting optimal constituents from dynamic systems by applying selection pressures, either externally by addition of target entities, or internally within the system constraints. This concept is a subset of Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry, and the dynamic systems are generally based on reversible covalent interactions between a range of components where the systems are maintained under thermodynamic control. In the present chapter, the concept will be described in detail, and a range of examples will be given for both selection classes. For external pressure generation, target enzymes, in aqueous and/or organic solution, have been used to demonstrate the resolution processes. In a first example, a dynamic transthiolesterification system was generated in aqueous solution at neutral pH, and resolved by hydrolysis using serine hydrolases (cholinesterases). In organic solution, lipase-catalyzed acylation was chosen to demonstrate asymmetric resolution in different dynamic systems, generating chiral ester and amide structures. By use of such biocatalysts, the optimal constituents were selectively chosen and amplified from the dynamic systems in one-pot processes. In internal selection pressure resolution, self-transformation and crystallization-induced diastereomeric resolution have been successfully used to challenge dynamic systems. The technique was, for example, used to identify the best diastereomeric substrate from a large and varied dynamic system in a single resolution reaction.

  4. Acclimation of fine root respiration to soil warming involves starch deposition in very fine and fine roots: a case study in Fagus sylvatica saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Antonino; Giacomuzzi, Valentino; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-03-01

    Root activities in terms of respiration and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage and mobilization have been suggested as major physiological roles in fine root lifespan. As more frequent heat waves and drought periods within the next decades are expected, to what extent does thermal acclimation in fine roots represent a mechanism to cope with such upcoming climatic conditions? In this study, the possible changes in very fine (diameter Fagus sylvatica saplings subjected to a simulated long-lasting heat wave event and to co-occurring soil drying. For both very fine and fine roots, soil temperature (ST) resulted inversely correlated with specific root length, respiration rates and SSs concentration, but directly correlated with root mass, root tissue density and starch concentration. In particular, starch concentration increased under 28 °C for successively decreasing under 21 °C ST. These findings showed that thermal acclimation in very fine and fine roots due to 24 days exposure to high ST (∼ 28 °C), induced starch accumulation. Such 'carbon-savings strategy' should bear the maintenance costs associated to the recovery process in case of restored favorable environmental conditions, such as those occurring at the end of a heat wave event. Drought condition seems to affect the fine root vitality much more under moderate than high temperature condition, making the temporary exposure to high ST less threatening to root vitality than expected. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.; Hosegood, P.; Wynn, R. B.; De Boer, M. N.; Butler-Cowdry, S.; Embling, C. B.

    2014-11-01

    The coastal Runnelstone Reef, off southwest Cornwall (UK), is characterised by complex topography and strong tidal flows and is a known high-density site for harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena); a European protected species. Using a multidisciplinary dataset including: porpoise sightings from a multi-year land-based survey, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiling (ADCP), vertical profiling of water properties and high-resolution bathymetry; we investigate how interactions between tidal flow and topography drive the fine-scale porpoise spatio-temporal distribution at the site. Porpoise sightings were distributed non-uniformly within the survey area with highest sighting density recorded in areas with steep slopes and moderate depths. Greater numbers of sightings were recorded during strong westward (ebbing) tidal flows compared to strong eastward (flooding) flows and slack water periods. ADCP and Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) data identified fine-scale hydrodynamic features, associated with cross-reef tidal flows in the sections of the survey area with the highest recorded densities of porpoises. We observed layered, vertically sheared flows that were susceptible to the generation of turbulence by shear instability. Additionally, the intense, oscillatory near surface currents led to hydraulically controlled flow that transitioned from subcritical to supercritical conditions; indicating that highly turbulent and energetic hydraulic jumps were generated along the eastern and western slopes of the reef. The depression and release of isopycnals in the lee of the reef during cross-reef flows revealed that the flow released lee waves during upslope currents at specific phases of the tidal cycle when the highest sighting rates were recorded. The results of this unique, fine-scale field study provide new insights into specific hydrodynamic features, produced through tidal forcing, that may be important for creating predictable foraging opportunities for porpoises at a

  6. Fine-Grained, Local Maps and Coarse, Global Representations Support Human Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    While sensory processes are tuned to particular features, such as an object's specific location, color or orientation, visual working memory (vWM) is assumed to store information using representations, which generalize over a feature dimension. Additionally, current vWM models presume that different features or objects are stored independently. On the other hand, configurational effects, when observed, are supposed to mainly reflect encoding strategies. We show that the location of the target, relative to the display center and boundaries, and overall memory load influenced recall precision, indicating that, like sensory processes, capacity limited vWM resources are spatially tuned. When recalling one of three memory items the target distance from the display center was overestimated, similar to the error when only one item was memorized, but its distance from the memory items' average position was underestimated, showing that not only individual memory items' position, but also the global configuration of the memory array may be stored. Finally, presenting the non-target items at recall, consequently providing landmarks and configurational information, improved precision and accuracy of target recall. Similarly, when the non-target items were translated at recall, relative to their position in the initial display, a parallel displacement of the recalled target was observed. These findings suggest that fine-grained spatial information in vWM is represented in local maps whose resolution varies with distance from landmarks, such as the display center, while coarse representations are used to store the memory array configuration. Both these representations are updated at the time of recall. PMID:25259601

  7. Effects of long-term temperature and nutrient manipulation on Norway spruce fine roots and mycelia production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppälammi-Kujansuu, J.; Ostonen, I.; Strömgren, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and methods The effects of changing climate on ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fine roots were studied in northern Sweden by manipulating soil temperature for 14 years and/or by fertilizing for 22 years. Fine root biomass, necromass, EcM root tip biomass, morphology and number as well as mycelia....... Significantly higher specific root length of EcM root tips indicated an increased need for nutrients in warmed and in unfertilized plots. Better nutrient supply and warmer soil temperature provide a potential to increase the flow of carbon into the soil via increased fine root biomass, but the carbon balance...

  8. Fundamental constants and high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, P.; Rahmani, H.; Whitmore, J. B.; Wendt, M.; Centurion, M.; Molaro, P.; Srianand, R.; Murphy, M. T.; Petitjean, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; D'Odorico, S.; Evans, T. M.; Levshakov, S. A.; Lopez, S.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Reimers, D.; Vladilo, G.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption-line systems detected in high resolution quasar spectra can be used to compare the value of dimensionless fundamental constants such as the fine-structure constant, α, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ = m_p/m_e, as measured in remote regions of the Universe to their value today on Earth. In recent years, some evidence has emerged of small temporal and also spatial variations in α on cosmological scales which may reach a fractional level of ≈ 10 ppm (parts per million). We are conducting a Large Programme of observations with the Very Large Telescope's Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and are obtaining high-resolution ({R ≈ 60 000}) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 100) spectra calibrated specifically to study the variations of the fundamental constants. We here provide a general overview of the Large Programme and report on the first results for these two constants, discussed in detail in Molaro et al. (2013) and Rahmani et al. (2013). A stringent bound for Δα/α is obtained for the absorber at z_abs = 1.6919 towards HE 2217-2818. The absorption profile is complex with several very narrow features, and is modeled with 32 velocity components. The relative variation in α in this system is +1.3± 2.4_stat ± 1.0_sys ppm if Al II λ 1670 Å and three Fe II transitions are used, and +1.1 ± 2.6_stat ppm in a slightly different analysis with only Fe II transitions used. This is one of the tightest bounds on α-variation from an individual absorber and reveals no evidence for variation in α at the 3-ppm precision level (1σ confidence). The expectation at this sky position of the recently-reported dipolar variation of α is (3.2-5.4)±1.7 ppm depending on dipole model used and this constraint of Δα/α at face value is not supporting this expectation but not inconsistent with it at the 3σ level. For the proton-to-electron mass ratio the analysis of the H_2 absorption lines of the z_abs ≈ 2.4018 damped Lyα system

  9. MODIS AOD retrieval at high horizontal resolution with MAIAC on the Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, E.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Popp, C.; Korkin, S.; Zebisch, M.; Wunderle, S.; Petitta, M.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite data allow to determine the spatial distribution and variability of aerosols at a large scale. The standard products are developed for global applications and have a coarse resolution, for example 10 km for MODIS standard product (MOD04) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). On the other hand, the concentration of aerosols in in mountain regions like the Alps, is very heterogeneous and characterized by scales of variability of several kilometers. Therefore, satellite high resolution products are needed to provide an accurate aerosol mapping in mountain areas. Several approaches to derive aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS at high resolution have been proposed in the recent years. They provide new opportunities for regional scale analysis, but application of these algorithms remains confined to few studies. Recently, the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS, which performs a simultaneous retrieval of surface bidirectional reflection and aerosol properties at a resolution of 1km. This algorithm has a global scope and works over both dark and bright surfaces; it has an internal cloud mask and snow detection, and provides an enhanced data coverage with respect to the MODIS standard product, which is very appealing for the Alpine region. In this study we analyze the quality and potential of MAIAC AOD in the European Alpine region using the 1km resolution AOD maps for the years 2008-2009. Since unresolved clouds and snow pixel contamination increase the noise of the AOD retrieval, we developed a filter that preserves the spatial resolution of the product and enhances the accuracy of MAIAC AOD for air-quality and climatological applications. The filtering approach is divided in three steps: a coarse and fine mode fraction filter, a proximity-cloud filter and an AOD standard deviation filter. The MAIAC AOD was validated with AERONET measurements in the region and compared with MODIS product MOD04. Similar

  10. MODIS AOD retrieval at high spatial resolution with MAIAC on the Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, E.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Korkin, S.; Popp, C. T.; Petitta, M.; Wunderle, S.; Zebisch, M.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite data allow to determine the spatial distribution and variability of aerosols at a large scale. The standard products are developed for global applications and have a coarse resolution, for example 10 km for MODIS standard product (MOD04) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). On the other hand, the concentration of aerosols in in mountain regions like the Alps, is very heterogeneous and characterized by scales of variability of several kilometers. Therefore, satellite high resolution products are needed to provide an accurate aerosol mapping in mountain areas. Several approaches to derive aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS at high resolution have been proposed in the recent years. They provide new opportunities for regional scale analysis, but application of these algorithms remains confined to few studies. Recently, the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS, which performs a simultaneous retrieval of surface bidirectional reflection and aerosol properties at a resolution of 1km. This algorithm has a global scope and works over both dark and bright surfaces; it has an internal cloud mask and snow detection, and provides an enhanced data coverage with respect to the MODIS standard product, which is very appealing for the Alpine region. In this study we analyze the quality and potential of MAIAC AOD in the European Alpine region using the 1 km resolution AOD maps for the years 2008-2009. Since unresolved clouds and snow pixel contamination increase the noise of the AOD retrieval, we developed a filter that preserves the spatial resolution of the product and enhances the accuracy of MAIAC AOD for air-quality and climatological applications. The filtering approach is divided in three steps: a coarse and fine mode fraction filter, a proximity-cloud filter and an AOD standard deviation filter. The MAIAC AOD was validated with AERONET measurements in the region and compared with MODIS product MOD04. Similar

  11. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric fine particles during 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai, with a population of over 20 million, is the largest mega-city in China. Rapidly increasing industrial and metropolitan emissions have deteriorated its air quality in the past decades, with fine particle pollution as one of the major issues. However, systematic characterization of atmospheric fine particles with advanced measurement techniques has been very scarce in Shanghai. During 2010 Shanghai World Expo, we deployed a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a single particle soot photometer (SP2 in urban Shanghai between 15 May and 10 June 2010 to measure fine particles with a high time resolution. The 4-min resolution PM1 mass concentration ranged from 5.5 to 155 μg m−3, with an average of 29.2 μg m−3. On average, sulfate and organic matter (OM were the most abundant PM1 components, accounting for 33.3 and 28.7% of the total mass, respectively, while the fraction of nitrate showed an increasing trend with the increasing PM1 loading, indicating the photochemical nature of high fine particle pollution in Shanghai. Taking advantage of HR-ToF-AMS and SP2, OM was found to have an average OM/OC ratio (organic matter mass/organic carbon mass of 1.55 and black carbon (BC had an average number fraction of internally mixed BC of 41.2%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset identified a hydrocarbon-like (HOA, a semi-volatile oxygenated (SV-OOA, and a low-volatility oxygenated (LV-OOA organic aerosol component, which on average accounted for 24.0, 46.8, and 29.2% of the total organic mass, respectively. The diurnal patterns of them with interesting time delay possibly implied a photochemical oxidizing process from HOA (and/or its concurrently emitted gaseous organic pollutants to SV-OOA to LV-OOA. Back trajectory analysis indicated that the northwesterly continental air mass represented the

  12. Primary breast actinomyces simulating malignancy: A case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Thambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary actinomycosis of breast diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in a postmenopausal lady who presented with a clinical impression of malignancy. Resolution of infection while conserving the breast was achieved by timely diagnosis and effective antibiotic therapy. The literature reports that primary actinomycosis of the breast is very rare after menopause, with only very few cases found after extensive search. It is imperative that this condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignancy. The effectiveness of cell block sections in the final diagnosis is also highlighted.

  13. An Example-Based Super-Resolution Algorithm for Selfie Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jino Hans William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A selfie is typically a self-portrait captured using the front camera of a smartphone. Most state-of-the-art smartphones are equipped with a high-resolution (HR rear camera and a low-resolution (LR front camera. As selfies are captured by front camera with limited pixel resolution, the fine details in it are explicitly missed. This paper aims to improve the resolution of selfies by exploiting the fine details in HR images captured by rear camera using an example-based super-resolution (SR algorithm. HR images captured by rear camera carry significant fine details and are used as an exemplar to train an optimal matrix-value regression (MVR operator. The MVR operator serves as an image-pair priori which learns the correspondence between the LR-HR patch-pairs and is effectively used to super-resolve LR selfie images. The proposed MVR algorithm avoids vectorization of image patch-pairs and preserves image-level information during both learning and recovering process. The proposed algorithm is evaluated for its efficiency and effectiveness both qualitatively and quantitatively with other state-of-the-art SR algorithms. The results validate that the proposed algorithm is efficient as it requires less than 3 seconds to super-resolve LR selfie and is effective as it preserves sharp details without introducing any counterfeit fine details.

  14. An Example-Based Super-Resolution Algorithm for Selfie Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Jino Hans; Venkateswaran, N; Narayanan, Srinath; Ramachandran, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A selfie is typically a self-portrait captured using the front camera of a smartphone. Most state-of-the-art smartphones are equipped with a high-resolution (HR) rear camera and a low-resolution (LR) front camera. As selfies are captured by front camera with limited pixel resolution, the fine details in it are explicitly missed. This paper aims to improve the resolution of selfies by exploiting the fine details in HR images captured by rear camera using an example-based super-resolution (SR) algorithm. HR images captured by rear camera carry significant fine details and are used as an exemplar to train an optimal matrix-value regression (MVR) operator. The MVR operator serves as an image-pair priori which learns the correspondence between the LR-HR patch-pairs and is effectively used to super-resolve LR selfie images. The proposed MVR algorithm avoids vectorization of image patch-pairs and preserves image-level information during both learning and recovering process. The proposed algorithm is evaluated for its efficiency and effectiveness both qualitatively and quantitatively with other state-of-the-art SR algorithms. The results validate that the proposed algorithm is efficient as it requires less than 3 seconds to super-resolve LR selfie and is effective as it preserves sharp details without introducing any counterfeit fine details.

  15. Fostering Creativity: A Multiple Intelligences Approach to Designing Learning in Undergraduate Fine Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela; Cripps, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum and pedagogy in undergraduate fine art can promote an approach to learning creativity that is more about being an artist than knowing about art. Lecturers can provide a road map for developing particular dispositions, in relation to student ideas and perceptions, to foster personalised creativity. This requires that lecturers have an…

  16. Fine-scale habitat characteristics related to occupancy of the Yosemite Toad, Anaxyrus canorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina T. Liang; Robert L. Grasso; Julie J. Nelson-Paul; Kim E. Vincent; Amy J. Lind

    2017-01-01

    Fine-scale habitat information can provide insight into species occupancy and persistence that is not apparent at the landscape-scale. Such information is particularly important for rare species that are experiencing population declines, such as the threatened Yosemite Toad (Anaxyrus canorus). Our study examined differences in physical...

  17. Spatial Downscaling of TRMM Precipitation Using Geostatistics and Fine Scale Environmental Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    No-Wook Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A geostatistical downscaling scheme is presented and can generate fine scale precipitation information from coarse scale Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. Within the geostatistical framework, the TRMM precipitation data are first decomposed into trend and residual components. Quantitative relationships between coarse scale TRMM data and environmental variables are then estimated via regression analysis and used to derive trend components at a fine scale. Next, the residual components, which are the differences between the trend components and the original TRMM data, are then downscaled at a target fine scale via area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components are finally added to generate fine scale precipitation estimates. Stochastic simulation is also applied to the residual components in order to generate multiple alternative realizations and to compute uncertainty measures. From an experiment using a digital elevation model (DEM and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, the geostatistical downscaling scheme generated the downscaling results that reflected detailed characteristics with better predictive performance, when compared with downscaling without the environmental variables. Multiple realizations and uncertainty measures from simulation also provided useful information for interpretations and further environmental modeling.

  18. Can an Eternal Life Start From the Minimal Fine-Tuning for Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Blondé

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since modern physicists made more and more advances in precisely measuring the fundamental constants in nature, cosmologists have been confronted with this problem: how do we declare that nature’s constants are fine-tuned for the emergence of life? Many cosmologists assume nowadays that the big bang universe originates from a multiverse that consists of very many universes. Some of these must be fine-tuned for life. A fascinating question arises: Would there be any chance on a life after our death in this multiverse? In this paper, I show two things about the multiverse. First, universes in the multiverse acquire an unlimited amount of additional fine-tuning for intelligent life over the course of many universe generations. Such additional fine-tuning may consist of travelling between universes and an afterlife on a distant planet. Second, evolutionary conservation in the evolution of universes in the multiverse provides a declaration why we observe a universe that roughly has the minimal fine-tuning to support intelligent life.

  19. A fortunate universe life in a finely tuned cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geraint F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last forty years, scientists have uncovered evidence that if the Universe had been forged with even slightly different properties, life as we know it - and life as we can imagine it - would be impossible. Join us on a journey through how we understand the Universe, from its most basic particles and forces, to planets, stars and galaxies, and back through cosmic history to the birth of the cosmos. Conflicting notions about our place in the Universe are defined, defended and critiqued from scientific, philosophical and religious viewpoints. The authors' engaging and witty style addresses what fine-tuning might mean for the future of physics and the search for the ultimate laws of nature. Tackling difficult questions and providing thought-provoking answers, this volumes challenges us to consider our place in the cosmos, regardless of our initial convictions.

  20. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  1. Automatic Learning of Fine Operating Rules for Online Power System Security Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Weiyong; Guo, Qinglai; Zhang, Boming; Wehenkel, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min.

  2. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  3. Some characteristics of fine beryllium particle combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D. A.; Kholopova, O. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-08-01

    Beryllium dust will be produced under plasma interaction with beryllium armor of the first wall in ITER. Exothermal reaction of this dust with water steam or air, which can leak into the reactor vacuum chamber in some accidents, gives concern in respect to reactor safety. Results of studies devoted to combustion of fine beryllium particles are reviewed in the paper. A chemically active medium and elevated temperature are prerequisite to the combustion of beryllium particles. Their ignition is hampered by oxide films, which form a diffusion barrier on the particle surface as a result of pre-flame oxidation. The temperature to initiate combustion of particles depends on flame temperature, particle size, composition of combustible mixture, heating rate and other factors. In mixtures enriched with combustible, the flame temperature necessary to ignite individual particles approaches the beryllium boiling temperature.

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Pranay; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-01-01

    Fibromatosis form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. The fibromatosis can be localized or infiltrative and multicentric and can involve internal tissues and organs as the mesentery, retroperitoneum, breast, and almost every organ and region of the body, including the bones, the meninges and the central nervous system. We report a case of 37-year-old male who presented with a right supraclavicular mass with superficial infiltrative type of fibromatosis and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. We report this case because of limited literature of FNAC in fibromatosis and quick role of FNAC in the diagnosis of fibromatosis. PMID:22438623

  5. The fine structure of the ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul

    1967-01-01

    We consider in this note the excitation of ion-acoustic waves by vertical gradients of density in the ionosphere. The conclusion is reached that the fine structure of the ionosphere is probably affected by the resulting instability, as comparison with observations seems to indicate. Recently, Liu...... and Yeh [1966] have examined the excitation of low-frequency imcompressible waves in an inhomogeneous ionosphere. They find that, below the F-region maximum, there may exist instabilities, the growth rate being given approximately by grho'/rhonu, where g is the gravity, rho is the plasma density, rho......' is its height gradients, and nu is the ion-neutral collision frequency. We have examined the stability of the ionosphere against growth of low-frequency quasielectrostatic waves, taking into account the compressibility of the plasma....

  6. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  8. The rise and fall of breakpoint reuse depending on genome resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background During evolution, large-scale genome rearrangements of chromosomes shuffle the order of homologous genome sequences ("synteny blocks") across species. Some years ago, a controversy erupted in genome rearrangement studies over whether rearrangements recur, causing breakpoints to be reused. Methods We investigate this controversial issue using the synteny block's for human-mouse-rat reported by Bourque et al. and a series of synteny blocks we generated using Mauve at resolutions ranging from coarse to very fine-scale. We conducted analyses to test how resolution affects the traditional measure of the breakpoint reuse rate. Results We found that the inversion-based breakpoint reuse rate is low at fine-scale synteny block resolution and that it rises and eventually falls as synteny block resolution decreases. By analyzing the cycle structure of the breakpoint graph of human-mouse-rat synteny blocks for human-mouse and comparing with theoretically derived distributions for random genome rearrangements, we showed that the implied genome rearrangements at each level of resolution become more “random” as synteny block resolution diminishes. At highest synteny block resolutions the Hannenhalli-Pevzner inversion distance deviates from the Double Cut and Join distance, possibly due to small-scale transpositions or simply due to inclusion of erroneous synteny blocks. At synteny block resolutions as coarse as the Bourque et al. blocks, we show the breakpoint graph cycle structure has already converged to the pattern expected for a random distribution of synteny blocks. Conclusions The inferred breakpoint reuse rate depends on synteny block resolution in human-mouse genome comparisons. At fine-scale resolution, the cycle structure for the transformation appears less random compared to that for coarse resolution. Small synteny blocks may contain critical information for accurate reconstruction of genome rearrangement history and parameters. PMID:22151330

  9. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  10. Evaluating the effect of remote sensing image spatial resolution on soil exchangeable potassium prediction models in smallholder farm settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P

    2017-09-15

    Major end users of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) such as policy makers and agricultural extension workers are faced with choosing the appropriate remote sensing data. The objective of this research is to analyze the spatial resolution effects of different remote sensing images on soil prediction models in two smallholder farms in Southern India called Kothapally (Telangana State), and Masuti (Karnataka State), and provide empirical guidelines to choose the appropriate remote sensing images in DSM. Bayesian kriging (BK) was utilized to characterize the spatial pattern of exchangeable potassium (K ex ) in the topsoil (0-15 cm) at different spatial resolutions by incorporating spectral indices from Landsat 8 (30 m), RapidEye (5 m), and WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A images (2 m). Some spectral indices such as band reflectances, band ratios, Crust Index and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index from multiple images showed relatively strong correlations with soil K ex in two study areas. The research also suggested that fine spatial resolution WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A-based and RapidEye-based soil prediction models would not necessarily have higher prediction performance than coarse spatial resolution Landsat 8-based soil prediction models. The end users of DSM in smallholder farm settings need select the appropriate spectral indices and consider different factors such as the spatial resolution, band width, spectral resolution, temporal frequency, cost, and processing time of different remote sensing images. Overall, remote sensing-based Digital Soil Mapping has potential to be promoted to smallholder farm settings all over the world and help smallholder farmers implement sustainable and field-specific soil nutrient management scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preferred provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J D

    1984-05-01

    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  12. CONTACT STRENGTH OF MECHANOACTIVATED FINE CONCRETES FROM GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bolshakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Strengthening of fine concrete contact zone by mechanical processing of all components of the concrete mix in a mixer-activator and aggregate application with rough surface. Methodology. Rotary activator PC-06, developed by Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Technology, was used as a mixer-activator to achieve this purpose. Granulated blast furnace slag, having a more developed rough surface than sand, was used as fine aggregate. This apparatus provides intensive homogeneous mixing of concrete mix components, processing of raw materials (purification of their particles from contaminants, and mechanical destruction of granulated blast furnace slag surface layers and other components of the mix. Findings. During the preparation work, experimental research of new formations composition of fine concretes, using differential thermal and x-ray phase analysis methods, and physical-mechanical properties of fine concretes in accordance with the applicable standards of Ukraine, were carried out. It is established that the phase composition of new formations of fine concretes made from activated and non-activated mixes, is not changed. Their main difference is the size of generated effects and temperature intervals of occurrence of these peaks. Thus, in fine concretes made on the basis of the activated mixes, magnitude of effects is less, indicating a higher hydration degree of its components. Besides, TG curves of concrete specimens show that weight loss of gel calcium hydrosilicate of concrete from a mechanically activated mix is 0.5...0.7 % more than of concrete from a non-activated mix, which indicates a larger number of these formations in concrete from activated mixes. In general, concretes of different composition, made from a mix, processed in the mixer-activator, have higher mechanical strength. Originality. Ideas about the influence of mechanical activation of components of fine concrete mixes with forming humidity in a

  13. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  14. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D imag...

  15. Resolution of large complex financial organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    The resolution of a large complex financial organization (LCFO) presents numerous problems, including organizational complexity, opacity of positions, and conflicting legal jurisdictions. Of particular concern is the potential impact of large derivatives books. Widespread adoption of laws permitting close-out of derivatives contracts exempts these contracts from the usual stays that provide time for the orderly resolution of claims by the courts. Thus, a potentially significant part of the LC...

  16. Effective resolution in ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesiello, Patrick; Soufflet, Yves; Capet, Xavier; Jouanno, Julien; Lemarie, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The increase of model resolution naturally leads to the representation of a wider energy spectrum. As a result, in recent years, the understanding of oceanic submesoscale dynamics has significantly improved. Also, the ubiquity of upper ocean frontal dynamics driving a direct energy cascade is now acknowledged. In the forward cascade framework, numerical and physical closures are more consistent in principle, but dissipation in submesoscale models remains dominated by numerical constraints rather than physical ones. Therefore, effective resolution can be defined by its numerical dissipation range, which is a function of the model numerical filters (assuming that dispersive numerical modes are efficiently removed). The COMODO project gathers the whole French ocean modeling community in order to assess current numerical methods and guide the development of future models. Within this framework, we present an idealized ACC-type Jet case, which provides a controllable test of a model capacity at resolving submesoscale dynamics. We compare analyses performed on simulations from two models, ROMS and NEMO, at different mesh sizes (from 20 to 1 km). Through a spectral decomposition of kinetic energy and its budget terms, we identify the characteristics of turbulent cascade, numerical dissipation, and effective resolution. It shows that numerical dissipation appears in different parts of a model, especially in spatial advection-diffusion schemes for momentum equations (KE dissipation) and tracer equations (APE dissipation) and in the time stepping algorithms.

  17. GlobeLand30 as an alternative fine-scale global land cover map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Tayyebi, A.; Vaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    Global land cover maps are a vital source for mapping our globe into a set of thematic types. They have been extensively used as a basis layer for a large number of applications including ecosystem services, environmental planning, climate change, hydrological processes and policy making. While...... regional land cover maps for some areas such as Europe and North America has been greatly developed and very few temporal datasets exist, lack of such data for some regions specifically developing countries is evident. Although it seems global land cover maps such as MODIS could be a solution for mapping...... these regions, their coarse spatial resolution e.g., 500 m as well as their accuracy are very challenging. Recently, GlobeLand30 a global land cover with a relatively fine resolution at 30 m extracted from Landsat images has been released, which seems to be a potential dataset for mapping areas with limited...

  18. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  19. Cell fine structure and function - Past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moran, H.

    1970-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies of nerve membrane fine structure, discussing cell membrane multienzyme and macromolecular energy and information transduction, protein synthesis and nucleic acids interrelations

  20. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  1. Fine structure of charge exchange lines observed in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, K.; Nishimura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the fine structure of charge exchange lines appears only at the plasma edge or in the recombining phase where the ion temperature is low enough. The observed spectra in Li III and C VI are consistent with the sum of fine-structure components populated by statistical weights (assuming complete l-mixing) not by direct charge exchange cross sections. Some discrepancy was observed in the intensity ratio of fine-structure components between the observation and calculation for C VI in the recombining phase. The fine-structure of charge exchange lines gives an apparent Doppler shift in plasma rotation velocity measurement using charge exchange spectroscopy. (author)

  2. Sweeping at the Martin boundary of a fine domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Kadiri, Mohamed; Fuglede, Bent

    2016-01-01

    We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical.......We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical....

  3. Using DNase Hi-C techniques to map global and local three-dimensional genome architecture at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxiu; Ay, Ferhat; Lee, Choli; Gulsoy, Gunhan; Deng, Xinxian; Cook, Savannah; Hesson, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B; Krumm, Anton; Shendure, Jay; Blau, C Anthony; Disteche, Christine M; Noble, William S; Duan, ZhiJun

    2018-01-31

    The folding and three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromatin in the nucleus critically impacts genome function. The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in genomic tools for delineating 3D genome architecture. Among them, chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods such as Hi-C are the most widely used techniques for mapping chromatin interactions. However, traditional Hi-C protocols rely on restriction enzymes (REs) to fragment chromatin and are therefore limited in resolution. We recently developed DNase Hi-C for mapping 3D genome organization, which uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation. DNase Hi-C overcomes RE-related limitations associated with traditional Hi-C methods, leading to improved methodological resolution. Furthermore, combining this method with DNA capture technology provides a high-throughput approach (targeted DNase Hi-C) that allows for mapping fine-scale chromatin architecture at exceptionally high resolution. Hence, targeted DNase Hi-C will be valuable for delineating the physical landscapes of cis-regulatory networks that control gene expression and for characterizing phenotype-associated chromatin 3D signatures. Here, we provide a detailed description of method design and step-by-step working protocols for these two methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  5. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  6. Fine scale mapping of the 17q22 breast cancer locus using dense SNPs, genotyped within the Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (COGs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Darabi (Hatef); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A. Droit (Arnaud); S. Kar (Siddhartha); S. Nord (Silje); M.M. Marjaneh (Mahdi Moradi); Soucy, P. (Penny); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M. Ghoussaini (Maya); Wahl, H.F. (Hanna Fues); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet K.); Wang, Q. (Qin); J. Dennis (Joe); M.R. Alonso (Rosario); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); Arndt, V. (Volker); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Benítez (Javier); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); H. Brenner (Hermann); A. Broeks (Annegien); T. Brüning (Thomas); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); Choi, J.-Y. (Ji-Yeob); D. Conroy (Don); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); K. Czene (Kamila); P. Devilee (Peter); T. Dörk (Thilo); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); P.A. Fasching (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); O. Fletcher (Olivia); H. Flyger (Henrik); Galle, E. (Eva); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); A. González-Neira (Anna); P. Guénel (Pascal); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); Hallberg, E. (Emily); U. Hamann (Ute); J.M. Hartman (Joost); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); J.L. Hopper (John); H. Ito (Hidemi); A. Jakubowska (Anna); Johnson, N. (Nichola); D. Kang (Daehee); S. Khan (Sofia); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); Kriege, M. (Mieke); V. Kristensen (Vessela); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); L. Le Marchand (Loic); Lee, S.C. (Soo Chin); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Mannermaa (Arto); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); S. Margolin (Sara); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); Mayes, R. (Rebecca); McKay, J. (James); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.L. Milne (Roger); K.R. Muir (K.); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); C. Olswold (Curtis); Orr, N. (Nick); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); G. Pita (G.); K. Pykäs (Katri); Rudolph, A. (Anja); Sangrajrang, S. (Suleeporn); Sawyer, E.J. (Elinor J.); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); Shah, M. (Mitul); C.-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); M.C. Southey (Melissa); Stram, D.O. (Daniel O.); H. Surowy (Harald); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); S.-H. Teo; D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); D. Torres (Diana); T. Truong (Thérèse); C. Vachon (Celine); D. Vincent (Daniel); R. Winqvist (Robert); A.H. Wu (Anna); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); W. Zheng (Wei); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); P. Hall (Per); S.L. Edwards (Stacey); J. Simard (Jacques); J.D. French (Juliet); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.M. Dunning (Alison)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies have found SNPs at 17q22 to be associated with breast cancer risk. To identify potential causal variants related to breast cancer risk, we performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis that involved genotyping 517 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect

  7. Fine scale mapping of the 17q22 breast cancer locus using dense SNPs, genotyped within the Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (COGs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darabi, Hatef; Beesley, Jonathan; Droit, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have found SNPs at 17q22 to be associated with breast cancer risk. To identify potential causal variants related to breast cancer risk, we performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis that involved genotyping 517 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCO...

  8. Super-Resolution of Complex Exponentials from Modulations with Unknown Waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dehui; Tang, Gongguo; Wakin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution is generally referred to as the task of recovering fine details from coarse information. Motivated by applications such as single-molecule imaging, radar imaging, etc., we consider parameter estimation of complex exponentials from their modulations with unknown waveforms, allowing for non-stationary blind super-resolution. This problem, however, is ill-posed since both the parameters associated with the complex exponentials and the modulating waveforms are unknown. To allevia...

  9. Cardiovascular changes in workers exposed to fine particulate dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiological studies provide evidence that airborne particulate matter may contribute to the increased incidence and mortality rates due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Only some of them address the problem of occupational exposure to particulate air pollution. The aim of our study was to assess cardiovascular reaction and autonomic regulation in workers exposed to fine particles. Materials and Methods: All workers had medical examination, resting ECG with heart rate variability analysis (HRV, 24-h ECG, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM performed. The subjects were 20 male workers (mean age: 32.14.0 year of a ceramic ware factory exposed to the dust and 20 workers who were not exposed (mean age: 39.4±7.8 year. The period of employment under exposure amounted to 5.6±2.1 year. Dust exposure was measured using individual dosimeters. Results: The geometric mean total dust concentration was 44±1.5 mg/m3 and the FPD (fine particulate dust concentration amounted to 11.5±1.6 mg/m3. No abnormalities were noted in the resting ECG in both groups, in 24-h ECG 2 subjects, both from exposed and control groups, had ventricular heart rhythm and repolarization disturbances. Blood pressure in ABPM, both systolic as well as diastolic, was normal and did not differ between the groups. Resting heart rate in the exposed group was significantly lower (p = 0.038 than in the control group. In the exposed group STD R-R from short-term records was significantly higher (p = 0.01. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis showed that the low frequency power spectrum (LF did not differ in the exposed and the control group, while high frequency (HF was significantly higher in the exposed group. LF/HF ratio was significantly lower in the exposed in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Although we did not reveal significant abnormalities in ECG as well as in ABPM in the exposed group, it seems that neurovegetative disturbances

  10. Fine-mapping QTLs in advanced intercross lines and other outbred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Natalia M; Palmer, Abraham A

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative genetic studies in model organisms, particularly in mice, have been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions that are associated with a wide variety of behavioral and other traits. However, it is now widely understood that identification of the underlying genes will be far more challenging. In the last few years, a variety of populations have been utilized in an effort to more finely map these chromosomal regions with the goal of identifying specific genes. The common property of these newer populations is that linkage disequilibrium spans relatively short distances, which permits fine-scale mapping resolution. This review focuses on advanced intercross lines (AILs) which are the simplest such population. As originally proposed in 1995 by Darvasi and Soller, an AIL is the product of intercrossing two inbred strains beyond the F2 generation. Unlike recombinant inbred strains, AILs are maintained as outbred populations; brother-sister matings are specifically avoided. Each generation of intercrossing beyond the F2 further degrades linkage disequilibrium between adjacent makers, which allows for fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Advances in genotyping technology and techniques for the statistical analysis of AILs have permitted rapid advances in the application of AILs. We review some of the analytical issues and available software, including QTLRel, EMMA, EMMAX, GEMMA, TASSEL, GRAMMAR, WOMBAT, Mendel, and others.

  11. Automatic detection and extraction of ultra-fine bright structure observed with new vacuum solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2017-02-01

    Solar magnetic structures exhibit a wealth of different spatial and temporal scales. Presently, solar magnetic element is believed to be the ultra-fine magnetic structure in the lower solar atmospheric layer, and the diffraction limit of the largest-aperture solar telescope (New Vacuum Solar Telescope; NVST) of China is close to the spatial scale of magnetic element. This implies that modern solar observations have entered the era of high resolution better than 0.2 arc-second. Since the year of 2011, the NVST have successfully established and obtained huge observational data. Moreover, the ultra-fine magnetic structure rooted in the dark inter-graunlar lanes can be easily resolved. Studies on the observational characteristics and physical mechanism of magnetic bright points is one of the most important aspects in the field of solar physics, so it is very important to determine the statistical and physical parameters of magnetic bright points with the feature extraction techniques and numerical analysis approaches. For identifying such ultra-fine magnetic structure, an automatically and effectively detection algorithm, employed the Laplacian transform and the morphological dilation technique, is proposed and examined. Then, the statistical parameters such as the typical diameter, the area distribution, the eccentricity, and the intensity contrast are obtained. And finally, the scientific meaning for investigating the physical parameters of magnetic bright points are discussed, especially for understanding the physical processes of solar magnetic energy transferred from the photosphere to the corona.

  12. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; John I. Blake; William T. Crolly

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuel beds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for...

  13. What Controls Springtime Fine Dust Variability in the Western United States? Investigating the 2002-2015 Increase in Fine Dust in the U.S. Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achakulwisut, Pattanun; Shen, Lu; Mickley, Loretta J.

    2017-11-01

    We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to investigate the role of meteorology in controlling the interannual variability of fine dust concentrations in the western United States during 2002-2015 March-May. We then develop a prediction model to explore the causes of an observed increase in fine dust concentrations during March in the Southwest. For each spring month, 54-61% of the total variance in fine dust anomalies can be explained by the first two leading EOF modes, which consist of a coherent pattern of covariability across the West and a dipole northwest-southwest pattern. We identify the key meteorological controlling factors to be regional precipitation, temperature, and soil moisture, which are in turn mostly driven by large-scale changes in sea surface temperature and/or atmospheric circulation patterns, including the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In addition, fluctuations in the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust likely contribute to fine dust variability in March and April. We find that March fine dust concentrations have increased from 2002 to 2015 in the Southwest (0.06 ± 0.04 μg m-3 a-1, p Multiple linear regression analysis suggests that these increases are associated with the following: (1) regionally drier and warmer conditions driven by constructive interference between ENSO and PDO, (2) soil moisture reductions in areas spanning the North American deserts, and (3) enhanced trans-Pacific transport. Our results provide an observational basis for improving dust emission schemes and for assessing future dust activity under climate change.

  14. High resolution MRI anatomy of the cat brain at 3 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Edwards, Heather L.; Salibi, Nouha; Josephson, Eleanor M.; Hudson, Judith A.; Cox, Nancy R.; Randle, Ashley N.; McCurdy, Victoria J.; Bradbury, Allison M.; Wilson, Diane U.; Beyers, Ronald J.; Denney, Thomas S.; Martin, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline models of neurologic diseases, such as lysosomal storage diseases, leukodystrophies, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and NeuroAIDS, accurately recreate many aspects of human disease allowing for comparative study of neuropathology and the testing of novel therapeutics. Here we describe in vivo visualization of fine structures within the feline brain that were previously only visible post mortem. New Method 3 Tesla MR images were acquired using T1-weighted (T1w) 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence (0.4mm isotropic resolution) and T2-weighted (T2w) turbo spin echo (TSE) images (0.3×0.3×1 mm3 resolution). Anatomic structures were identified based on feline and canine histology. Results T2w high resolution MR images with detailed structural identification are provided in transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. T1w MR images are provided electronically in three dimensions for unrestricted spatial evaluation. Comparison with Existing Methods Many areas of the feline brain previously unresolvable on MRI are clearly visible in three orientations, including the dentate, interpositus and fastigial cerebellar nuclei, cranial nerves, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic radiation, cochlea, caudal colliculus, temporal lobe, precuneus, spinocerebellar tract, vestibular nuclei, reticular formation, pyramids and rostral and middle cerebral arteries. Additionally, the feline brain is represented in 3 dimensions for the first time. Conclusions These data establish normal appearance of detailed anatomical structures of the feline brain, which provide reference when evaluating neurologic disease or testing efficacy of novel therapeutics in animal models. PMID:24525327

  15. Testing the limits of high-resolution whole-rock δ13Ccarb stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, P.; Emsbo, P.; Brett, C.; Hurth, M.; Sell, B. K.; Johnson, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty about the effects of "diagenetic noise" on primary δ13Ccarb signals has been a principal obstacle in interpreting whole-rock δ13Ccarb stratigraphy. We have evaluated the fidelity of the whole-rock δ13Ccarb signal through a high-resolution sampling of correlative marine Paleozoic sections in North America and Europe across facies transitions spanning pure limestone to calcareous black shale and sandstone. Sections altered by metosomatic (diagenetic and hydrothermal) processes were specifically targeted for comparison with pristine unaltered sections. Precise stratigraphic correlations were confirmed using bentonite fingerprinting/dating, Sr-isotope stratigraphy, and whole-rock XRF chemistry. Our results demonstrate that whole-rock δ13Ccarb is an extraordinarily robust signal of global marine δ13C compositions. Correlative sections show strikingly similar δ13Ccarb values and patterns regardless of location, facies and rock type. Closely spaced successions of pristine limestone show highly reproducible δ13Ccarb profiles. Remarkably, δ13Ccarb trends cut across zones of alteration with no offset, and sections completely replaced by diagenetic/hydrothermal dolomite produce the same δ13Ccarb profiles as their unaltered counterparts. Our study confirms that whole-rock δ13Ccarb is an unprecedented chronostratigraphic tool. Our high-resolution approach identified abrupt offsets in δ13Ccarb profiles that correspond with unconformity horizons (supported by sedimentologic features) that can be correlated throughout different basins around the globe. A systematic covariation between shallowing-deepening trends and δ13Ccarb demonstrates its primary origin. The fidelity of the high-resolution record provides previously unattainable fine-scale temporal correlation - a resolution that, ultimately, will be required to fully understand the processes that fractionate the global carbon reservoir and have led to its overarching control on Earths evolution.

  16. MODELLING FINE SCALE MOVEMENT CORRIDORS FOR THE TRICARINATE HILL TURTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mondal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata, focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127–175 mm and home range (8000–15000 m2, with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  17. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  18. Fine morphological evaluation of hypothalamus in patients with hyperphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-05-01

    Various metabolic diseases induced by eating disorders are some of the most serious and difficult problems for modern public healthcare. However, little is known about hyperphagia, partly because of the lack of a clear definition. Several basic studies have analyzed eating habits using endocrinological or neurophysiological approaches, which have suggested a controlled balance between the hunger and satiety centers in the central nervous system. However, more detailed neuro-radiologic evaluations have not been achieved for the hypothalamus, and evaluations were limited only to the floor of the third ventricles. Fine structures of hypothalamic morphology were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in seven patients with hypothalamo-pituitary tumors, who suffered from preoperative hyperphagia-induced severe obesity and metabolic disorders. Body mass index (BMI) varied from 22.4 to 40.5 kg/m 2 (mean 32.8 kg/m 2 ). Clinical data were compared with the data of nine patients without hyperphagia and seven healthy volunteers. Morphological evaluation was possible in all patients and control subjects, and patients with hyperphagia had significantly shortened maximum distances between the ependymal layers of the lateral wall of the third ventricle and fornixes (hyperphagia group right side 0.30 mm, left side 0.23 mm vs. patients without hyperphagia group right side 1.60, left side 1.53 vs. healthy group right side 1.73 mm, left side 1.85 mm) (p hypothalamus in patients with hypothalamo-pituitary tumors. We report the first case of dynamic improvement from hyperphagia, with both symptomatic and neuro-radiological findings.

  19. Fine mapping a self-fertility locus in perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Canto, Javier; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2017-12-15

    A self-fertility locus was fine mapped to a 1.6 cM region on linkage group 5 in a perennial ryegrass population. This locus was the main determinant of pollen self-compatibility. In grasses, self-incompatibility (SI) is characterized by a two-loci gametophytic (S and Z) mechanism acting together in the recognition and inhibition of self-pollen. Mutations affecting the expression of SI have been reported in a few grass species. In perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), a mutation independent from S and Z, and mapping on linkage group 5 (LG 5), was previously reported to produce self-fertile plants. Here, we describe fine mapping of the self-fertility (SF) gene in a perennial ryegrass population and determine whether there is any effect of other genomic regions on the pollen compatibility. The phenotypic segregation of SF showed a bimodal distribution with one mean at 49% pollen compatibility and the other at 91%. Marker-trait association analysis showed that only markers on LG 5 were significantly associated with the trait. A single gene model explained 82% of the observed variability and no effects of the other regions were detected. Using segregation and linkage analysis, the SF locus was located to a 1.6 cM region on LG 5. The flanking marker sequences were aligned to rice and Brachypodium distachyon reference genomes to estimate the physical distance. We provide markers tightly linked to SF that can be used for introgression of this trait into advanced breeding germplasm. Moreover, our results represent a further step towards the identification of the SF gene in LG 5.

  20. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    of taxpayer assistance. A holding company structure in which the public parent holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at an operating financial subsidiary would facilitate a “Single Point of Entry” resolution procedure that would minimize knock-on effects from the failure of a systemically...

  1. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    of taxpayer assistance. A holding company structure in which the public parent holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at an operating financial subsidiary would facilitate a “Single Point of Entry” resolution procedure that would minimize knock-on effects from the failure of a systemically...

  2. Resolving the fine-scale deformation structure of continental hyperextension at the deep Galicia rift margin using seismic full waveform inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, R. G.; Morgan, J. V.; Minshull, T. A.; Bull, J. M.; Bayrakci, G.

    2016-12-01

    Hyperextension of the continental crust during ultra-slow, magma-poor rifting is accommodated by a series of complex fault geometries, preceding continental breakup. At such margins there exists a discrepancy between the extension observed along these fault systems and the total observed thinning of the continental lithosphere, with several competing hypotheses on the responsible mechanism. Despite this, it is agreed that a significant amount of the observed discrepancy is the result of unaccounted sub-seismic fault structure. In order to seismically image these fine scale structures it is imperative to develop accurate and well resolved velocity models of the subsurface, for the purpose of migrating reflection seismic images. Velocity models with the required resolution are unattainable using classic travel time tomography. However, seismic full waveform inversion could provide a suitable alternative to produce the required velocity models, with the method having the ability to resolve velocity structure up to an order of magnitude greater than that of travel time tomography. In this study we apply acoustic full waveform inversion to a 2D wide-angle seismic data set, collected at the hyperextended domain of the deep Galicia rift margin. Despite the challenging environment and dataset, our results show promising increases in the resolution of existing velocity models, particularly in correlation to the normal faulting associated with highly deformed continental fault blocks in the distal hyperextended domain.

  3. The Third Force in Folklore Studies: Gary Alan Fine's Sociological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to offer a critical overview of the theoretical and methodological contribution of micro-sociologist and social psychologist Gary Alan Fine to folklore studies. It begins with a discussion of both the major and most questioned points of his methodology, continues with a consideration of the wider folkloristical framework of his interpretation, and ends with a suggestion for innovation and improvement of Fine's analytical framework for the interpretation of folk narratives. Gary Alan Fine's most significant contribution to folklore studies was research of rumours and urban legends, including their meaning, function, and influence on individual behavior. In a series of papers, apart from offering an interpretation of various urban and corporate legends, he also demonstrated methods and means of connecting social and cultural factors with narrative content, in the context of social and economic structures and relations in post-industrial and late-capitalist global societies. Of special interest are papers in which he analyzes folklore as expressive culture and a form of symbolic communication between small groups, as an important form of selfidentification and behavior strategies both from within and without of the group. Fine makes a point when he diagnoses a lack of analyses of this sort in American folklore studies, wishing there were enough to make a significant turn in contemporary folkloristics. This is why Fine named his new research strategy the "third force". Another dimension of his contribution is the further elaboration of the analytical framework that relies on socio-structural, socio-psychological, symbolical and economical parameters of explanation. For that purpose, he constructed a theoretical and methodogical model called the folklore diamond. With his suggestions and critique of the existing state of folklore studies, Gary Alan Fine provided a very significant contribution to the science of folklore in general.

  4. Constraining fine tuning in composite Higgs models with partially composite leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James; Murnane, Daniel; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.

    2017-09-01

    Minimal Composite Higgs Models (MCHM) have long provided a solution to the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model, yet suffer from various sources of fine tuning that are becoming increasingly problematic with the lack of new physics observations at the LHC. We develop a new fine tuning measure that accurately counts each contribution to fine tuning (single, double, triple, etc) that can occur in a theory with n p parameters, that must reproduce n o observables. We then use a novel scanning procedure to perform a comprehensive study of three different two-site, 4D, SO(5) → SO(4) MCHMs with all third generation fermions included, distinguished by the choice of the lepton embeddings. These are the MCHM 5 - 5 - 5 5 - 5 - 5 , MCHM 14 - 14 - 10 5 - 5 - 5 and MCHM 14 - 1 - 10 5 - 5 - 5 , where MCHM l - τ - ν q - t - b has the lepton doublet partner in representation l, tau partner in representation τ, and so on. We find that embedding at least one massive lepton in the symmetric 14 of SO(5) moderately reduces the tuning for the case of low top partner masses (in line with previous results), but that this is balanced against the increased complexity of the model when one properly accounts for all sources of fine tuning. We study both the current relative fine-tuning of each scenario, and the future prospects. Noting that the different scenarios behave differently with respect to future improvements in collider measurements, we find that the MCHM 14 - 1 - 10 5 - 5 - 5 enjoys a relatively low increase in fine tuning even for a future lower bound on the top partner masses of 3.4 TeV (or equivalently a maximum Higgs-fermion or Higgs-gluon coupling deviation of 2%).

  5. Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from the burning of five common types of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Liwei; Xu, Wenxue; Zhang, Yating; Chen, Bing; Li, Weijun; Xue, Likun; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-11-01

    Nitrated phenols are among the major constituents of brown carbon and affect both climates and ecosystems. However, emissions from biomass burning, which comprise one of the most important primary sources of atmospheric nitrated phenols, are not well understood. In this study, the concentrations and proportions of 10 nitrated phenols, including nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids, and dinitrophenol, in fine particles from biomass smoke were determined under three different burning conditions (flaming, weakly flaming, and smoldering) with five common types of biomass (leaves, branches, corncob, corn stalk, and wheat straw). The total abundances of fine nitrated phenols produced by biomass burning ranged from 2.0 to 99.5 μg m-3. The compositions of nitrated phenols varied with biomass types and burning conditions. 4-nitrocatechol and methyl nitrocatechols were generally most abundant, accounting for up to 88-95% of total nitrated phenols in flaming burning condition. The emission ratios of nitrated phenols to PM2.5 increased with the completeness of combustion and ranged from 7 to 45 ppmm and from 239 to 1081 ppmm for smoldering and flaming burning, respectively. The ratios of fine nitrated phenols to organic matter in biomass burning aerosols were comparable to or lower than those in ambient aerosols affected by biomass burning, indicating that secondary formation contributed to ambient levels of fine nitrated phenols. The emission factors of fine nitrated phenols from flaming biomass burning were estimated based on the measured mass fractions and the PM2.5 emission factors from literature and were approximately 0.75-11.1 mg kg-1. According to calculations based on corn and wheat production in 31 Chinese provinces in 2013, the total estimated emission of fine nitrated phenols from the burning of corncobs, corn stalks, and wheat straw was 670 t. This work highlights the apparent emission of methyl nitrocatechols from biomass burning and provides

  6. Daily Estimation of Fine Particulate Matter Mass Concentration Through Satellite Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, H.; Li, Q.; Li, C. C.; Fan, J.; Jin, L.; Gong, C.; Mo, Y.; Hou, J.; Ahmad, A.

    2017-10-01

    Estimating exposure to fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) requires surface with high spatial resolution. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is one of MODIS products, being used to monitor PM2.5 concentration on ground level indirectly. In this research, AOD was derived in fine spatial resolution of 1×1 Km by utilizing an algorithm developed in which local aerosol models and conditions were took into account. Afterwards, due to spatial varying the relation between AOD-PM2.5, a regional scale geographically weighted regression model (GWR) was developed to derive daily seamless surface concentration of PM2.5 over Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. For this purpose , various combinations of explanatory variables were investigated in the base of data availability, among which the best one includes AOD, PBL height, mean value of RH in boundary layer, mean value of temperature in boundary layer, wind speed and pressure was selected for the proposed GWR model over study area. The results show that, our model produces surface concentration of PM2.5 with annual RMSE of 18.6μg/m3. Besides, the feasibility of our model in estimating air pollution level was also assessed and high compatibility between model and ground monitoring was observed, which demonstrates the capability of the MODIS AOD and proposed model to estimate ground level PM2.5.

  7. DAILY ESTIMATION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATION THROUGH SATELLITE BASED AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karimian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating exposure to fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5 requires surface with high spatial resolution. Aerosol optical depth (AOD is one of MODIS products, being used to monitor PM2.5 concentration on ground level indirectly. In this research, AOD was derived in fine spatial resolution of 1×1 Km by utilizing an algorithm developed in which local aerosol models and conditions were took into account. Afterwards, due to spatial varying the relation between AOD-PM2.5, a regional scale geographically weighted regression model (GWR was developed to derive daily seamless surface concentration of PM2.5 over Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. For this purpose , various combinations of explanatory variables were investigated in the base of data availability, among which the best one includes AOD, PBL height, mean value of RH in boundary layer, mean value of temperature in boundary layer, wind speed and pressure was selected for the proposed GWR model over study area. The results show that, our model produces surface concentration of PM2.5 with annual RMSE of 18.6μg/m3. Besides, the feasibility of our model in estimating air pollution level was also assessed and high compatibility between model and ground monitoring was observed, which demonstrates the capability of the MODIS AOD and proposed model to estimate ground level PM2.5.

  8. A Fine-Tooth Comb to Measure the Accelerating Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomical instruments needed to answer crucial questions, such as the search for Earth-like planets or the way the Universe expands, have come a step closer with the first demonstration at the telescope of a new calibration system for precise spectrographs. The method uses a Nobel Prize-winning technology called a 'laser frequency comb', and is published in this week's issue of Science. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 26a/08 A Laser Comb for Astronomy "It looks as if we are on the way to fulfil one of astronomers' dreams," says team member Theodor Hänsch, director at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) in Germany. Hänsch, together with John Hall, was awarded the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics for work including the frequency comb technique. Astronomers use instruments called spectrographs to spread the light from celestial objects into its component colours, or frequencies, in the same way water droplets create a rainbow from sunlight. They can then measure the velocities of stars, galaxies and quasars, search for planets around other stars, or study the expansion of the Universe. A spectrograph must be accurately calibrated so that the frequencies of light can be correctly measured. This is similar to how we need accurate rulers to measure lengths correctly. In the present case, a laser provides a sort of ruler, for measuring colours rather than distances, with an extremely accurate and fine grid. New, extremely precise spectrographs will be needed in experiments planned for the future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which is being designed by ESO, the European Southern Observatory. These new spectrographs will need to be calibrated with even more accurate 'rulers'. In fact, they must be accurate to about one part in 30 billions - a feat equivalent to measuring the circumference of the Earth to about a millimetre! "We'll need something beyond what current technology can offer, and that's where the laser frequency comb comes in. It is

  9. Developing a biomonitoring tool for fine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Matt; Bilotta, Gary; Brazier, Richard; Extence, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Sediment is an essential component of freshwater ecosystems; however anthropogenic activities can lead to elevated sediment delivery which can impact on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of these ecosystems. Ultimately, this can result in a loss of ecosystem services worth more than 1.7 trillion per annum. As such it is important that sediment, which is one of the most commonly attributed causes of water quality impairment globally, is managed in order to minimise these impacts. The current EU environmental quality standard for sediment (monitored in the form of suspended solids) is 25 mg L-1 for all environments. It is widely recognised that this standard is unsuitable and not ecologically relevant. Furthermore, it requires a substantial resource investment to monitor sediment in this form as part of national and international water resource legislation. In recognition of this the development of sediment-specific biomonitoring tools is receiving increasing attention. The Proportion of Sediment-Sensitive Invertebrates (PSI) index is one such tool that is designed to indicate levels of fine sediment (

  10. Interactions between Fine Wood Decomposition and Flammability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is nearly ubiquitous in the terrestrial biosphere, with profound effects on earth surface carbon storage, climate, and forest functions. Fuel quality is an important parameter determining forest fire behavior, which differs among both tree species and organs. Fuel quality is not static: when dead plant material decomposes, its structural, chemical, and water dynamic properties change, with implications for fuel flammability. However, the interactions between decomposition and flammability are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine decomposition’s effects on fuel quality and how this directly and indirectly affects wood flammability. We did controlled experiments on water dynamics and fire using twigs of four temperate tree species. We found considerable direct and indirect effects of decomposition on twig flammability, particularly on ignitability and burning time, which are important variables for fire spread. More decomposed twigs ignite and burn faster at given water content. Moreover, decomposed twigs dry out faster than fresh twigs, which make them flammable sooner when drying out after rain. Decomposed fine woody litters may promote horizontal fire spread as ground fuels and act as a fuel ladder when staying attached to trees. Our results add an important, previously poorly studied dynamic to our understanding of forest fire spread.

  11. Cosmological constant, fine structure constant and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hao; Zou, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze [Beijing Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    In the present work, we consider the cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α{sup -6}, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the hint of varying fine structure constant α was found in 1998. If Λ ∝ α{sup -6} is right, it means that the cosmological constant Λ should also be varying. Here, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant Λ ∝ α{sup -6}, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. Then we consider the observational constraints on these models by using the 293 Δα/α data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the very narrow ranges of O(10{sup -5}) typically. On the other hand, we can also view the varying cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α{sup -6} from another perspective, namely it can be equivalent to a model containing ''dark energy'' and ''warm dark matter'', but there is no interaction between them. We find that this is also fully consistent with the observational constraints on warm dark matter. (orig.)

  12. The fine art of ‘sourcery’

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The commissioning of the new Linac4 source – first element of the new acceleration chain for the upgrade of the LHC (sLHC) – started at the beginning of July. After years of preparation but after only a few hours of fine-tuning of the numerous parameters involved, the source has delivered its first negative ions. The civil engineering work for the new Linac4 going on near Restaurant 2.While the LHC is preparing for restart, teams of experts involved in the sLHC project are also working on the new facilities that will allow the LHC to run at higher luminosity. The beginning of the new chain of accelerators is Linac4, whose excavation works started October last year. "The particle source that we are commissioning now will be installed at the beginning of the path", explains Maurizio Vretenar, Linac4 project leader. "It is a critical element of the chain as all protons that will circulate in the CERN accelerators will originate from it." The Linac 4 source is differ...

  13. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  14. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  15. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hao; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. We propose two types of models to describe the evolutions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\alpha$. Then, we consider the observational constraints on these models, by using the 293 $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars, and the data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the narrow ranges of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$ t...

  16. High-resolution solution-state NMR of unfractionated plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Fachuang Lu; Hoon Kim; Dino Ress; Daniel J. Yelle; Kenneth E. Hammel; Sally A. Ralph; Bernadette Nanayakkara; Armin Wagner; Takuya Akiyama; Paul F. Schatz; Shawn D. Mansfield; Noritsugu Terashima; Wout Boerjan; Bjorn Sundberg; Mattias Hedenstrom

    2009-01-01

    Detailed structural studies on the plant cell wall have traditionally been difficult. NMR is one of the preeminent structural tools, but obtaining high-resolution solution-state spectra has typically required fractionation and isolation of components of interest. With recent methods for dissolution of, admittedly, finely divided plant cell wall material, the wall can...

  17. Physical limitations to the spatial resolution of solid-state detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Boronat, M; Frey, A; Garcia, I; Schwenker, B; Vos, M; Wilk, F

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effect of -ray emission and fluctuations in the signal deposition on the detection of charged particles in silicon-based detectors. We show that these two effects ultimately limit the resolution that can be achieved by interpolation of the signal in finely segmented position-sensitive solid-state devices.

  18. Shrinkage and swelling properties of flocculated mature fine tailings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Vardon, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric fines drying technique, mature fine tailings (MFT) are treated with polymers and deposited in thin layers on a sloped surface for sub-aerial drying. During the whole drying period, the tailings deposits can experience rewetting during periods of rainy weather or as result of the

  19. RSW Mixed Element Cell-Centered Fine Mesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a RSW mixed-element unstructured fine mesh for cell-centered solvers. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_fine_mixedcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad Surface Faces= 28968 UG3 :...

  20. Production and reproduction norms of fine woolled Merino sheep on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish a fine woolled Merino flock at the Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute in order to evaluate the production and reproduction performance of fine woolled animals against a control line on natural pastures in the Karoo. Data collected from 1989 to 1999 were used to ...

  1. Hydrological modelling of fine sediments in the Odzi River, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, since the empirical model was dependent on monitored runoff and fine sediment concentrations for calibration purposes, a field measurement campaign was conducted to assess the accuracy of observed data at the station studied. The field measurements showed large errors in monitored runoff and fine ...

  2. A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant. J P MBELEK. Service d'Astrophysique, C.E. Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. Abstract. The cosmological variation of the fine structure constant « is explored from an effective theory, under the form of an improved version of the 5D Kaluza-Klein theory.

  3. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  4. The Pluri-Fine Topology is Locally Connected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marzguioui, S.; Wiegerinck, J.J.O.O.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We prove that the pluri-fine topology on any open set $\\Omega$ in $\\mathbb{C}^{n}$ is locally connected. This answers a question by Fuglede. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) 32U15 - 31C40 Key words Pluri-fine topology - plurisubharmonic functions

  5. 49 CFR 107.336 - Limitation on fines and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on fines and penalties. 107.336 Section 107.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Criminal Penalties § 107.336 Limitation on fines and penalties. If...

  6. Performance of concrete with partial replacement of fine aggregates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aggregate, both fine and coarse are major components of concrete. The cost of these aggregates is on the increase. There is also a serious environmental concern for the disposal of waste glass world-wide. These factors are major thrusts of this study- the investigation of crushed waste glass as partial replacement of fine ...

  7. Fine root architecture of nine North American trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; Jared L. DeForest; Andrew J. Burton; Michael F. Allen; Roger W. Ruess; Ronald L. Hendrick

    2002-01-01

    The fine roots of trees are concentrated on lateral branches that arise from perennial roots. They are important in the acquisition of water and essential nutrients, and at the ecosystem level, they make a significant contribution to biogeochemical cycling. Fine roots have often been studied according to arbitrary size classes, e.g., all roots less than 1 or 2 mm in...

  8. effect of fines content on the engineering properties of reconstituted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... soils to be used as a highway material was investi- gated [12 - 14] but not much work has been done on the effect of fines on reconstituted lateritic soils for use as hydraulic barriers in waste containment sys- tems. Hence, this study was aimed at the evaluation of the effect of fines content on the engineering ...

  9. The Careers of Fine Artists and the Embedded Creative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of scholarship on the creative industries and on the career trajectories of graduates from creative industries programmes, there has to date only been a limited amount of research that examines in detail, the careers of fine arts graduates. Fine art is arguably the least "vocational" of creative disciplines,…

  10. InAs Band-Edge Exciton Fine Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    modulated by the excitation rate of the nanocrystals, fine-structure broadening is fundamental to the photophysics of nanocrystals and most likely... CdTe ) exhibited the same effective band-edge fine structure, with similar acoustic phonon energies. These extracted relaxation rates are consistent

  11. NASAL FILTERING OF FINE PARTICLES IN CHILDREN VS. ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal efficiency for removing fine particles may be affected by developmental changes in nasal structure associated with age. In healthy Caucasian children (age 6-13, n=17) and adults (age 18-28, n=11) we measured the fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (1 and 2um MMAD)...

  12. performance of concrete with partial replacement of fine aggregates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    reactive aggregate particle. Adaway and Wang [6] carried out a study on Recycled glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in structural concrete- Effects on compressive strength. They concluded that compressive strength increased up to a level of 30% replacement of fine aggregate with WG, at which point strength.

  13. Production and reproduction norms of fine woolled Merino sheep on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem J Olivier

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to establish a fine woolled Merino flock at the Grootfontein. Agricultural Development Institute in order to evaluate the production and reproduction performance of fine woolled animals against a control line on natural pastures in the Karoo. Data collected from 1989 to 1999 were used ...

  14. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong

    2015-12-28

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil "electrical sensitivity." Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems. © ASCE.

  15. Fines classification based on sensitivity to pore-fluid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil “electrical sensitivity.” Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems.

  16. A multi-resolution method for climate system modeling: application of Spherical Centroidal A multi-resolution method for climate system modeling: Application of Spherical Centroidal Voroni Tessellations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, Todd D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gunzburger, Max [FLORIDA STATE UNIV; Ju, Lili [UNIV OF SOUTH CAROLINA

    2008-01-01

    During the next decade and beyond, climate system models will be challenged to resolve scales and processes that are far beyond their current scope. Each climate system component has its prototypical example of an unresolved process that may strongly influence the global climate system, ranging from eddy activity within ocean models, to ice streams within ice sheet models, to surface hydrological processes within land system models, to cloud processes within atmosphere models. These new demands will almost certainly result in the develop of multi-resolution schemes that are able, at least regional to faithfully simulate these fine-scale processes. Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (SCVTs) offer one potential path toward the development of robust, multi-resolution climate system component models, SCVTs allow for the generation of high quality Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations through the use of an intuitive, user-defined density function, each of the examples provided, this method results in high-quality meshes where the quality measures are guaranteed to improve as the number of nodes is increased. Real-world examples are developed for the Greenland ice sheet and the North Atlantic ocean. Idealized examples are developed for ocean-ice shelf interaction and for regional atmospheric modeling. In addition to defining, developing and exhibiting SCVTs, we pair this mesh generation technique with a previously developed finite-volume method. Our numerical example is based on the nonlinear shallow-water equations spanning the entire surface of the sphere. This example is used to elucidate both the potential benefits of this multi-resolution method and the challenges ahead.

  17. Spatial resolution considerations for urban hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, G.; Kokkonen, T.; Valtanen, M.; Setälä, H.; Koivusalo, H.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological model simulations can be applied to evaluate the performance of low impact development (LID) tools in urban areas. However, the assessment for large-scale urban areas remains a challenge due to the required high spatial resolution and limited availability of field measurements for model calibration. This study proposes a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model (SWMM) with sufficiently high spatial resolution and direct accessibility of model parameters for LID performance simulation applicable to a large-scale ungauged urban area. Based on calibrated high-resolution models for three small-scale study catchments (6-12 ha), we evaluated how constraints implied by large-scale urban modelling, such as data limitations, affect the model results. The high-resolution surface representation, resulting in subcatchments of uniform surface types, reduced the number of calibration parameters. Calibration conducted independently for all catchments yielded similar parameter values for same surface types in each study catchment. These results suggest the applicability of the parameter values calibrated for high resolution models to be regionalized to larger, ungauged urban areas. The accessibility of surface specific model parameters for LID simulation is then also retained. Conducted perturbations in spatial resolution through sewer network truncation showed that while the runoff volume was mostly unaffected by resolution perturbations, lower resolutions resulted in over-simulation of peak flows due to excessively rapid catchment response to storm events. Our results suggest that a hydrological model where parameter values are adopted from high-resolution models and that is developed based on a minimum conduit diameter of 300 mm provides good simulation performance and is applicable to large-scale urban areas with reasonable effort.

  18. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  19. The Provident Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  20. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  1. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  2. Internet Medline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R

    1998-01-01

    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  3. Stored carbon partly fuels fine-root respiration but is not used for production of new fine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Douglas J; Matamala, Roser; Iversen, Colleen M; Norby, Richard J; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A

    2013-07-01

    The relative use of new photosynthate compared to stored carbon (C) for the production and maintenance of fine roots, and the rate of C turnover in heterogeneous fine-root populations, are poorly understood. We followed the relaxation of a (13)C tracer in fine roots in a Liquidambar styraciflua plantation at the conclusion of a free-air CO(2) enrichment experiment. Goals included quantifying the relative fractions of new photosynthate vs stored C used in root growth and root respiration, as well as the turnover rate of fine-root C fixed during [CO(2)] fumigation. New fine-root growth was largely from recent photosynthate, while nearly one-quarter of respired C was from a storage pool. Changes in the isotopic composition of the fine-root population over two full growing seasons indicated heterogeneous C pools; 2 yr. Compared to a one-pool model, a two-pool model for C turnover in fine roots (with 5 and 0.37 yr(-1) turnover times) doubles the fine-root contribution to forest NPP (9-13%) and supports the 50% root-to-soil transfer rate often used in models. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Stored carbon partly fuels fine-root respiration but is not used for production of new fine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Douglas J [ORNL; Matamala-Paradeda, Roser [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Gonzalez-Meler, Miguel A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The relative use of new photosynthate compared to stored C for the production and maintenance of fine roots, and the rate of C turnover in heterogeneous fine-root populations, are poorly understood. We followed the relaxation of a 13C tracer in fine roots in a Liquidambar styraciflua plantation at the conclusion of a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment. Goals included quantifying the relative fractions of new photosynthate versus stored C used in root growth and root respiration, as well as the turnover rate of fine-root C fixed during [CO2] fumigation. New fine-root growth was largely from recent photosynthate, while nearly one-quarter of respired C was from a storage pool. Changes in the isotopic composition of the fine-root population over two full growing seasons indicated heterogeneous C pools; less than 10% of root C had a residence time < 3 months, while a majority of root C had a residence time > 2 years. Compared to a 1-pool model, a 2-pool model for C turnover in fine roots (with 5 and 0.37 yr-1 turnover times) doubles the fine-root contribution to forest NPP (9-13%) and supports the 50% root-to-soil transfer rate often used in models.

  5. Preparation of clay mineral samples for high resolution x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbati, Gennaro; Seim, Christian; Legall, Herbert; Stiel, Holger; Thomas, Noel; Wilhein, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    In the development of optimum ceramic materials for plastic forming, it is of fundamental importance to gain insight into the compositions of the clay minerals. Whereas spectroscopic methods are adequate for determining the elemental composition of a given sample, a knowledge of the spatial composition, together with the shape and size of the particles leads to further, valuable insight. This requires an imaging technique such as high resolution X-ray microscopy. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy provides a viable element mapping technique. Since the fine particle fraction of the materials has a major effect on physical properties like plasticity, the analysis is focused mainly on the smallest particles. To separate these from the bigger agglomerates, the raw material has to pass through several procedures like centrifugation and filtering. After that, one has to deposit a layer of appropriate thickness on to a suitable substrate. These preparative techniques are described here, starting from the clay mineral raw materials and proceeding through to samples that are ready to analyze. First results using high resolution x-ray imaging are shown.

  6. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in study of the skin: Normal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, Nicolas, E-mail: sans.n@chu-toulouse.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Faruch, Marie; Chiavassa-Gandois, Helene; Ribes, Catherine Lalande Champetier de [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Paul, Carle [Service de Dermatologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Larrey, Toulouse (France); Railhac, Jean-Jacques [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, Place du Dr Baylac, TSA 40031, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To validate quantitative and qualitative criteria of normal healthy skin using high-resolution MR imaging. Materials and methods: FIESTA and spin echo sequences of the skin of the heel, back and calf were obtained in 31 healthy volunteers. A dedicated 3-in. coil for study of the skin was used to optimize reception sensitivity. Quantitative analysis was performed to measure skin thickness in these three sites and qualititative analysis aimed to differentiate the various skin layers. Results: With both sequences, the stratum corneum appeared as a hyperintense layer. The epidermis was visualized appeared as a fine, homogeneous, hyperintense line. The dermoepidermal junction was clearer particularly in the calf. The dermis was also identified in each sequence and in each anatomic site. The signal was hypointense in both sequences, homogeneous with spin echo and more heterogeneous with FIESTA. Moreover the interface between the papillary and the reticular dermis could be distinguished. The hypodermis was visualized in both sequences and in all sites and hypodermal inclusions in the dermis were seen particularly in the back and calf. Lastly, the pilosebaceous follicles and the deep vascular network of the reticular dermis were more clearly seen with FIESTA sequence. Measures of overall skin thickness and for each layer according to site, sex and MRI sequence were performed. Statistical analysis was then performed to seek significant differences between the results according to these parameters. Conclusion: MR imaging provides global analysis with high resolution of the various skin layers down to the hypodermis and the muscular fascia.

  7. High-resolution passive sampling of dissolved methane in the water column of lakes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A. E.; Cadieux, S. B.; White, J. R.; Pratt, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic lakes are important participants in the global carbon cycle, releasing methane in a warming climate and contributing to a positive feedback to climate change. In order to yield detailed methane budgets and understand the implications of warming on methane dynamics, high-resolution profiles revealing methane behavior within the water column need to be obtained. Single day sampling using disruptive techniques has the potential to result in biases. In order to obtain high-resolution, undisturbed profiles of methane concentration and isotopic composition, this study evaluates a passive sampling method over a multi-day equilibration period. Selected for this study were two small lakes (Gatos Research Methane Carbon Isotope Analyzer. PDB sampling and pump sampling resulted in statistically similar concentrations (R2=0.89), ranging from 0.85 to 135 uM from PDB and 0.74 to 143 uM from pump sampling. In anoxic waters of the lake, where concentrations were high enough to yield robust isotopic results on the LGR MCIA, δ13C were also similar between the two methods, yielding -73‰ from PDB and -74‰ from pump sampling. Further investigation will produce results for a second lake and methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition for both lakes. Preliminary results for this passive sampling method are promising. We envision the use of this technique in future studies of dissolved methane and expect that it will provide a more finely resolved vertical profile, allowing for a more complete understanding of lacustrine methane dynamics.

  8. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  9. EDITORIAL: Cluster issue on fine particle magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, D.

    2008-07-01

    This Cluster issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics arises from the 6th International Conference on Fine Particle Magnetism (ICFPM) held in Rome during 9-12 October 2007 at the headquarters of the National Research Council (NCR). It contains a collection of papers based on both invited and contributed presentations at the meeting. The ICFPM Conferences have previously been held in Rome, Italy (1991), Bangor, UK (1996), Barcelona, Spain (1999), Pittsburgh, USA (2002) and London, UK (2004). The aim of this series of Conferences is to bring together the experts in the field of nanoparticle magnetism at a single forum to discuss recent developments in both theoretical and experimental aspects, and technological applications. The Conference programme included sessions on: new materials, novel synthesis and processing techniques, with special emphasis on self-organized magnetic arrays; theory and modelling; surface and interface properties; transport properties; spin dynamics; magnetization reversal mechanisms; magnetic recording media and permanent magnets; biomedical applications and advanced investigation techniques. I would like to thank the European Physical Society and the Innovative Magnetic and Superconducting Materials and Devices Project of the Materials and Devices Department and the Institute of Structure of Matter (ISM) of CNR for their support. Thanks are also due to the members of the Programme Committee, to the local Organizing Committee, chaired by Elisabetta Agostinelli and to all the Conference participants. I am also indebted to the many scientists who contributed to assuring the high-quality of this Cluster by donating their time to reviewing the manuscripts contained herein. Finally, I'd like to dedicate this issue to the memories of Jean Louis Dormann, a great expert in nanoparticle magnetism, who was one of the promoters and first organizers of this series of Conferences, and of Grazia Ianni, the Conference secretary, who died before her

  10. Ultra-Fine Scale Spatially-Integrated Mapping of Habitat and Occupancy Using Structure-From-Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip McDowall

    Full Text Available Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM, a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale three-dimensional (3D habitat models at low cost. These models can capture the abiotic conditions formed by terrain and simultaneously record the position of individual organisms within that terrain. While coloniality is common in seabird species, we have a poor understanding of the extent to which dense breeding aggregations are driven by fine-scale active aggregation or limited suitable habitat. We demonstrate the use of SfM for fine-scale habitat suitability by reconstructing the locations of nests in a gentoo penguin colony and fitting models that explicitly account for conspecific attraction. The resulting digital elevation models (DEMs are used as covariates in an inhomogeneous hybrid point process model. We find that gentoo penguin nest site selection is a function of the topography of the landscape, but that nests are far more aggregated than would be expected based on terrain alone, suggesting a strong role of behavioral aggregation in driving coloniality in this species. This integrated mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat will greatly improve our understanding of fine-scale habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the complex bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use.

  11. Multi-scale geospatial agroecosystem modeling: a case study on the influence of soil data resolution on carbon budget estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, D.; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Xu, Min; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Aiping; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigate negative impacts of climate change requires accurate quantification of the spatial variation and magnitude of the terrestrial carbon (C) flux. However, the spatial pattern and strength of terrestrial C sinks and sources remain uncertain. In this study, we designed a spatially-explicit agroecosystem modeling system by integrating the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model with multiple sources of geospatial and surveyed datasets (including crop type map, elevation, climate forcing, fertilizer application, tillage type and distribution, and crop planting and harvesting date), and applied it to examine the sensitivity of cropland C flux simulations to two widely used soil databases (i.e. State Soil Geographic-STATSGO of a scale of 1:250,000 and Soil Survey Geographic-SSURGO of a scale of 1:24,000) in Iowa, USA. To efficiently execute numerous EPIC runs resulting from the use of high resolution spatial data (56m), we developed a parallelized version of EPIC. Both STATSGO and SSURGO led to similar simulations of crop yields and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) estimates at the State level. However, substantial differences were observed at the county and sub-county (grid) levels. In general, the fine resolution SSURGO data outperformed the coarse resolution STATSGO data for county-scale crop-yield simulation, and within STATSGO, the area-weighted approach provided more accurate results. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated NEP were more sensitive to the resolution difference between SSURGO and STATSGO at the county or grid scale. For over 60% of the cropland areas in Iowa, the deviations between STATSGO- and SSURGO-derived NEP were larger than 1MgCha(-1)yr(-1), or about half of the average cropland NEP, highlighting the significant uncertainty in spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated C fluxes resulting from

  12. Super-resolution microscopy by movable thin-films with embedded microspheres: Resolution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Kenneth W.; Farahi, Navid; Astratov, Vasily N. [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, 28223-0001 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Li, Yangcheng [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, 28223-0001 (United States); Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I.; Walker, Dennis E. Jr. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Urbas, Augustine M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Liberman, Vladimir [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Microsphere-assisted imaging has emerged as an extraordinary simple technique of obtaining optical super-resolution. This work addresses two central problems in developing this technology: (i) methodology of the resolution measurements and (ii) limited field-of-view provided by each sphere. It is suggested that a standard method of resolution analysis in far-field microscopy based on convolution with the point-spread function can be extended into the super-resolution area. This allows developing a unified approach to resolution measurements, which can be used for comparing results obtained by different techniques. To develop the surface scanning functionality, the high-index (n ∝ 2) barium titanate glass microspheres were embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin-films. It is shown that such films adhere to the surface of nanoplasmonic structures so that the tips of embedded spheres experience the objects' optical near-fields. Based on rigorous criteria, the resolution ∝λ/6-λ/7 (where λ is the illumination wavelength) is demonstrated for arrays of Au dimers and bowties. Such films can be translated along the surface of investigated samples after liquid lubrication. It is shown that just after lubrication the resolution is diffraction limited, however the super-resolution gradually recovers as the lubricant evaporates. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  14. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence

    OpenAIRE

    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  16. Dynamic modeling and compensation of fine wire thermocouple based on rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Liao, Guangxuan

    2001-08-01

    When transient temperature is measured by thermocouples, the result is largely influenced by thermocouple's dynamic performance. This problem is encountered in measuring flame temperature fluctuation by using of fine wire thermocouple. Because the heat transfer coefficient mostly depends upon the gas temperature and flow speed, the time constant of fine wire thermocouple is not equal in different temperature ranges. The time constant calibrated in low temperature is not valid in this kind of measurement. Typically frequency of fluctuation in flame is less than 7KHz. The fine wire thermocouple often has to be compensated to meet this working frequency band. The compensation range is determined by its time constant in high temperature. High temperature step source with sharp rise is needed in dynamic calibrating this kind of fine wire thermocouples. A dynamic calibration system based on a set of rocket engine and different propellant is introduced to study the dynamic performance of the thermocouples. This set of rocket engine is designed to have same nozzle exhaust Mach number. Different engines with different propellant provide different high temperature step sources. Experiment is conducted in rocket engine static state experiment laboratory. The position of thermocouple is determined according to numerical simulation results. Dynamic modeling and compensation methods are introduced to process the calibration results.

  17. Comparison of Maximal Lingual Pressure Generation During Isometric Gross and Fine Sensorimotor Tasks in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole; Churness, Kim; Hind, Jacqueline; Gangnon, Ronald; Banaszynski, Kelsey; Robbins, JoAnne

    2015-10-01

    To (1) compare 2 distinct isometric lingual press tasks, fine sensorimotor versus gross sensorimotor, at multiple sensor locations in relation to age and sex; and (2) provide a normative data set using a lingual-strengthening device. Cohort study. University. Healthy men and women (N=71; age range, 21-82y) recruited from the community. Participants were stratified by age and sex and divided into 3 age groups. Participants completed, in random order, 2 isometric tasks: (1) fine sensorimotor: tongue press maximally and discreetly against each of 5 sensors; and (2) gross sensorimotor: tongue press maximally against all 5 sensors simultaneously. Primary outcome was maximum isometric pressure in hectopascals (hPa). Secondary outcomes were time to reach peak pressure (s) and pressure gradient (hPa/s). Maximum pressures were significantly lower in those of older age for both fine and gross sensorimotor lingual tasks (Psensorimotor task generating higher pressures at the front sensor for all age groups. However, the gross sensorimotor task generated faster maximum pressures at all sensor locations for all age groups. For both sensorimotor tasks, subjects of older age as a whole generated less steep pressure gradients (Psensorimotor task may be more beneficial for targeting timing as a biomechanical parameter during therapy, and the fine sensorimotor task may be more beneficial for targeting strength. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Signal crayfish as zoogeomorphic agents: diel patterns of fine sediment suspension in a crayfish-affected river and the implications for fine sediment fluxes and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stephen; Johnson, Matthew; Reeds, Jake; Longstaff, Holly; Extence, Chris

    2013-04-01

    The signal crayfish (Pacifasticus leniusculus) is a formidable invasive species that has had a deleterious impact on native freshwater fauna across Europe. We contend that the impact of this animal extends beyond ecology into geomorphology and hypothesise that crayfish are significant agents of fine sediment recruitment and mobilisation, with potentially profound impacts on water quality, substrate quality and fine sediment fluxes. Building on pioneering work by colleagues at Queen Mary University, London this poster considers the role of crayfish in fine sediment suspension in a lowland, gravel-bed river. The hypothesis that nocturnal increases in crayfish activity are associated with a greater frequency of sediment suspension events and increases in ambient turbidity, is tested. Strong diel fluctuations in water turbidity were recorded at several sites on the Brampton Arm of the River Nene in England, a river heavily populated by signal crayfish, during August and September 2012. With the exception of three summer flood events, stage measurements during the same period were essentially flat, ruling out a hydraulic cause for overnight rises in turbidity. Water samples collected at midnight and at midday at one site confirm this diel pattern for suspended sediment concentration. Higher mean turbidity values overnight are associated with an increase in the magnitude and frequency of isolated turbidity spikes or events and this is consistent with crayfish nocturnalism. In particular, we suspect that turbidity events are caused by the construction and maintenenance of burrows and by interactions between crayfish and the river bed while foraging, fighting and avoiding each other. Tying the diel SSC signal directly to crayfish activity proved difficult, but several lines of argument presented here suggest that crayfish are the most likely cause of the diel pattern. These results provide substantial support for the idea that signal crayfish are important zoogeomorphic

  19. Time and depth scales of fine sediment delivery into gravel stream beds: Constraints from fallout radionuclides on fine sediment residence time and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, J. D.; Renshaw, C. E.; Dade, W. B.; Magilligan, F. J.

    2012-05-01

    Particles of fine sediment can clog interstitial pore spaces of coarser grained sediment in river beds and thereby impede the exchange of water, dissolved constituents, and particulate matter with consequent ecological impacts. The extent to which fine sediment reduces connectivity between the stream bed and overlying channel is a function, in part, of sediment residence time. Short residence times imply frequent exchange of matter and reduced impact of fine sediment on stream bed habitat, while long residence times indicate that with respect to fine sediment delivery, the stream bed is more isolated from the overlying channel. Here we present a novel technique to quantify the residence time of river bed sediment at various depths over annual and decadal timescales using the fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 7Be (t1/2 = 53 days) and 210Pbex (t1/2 = 22.3 years). We placed mesh cylinders filled with 7Be-free sediment into a stream bed to quantify the capture of 7Be-tagged particles in the absence of scour and fill. We also took cores to the depth of refusal in alluvial sediment in unregulated and regulated rivers in Vermont and New Hampshire. Sampled watershed areas ranged from 29 to 410 km2, and core depths ranged from 19 to 77 cm. The 210Pbex activity profiles of cores show that bed sediment is exchanged to the depth of refusal at decadal timescales. In contrast, 7Be activity profiles indicate that fine sediment infiltrating into the bed had residence times ranging from 4 to > 300 days in unregulated rivers. Cores from a regulated river are notably different—subsurface sediment residence times were always longer than in unregulated rivers at comparable depths, likely owing to restriction of bed mobilization and clogging of bed material by fine sediment. These results suggest that filtration can be an important component of bed material delivery to stream beds, but filtration does not deliver material as deeply into the bed as scour and fill. We find that fallout

  20. 8 CFR 280.1 - Notice of intention to fine; administrative proceedings not exclusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of intention to fine; administrative... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.1 Notice of intention to fine; administrative... administrative fine under the Immigration and Nationality Act, he shall cause a Notice of Intention to Fine, Form...

  1. The relative contribution of near-bed vs. intragravel horizontal transport to fine sediment accumulation processes in river gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Lakhanpal, Garima; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding flow-sediment interactions is important for comprehending river functioning. Fine sediment accumulation processes, in particular, have key implications for ecosystem health. However, the amount of fines generated by intragravel flows and later accumulated in gravel streambeds may have been underestimated, as the hydraulic-related driving transport mechanisms in play are not clearly identified. Specifically, the relative contribution of fines from upper vs. lower sediment layers in gravel beds is not well understood. By recreating flooded and dewatered conditions in an experimental flume filled with natural sediment, we estimated such contributions by observing and collecting intragravel transported fines that were later accumulated into a void in the middle of the sediment matrix. Near-bed transport in the upper sediment layers (named Brinkman load) during flooded conditions accounted for most (90%) of the accumulated fines. Intragravel transport in the lower sediment layers (named Interstitial load) was the sole source of transport and accumulation during dewatered conditions with steeper hydraulic gradients. Interstitial load accounted for 10% of the total transport during flooded conditions. Although small, such estimations demonstrate that hydraulic-gradient transport in the lower sediment layers occurs in spite of the contradicting analytical assessments. We provide a case study to challenge the traditional approaches of assessing intragravel transport, and a useful framework to understand the origin and relative contribution of fine sediment accumulation in gravel beds. Such knowledge will be highly useful for the design of monitoring programs aiding river management, particularly in regulated rivers.

  2. The role of fines in the modification of the fluidization and dispersion mechanism within dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Jagdeep; Harris, Haggis; Jones, Matthew D; Kaerger, J Sebastian; Price, Robert

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the role of in situ generated fine excipient particles on the fluidization and aerosolization properties of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Carrier based DPI formulations were prepared under low and high shear blending. Powder rheometery was utilized to measure bulk powder properties in a consolidated and aerated state. Powder fluidization and aerosolization characteristics were related to bulk powder properties using high speed imaging and inertial impaction measurements. High shear blending of formulations resulted in the in situ generation of excipient fines, which corresponded to an increase in aerosolization efficiency. The generation of fines were shown to increase the tensile strength and free volume of the carrier, which resulted in a characteristic change in the fluidization properties, as observed by high speed imaging. The increase in minimum fluidization velocity and aerodynamic drag forces required to aerate the powder may provide the source of energy for the increase in fine particle re-suspension. The in situ generation of excipient fines affect bulk powder properties of DPI formulations, which directly affects fluidization and aerosolization behaviour of DPI formulations. The study suggests an alternative mode of action by which fines increase DPI formulation performance.

  3. Self-compacting fine-grained concretes with compensated shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov Lev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper substantiates the efficiency of application of fine-grained concrete for erection of cast-in-place concrete and reinforced concrete structures of different purpose. On the basis of analysis of experimental research results it was established that the introduction of microfillers with expansion effect to composite binder allows not only improving the rheological properties of fine-grained concrete, but also decreasing of value of shrinkage strain and improving of concrete crack resistance and durability. The analysis of the results of industrial use of fine-grained concretes with compensated shrinkage is given.

  4. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-11-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  5. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  6. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbraith, Amy E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  7. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  8. LHCb VELO tracking resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. T.; LHCb VELO Group

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to make precision measurements of mesons and baryons containing b and c quarks. Many analyses performed using data from LHCb examine properties of particles and anti-particles as a function of proper decay time. Precise measurements of production and decay vertices are thus essential. The Vertex Locator (VELO) subdetector of LHCb performs this task. The excellent performance of the VELO with respect to the resolutions it achieves on single hits, impact parameters, and primary vertex positions is presented, with particular attention paid to measurement of impact parameters.

  9. Fine-Grained Forward-Secure Signature Schemes without Random Oracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camenisch, Jan; Koprowski, Maciej

    2006-01-01

    We propose the concept of fine-grained forward-secure signature schemes. Such signature schemes not only provide nonrepudiation w.r.t. past time periods the way ordinary forward-secure signature schemes do but, in addition, allow the signer to specify which signatures of the current time period...... remain valid when revoking the public key. This is an important advantage if the signer produces many signatures per time period as otherwise the signer would have to re-issue those signatures (and possibly re-negotiate the respective messages) with a new key.Apart from a formal model for fine......-grained forward-secure signature schemes, we present practical schemes and prove them secure under the strong RSA assumption only, i.e., we do not resort to the random oracle model to prove security. As a side-result, we provide an ordinary forward-secure scheme whose key-update time is significantly smaller than...

  10. EDITORIAL Invited papers from the 7th International Conference on Fine Particle Magnetism 2010 Invited papers from the 7th International Conference on Fine Particle Magnetism 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordblad, Per

    2010-12-01

    This cluster issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains a collection of papers based on invited and contributed talks given at the 7th International Conference on Fine Particle Magnetism (ICFPM) held from 21-24 June, 2010 at the Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University in Sweden. The ICFPM conferences have previously been held in Rome, Italy (1991), Bangor, UK (1996), Barcelona, Spain (1999), Pittsburgh, USA (2002), London, UK (2004) and Rome, Italy (2007); the 8th ICFPM is to be organized in Perpignan, France (2013). The aim of this series of conferences is to bring together experts in the field of fine particle magnetism to discuss recent fundamental experimental and theoretical findings as well as new technological developments and applications. Thus, the conference programme included sessions ranging from basic studies of nanomagnetism to biomedical applications of fine magnetic particles. The local organizers of ICFPM-2010 want to thank the Swedish Research Council (VR), the Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) and LOT-Oriel Group Europe for financial support. We also acknowledge Akademikonferens for effective administration of the conference and Uppsala University for support and for providing the venue. Last but not least, we thank all participants for making the conference scientifically interesting and socially enjoyable.

  11. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  12. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  13. Resolution limits for wave equation imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2014-08-01

    Formulas are derived for the resolution limits of migration-data kernels associated with diving waves, primary reflections, diffractions, and multiple reflections. They are applicable to images formed by reverse time migration (RTM), least squares migration (LSM), and full waveform inversion (FWI), and suggest a multiscale approach to iterative FWI based on multiscale physics. That is, at the early stages of the inversion, events that only generate low-wavenumber resolution should be emphasized relative to the high-wavenumber resolution events. As the iterations proceed, the higher-resolution events should be emphasized. The formulas also suggest that inverting multiples can provide some low- and intermediate-wavenumber components of the velocity model not available in the primaries. Finally, diffractions can provide twice or better the resolution than specular reflections for comparable depths of the reflector and diffractor. The width of the diffraction-transmission wavepath is approximately λ at the diffractor location for the diffraction-transmission wavepath. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  14. A general CFD framework for fault-resilient simulations based on multi-resolution information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-10-01

    We develop a general CFD framework for multi-resolution simulations to target multiscale problems but also resilience in exascale simulations, where faulty processors may lead to gappy, in space-time, simulated fields. We combine approximation theory and domain decomposition together with statistical learning techniques, e.g. coKriging, to estimate boundary conditions and minimize communications by performing independent parallel runs. To demonstrate this new simulation approach, we consider two benchmark problems. First, we solve the heat equation (a) on a small number of spatial "patches" distributed across the domain, simulated by finite differences at fine resolution and (b) on the entire domain simulated at very low resolution, thus fusing multi-resolution models to obtain the final answer. Second, we simulate the flow in a lid-driven cavity in an analogous fashion, by fusing finite difference solutions obtained with fine and low resolution assuming gappy data sets. We investigate the influence of various parameters for this framework, including the correlation kernel, the size of a buffer employed in estimating boundary conditions, the coarseness of the resolution of auxiliary data, and the communication frequency across different patches in fusing the information at different resolution levels. In addition to its robustness and resilience, the new framework can be employed to generalize previous multiscale approaches involving heterogeneous discretizations or even fundamentally different flow descriptions, e.g. in continuum-atomistic simulations.

  15. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-12-05

    Dec 5, 2008 ... Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution will be of interests to students and scholars of trade, international relations, and conflict studies. ... This project will provide evidence on the role of high-quality, affordable daycare in allowing mothers to work in paid employment in poor urban contexts.

  16. Resolution of praziquantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Woelfle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Praziquantel remains the drug of choice for the worldwide treatment and control of schistosomiasis. The drug is synthesized and administered as a racemate. Use of the pure active enantiomer would be desirable since the inactive enantiomer is associated with side effects and is responsible for the extremely bitter taste of the pill. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified two resolution approaches toward the production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer. One approach starts with commercially available praziquantel and involves a hydrolysis to an intermediate amine, which is resolved with a derivative of tartaric acid. This method was discovered through an open collaboration on the internet. The second method, identified by a contract research organisation, employs a different intermediate that may be resolved with tartaric acid itself. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both resolution procedures identified show promise for the large-scale, economically viable production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer for a low price. Additionally, they may be employed by laboratories for the production of smaller amounts of enantiopure drug for research purposes that should be useful in, for example, elucidation of the drug's mechanism of action.

  17. Fine Particle Matter (PM2.5) Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fine particulate matter or PM2.5 (total mass of particles below 2.5 micron is diameter) is known to cause adverse health effects in humans.See the following websites...

  18. Acoustic Agglomeration Process of Fine Particles in a Resonance Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen-hao; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Liang, Jie

    2017-07-01

    It was proved that the acoustic agglomeration technology has a good application prospect in the removal of fine particles. In this paper, a removal system of acoustic agglomeration is constructed by the acoustic resonance structure. With the finite element simulation model, the effect and condition of sound pressure level (SPL) increment of high intensity sound in the resonance structure are defined. In the experiment, the contrast of the sampling weight and particle size distribution changes of fine particles was compared under different operating conditions to examine the effect of acoustic agglomeration on the removal efficiency of fine particles. The results show the SPL increment of 10dB is obtained with SPL 145-165 dB when the working frequency is changed from 400 to 2000 Hz. Under the action of acoustic agglomeration, fine particles in the aerosol were significantly reduced, and the removal effect is markedly improved with the increase of SPL.

  19. Advanced Portable Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist (FWM) is a promising replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance,...

  20. Fine 5 segab vett, liiva ja videot / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2000-01-01

    Tantsutrupi Five 5 lavastustest (trupp tegutseb 1992. a., on väja kasvanud tantsuteatrist Nordic Star), ka 1992. a. Fine 5 juurde loodud stuudio-koolist, kus on võimalik õppida modern- ja nüüdistantsu