WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing external memory

  1. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... common ancestors, tree contraction and expression tree evaluation. We also study the problems of computing the connected and biconnected components of a graph, minimum spanning tree of a connected graph and ear decomposition of a biconnected graph. All our solutions on a P-processor PEM model provide...

  2. RAM-efficient external memory sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Thorup, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a large number of problems have been considered in external memory models of computation, where the complexity measure is the number of blocks of data that are moved between slow external memory and fast internal memory (also called I/Os). In practice, however, internal memory tim...... often dominates the total running time once I/O-efficiency has been obtained. In this paper we study algorithms for fundamental problems that are simultaneously I/O-efficient and internal memory efficient in the RAM model of computation....

  3. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where......Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...

  4. External-Memory Algorithms and Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The data sets involved in many modern applications are often too massive to fit in main memory of even the most powerful computers and must therefore reside on disk. Thus communication between internal and external memory, and not actual computation time, becomes the bottleneck in the computation....... This is due to the huge difference in access time of fast internal memory and slower external memory such as disks. The goal of theoretical work in the area of external memory algorithms (also called I/O algorithms or out-of-core algorithms) has been to develop algorithms that minimize the Input....../Output communication (or just I/O) performed when solving a given problem. The area was effectively started in the late eighties by Aggarwal and Vitter and subsequently I/O algorithms have been developed for several problem domain. Also I/O performance can often be improved if many disks can efficiently be used...

  5. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...... exhibiting various tradeoffs with respect to performance. Two of the algorithms are cache-oblivious. We describe general algorithms for networks with weighted and unweighted edges and a specialized algorithm for networks with small diameters, as is common in social networks exhibiting the “small worlds...

  6. Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N

  7. Optimal External-Memory Planar Point Enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Samoladas, Vasilis; Yi, Ke

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the external memory planar point enclosure problem: Given N axis-parallel rectangles in the plane, construct a data structure on disk (an index) such that all K rectangles containing a query point can be reported I/O-efficiently. This problem has important applications in e...... term O(K/B) is desired. To show this we prove a general lower bound on the tradeoff between the size of the data structure and its query cost. We also develop a family of structures with matching space and query bounds....

  8. On (dynamic) range minimum queries in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, L.; Fischer, Johannes; Sanders, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We study the one-dimensional range minimum query (RMQ) problem in the external memory model. We provide the first space-optimal solution to the batched static version of the problem. On an instance with N elements and Q queries, our solution takes Θ(sort(N + Q)) = Θ( N+QB log M /B N+QB ) I....../O complexity and O(N + Q) space, where M is the size of the main memory and B is the block size. This is a factor of O(log M /B N) improvement in space complexity over the previous solutions. We also show that an instance of the batched dynamic RMQ problem with N updates and Q queries can be solved in O ( N...

  9. Multithreaded Asynchronous Graph Traversal for In-Memory and Semi-External Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger

    2010-11-01

    Processing large graphs is becoming increasingly important for many domains such as social networks, bioinformatics, etc. Unfortunately, many algorithms and implementations do not scale with increasing graph sizes. As a result, researchers have attempted to meet the growing data demands using parallel and external memory techniques. We present a novel asynchronous approach to compute Breadth-First-Search (BFS), Single-Source-Shortest-Paths, and Connected Components for large graphs in shared memory. Our highly parallel asynchronous approach hides data latency due to both poor locality and delays in the underlying graph data storage. We present an experimental study applying our technique to both In-Memory and Semi-External Memory graphs utilizing multi-core processors and solid-state memory devices. Our experiments using synthetic and real-world datasets show that our asynchronous approach is able to overcome data latencies and provide significant speedup over alternative approaches. For example, on billion vertex graphs our asynchronous BFS scales up to 14x on 16-cores. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Analogical Reasoning in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Effects of External Memories and Time Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaes, Caroline; Berger, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning involves the comparison of pictures as well as the memorisation of relations. Young children (4-7 years old) and students with moderate intellectual disability have a short memory span, which hampers them in succeeding traditional analogical tests. In the present study, we investigated if, by providing external memory hints,…

  11. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  12. External memory aids for memory problems in people with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Rachel; Lincoln, Nadina; das Nair, Roshan; Bateman, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 40-60% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have memory problems, which adversely impact on their everyday functioning. Evidence supports the use of external memory aids in people with stroke and brain injury, and suggests they may reduce everyday memory problems in people with MS. Previous reviews of people with MS have only evaluated randomised trials; therefore this review included other methodologies. The aim was to assess the efficacy of external memory aids for people with MS for improving memory functioning, mood, quality of life, and coping strategies. Seven databases were systematically searched. Intervention studies that involved training in the use of external memory aids, e.g., personal digital assistants, with at least 75% of people with MS, were included. Based on study design, quality was rated with the SCED or PEDro scale. Nine studies involving 540 participants were included. One single case experimental design (mean of 8 on SCED scale) and eight group studies (mean of 5 on PEDro scale) were included. One study reported a significant treatment effect on subjective memory functioning, two on mood, and two on coping strategies. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of external memory aids for improving memory function in people with MS.

  13. Efficient external memory structures for range-aggregate queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Yang, J.; Arge, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present external memory data structures for efficiently answering range-aggregate queries. The range-aggregate problem is defined as follows: Given a set of weighted points in Rd, compute the aggregate of the weights of the points that lie inside a d-dimensional orthogonal query rectangle. The...

  14. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different ...... partitions, and thereby limit the amount of disk access and network communication. We report on several experiments made with our verification platform ASAP that implements the dynamic partitioning scheme proposed in this paper....

  15. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  16. An exploration of the relations between external representations and working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Zhang

    Full Text Available It is commonly hypothesized that external representations serve as memory aids and improve task performance by means of expanding the limited capacity of working memory. However, very few studies have directly examined this memory aid hypothesis. By systematically manipulating how information is available externally versus internally in a sequential number comparison task, three experiments were designed to investigate the relation between external representations and working memory. The experimental results show that when the task requires information from both external representations and working memory, it is the interaction of information from the two sources that determines task performance. In particular, when information from the two sources does not match well, external representations hinder instead of enhance task performance. The study highlights the important role the coordination among different representations plays in distributed cognition. The general relations between external representations and working memory are discussed.

  17. Distributing Working Memory Resources and the Use of External Representations on Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 一徳; 宮谷, 真人

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how problem solvers use distributing working memory resources over internal and external epresentations. Participants played three-dimensional versions of number guessing games. The playing of number guessing games is directly related to consumption of working memory resources. They could use arbitrarily the game record windows which are the external representations of these games and, thus, they could distribute working memory demands over internal working memory resource...

  18. Hänsel, Gretel and the slime mould—how an external spatial memory aids navigation in complex environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ferguson, Jules; Reid, Chris R.; Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-10-01

    The ability to navigate through an environment is critical to most organisms’ ability to survive and reproduce. The presence of a memory system greatly enhances navigational success. Therefore, natural selection is likely to drive the creation of memory systems, even in non-neuronal organisms, if having such a system is adaptive. Here we examine if the external spatial memory system present in the acellular slime mould, Physarum polycephalum, provides an adaptive advantage for resource acquisition. P. polycephalum lays tracks of extracellular slime as it moves through its environment. Previous work has shown that the presence of extracellular slime allows the organism to escape from a trap in laboratory experiments simply by avoiding areas previously explored. Here we further investigate the benefits of using extracellular slime as an external spatial memory by testing the organism’s ability to navigate through environments of differing complexity with and without the ability to use its external memory. Our results suggest that the external memory has an adaptive advantage in ‘open’ and simple bounded environments. However, in a complex bounded environment, the extracellular slime provides no advantage, and may even negatively affect the organism’s navigational abilities. Our results indicate that the exact experimental set up matters if one wants to fully understand how the presence of extracellular slime affects the slime mould’s search behaviour.

  19. Resource-sharing between internal maintenance and external selection modulates attentional capture by working memory content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Egner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear why and under what circumstances working memory (WM) and attention interact. Here, we apply the logic of the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of WM (e.g., Barrouillet et al., 2004) to explore the mixed findings of a separate, but related, literature that studies the guidance of visual attention by WM contents. Specifically, we hypothesize that the linkage between WM representations and visual attention is governed by a time-shared cognitive resource that alternately refreshes internal (WM) and selects external (visual attention) information. If this were the case, WM content should guide visual attention (involuntarily), but only when there is time for it to be refreshed in an internal focus of attention. To provide an initial test for this hypothesis, we examined whether the amount of unoccupied time during a WM delay could impact the magnitude of attentional capture by WM contents. Participants were presented with a series of visual search trials while they maintained a WM cue for a delayed-recognition test. WM cues could coincide with the search target, a distracter, or neither. We varied both the number of searches to be performed, and the amount of available time to perform them. Slowing of visual search by a WM matching distracter-and facilitation by a matching target-were curtailed when the delay was filled with fast-paced (refreshing-preventing) search trials, as was subsequent memory probe accuracy. WM content may, therefore, only capture visual attention when it can be refreshed, suggesting that internal (WM) and external attention demands reciprocally impact one another because they share a limited resource. The TBRS rationale can thus be applied in a novel context to explain why WM contents capture attention, and under what conditions that effect should be observed.

  20. Resource-sharing between internal maintenance and external selection modulates attentional capture by working memory content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia eKiyonaga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear why and under what circumstances working memory (WM and attention interact. Here, we apply the logic of the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS model of WM (e.g., Barrouillet, Bernardin, & Camos, 2004 to explore the mixed findings of a separate, but related, literature that studies the guidance of visual attention by WM contents. Specifically, we hypothesize that the linkage between WM representations and visual attention is governed by a time-shared cognitive resource that alternately refreshes internal (WM and selects external (visual attention information. If this were the case, WM content should guide visual attention (involuntarily, but only when there is time for it to be refreshed in an internal focus of attention. To provide an initial test for this hypothesis, we examined whether the amount of unoccupied time during a WM delay could impact the magnitude of attentional capture by WM contents. Participants were presented with a series of visual search trials while they maintained a WM cue for a delayed-recognition test. WM cues could coincide with the search target, a distracter, or neither. We varied both the number of searches to be performed, and the amount of available time to perform them. Slowing of visual search by a WM matching distracter—and facilitation by a matching target—were curtailed when the delay was filled with fast-paced (refreshing-preventing search trials, as was subsequent memory probe accuracy. WM content may, therefore, only capture visual attention when it can be refreshed, suggesting that internal (WM and external attention demands reciprocally impact one another because they share a limited resource. The TBRS rationale can thus be applied in a novel context to explain why WM contents capture attention, and under what conditions that effect should be observed.

  1. Need for Cognition and False Memory: Can One's Natural Processing Style Be Manipulated by External Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootan, Samantha S; Leding, Juliana K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to provide an enhanced understanding of need for cognition (NFC) and its influence on one's memory accuracy. People who are high in NFC tend to put more cognitive effort into their mental processes than their low-NFC counterparts. To determine whether one's natural processing tendencies, as determined by NFC, can be influenced by external factors, manipulations to levels of processing were added. Participants viewed word lists from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and were instructed to process half of the DRM lists deeply and the other half shallowly. After all the lists were presented, participants completed 3 successive recall tests. The deep processing condition produced higher rates of false memories for both NFC groups than the shallow processing condition. In addition, the high-NFC group produced higher rates of target recall in both the deep and shallow conditions than the low-NFC group. However, the high-NFC group also produced higher rates of false recall for the shallowly processed lists. These data indicate that high-NFC people exhibit enhanced target recall for word lists, which may come at the expense of overall accuracy due to the increase of false recall.

  2. The Impact of Parents, Child Care Providers, Teachers, and Peers on Early Externalizing Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rebecca B.; Measelle, Jeffrey R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized growth mixture modeling to examine the impact of parents, child care providers, teachers, and peers on the prediction of distinct developmental patterns of classroom externalizing behavior in elementary school. Among 241 children, three groups were identified. 84.6% of children exhibited consistently low externalizing behavior.…

  3. Algorithm of control systems required accuracy providing under the undetermined external disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Zbrutskyi, O.; Zagirska, I.; Stetsenko, T.

    2011-01-01

    New control algorithm and algorithm for providing required quality are defined. It based on comparison the forecast system condition, allowance conditions value, dynamic system properties and undetermined external disturbances compensation.

  4. The Effect of External Incentives on Profits and Firm-Provided Incentives Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ofer H. Azar

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the firm's choice of incentives when workers face additional incentives (“external incentives”) to those provided by the firm, such as building reputation that improves the workers' prospects with other employers, or satisfaction from working well. Surprisingly, the firm might find it optimal to increase the incentives it provides following an increase in external incentives. Even if the firm reduces its incentives, however, total incentives unambiguously increase, leadin...

  5. The impact of parents, child care providers, teachers, and peers on early externalizing trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rebecca B; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2010-12-01

    This study utilized growth mixture modeling to examine the impact of parents, child care providers, teachers, and peers on the prediction of distinct developmental patterns of classroom externalizing behavior in elementary school. Among 241 children, three groups were identified. 84.6% of children exhibited consistently low externalizing behavior. The externalizing behavior of the Chronic High group (5.8%) remained elevated throughout elementary school; it increased over time in the Low Increasing group (9.5%). Negative relationships with teachers and peers in the kindergarten classroom increased the odds of having chronically high externalizing behavior. Teacher-child conflict increased the likelihood of a developmental pattern of escalating externalizing behavior. Boys were overrepresented in the behaviorally risky groups, and no sex differences in trajectory types were found. Copyright © 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between primary healthcare providers and their external supervisors in Rwanda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schriver, Michael; Cubaka, Vincent K; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    of the relationship between providers in public primary healthcare facilities and their external supervisors in Rwanda. SETTING: We conducted three focus group discussions with primary healthcare providers (n = 16), three with external supervisors (n = 15) and one mixed (n = 5). METHODS: Focus groups were facilitated......, it appeared linked to excessive evaluation anxiety among Rwandan primary healthcare providers. Supervisors related this mainly to inescapable evaluations within performance-based financing, whereas providers additionally related it to communication problems. CONCLUSION: External supervision appeared driven...... by systematic performance evaluations, which may prompt a strongly asymmetric supervisory power relation and challenge intentions to explore providers' experienced work problems. There is a risk that this may harm provider motivation, calling for careful attention to factors that influence the supervisory...

  7. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Meyer, Oanh L; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2015-09-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator: Formalization of Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the formalization of relationships with external service providers in the development of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report summarizes the process in developing and formalizing relationships with those service providers and includes a sample letter of cooperation executed with each provider.

  9. External Memory Algorithms for Diameter and All-Pair Shortest-Paths on Sparse Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Meyer, Ulrich; Toma, Laura

    2004-01-01

    We present several new external-memory algorithms for finding all-pairs shortest paths in a V -node, Eedge undirected graph. For all-pairs shortest paths and diameter in unweighted undirected graphs we present cache-oblivious algorithms with O(V · E B logM B E B) I/Os, where B is the block......-size and M is the size of internal memory. For weighted undirected graphs we present a cache-aware APSP algorithm that performs O(V · ( V E B +E B log E B )) I/Os. We also present efficient cacheaware algorithms that find paths between all pairs of vertices in an unweighted graph with lengths within a small...

  10. Continual and One-Shot Learning Through Neural Networks with Dynamic External Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüders, Benno; Schläger, Mikkel; Korach, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Training neural networks to quickly learn new skills without forgetting previously learned skills is an important open challenge in machine learning. A common problem for adaptive networks that can learn during their lifetime is that the weights encoding a particular task are often overridden when...... a new task is learned. This paper takes a step in overcoming this limitation by building on the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENTM) approach. In the ENTM, neural networks are augmented with an external memory component that they can write to and read from, which allows them to store...

  11. Daily Suction Provided by External Volume Expansion Inducing Regeneration of Grafted Fat in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuan; Liao, Yunjun; Lu, Feng; Gao, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    Fat grafting has variable and sometimes poor outcomes, and therefore new methods are needed. Multiple studies have demonstrated the excellent performance of external volume expansion and focused only on preexpansion with emphasis on the recipient. Two mouse models (a suction model and a fat-exchange transplantation model) were established to investigate changes in the origins and biological behaviors of regeneration-related cells in grafted fat under daily suction provided by external volume expansion. Blood supply increased from new host-derived capillaries or macrophage infiltration under suction. CD34-positive cells showed increased migration from the host into the grafts under suction. At week 12, nearly half of the mature adipocytes regenerated in the grafts in the suction group were derived from the host. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression of the suction group was significantly higher than that of controls at weeks 2 and 4 during adipogenesis. The normalized sample weight of the grafted fat was significantly greater than that of controls at 1 (0.081 ± 0.001 versus 0.072 ± 0.005; p suction provided by external volume expansion favors the regeneration of grafted fat and improves retention by promoting the migration of regeneration-related cells and the differentiation of adipocytes. Thus, more mature fat tissue with a well-organized structure was formed under suction.

  12. Working Memory as Internal Attention: Toward an Integrative Account of Internal and External Selection Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Egner, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) and attention have been studied as separate cognitive constructs, although it has long been acknowledged that attention plays an important role in controlling the activation, maintenance, and manipulation of representations in WM. WM has, conversely, been thought of as a means of maintaining representations to voluntarily guide perceptual selective attention. It has more recently been observed, however, that the contents of WM can capture visual attention, even when such internally maintained representations are irrelevant, and often disruptive, to the immediate external task. Thus the precise relationship between WM and attention remains unclear, but it appears that they may bi-directionally impact one another, whether or not internal representations are consistent with external perceptual goals. This reciprocal relationship seems, further, to be constrained by limited cognitive resources to handle demands in either maintenance or selection. We propose here that the close relationship between WM and attention may be best described as a give-and-take interdependence between attention directed toward actively maintained internal representations (traditionally considered WM) versus external perceptual stimuli (traditionally considered selective attention), underpinned by their shared reliance on a common cognitive resource. Put simply, we argue that WM and attention should no longer be considered as separate systems or concepts, but as competing and impacting one another because they rely on the same limited resource. This framework can offer an explanation for the capture of visual attention by irrelevant WM contents, as well as a straightforward account of the underspecified relationship between WM and attention. PMID:23233157

  13. Volumetric Differences in Cerebellar Lobes in Individuals from Multiplex Alcohol Dependence Families and Controls: Their Relationship to Externalizing and Internalizing Disorders and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shirley Y; Lichenstein, Sarah D; Wang, Shuhui; O'Brien, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    Offspring from families with multiple cases of alcohol dependence have a greater likelihood of developing alcohol dependence and related substance use disorders. Greater susceptibility for these disorders may be related to cerebellar morphology. Because posterior regions of the cerebellum are associated with cognitive abilities, we investigated whether high-risk offspring would display regionally specific differences in cerebellar morphology and whether these would be related to working memory performance. The relationship to externalizing and internalizing psychopathology was of interest because cerebellar morphology has previously been associated with a cognitive affective syndrome. A total of 131 participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with volumes of the cerebellar lobes obtained with manual tracing. These individuals were from high-risk (HR) for alcohol dependence families (N = 72) or from low-risk (LR) control families (N = 59). All were enrolled in a longitudinal follow-up that included repeated clinical assessments during childhood and young-adulthood prior to the scan that provided information on Axis I psychopathology. The Working Memory Index of the Wechsler Memory Scale was given at the time of the scan. Larger volumes of the corpus medullare and inferior posterior lobes and poorer working memory performance were found for the HR offspring relative to LR controls. Across all subjects, a significant positive association between working memory and total volume of corpus of the cerebellum was seen, controlling for familial risk. Presence of an internalizing or externalizing disorder interacting with familial risk was also associated with volume of the corpus medullare.

  14. A New Local Bipolar Autoassociative Memory Based on External Inputs of Discrete Recurrent Neural Networks With Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Caigen; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Luo, Chaomin; Zhang, Huaguang

    In this paper, local bipolar auto-associative memories are presented based on discrete recurrent neural networks with a class of gain type activation function. The weight parameters of neural networks are acquired by a set of inequalities without the learning procedure. The global exponential stability criteria are established to ensure the accuracy of the restored patterns by considering time delays and external inputs. The proposed methodology is capable of effectively overcoming spurious memory patterns and achieving memory capacity. The effectiveness, robustness, and fault-tolerant capability are validated by simulated experiments.In this paper, local bipolar auto-associative memories are presented based on discrete recurrent neural networks with a class of gain type activation function. The weight parameters of neural networks are acquired by a set of inequalities without the learning procedure. The global exponential stability criteria are established to ensure the accuracy of the restored patterns by considering time delays and external inputs. The proposed methodology is capable of effectively overcoming spurious memory patterns and achieving memory capacity. The effectiveness, robustness, and fault-tolerant capability are validated by simulated experiments.

  15. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  16. Maternal depression and trajectories of child internalizing and externalizing problems: the roles of child decision making and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E; Ruddy, A; Midouhas, E

    2017-04-01

    Maternal depression may affect the emotional/behavioural outcomes of children with normal neurocognitive functioning less severely than it does those without. To guide prevention and intervention efforts, research must specify which aspects of a child's cognitive functioning both moderate the effect of maternal depression and are amenable to change. Working memory and decision making may be amenable to change and are so far unexplored as moderators of this effect. Our sample was 17 160 Millennium Cohort Study children. We analysed trajectories of externalizing (conduct and hyperactivity) and internalizing (emotional and peer) problems, measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at the ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years, using growth curve models. We characterized maternal depression, also time-varying at these ages, by a high score on the K6. Working memory was measured with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Spatial Working Memory Task, and decision making (risk taking and quality of decision making) with the Cambridge Gambling Task, both at age 11 years. Maternal depression predicted both the level and the growth of problems. Risk taking and poor-quality decision making were related positively to externalizing and non-significantly to internalizing problems. Poor working memory was related to both problem types. Neither decision making nor working memory explained the effect of maternal depression on child internalizing/externalizing problems. Importantly, risk taking amplified the effect of maternal depression on internalizing problems, and poor working memory that on internalizing and conduct problems. Impaired decision making and working memory in children amplify the adverse effect of maternal depression on, particularly, internalizing problems.

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of external source memory and its relation to cognitive insight in non-clinical subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Hawco, Colin; Bodnar, Michael; Izadi, Sarah; Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Messina, Katrina; Lepage, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has linked cognitive insight (a measure of self-reflectiveness and self-certainty) in psychosis with neurocognitive and neuroanatomical disturbances in the fronto-hippocampal neural network. The authors' goal was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive insight during an external source memory paradigm in non-clinical subjects. At encoding, 24 non-clinical subjects travelled through a virtual city where they came across 20 separate people, each paired with a unique object in a distinct location. fMRI data were then acquired while participants viewed images of the city, and completed source recognition memory judgments of where and with whom objects were seen, which is known to involve prefrontal cortex. Cognitive insight was assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. External source memory was associated with neural activity in a widespread network consisting of frontal cortex, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporal and occipital cortices. Activation in VLPFC correlated with higher self-reflectiveness and activation in midbrain correlated with lower self-certainty during source memory attributions. Neither self-reflectiveness nor self-certainty significantly correlated with source memory accuracy. By means of virtual reality and in the context of an external source memory paradigm, the study identified a preliminary functional neural basis for cognitive insight in the VLPFC in healthy people that accords with our fronto-hippocampal theoretical model as well as recent neuroimaging data in people with psychosis. The results may facilitate the understanding of the role of neural mechanisms in psychotic disorders associated with cognitive insight distortions. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. The Benefits of Providing External Beam Radiotherapy in Low- and Middle-income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, M L; Hanna, T P; Shafiq, J; Ferlay, J; Bray, F; Delaney, G P; Barton, M

    2017-02-01

    More than half of all cancer diagnoses worldwide occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the incidence is projected to rise substantially within the next 20 years. Radiotherapy is a vital, cost-effective treatment for cancer; yet there is currently a huge deficit in radiotherapy services within these countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential outcome benefits if external beam radiotherapy was provided to all patients requiring such treatment in LMICs, according to the current evidence-based guidelines. Projected estimates of these benefits were calculated to 2035, obtained by applying the previously published Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes, Research and Evaluation (CCORE) demand and outcome benefit estimates to cancer incidence and projection data from the GLOBOCAN 2012 data. The estimated optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate for all LMICs was 50%. There were about 4.0 million cancer patients in LMICs who required radiotherapy in 2012. This number is projected to increase by 78% by 2035, a far steeper increase than the 38% increase expected in high-income countries. National radiotherapy benefits varied widely, and were influenced by case mix. The 5 year population local control and survival benefits for all LMICs, if radiotherapy was delivered according to guidelines, were estimated to be 9.6% and 4.4%, respectively, compared with no radiotherapy use. This equates to about 1.3 million patients who would derive a local control benefit in 2035, whereas over 615 000 patients would derive a survival benefit if the demand for radiotherapy in LMICs was met. The potential outcome benefits were found to be higher in LMICs. These results further highlight the urgent need to reduce the gap between the supply of, and demand for, radiotherapy in LMICs. We must attempt to address this 'silent crisis' as a matter of priority and the approach must consider the complex societal challenges unique to LMICs. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College

  19. Generation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate from externally provided acetate in rice root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    During the investigation of the metabolism of ¹⁴C-acetate or ¹⁴C-succinate in rice seedlings, an unknown organic acid (X) with a high specific radioactivity was detected in 10,000 × g 30 min precipitate-fraction of rice roots. The X was hardly extracted by 0.1 N-H₂SO₄ boiling, but was extracted by 0.5 N-KOH boiling. The X was co-chromatographed with several known organic acids, and the radioactive peak of the X matched β-hydroxybutyric acid (β-hydroxybutyrate). The radioactive X and β-hydroxybutyrate were then heated with concentrated H₂SO₄. The radioactivity and the titration value were completely converted to crotonic acid. Thus, it was concluded that the X was β-hydroxybutyrate, and the original form of this acid was presumed to be poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Then rice root incubated with 2-¹⁴C-acetate was extracted with hot-ethanol, ethanol/ether, and hot-chloroform. Approximately 10% of the radioactivity absorbed was detected in the chloroform fraction. The chloroform fraction was co-precipitated with authentic PHB by the addition of acetone/ether, and almost all the radioactivity was co-precipitated with the PHB. The radioactive co-precipitate was then heated with 0.5 N-NaOH, and chromatographed. The radioactivity of β-hydroxybutyrate plus crotonic acid almost matched that of the co-precipitate before alkaline-hydrolysis. Hence the radioactive co-precipitate was confirmed to be PHB. In wheat and radish seedlings, 2-¹⁴C-acetate was also assimilated into PHB. It is concluded that externally provided acetate was rapidly converted to PHB in higher plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of External Memory Access Performance on a High-End FPGA Hybrid Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kalaitzis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of this research was to evaluate the main memory performance of a hybrid super computer such as the Convey HC-x, and ascertain how the controller performs in several access scenarios, vis-à-vis hand-coded memory prefetches. Such memory patterns are very useful in stencil computations. The theoretical bandwidth of the memory of the Convey is compared with the results of our measurements. The accurate study of the memory subsystem is particularly useful for users when they are developing their application-specific personality. Experiments were performed to measure the bandwidth between the coprocessor and the memory subsystem. The experiments aimed mainly at measuring the reading access speed of the memory from Application Engines (FPGAs. Different ways of accessing data were used in order to find the most efficient way to access memory. This way was proposed for future work in the Convey HC-x. When performing a series of accesses to memory, non-uniform latencies occur. The Memory Controller of the Convey HC-x in the coprocessor attempts to cover this latency. We measure memory efficiency as a ratio of the number of memory accesses and the number of execution cycles. The result of this measurement converges to one in most cases. In addition, we performed experiments with hand-coded memory accesses. The analysis of the experimental results shows how the memory subsystem and Memory Controllers work. From this work we conclude that the memory controllers do an excellent job, largely because (transparently to the user they seem to cache large amounts of data, and hence hand-coding is not needed in most situations.

  1. External muscle heating during warm-up does not provide added performance benefit above external heating in the recovery period alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Steve H; Ferguson, Richard A; Hodder, Simon G; Havenith, George

    2013-11-01

    Having previously shown the use of passive external heating between warm-up completion and sprint cycling to have had a positive effect on muscle temperature (T m) and maximal sprint performance, we sought to determine whether adding passive heating during active warm up was of further benefit. Ten trained male cyclists completed a standardised 15 min sprint based warm-up on a cycle ergometer, followed by 30 min passive recovery before completing a 30 s maximal sprint test. Warm up was completed either with or without additional external passive heating. During recovery, external passive leg heating was used in both standard warm-up (CONHOT) and heated warm-up (HOTHOT) conditions, for control, a standard tracksuit was worn (CON). T m declined exponentially during CON, CONHOT and HOTHOT reduced the exponential decline during recovery. Peak (11.1 %, 1561 ± 258 W and 1542 ± 223 W), relative (10.6 % 21.0 ± 2.2 W kg(-1) and 20.9 ± 1.8 W kg(-1)) and mean (4.1 %, 734 ± 126 W and 729 ± 125 W) power were all improved with CONHOT and HOTHOT, respectively compared to CON (1,397 ± 239 W; 18.9 ± 3.0 W kg(-1) and 701 ± 109 W). There was no additional benefit of HOTHOT on T m or sprint performance compared to CONHOT. External heating during an active warm up does not provide additional physiological or performance benefit. As noted previously, external heating is capable of reducing the rate of decline in T m after an active warm-up, improving subsequent sprint cycling performance.

  2. Endorsing good quality assurance practices in molecular pathology: risks and recommendations for diagnostic laboratories and external quality assessment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembuyser, Lien; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance is an indispensable element in a molecular diagnostic laboratory. The ultimate goal is to warrant patient safety. Several risks that can compromise high quality procedures are at stake, from sample collection to the test performed by the laboratory, the reporting of test results to clinicians, and the organization of effective external quality assessment schemes. Quality assurance should therefore be safeguarded at each level and should imply a holistic multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to provide an overview of good quality assurance practices and discusses certain risks and recommendations to promote and improve quality assurance for both diagnostic laboratories and for external quality assessment providers. The number of molecular targets is continuously rising, and new technologies are evolving. As this poses challenges for clinical implementation and increases the demand for external quality assessment, the formation of an international association for improving quality assurance in molecular pathology is called for.

  3. [Data from automated external defibrillators provide important information on the quality of in-hospital resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergård, Lone Due; Løfgren, Bo; Krarup, Niels Henrik Vinther; Holm, Tina; Andersen, Lone Kærslund

    2014-09-01

    International guidelines recommend monitoring the outcome following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Using data from automatic external defibrillators (AED) prospectively collected during a three-year period in a regional hospital, we evaluated the treatment quality of resuscitation. Time to defibrillation was acceptable, but quality of chest compressions did not comply with current international recommendations. AED use led to a high fraction of time with no chest compressions. Survival to discharge was 11%. Consequently, training in basic and advanced life support of hospital staff has been modified.

  4. External Providers' Sexuality Education Teaching and Pedagogies for Primary School Students in Grade 1 to Grade 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Many primary school teachers avoid teaching sexuality education. In light of the earlier maturing of both boys and girls, and the educationally and personally significant effects of their experience of puberty, this is unfair to children. In response to this avoidance, however, some schools employ external providers of sexuality education, who…

  5. Implementation of client versus care-provider strategies to improve external cephalic version rates: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, F.; Rosman, A.N.; Rijnders, M.E.; Beuckens, A.; Opmeer, B.C.; Mol, B.W.J.; Kok, M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Onjective: To determine the effectiveness of a client or care-provider strategy to improve the implementation of external cephalic version. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial.Setting: Twenty-five clusters; hospitals and their referring midwifery practices randomly selected in the

  6. Dialogue and collaboration for Energy Efficient Facilities Management: municipal sector strategies and the role of external service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenqvist, Christian; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Bengtsson, Per-Otto

    2015-01-01

    reorientations on the Swedish energy efficiency service market, e.g. municipal organisations show greater preference for in-house capacity as opposed to long-term contractual arrangements with external companies. Collaborations are sought with energy efficiency service providers that can deliver real...

  7. A Facile Approach Toward Scalable Fabrication of Reversible Shape-Memory Polymers with Bonded Elastomer Microphases as Internal Stress Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Long Fei; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Chen, Xu Dong

    2017-08-01

    The present communication reports a novel strategy to fabricate reversible shape-memory polymer that operates without the aid of external force on the basis of a two-phase structure design. The proof-of-concept material, crosslinked styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS, dispersed phase)/polycaprolactone-based polyurethane (PU, continuous phase) blend, possesses a closely connected microphase separation structure. That is, SBS phases are chemically bonded to crosslinked PU by means of a single crosslinking agent and two-step crosslinking process for increasing integrity of the system. Miscibility between components in the blend is no longer critical by taking advantage of the reactive blending technique. It is found that a suitable programming leads to compressed SBS, which serves as internal expansion stress provider as a result. The desired two-way shape-memory effect is realized by the joint action of the temperature-induced reversible opposite directional deformabilities of the crystalline phase of PU and compressed SBS, accompanying melting and orientated recrystallization of the former. Owing to the broadness of material selection and manufacturing convenience, the proposed approach opens an avenue toward mass production and application of the smart polymer. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Contralateral delay activity provides a neural measure of the number of representations in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkai, Akiko; McCollough, Andrew W; Vogel, Edward K

    2010-04-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) helps to temporarily represent information from the visual environment and is severely limited in capacity. Recent work has linked various forms of neural activity to the ongoing representations in VWM. One piece of evidence comes from human event-related potential studies, which find a sustained contralateral negativity during the retention period of VWM tasks. This contralateral delay activity (CDA) has previously been shown to increase in amplitude as the number of memory items increases, up to the individual's working memory capacity limit. However, significant alternative hypotheses remain regarding the true nature of this activity. Here we test whether the CDA is modulated by the perceptual requirements of the memory items as well as whether it is determined by the number of locations that are being attended within the display. Our results provide evidence against these two alternative accounts and instead strongly support the interpretation that this activity reflects the current number of objects that are being represented in VWM.

  9. The relationship between primary healthcare providers and their external supervisors in Rwanda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schriver, Michael; Cubaka, Vincent K; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    by systematic performance evaluations, which may prompt a strongly asymmetric supervisory power relation and challenge intentions to explore providers' experienced work problems. There is a risk that this may harm provider motivation, calling for careful attention to factors that influence the supervisory...... relationship. It is a dilemma that providers most in need of supervision to improve performance may be most unlikely to benefit from it. This study reveals a need for provider-oriented supportive supervision including constructive attention on providers who have performance difficulties, effective relationship...... building and communication, objective and diligent evaluation and two-way feedback channels....

  10. Fish oil provides robust and sustained memory recovery after cerebral ischemia: influence of treatment regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Bacarin, Cristiano; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Dias Fiuza Ferreira, Emilene; Valério Romanini, Cássia; Weffort de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria; Milani, Humberto

    2013-07-02

    We previously reported that long-term treatment with fish oil (FO) facilitates memory recovery after transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI), despite the presence of severe hippocampal damage. The present study tested whether this antiamnesic effect resulted from an action of FO on behavioral performance itself, or whether it resulted from an anti-ischemic action. Different treatment regimens were used that were distinguished from each other by their initiation or duration with regard to the onset of TGCI and memory assessment. Naive rats were trained in an eight-arm radial maze, subjected to TGCI (4-VO model, 15 min), and tested for memory performance up to 6 weeks after TGCI. Fish oil (docosahexaenoic acid, 300 mg/kg/day) was given orally according to one of the following regimens: regimen 1 (from 3 days prior to ischemia until 4 weeks post-ischemia), regimen 2 (from 3 days prior to ischemia until 1 week post-ischemia), and regimen 3 (from week 2 to week 5 post-ischemia). When administered according to regimens 1 and 2, FO abolished amnesia completely. This effect persisted for at least 5 weeks after discontinuing the treatment. Such an effect did not occur, however, in the group treated according to regimen 3. Hippocampal and cortical damage was not alleviated by FO. The present results demonstrate that FO-mediated memory recovery (or preservation) following TGCI is a reproducible, robust, and long-lasting effect. Moreover, such an effect was found with a relatively short period of treatment, provided it covered the first days prior to and after ischemia. This suggests that FO prevented amnesia by changing some acute, ischemia/reperfusion-triggered process and not by stimulating memory performance on its own. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  12. Resource-sharing between internal maintenance and external selection modulates attentional capture by working memory content

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia eKiyonaga; Tobias eEgner

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear why and under what circumstances working memory (WM) and attention interact. Here, we apply the logic of the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of WM (e.g., Barrouillet, Bernardin, & Camos, 2004) to explore the mixed findings of a separate, but related, literature that studies the guidance of visual attention by WM contents. Specifically, we hypothesize that the linkage between WM representations and visual attention is governed by a time-shared cognitive resource that al...

  13. Scaling Techniques for Massive Scale-Free Graphs in Distributed (External) Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger

    2013-05-01

    We present techniques to process large scale-free graphs in distributed memory. Our aim is to scale to trillions of edges, and our research is targeted at leadership class supercomputers and clusters with local non-volatile memory, e.g., NAND Flash. We apply an edge list partitioning technique, designed to accommodate high-degree vertices (hubs) that create scaling challenges when processing scale-free graphs. In addition to partitioning hubs, we use ghost vertices to represent the hubs to reduce communication hotspots. We present a scaling study with three important graph algorithms: Breadth-First Search (BFS), K-Core decomposition, and Triangle Counting. We also demonstrate scalability on BG/P Intrepid by comparing to best known Graph500 results. We show results on two clusters with local NVRAM storage that are capable of traversing trillion-edge scale-free graphs. By leveraging node-local NAND Flash, our approach can process thirty-two times larger datasets with only a 39% performance degradation in Traversed Edges Per Second (TEPS). © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Knowledge of Memory Aging in Students, Caregivers, and Senior Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Robichaux, Mary L.; Hawley, Karri S.

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) (Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes in late life and pathological deficits due to nonnormative factors such as adult dementia. In this study, we examined memory knowledge in community college and university students, caregivers, and…

  15. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior.

  16. Providing Memory Management Abstraction for Self-Reconfigurable Video Processing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Franz Ackermann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for an SDRAM controller targeting video processing platforms with dynamically reconfigurable processing units (RPUs. A priority-arbitration algorithm provides the required QoS and supports high bit-rate data streaming of multiple clients. Conforming to common video data structures the controller organizes the memory in partitions, frames, lines, and pixels. The raised level of abstraction drastically reduces the complexity of clients' addressing logic. Its uniform interface structure facilitates instantiations in systems with various clients. In addition to SDRAM controllers for regular applications, special demands of reconfigurable platforms have to be satisfied. The aim of this work is to minimize the number of required bus macros leading to relaxed place and route constraints and reducing the number of critical design paths. A suitable interface protocol is presented, and fundamental implementation issues are outlined.

  17. Family child care providers' self-perceived role in obesity prevention: working with children, parents, and external influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Crowley, Angela A; Curry, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    To describe the perspective and strategies of family child care providers (FCCPs) to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. In-person, in-depth interviews with FCCPs. Family child care homes. Seventeen FCCPs caring for children 6 weeks to 9 years old; 94% caring for children paying with a state subsidy. Strategies of FCCP to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. Constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Family child care providers described 3 core strategies: (1) improving children's behavior, (2) engaging and educating parents, and (3) leveraging influences external to their relationship with parents to effect positive change and to avoid parental conflict. These strategies were framed within their knowledge of child development, parental communication, and community services. The findings suggest that FCCPs' role in obesity prevention may be framed within knowledge that may be commonly expected of a child care provider. Partnerships between public health policy makers and FCCP may reduce obesigenic environments by employing training and resources that link obesity prevention and child care provider expertise. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  19. Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM) improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.6 years) and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years) performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM overload task, after which the adults' pupils continued to dilate and the children's began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM. PMID:24659980

  20. Shade-lux simulation model for the evaluation of energy savings in buildings provided with external non homogeneous shading devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, P. [CIRPS, Centro Interuniv. de Ricerca per i Paesi in Via di Sviluppo, Roma (Italy); Maccari, A. [ENEA, Ente Nazionale per l' Energia e l' Ambiente, Roma (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    During the hot season, an important amount of energy is necessary to guarantee good internal conditions in tertiary buildings, especially in those used during the daytime and provided with large glazed surfaces exposed to the sun. In order to reduce such amount of energy consumption specific shading devices are required, in particular in buildings located in the Mediterranean area where the solar radiation values are very high. The main purpose of this work is to develop a simulation model that allows to evaluate the energy performances of a building equipped with external non-homogeneous shading devices, traditional or innovative glass surfaces, and internal curtains (complex building envelope transparent systems, BETS) taking also into account the lighting load necessary to guarantee an adequate level of illuminance. In a widely diffused computer code two new routines have been added in order to evaluate the shading factor of the above-mentioned shading devices and the internal daylighting performance. Several runs of the modified program were carried out considering three different sizes of shading devices, with two values of reflectance coefficient, in horizontal position located a south facade with 33%, 50% and 65% of glass surface in three different Italian locations: Milan, Rome and Palermo. The results show that significant energy savings, up to about 40% in terms of primary energy and a diminution of up to 45% of the cooling system power, can be obtained. (au)

  1. SU-E-T-571: Newly Emerging Integrated Transmission Detector Systems Provide Online Quality Assurance of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D; Chung, E; Hess, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Two newly emerging transmission detectors positioned upstream from the patient have been evaluated for online quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy. The prototype for the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area ion chamber mounted on the linac accessory tray to monitor photon fluence, energy, beam shape, and gantry position during treatment. The ion chamber utilizes a thickness gradient which records variable response dependent on beam position. The prototype of Delta4 Discover™, developed by ScandiDos (Uppsala, Sweden) is a linac accessory tray mounted 4040 diode array that measures photon fluence during patient treatment. Both systems are employable for patient specific QA prior to treatment delivery. Methods: Our institution evaluated the reproducibility of measurements using various beam types, including VMAT treatment plans with both the IQM ion chamber and the Delta4 Discover diode array. Additionally, the IQM’s effect on photon fluence, dose response, simulated beam error detection, and the accuracy of the integrated barometer, thermometer, and inclinometer were characterized. The evaluated photon beam errors are based on the annual tolerances specified in AAPM TG-142. Results: Repeated VMAT treatments were measured with 0.16% reproducibility by the IQM and 0.55% reproducibility by the Delta4 Discover. The IQM attenuated 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beams by 5.43±0.02%, 4.60±0.02%, and 4.21±0.03% respectively. Photon beam profiles were affected <1.5% in the non-penumbra regions. The IQM’s ion chamber’s dose response was linear and the thermometer, barometer, and inclinometer agreed with other calibrated devices. The device detected variations in monitor units delivered (1%), field position (3mm), single MLC leaf positions (13mm), and photon energy. Conclusion: We have characterized two new transmissions detector systems designed to provide in-vivo like measurements upstream

  2. Liver-Primed Memory T Cells Generated under Noninflammatory Conditions Provide Anti-infectious Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Böttcher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of CD8+ T cell (CTL immunity or tolerance is linked to the conditions during T cell priming. Dendritic cells (DCs matured during inflammation generate effector/memory T cells, whereas immature DCs cause T cell deletion/anergy. We identify a third outcome of T cell priming in absence of inflammation enabled by cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Such priming generated memory T cells that were spared from deletion by immature DCs. Similar to central memory T cells, liver-primed T cells differentiated into effector CTLs upon antigen re-encounter on matured DCs even after prolonged absence of antigen. Their reactivation required combinatorial signaling through the TCR, CD28, and IL-12R and controlled bacterial and viral infections. Gene expression profiling identified liver-primed T cells as a distinct Neuropilin-1+ memory population. Generation of liver-primed memory T cells may prevent pathogens that avoid DC maturation by innate immune escape from also escaping adaptive immunity through attrition of the T cell repertoire.

  3. Task-evoked pupillometry provides a window into the development of short-term memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Johnson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to keep multiple items in short-term memory (STM improves over childhood and provides the foundation for the development of multiple cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to measure the extent to which age differences in STM capacity are related to differences in task engagement during encoding. Children (n = 69, mean age = 10.5 years and adults (n = 54, mean age = 27.5 years performed two STM tasks: the forward digit span test from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC and a novel eyetracking digit span task designed to overload STM capacity. Building on prior research showing that task-evoked pupil dilation can be used as a real-time index of task engagement, we measured changes in pupil dilation while participants encoded long sequences of digits for subsequent recall. As expected, adults outperformed children on both STM tasks. We found similar patterns of pupil dilation while children and adults listened to the first six digits on our STM Overload task, after which the adults’ pupils continued to dilate and the children’s began to constrict, suggesting that the children had reached their cognitive limits and that they had begun to disengage attention from the task. Indeed, the point at which pupil dilation peaked at encoding was a significant predictor of WISC forward span, and this relationship held even after partialing out recall performance on the STM Overload task. These findings indicate that sustained task engagement at encoding is an important component of the development of STM.

  4. Models Provide Specificity: Testing a Proposed Mechanism of Visual Working Memory Capacity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Patterson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have established that visual working memory has a limited capacity that increases during childhood. However, debate continues over the source of capacity limits and its developmental increase. Simmering (2008) adapted a computational model of spatial cognitive development, the Dynamic Field Theory, to explain not only the source…

  5. The Anterior Thalamus Provides A Subcortical Circuit Supporting Memory And Spatial Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane M O‘Mara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The anterior thalamic nuclei, a central component of Papez’ circuit, are generally assumed to be key constituents of the neural circuits responsible for certain categories of learning and memory. Supporting evidence for this contention is that damage to either of two brain regions, the medial temporal lobe and the medial diencephalon, is most consistently associated with anterograde amnesia. Within these respective regions, the hippocampal formation and the anterior thalamic nuclei (anteromedial, anteroventral, anterodorsal are the particular structures of interest. The extensive direct and indirect hippocampal-anterior thalamic interconnections and the presence of theta-modulated cells in both sites further support the hypothesis that these structures constitute a neuronal network crucial for memory and cognition. The major tool in understanding how the brain processes information is the analysis of neuronal output at each hierarchical level along the pathway of signal propagation coupled with neuroanatomical studies. Here, we discuss the electrophysiological properties of cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei with an emphasis on their role in spatial navigation. In addition, we describe neuroanatomical and functional relationships between the anterior thalamic nuclei and hippocampal formation.

  6. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Hultsch

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior, but also 'how to sing' (the singing program, including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring experiments on nightingales that examined whether such 'chunking' was susceptible to experimental cueing. The experiments tested whether (1 'temporal phrasing' (silent intersong intervals spaced out at particular positions of a tutored string, or (2 'stimulus novelty' (groups of novel song-types added to a basic string, or (3 'pattern similarity' in the phonetic structure of songs (here: sharing of song initials would induce package boundaries (or chunking at the manipulated sequential positions. The results revealed cueing effects in experiments (1 and (2 but not in experiment (3. The finding that birds used temporal variables as cues for chunking does not require the assumption that package formation is a cognitive strategy. Rather, it points towards a mechanism of procedural memory operating in the song acquisition of birds.Há evidências crescentes de que, durante a aprendizagem do canto, as aves adquirem não somente ''o que cantar'' (o repertório comportamental, mas também ''como cantar'' (o programa do canto, incluindo regras de seqüência do canto. O Rouxinol-comum Luscinia megarhynchos adquire essas informações seriadas dividindo as longas cadeias de cantos ouvidos em segmentos ou pacotes menores através de um processo lembrando o corte (''chunking'' de informação como mecanismo codificador na memória de curto prazo. Aqui relatamos três experimentos de aprendizagem pelo rouxinol para ver se tal ''chunking'' é suscetível de marca

  7. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  8. Language facilitates event memory in early childhood: Child comprehension, adult-provided linguistic support and delayed recall at 16 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Adult-provided supportive language facilitates memory for the past in preverbal and verbal children. Work conducted with 18-month-olds indicates that children benefit from supportive adult language when tested after a 4-week delay but not when tested immediately after sequence demonstration; moreover, findings reveal that supportive language provided only at test may be more facilitative of recall after a delay relative to supportive language provided only at encoding. In the present study, we examined whether child language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which preverbal children benefitted from supportive language provided at encoding and test. The findings indicated that child language comprehension and supportive language provided at encoding were unassociated with performance at baseline or immediate imitation; however, the moderating effect of child language comprehension on adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test was observed after a 1-week delay. Correlations revealed continuous associations between general comprehension scores and recall performance after the 1-week delay on sequences presented in the most supportive condition at encoding. Taken together, the presented findings reveal that the complex interplay between language and cognition is established in early childhood, with foundational relations emerging before children are capable of verbally reporting on the past.

  9. Public purchasers contracting external primary care providers in Central America for better responsiveness, efficiency of health care and public governance: issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macq, Jean; Martiny, Patrick; Villalobos, Luis Bernardo; Solis, Alejandro; Miranda, Jose; Mendez, Hilda Cecilia; Collins, Charles

    2008-09-01

    Several national health systems in Latin America initiated health reforms to counter widespread criticisms of low equity and efficiency. For public purchasing agencies, these reforms often consisted in contracting external providers for primary care provision. This paper intends to clarify both the complex and intertwined issues characterizing such contracting as well as health system performances within the context of four Central American countries. It results from a European Commission financed project lead between 2002 and 2005, involving participants from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Salvador, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Belgium, whose aim was to promote exchanges between these participants. The findings presented in this paper are the results of a two stage process: (a) the design of an initial analytical framework, built upon findings from the literature, interlinking characteristics of contractual relation with health systems performances criteria and (b) the use of that framework in four case studies to identify cross-cutting issues. This paper reinforces two pivotal findings: (a) contracting requires not only technical, but also political choices and (b) it cannot be considered as a mechanical process. The unpredictability of its evolution requires a flexible and reactive approach. This should be better assimilated by national and international organizations involved in health services provision, so as to progressively come out of dogmatic approaches in deciding to initiate contractual relation with external providers for primary care provision.

  10. Virus-specific memory CD8 T cells provide substantial protection from lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Fett, Craig; Zhao, Jincun; Meyerholz, David K; Perlman, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused an acute human respiratory illness with high morbidity and mortality in 2002-2003. Several studies have demonstrated the role of neutralizing antibodies induced by the spike (S) glycoprotein in protecting susceptible hosts from lethal infection. However, the anti-SARS-CoV antibody response is short-lived in patients who have recovered from SARS, making it critical to develop additional vaccine strategies. SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells persisted for up to 6 years after SARS-CoV infection, a time at which memory B cells and antivirus antibodies were undetectable in individuals who had recovered from SARS. In this study, we assessed the ability of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells to mediate protection against infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD4 T or B cells. We demonstrate that memory CD8 T cells specific for a single immunodominant epitope (S436 or S525) substantially protected 8- to 10-month-old mice from lethal SARS-CoV infection. Intravenous immunization with peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding S436 or S525 resulted in accumulation of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lungs, and spleen. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells efficiently produced multiple effector cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin 2 [IL-2]) and cytolytic molecules (granzyme B) and reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our results show that SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells protect susceptible hosts from lethal SARS-CoV infection, but they also suggest that SARS-CoV-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses are necessary for complete protection. Virus-specific CD8 T cells are required for pathogen clearance following primary SARS-CoV infection. However, the role of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD

  11. Social Intelligence and Top Management Team: An Exploratory Study of External Knowledge Acquisition for Strategic Change in Global IT Service Providers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric; Chadee, Doren; Raman, Revti

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the processes by which firms, particularly knowledge intensive firms, can augment their overall knowledge stock by tapping into external sources of knowledge. It is argued that Top Management Teams' (TMTs') social intelligence is a critical learning capability in acquiring external knowledge that leads to strategic change.…

  12. Posttraining Increases in REM Sleep Intensity Implicate REM Sleep in Memory Processing and Provide a Biological Marker of Learning Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Smith, Carlyle T.; Nixon, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraining rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been reported to be important for efficient memory consolidation. The present results demonstrate increases in the intensity of REM sleep during the night of sleep following cognitive procedural/implicit task acquisition. These REM increases manifest as increases in total number of rapid eye…

  13. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  14. Walking down memory lane: where walkers look as they descend stairs provides hints about how they control their walking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David A

    2009-01-01

    Walking down stairs is a challenging perceptual-motor activity, as indicated by the large number of documented falls on stairs each year. The present study suggests that descending stairs is also a challenging memorial activity. A total of 147 people were videotaped as they descended a staircase. When the walkers were in the middle of the stairs, they looked down every third step on average, but as they neared the bottom, they looked down with high probability on or around the fourth step. The trigger for the last look down, by hypothesis, was disappearance of the stairs from the lower visual field. A model is proposed in which mid-stair walking is controlled primarily on the basis of visual guidance, whereas end-stair walking is controlled primarily on the basis of memory.

  15. Accessing memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  16. Posttraining increases in REM sleep intensity implicate REM sleep in memory processing and provide a biological marker of learning potential

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Carlyle T.; Nixon, Margaret R.; Nader, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraining rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been reported to be important for efficient memory consolidation. The present results demonstrate increases in the intensity of REM sleep during the night of sleep following cognitive procedural/implicit task acquisition. These REM increases manifest as increases in total number of rapid eye movements (REMs) and REM densities, whereas the actual time spent in REM sleep did not change. Further, the participants with the higher intelligence (IQ) s...

  17. Comparative kinetics of damage to the plasma and mitochondrial membranes by intra-cellularly synthesized and externally-provided photosensitizers using multi-color FACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sara; Malik, Zvi; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer involves inflicting lethal damage to the cells of malignant tumors, primarily by singlet oxygen that is generated following light-absorption in a photosensitizer molecule. Dysfunction of cells is manifested in many ways, including peroxidation of cellular components, membrane rupture, depolarization of electric potentials, termination of mitochondrial activity, onset of apoptosis and necrosis and eventually cell lysis. These events do not necessarily occur in linear fashion and different types of damage to cell components occur, most probably, in parallel. In this report we measured the relative rates of damage to two cellular membranes: the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. We employed photosensitizers of diverse hydrophobicities and used different incubation procedures, which lead to their different intra-cellular localizations. We monitored the damage that was inflicted on these membranes, by employing optical probes of membrane integrity, in a multi-color FACS experiment. The potentiometric indicator JC-1 monitored the electric cross-membrane potential of the mitochondria and the fluorometric indicator Draq7 monitored the rupture of the plasma membrane. We show that the electric depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and the damage to the enveloping plasma membrane proceed with different kinetics that reflect the molecular character and intracellular location of the sensitizer: PpIX that is synthesized in the cells from ALA causes rapid mitochondrial damage and very slow damage to the plasma membrane, while externally added PpIX has an opposite effect. The hydrophilic sensitizer HypS4 can be taken up by the cells by different incubation conditions, and these affect its intracellular location, and as a consequence either the plasma membrane or the mitochondria is damaged first. A similar correlation was found for additional extracellularly-provided photosensitizers HP and PpIX.

  18. Providers with Limited Experience Perform Better in Advanced Life Support with Assistance Using an Interactive Device with an Automated External Defibrillator Linked to a Ventilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Christian Werner; Qalanawi, Mohammed; Kersten, Jan Felix; Kalwa, Tobias Johannes; Scotti, Norman Alexander; Reip, Wikhart; Doehn, Christoph; Maisch, Stefan; Nitzschke, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Medical teams with limited experience in performing advanced life support (ALS) or with a low frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) while on duty, often have difficulty complying with CPR guidelines. This study evaluated whether the quality of CPR of trained medical students, who served as an example of teams with limited experience in ALS, could be improved with device assistance. The primary outcome was the hands-off time (i.e., the percentage of the entire CPR time without chest compressions). The secondary outcome was seven time intervals, which should be as short as possible, and the quality of ventilations and chest compressions on the mannequin. We compared standard CPR equipment to an interactive device with visual and acoustic instructions for ALS workflow measures to guide briefly trained medical students through the ALS algorithm in a full-scale mannequin simulation study with a randomized crossover study design. The study equipment consisted of an automatic external defibrillator and ventilator that were electronically linked and communicating as a single system. Included were regular medical students in the third to sixth years of medical school of one class who provided written informed consent for voluntary participation and for the analysis of their CPR performance data. No exclusion criteria were applied. For statistical measures of evaluation we used an analysis of variance for crossover trials accounting for treatment effect, sequence effect, and carry-over effect, with adjustment for prior practical experience of the participants. Forty-two medical students participated in 21 CPR sessions, each using the standard and study equipment. Regarding the primary end point, the study equipment reduced the hands-off time from 40.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 36.9-43.4%) to 35.6% (95% CI 32.4-38.9%, p = 0.031) compared with the standard equipment. Within the prespecified secondary end points, study equipment reduced the time interval until

  19. Facilitators and barriers to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term among health care providers in the Netherlands: A quantitative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A.N.; Vlemmix, F.; Beuckens, A.; Rijnders, M.E.; Opmeer, B.C.; Mol, B.W.J.; Kok, M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: guidelines recommend that external cephalic version (ECV) should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation at term. However, only 50-60% of the women receive an ECV attempt. We explored the determinants (barriers and facilitators) affecting the uptake of the guidelines

  20. [Analysis of state costs of the social security benefits provided to the insured presenting with lung cancer and pulmonary diseases caused by external factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklińska-Janiak, Dorota

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer and pneumoconioses constitute two serious problems of contemporary medicine and a public health system. To analyze the costs associated with social security benefits provided to the insured presenting with lung cancer and pulmonary diseases (including pneumoconioses) caused by external factors. The analysis was based on the data obtained from the Department of Statistics and Actuarial Forecasts of the Social Insurance Institution (SlI) in Warsaw. Structural diversity of the costs of the separate benefits available within the national health insurance system has been considered. Based on the data available in Poland costs associated with the incidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis were assessed taking into account sex and age of the insured as well as the administrative division of Poland. Additionally, mortality rates from the selected pulmonary diseases were analyzed. Costs of the pensions paid to the insured presenting with lung cancer amount to 81.11% of the total social security costs associated with these diseases, while the sick leave money paid to the insured lung cancer patients equal to 15.5% of the total costs. In the insured women, costs of the pensions paid due to occupational pulmonary diseases (predominantly pneumoconioses) constitute 41.1% and in the insured men--11.5% of the total 'occupational' pensions. Although the maximal incidence of lung cancer occurs in both men and women above their retirement ages the costs of the work incapacity pensions paid to lung cancer patients still exceed 81% of the total social security costs associated with these diseases. In the insured women, the cost of pensions paid due to occupational pulmonary diseases, most of which are pneumoconioses, ranks first among the costs of 'occupational' pensions received by these subjects, while in the insured men the respective cost ranks third (after injuries plus intoxications and cardiovascular diseases) among their 'occupational' pensions. Moreover, the

  1. External and Internal Citation Analyses Can Provide Insight into Serial/Monograph Ratios when Refining Collection Development Strategies in Selected STEM Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Krueger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Kelly, M. (2015. Citation patterns of engineering, statistics, and computer science researchers: An internal and external citation analysis across multiple engineering subfields. College and Research Libraries, 76(7, 859-882. http://doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.859 Objective – To determine internal and external citation analysis methods and their potential applicability to the refinement of collection development strategies at both the institutional and cross-institutional levels for selected science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM subfields. Design – Multidimensional citation analysis; specifically, analysis of citations from 1 key scholarly journals in selected STEM subfields (external analysis compared to those from 2 local doctoral dissertations in similar subfields (internal analysis. Setting – Medium-sized, STEM-dominant public research university in the United States of America. Subjects – Two citation datasets: 1 14,149 external citations from16 journals (i.e., 2 journals per subfield; citations from 2012 volumes representing bioengineering, civil engineering, computer science (CS, electrical engineering, environmental engineering, operations research, statistics (STAT, and systems engineering; and 2 8,494 internal citations from 99 doctoral dissertations (18-22 per subfield published between 2008-–2012 from CS, electrical and computer engineering (ECE, and applied information technology (AIT and published between 2005-–2012 for systems engineering and operations research (SEOR and STAT. Methods – Citations, including titles and publication dates, were harvested from source materials and stored in Excel and then manually categorized according to format (book, book chapter, journal, conference proceeding, website, and several others. To analyze citations, percentages of occurrence by subfield were calculated for variables including format, age (years since date cited, journal distribution, and the

  2. Primary investigation the impacts of the external memory (DDR3) failures on the performance of Xilinx Zynq-7010 SoC based system (MicroZed) using laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhuan; Du, Xuecheng; Du, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Yao; Mubashiru, Lawal Olarewaju; Luo, Dongyang; yuan, Yuan; Deng, Tianxiang; Li, Zhuoqi; Zang, Hang; Li, Yonghong; He, Chaohui; Ma, Yingqi; Shangguan, Shipeng

    2017-09-01

    The impacts of the external dynamic memory (DDR3) failures on the performance of 28 nm Xilinx Zynq-7010 SoC based system (MicroZed) were investigated with two sets of 1064 nm laser platforms. The failure sensitive area distributionsons on the back surface of the test DDR3 were primarily localized with a CW laser irradiation platform. During the CW laser scanning on the back surface of the DDR3 of the test board system, various failure modes except SEU and SEL (MBU, SEFI, data storage address error, rebooting, etc) were found in the testing embedded modules (ALU, PL, Register, Cache and DMA, etc) of SoC. Moreover, the experimental results demonstrated that there were 16 failure sensitive blocks symmetrically distributed on the back surface of the DDR3 with every sensitive block area measured was about 1 mm × 0.5 mm. The influence factors on the failure modes of the embedded modules were primarily analyzed and the SEE characteristics of DDR3 induced by the picoseconds pulsed laser were tested. The failure modes of DDR3 found were SEU, SEFI, SEL, test board rebooting by itself, unknown data, etc. Furthermore, the time interval distributions of failure occurrence in DDR3 changes with the pulsed laser irradiation energy and the CPU operating frequency were measured and compared. Meanwhile, the failure characteristics of DDR3 induced by pulsed laser irradiation were primarily explored. The measured results and the testing techniques designed in this paper provide some reference information for evaluating the reliability of the test system or other similar electronic system in harsh environment.

  3. Verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2015-01-01

    Verbal memory is impaired in neurological and psychiatric conditions and provides one of the main targets of intervention. Specifically, this cognitive domain has been shown to provide a major determinant of outcome in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Therefore, verbal memory disturbances should be focused in the development of novel pharmacological and psychosocial therapeutics. Effective integration between preclinical and clinical studies should provide a key to the pursuit of drugs enhancing verbal memory.

  4. Facilitators and barriers to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term among health care providers in the Netherlands: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Ageeth N; Vlemmix, Floortje; Beuckens, Antje; Rijnders, Marlies E; Opmeer, Brent C; Mol, Ben Willem J; Kok, Marjolein; Fleuren, Margot A H

    2014-03-01

    guidelines recommend that external cephalic version (ECV) should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation at term. However, only 50-60% of the women receive an ECV attempt. We explored the determinants (barriers and facilitators) affecting the uptake of the guidelines among gynaecologists and midwives in the Netherlands. national online survey. the Netherlands. gynaecologists and midwives. in the online survey, we identified the determinants that positively or negatively influenced the professionals׳ adherence to three key recommendations in the guidelines: (a) counselling, (b) advising for ECV, (c) arranging an ECV. Determinants were identified in a previously performed qualitative study and were categorised into five underlying constructs; attitude towards ECV, professional obligation, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and preconditions for successful ECV. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess the importance of the different constructs for adherence to the guideline. 364 professionals responded to the survey. Adherence varied: 84% counselled, 73% advised, and 82% arranged an ECV for (almost) all their clients. Although 90% of respondents considered ECV to be an effective treatment for preventing caesarean childbirths, only 30% agreed that 'every client should undergo ECV'. Self-efficacy (perceived skills) was the most important determinant influencing adherence. self-efficacy appears to be the most significant determinant for counselling, advising and arranging an ECV. to improve adherence to the guidelines on ECV we must improve self-efficacy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Exaggerated Attention Blink Response in Prisoners with Externalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Wolf, Richard; Buckholtz, Joshua; Warren, Christopher; Newman, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    The diverse phenotypic expressions of disinhibitory psychopathology are believed to reflect a common latent predisposing variable: externalizing. While deficiencies in executive functioning (i.e., cognitive/inhibitory control, working memory) and affective hyper-reactivity are commonly associated with externalizing, there is also evidence that externalizing is related to anomalous allocation of attention. In this study, we administered an attention blink task to a sample of male prisoners and assessed externalizing using the Impulsive-Antisociality scale (Benning, Patrick, Hicks, Blonigen, & Krueger, 2003). Individuals with high Impulsive-Antisociality displayed a significantly steeper attention blink (i.e., less accurate identification of a second target) than individuals with low Impulsive-Antisociality. Results provide new evidence that externalizers over-allocate attention to salient information and suggest a novel conceptualization of their disinhibitory psychopathology.

  6. Airway-Resident Memory CD8 T Cells Provide Antigen-Specific Protection against Respiratory Virus Challenge through Rapid IFN-γ Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Sean R; Wilson, Jarad J; Wang, Hong; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2015-07-01

    CD8 airway resident memory T (TRM) cells are a distinctive TRM population with a high turnover rate and a unique phenotype influenced by their localization within the airways. Their role in mediating protective immunity to respiratory pathogens, although suggested by many studies, has not been directly proven. This study provides definitive evidence that airway CD8 TRM cells are sufficient to mediate protection against respiratory virus challenge. Despite being poorly cytolytic in vivo and failing to expand after encountering Ag, airway CD8 TRM cells rapidly express effector cytokines, with IFN-γ being produced most robustly. Notably, established airway CD8 TRM cells possess the ability to produce IFN-γ faster than systemic effector memory CD8 T cells. Furthermore, naive mice receiving intratracheal transfer of airway CD8 TRM cells lacking the ability to produce IFN-γ were less effective at controlling pathogen load upon heterologous challenge. This direct evidence of airway CD8 TRM cell-mediated protection demonstrates the importance of these cells as a first line of defense for optimal immunity against respiratory pathogens and suggests they should be considered in the development of future cell-mediated vaccines. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. PKA Increases in the Olfactory Bulb Act as Unconditioned Stimuli and Provide Evidence for Parallel Memory Systems: Pairing Odor with Increased PKA Creates Intermediate- and Long-Term, but Not Short-Term, Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and…

  8. Measuring the impact of Hurricane Katrina on access to a personal healthcare provider: the use of the National Survey of Children's Health for an external comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Sury, Jonathan J; Abramson, David

    2012-04-01

    This paper examined the effect of Hurricane Katrina on children's access to personal healthcare providers and evaluated the use of propensity score methods to compare a nationally representative sample of children, as a proxy for an unexposed group, with a smaller exposed sample. 2007 data from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health (G-CAFH) Study, a longitudinal cohort of households displaced or greatly impacted by Hurricane Katrina, were matched with 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data using propensity score techniques. Propensity scores were created using poverty level, household educational attainment, and race/ethnicity, with and without the addition of child age and gender. The outcome was defined as having a personal healthcare provider. Additional confounders (household structure, neighborhood safety, health and insurance status) were also examined. All covariates except gender differed significantly between the exposed (G-CAFH) and unexposed (NSCH) samples. Fewer G-CAFH children had a personal healthcare provider (65 %) compared to those from NSCH (90 %). Adjusting for all covariates, the propensity score analysis showed exposed children were 20 % less likely to have a personal healthcare provider compared to unexposed children in the US (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.76, 0.84), whereas the logistic regression analysis estimated a stronger effect (OR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.21, 0.39). Two years after Hurricane Katrina, children exposed to the storm had significantly lower odds of having a personal health care provider compared to unexposed children. Propensity score matching techniques may be useful for combining separate data samples when no clear unexposed group exists.

  9. A multilevel nonvolatile magnetoelectric memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Sun, Young

    2016-09-01

    The coexistence and coupling between magnetization and electric polarization in multiferroic materials provide extra degrees of freedom for creating next-generation memory devices. A variety of concepts of multiferroic or magnetoelectric memories have been proposed and explored in the past decade. Here we propose a new principle to realize a multilevel nonvolatile memory based on the multiple states of the magnetoelectric coefficient (α) of multiferroics. Because the states of α depends on the relative orientation between magnetization and polarization, one can reach different levels of α by controlling the ratio of up and down ferroelectric domains with external electric fields. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure confirm that the states of α can be well controlled between positive and negative by applying selective electric fields. Consequently, two-level, four-level, and eight-level nonvolatile memory devices are demonstrated at room temperature. This kind of multilevel magnetoelectric memory retains all the advantages of ferroelectric random access memory but overcomes the drawback of destructive reading of polarization. In contrast, the reading of α is nondestructive and highly efficient in a parallel way, with an independent reading coil shared by all the memory cells.

  10. The behaviour of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys under thermomechanical load, influenced by different training conditions and external forces; Einfluss der Trainingsbehandlung auf die Ermuedung von Ni-Ti-Formgedaechtnislegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhr, G.; Kneissl, A.C. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Werkstoffpruefung

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys under thermomechanical load, influenced by different training conditions and external forces. A new testing unit was designed to investigate the fatigue behaviour of wire specimens during thermomechanical cycling. Further it was investigated, how the heating rate influences the strain during training procedure. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, das Verhalten von Ni-Ti-Formgedaechtnislegierungen bei thermomechanischer Ermuedung zu untersuchen. Hierbei wurden sowohl der Einfluss von unterschiedlichen Trainingsbehandlungen als auch jener verschiedener aeusserer Kraefte beruecksichtigt. Zur Durchfuehrung der Ermuedungsversuche wurde eine Pruefeinrichtung entwickelt, mit der thermomechanische Zyklen an drahtfoermigen Proben ausgefuehrt werden koennen. Weiters wurden prinzipielle Versuche zur Veraenderung der Dehnungswerte beim Trainieren in Abhaengigkeit von der Aufheizgeschwindigkeit vorgenommen. (orig./MM)

  11. A Memory Hierarchy Model Based on Data Reuse for Full-Search Motion Estimation on High-Definition Digital Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Sandyra Bezerra Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion estimation is the most complex module in a video encoder requiring a high processing throughput and high memory bandwidth, mainly when the focus is high-definition videos. The throughput problem can be solved increasing the parallelism in the internal operations. The external memory bandwidth may be reduced using a memory hierarchy. This work presents a memory hierarchy model for a full-search motion estimation core. The proposed memory hierarchy model is based on a data reuse scheme considering the full search algorithm features. The proposed memory hierarchy expressively reduces the external memory bandwidth required for the motion estimation process, and it provides a very high data throughput for the ME core. This throughput is necessary to achieve real time when processing high-definition videos. When considering the worst bandwidth scenario, this memory hierarchy is able to reduce the external memory bandwidth in 578 times. A case study for the proposed hierarchy, using 32×32 search window and 8×8 block size, was implemented and prototyped on a Virtex 4 FPGA. The results show that it is possible to reach 38 frames per second when processing full HD frames (1920×1080 pixels using nearly 299 Mbytes per second of external memory bandwidth.

  12. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  13. Cognitive rehabilitation of episodic memory disorders: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Ptak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Memory disorders are among the most frequent and most debilitating cognitive impairments following acquired brain damage. Cognitive remediation strategies attempt to restore lost memory capacity, provide compensatory techniques or teach the use of external memory aids. Memory rehabilitation has strongly been influenced by memory theory, and the interaction between both has stimulated the development of techniques such as spaced retrieval, vanishing cues or errorless learning. These techniques partly rely on implicit memory and therefore enable even patients with dense amnesia to acquire new information. However, knowledge acquired in this way is often strongly domain-specific and inflexible. In addition, individual patients with amnesia respond differently to distinct interventions. The factors underlying these differences have not yet been identified. Behavioural management of memory failures therefore often relies on a careful description of environmental factors and measurement of associated behavioural disorders such as unawareness of memory failures. The current evidence suggests that patients with less severe disorders benefit from self-management techniques and mnemonics whereas rehabilitation of severely amnesic patients should focus on behaviour management, the transmission of domain-specific knowledge through implicit memory processes and the compensation for memory deficits with memory aids.

  14. [External otitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olina, Massimo; Cametti, Massimiliano; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Gattoni, Massimo; Leigheb, Giorgio; Pia, Francesco

    2002-02-01

    Otitis externa is one of the most common diseases in ORL practice, during summer; the treatment of otitis externa may be simple and easy or protracted and frustrating, also with fatal outcome. Many local factors may interfere with the normal defences against infections in the external auditory canal. Removing or dissolving the cerumen by water or other instruments eliminates an important barrier to infections: its acids inhibit the growth of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus). Also skin abrasions or irritation, allergic diseases and many systemic condition like anaemia, vitamin deficiency, endocrine disorders (diabetes) and various forms of dermatitis cause a lower resistance to infections in external auditory canal. Even if the prognosis remains benign in the majority of cases, important complications could appear like: malignant otitis externa, facial nerve paralysis, tympanic bone osteomyelitis, pericondrytis. Successful treatment depends on a proper diagnosis and therapy: the most important factor in the treatment is repeated debridement of the external auditory canal by the physician. The use of Castellani' Tintura rubra, hydroalcoholic solution of phenic fuchsin, can be very effective for bacteria and mycotic eradication. Culturing of ear canal infection could be performed on the second or third visit if the otitis externa is not responding to therapy. Complication are not frequent, but malignant otitis externa can be mortal. Dermatological consultation is often necessary for correct diagnosis.

  15. Remembering Dangerously; Recovered Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Loftus, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Like the witch-hunt trials of old, people today are being accused and even imprisoned on 'evidence' provided by memories from dreams and flashbacks - memories that didn't exist before therapy. What is going on here?

  16. Dexras1 a unique ras-GTPase interacts with NMDA receptor activity and provides a novel dissociation between anxiety, working memory and sensory gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, G C; Lin, R E; Chen, Y; Brookshire, B R; White, R S; Lucki, I; Siegel, S J; Kim, S F

    2016-05-13

    Dexras1 is a novel GTPase that acts at a confluence of signaling mechanisms associated with psychiatric and neurological disease including NMDA receptors, NOS1AP and nNOS. Recent work has shown that Dexras1 mediates iron trafficking and NMDA-dependent neurodegeneration but a role for Dexras1 in normal brain function or psychiatric disease has not been studied. To test for such a role, mice with germline knockout (KO) of Dexras1 were assayed for behavioral abnormalities as well as changes in NMDA receptor subunit protein expression. Because Dexras1 is up-regulated during stress or by dexamethasone treatment, we included measures associated with emotion including anxiety and depression. Baseline anxiety-like measures (open field and zero maze) were not altered, nor were depression-like behavior (tail suspension). Measures of memory function yielded mixed results, with no changes in episodic memory (novel object recognition) but a significant decrement on working memory (T-maze). Alternatively, there was an increase in pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), without concomitant changes in either startle amplitude or locomotor activity. PPI data are consistent with the direction of change seen following exposure to dopamine D2 antagonists. An examination of NMDA subunit expression levels revealed an increased expression of the NR2A subunit, contrary to previous studies demonstrating down-regulation of the receptor following antipsychotic exposure (Schmitt et al., 2003) and up-regulation after exposure to isolation rearing (Turnock-Jones et al., 2009). These findings suggest a potential role for Dexras1 in modulating a selective subset of psychiatric symptoms, possibly via its interaction with NMDARs and/or other disease-related binding-partners. Furthermore, data suggest that modulating Dexras1 activity has contrasting effects on emotional, sensory and cognitive domains. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust evidence for memory awareness across multiple generalization tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2012-05-01

    The possibility that memory awareness occurs in nonhuman animals has been evaluated by providing opportunity to decline memory tests. Current evidence suggests that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) selectively decline tests when memory is weak (Hampton in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5359-5362, 2001; Smith et al. in Behav Brain Sci 26:317-374, 2003). However, much of the existing research in nonhuman metacognition is subject to the criticism that, after considerable training on one test type, subjects learn to decline difficult trials based on associative learning of external test-specific contingencies rather than by evaluating the private status of memory or other cognitive states. We evaluated whether such test-specific associations could account for performance by presenting monkeys with a series of generalization tests across which no single association with external stimuli was likely to adaptively control use of the decline response. Six monkeys performed a four alternative delayed matching to location task and were significantly more accurate on trials with a decline option available than on trials without it, indicating that subjects selectively declined tests when memory was weak. Monkeys transferred appropriate use of the decline response under three conditions that assessed generalization: two tests that weakened memory and one test that enhanced memory in a novel way. Bidirectional generalization indicates that use of the decline response by monkeys is not controlled by specific external stimuli but is rather a flexible behavior based on a private assessment of memory.

  18. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  19. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  20. Memory, metamemory, and social cues: Between conformity and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Krogulska, Aleksandra; Button, Roberta; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    When presented with responses of another person, people incorporate these responses into memory reports: a finding termed memory conformity. Research on memory conformity in recognition reveals that people rely on external social cues to guide their memory responses when their own ability to respond is at chance. In this way, conforming to a reliable source boosts recognition performance but conforming to a random source does not impair it. In the present study we assessed whether people would conform indiscriminately to reliable and unreliable (random) sources when they are given the opportunity to exercise metamemory control over their responding by withholding answers in a recognition test. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found the pattern of memory conformity to reliable and unreliable sources in 2 variants of a free-report recognition test, yet at the same time the provision of external cues did not affect the rate of response withholding. In Experiment 3, we provided participants with initial feedback on their recognition decisions, facilitating the discrimination between the reliable and unreliable source. This led to the reduction of memory conformity to the unreliable source, and at the same time modulated metamemory decisions concerning response withholding: participants displayed metamemory conformity to the reliable source, volunteering more responses in their memory report, and metamemory resistance to the random source, withholding more responses from the memory report. Together, the results show how metamemory decisions dissociate various types of memory conformity and that memory and metamemory decisions can be independent of each other. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1992-01-31

    The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be divided into the following three subcomponents: (i) the central executive, which is assumed to be an attentional-controlling system, is important in skills such as chess playing and is particularly susceptible to the effects of Alzheimer's disease; and two slave systems, namely (ii) the visuospatial sketch pad, which manipulates visual images and (iii) the phonological loop, which stores and rehearses speech-based information and is necessary for the acquisition of both native and second-language vocabulary.

  2. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  3. Enhancing Assisted Living Technology with Extended Visual Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hwee Lim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human vision and memory are powerful cognitive faculties by which we understand the world. However, they are imperfect and further, subject to deterioration with age. We propose a cognitive-inspired computational model, Extended Visual Memory (EVM, within the Computer-Aided Vision (CAV framework, to assist human in vision-related tasks. We exploit wearable sensors such as cameras, GPS and ambient computing facilities to complement a user's vision and memory functions by answering four types of queries central to visual activities, namely, Retrieval, Understanding, Navigation and Search. Learning of EVM relies on both frequency-based and attention-driven mechanisms to store view-based visual fragments (VF, which are abstracted into high-level visual schemas (VS, both in the visual long-term memory. During inference, the visual short-term memory plays a key role in visual similarity computation between input (or its schematic representation and VF, exemplified from VS when necessary. We present an assisted living scenario, termed EViMAL (Extended Visual Memory for Assisted Living, targeted at mild dementia patients to provide novel functions such as hazard-warning, visual reminder, object look-up and event review. We envisage EVM having the potential benefits in alleviating memory loss, improving recall precision and enhancing memory capacity through external support.

  4. Exploring history and memory through autobiographical memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor Goodson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the role of autobiographical memory as a site of narrative construction. Far from being a place of liberal retrospective recall it is a site of active recapitulation and reconstruction. The article provides examples of how history and memory are intermingled. It also draws in the author’s autobiographical vignettes to explore the underpinning desires for historical reconstruction in autobiographical memory work

  5. Prefrontal Neurons Represent Motion Signals from Across the Visual Field But for Memory-Guided Comparisons Depend on Neurons Providing These Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Klaus; Spinelli, Philip; Pasternak, Tatiana

    2016-09-07

    Visual decisions often involve comparisons of sequential stimuli that can appear at any location in the visual field. The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) in nonhuman primates, shown to play an important role in such comparisons, receives information about contralateral stimuli directly from sensory neurons in the same hemisphere, and about ipsilateral stimuli indirectly from neurons in the opposite hemisphere. This asymmetry of sensory inputs into the LPFC poses the question of whether and how its neurons incorporate sensory information arriving from the two hemispheres during memory-guided comparisons of visual motion. We found that, although responses of individual LPFC neurons to contralateral stimuli were stronger and emerged 40 ms earlier, they carried remarkably similar signals about motion direction in the two hemifields, with comparable direction selectivity and similar direction preferences. This similarity was also apparent around the time of the comparison between the current and remembered stimulus because both ipsilateral and contralateral responses showed similar signals reflecting the remembered direction. However, despite availability in the LPFC of motion information from across the visual field, these "comparison effects" required for the comparison stimuli to appear at the same retinal location. This strict dependence on spatial overlap of the comparison stimuli suggests participation of neurons with localized receptive fields in the comparison process. These results suggest that while LPFC incorporates many key aspects of the information arriving from sensory neurons residing in opposite hemispheres, it continues relying on the interactions with these neurons at the time of generating signals leading to successful perceptual decisions. Visual decisions often involve comparisons of sequential visual motion that can appear at any location in the visual field. We show that during such comparisons, the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) contains

  6. Memory: Organization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of memory research is to understand how cognitive processes in memory are supported at the level of brain systems and network representations. Especially promising in this direction are new findings in humans and animals that converge in indicating a key role for the hippocampus in the systematic organization of memories. New findings also indicate that the prefrontal cortex may play an equally important role in the active control of memory organization during both encoding and retrieval. Observations about the dialog between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex provide new insights into the operation of the larger brain system that serves memory. PMID:27687117

  7. External Retrieval Cues Facilitate Prospective Remembering in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, John A.; Colombo, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Young children exhibit improved prospective memory when an external cue is used as a reminder. Children's attempts at prospective remembering may be an important precursor to the development of strategies for retrospective remembering. (JD)

  8. Exploring the effect of sleep and reduced interference on different forms of declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönauer, Monika; Pawlizki, Annedore; Köck, Corinna; Gais, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have found that sleep benefits declarative memory consolidation. However, fundamental questions on the specifics of this effect remain topics of discussion. It is not clear which forms of memory are affected by sleep and whether this beneficial effect is partly mediated by passive protection against interference. Moreover, a putative correlation between the structure of sleep and its memory-enhancing effects is still being discussed. In three experiments, we tested whether sleep differentially affects various forms of declarative memory. We varied verbal content (verbal/nonverbal), item type (single/associate), and recall mode (recall/recognition, cued/free recall) to examine the effect of sleep on specific memory subtypes. We compared within-subject differences in memory consolidation between intervals including sleep, active wakefulness, or quiet meditation, which reduced external as well as internal interference and rehearsal. Forty healthy adults aged 18-30 y, and 17 healthy adults aged 24-55 y with extensive meditation experience participated in the experiments. All types of memory were enhanced by sleep if the sample size provided sufficient statistical power. Smaller sample sizes showed an effect of sleep if a combined measure of different declarative memory scales was used. In a condition with reduced external and internal interference, performance was equal to one with high interference. Here, memory consolidation was significantly lower than in a sleep condition. We found no correlation between sleep structure and memory consolidation. Sleep does not preferentially consolidate a specific kind of declarative memory, but consistently promotes overall declarative memory formation. This effect is not mediated by reduced interference. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Intracranial recordings and human memory

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Knight, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work involving intracranial recording during human memory performance provides superb spatiotemporal resolution on mnemonic processes. These data demonstrate that the cortical regions identified in neuroimaging studies of memory fall into temporally distinct networks and the hippocampal theta activity reported in animal memory literature also plays a central role in human memory. Memory is linked to activity at multiple interacting frequencies, ranging from 1-500 Hz. High-frequency res...

  10. Method for refreshing a non-volatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekels, James E.; Schlesinger, Samuel

    2008-11-04

    A non-volatile memory and a method of refreshing a memory are described. The method includes allowing an external system to control refreshing operations within the memory. The memory may generate a refresh request signal and transmit the refresh request signal to the external system. When the external system finds an available time to process the refresh request, the external system acknowledges the refresh request and transmits a refresh acknowledge signal to the memory. The memory may also comprise a page register for reading and rewriting a data state back to the memory. The page register may comprise latches in lieu of supplemental non-volatile storage elements, thereby conserving real estate within the memory.

  11. An Artificial Flexible Visual Memory System Based on an UV-Motivated Memristor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Lou, Zheng; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2018-02-01

    For the mimicry of human visual memory, a prominent challenge is how to detect and store the image information by electronic devices, which demands a multifunctional integration to sense light like eyes and to memorize image information like the brain by transforming optical signals to electrical signals that can be recognized by electronic devices. Although current image sensors can perceive simple images in real time, the image information fades away when the external image stimuli are removed. The deficiency between the state-of-the-art image sensors and visual memory system inspires the logical integration of image sensors and memory devices to realize the sensing and memory process toward light information for the bionic design of human visual memory. Hence, a facile architecture is designed to construct artificial flexible visual memory system by employing an UV-motivated memristor. The visual memory arrays can realize the detection and memory process of UV light distribution with a patterned image for a long-term retention and the stored image information can be reset by a negative voltage sweep and reprogrammed to the same or an other image distribution, which proves the effective reusability. These results provide new opportunities for the mimicry of human visual memory and enable the flexible visual memory device to be applied in future wearable electronics, electronic eyes, multifunctional robotics, and auxiliary equipment for visual handicapped. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. External Potential Modifies Friction of Molecular Solutes in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan O. Daldrop

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokes’s law for the friction of a sphere in water has been argued to work down to molecular scales, provided the effective hydrodynamic radius includes the hydration layer. In interpretations of experiments and in theoretical models, it is tacitly assumed that the solvent friction experienced by a solute does not depend on whether an external confinement potential acts on the solute. Using a novel method to extract the friction memory function from molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the solvent friction of a strongly harmonically confined methane molecule in water increases by 60% compared to its free-solution value, which is caused by an amplification of the slowest component of the memory function. The friction enhancement occurs for potential strengths typical of physical and chemical bonds and is accompanied by a significant slowing-down of the hydration water dynamics. Thus, the solvent friction acting on molecular solutes is not determined by solvent properties and solute-solvent interactions alone but results from the coupling between solute and solvent dynamics and thereby can be tuned by an external potential acting on the solute. This also explains why simulations of positionally constrained solutes do not reproduce free-solution diffusivities. Dynamic scaling arguments suggest similar effects also for macromolecular solutes provided the solution viscosity is sufficiently enhanced.

  13. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  14. Real-time stereo matching architecture based on 2D MRF model: a memory-efficient systolic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sungchan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a growing need in computer vision applications for stereopsis, requiring not only accurate distance but also fast and compact physical implementation. Global energy minimization techniques provide remarkably precise results. But they suffer from huge computational complexity. One of the main challenges is to parallelize the iterative computation, solving the memory access problem between the big external memory and the massive processors. Remarkable memory saving can be obtained with our memory reduction scheme, and our new architecture is a systolic array. If we expand it into N's multiple chips in a cascaded manner, we can cope with various ranges of image resolutions. We have realized it using the FPGA technology. Our architecture records 19 times smaller memory than the global minimization technique, which is a principal step toward real-time chip implementation of the various iterative image processing algorithms with tiny and distributed memory resources like optical flow, image restoration, etc.

  15. Shape memory polymer foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  16. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  17. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  18. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  19. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  20. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  1. Human memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, M; Küppers, R

    2016-12-01

    A key feature of the adaptive immune system is the generation of memory B and T cells and long-lived plasma cells, providing protective immunity against recurring infectious agents. Memory B cells are generated in germinal center (GC) reactions in the course of T cell-dependent immune responses and are distinguished from naive B cells by an increased lifespan, faster and stronger response to stimulation and expression of somatically mutated and affinity matured immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Approximately 40% of human B cells in adults are memory B cells, and several subsets were identified. Besides IgG(+) and IgA(+) memory B cells, ∼50% of peripheral blood memory B cells express IgM with or without IgD. Further smaller subpopulations have additionally been described. These various subsets share typical memory B cell features, but likely also fulfill distinct functions. IgM memory B cells appear to have the propensity for refined adaptation upon restimulation in additional GC reactions, whereas reactivated IgG B cells rather differentiate directly into plasma cells. The human memory B-cell pool is characterized by (sometimes amazingly large) clonal expansions, often showing extensive intraclonal IgV gene diversity. Moreover, memory B-cell clones are frequently composed of members of various subsets, showing that from a single GC B-cell clone a variety of memory B cells with distinct functions is generated. Thus, the human memory B-cell compartment is highly diverse and flexible. Several B-cell malignancies display features suggesting a derivation from memory B cells. This includes a subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia and marginal zone lymphomas. The exposure of memory B cells to oncogenic events during their generation in the GC, the longevity of these B cells and the ease to activate them may be key determinants for their malignant transformation.

  2. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  3. Memories Are Made of This.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey L.

    1983-01-01

    Provides comments on research studies related to memory systems, considering those exploring the nature of memory traces. One researcher suggests that memory trace circuits are extremely localized (as opposed to being diffuse), such that a lesion in a rabbit's brain can completely destroy the trace for a particular learned response. (JN)

  4. Externalization of the Toxic Introject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael

    1975-01-01

    The therapist encounters patients who have incorporated toxic introjects. Therapy helps them to provide room for incorporation of a healthy object by externalizing the toxic introject. This technique is illustrated with several cases and comparison is made between the use of this technique in the treatment of adults and children. (Author)

  5. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  6. The costs and benefits of memory conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Antonio; Lauris, Paula; Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of external recommendations on memory attributions. In two experiments, participants were led to believe that they were viewing the responses of two prior students to the same memoranda they were currently judging. However, they were not informed of the reliability of these fictive sources of cues or provided with performance feedback as testing proceeded. Experiment 1 demonstrated improvement in the presence of reliable source cues (75% valid), as compared to uncued recognition, whereas performance was unaltered in the presence of random cues provided by an unreliable source (50% valid). Critically, participants did not ignore the unreliable source, but instead appeared to restrict cue use from both sources to low-confidence trials on which internal evidence was highly unreliable. Experiment 2 demonstrated that participants continued to treat an unreliable source as potentially informative even when it was predominantly incorrect (25% valid), highlighting severe limitations in the ability to adequately discount unreliable or deceptive sources of memory cues. Thus, under anonymous source conditions, observers appear to use a low-confidence outsourcing strategy, wherein they restrict reliance on external cues to situations of low confidence.

  7. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of unclear cause Transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke Hydrocephalus (fluid collection in the brain) Sometimes, memory loss occurs with mental health problems, such as: After a major, traumatic or stressful ...

  8. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, ... site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  9. A memory model for autonomous virtual humans

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Christopher; O'SULLIVAN, CAROL ANN

    2002-01-01

    PUBLISHED A memory model based on ?stage theory?, the dominant view of memory from the field of cognitive psychology, is presented for application to autonomous virtual humans. The virtual human senses external stimuli through a synthetic vision system. The vision system incorporates multiple modes of vision in order to accommodate a perceptual attention approach. The memory model is used to store perceived and attended object data at different stages in a filtering process....

  10. Collective Memory, Cultural Transmission and Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    I study the transmission of collective memory as a mechanism for cultural transmission, in the presence of social externalities associated with individual cultural investment decisions. The younger generation's decisions depend on beliefs about the quality of existing institutions, norms, and values, which are influenced by collective memory. In culturally homogeneous societies it can be optimal to suppress negative memories while emphasizing positive ones. However, the ability to bias collec...

  11. Skilled Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-06

    performance. We have seen an avmage subject who, with the help of a couple of hundred hours of practice, turned himself into a memory expert with the...assumed that when people generate a mental image of a cow kicking a bell (or comprehend the sentence), a set of procedures in semantic memory is...interactive images . 18. A good name for such a memory system is "working memory ," but this term has traditionally been used to describe the temporary

  12. External Costs of Transport

    OpenAIRE

    INFRAS, UNIVERSITAT KARLRUHE

    2014-01-01

    This study is an update of a former UIC study on external effects (IFRAS / IWW 2000). It aims at improving the empirical basis of external costs of transport based on the actual state of the art of cost estimation methodologies reflecting also recent studies on external costs of transport on a European level (especially UNITE).The following dimensions are considered:- cost categories- contries- base year- differentiation by means of transport 

  13. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  14. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  15. NEUROPHYSYOLOGY MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Kusrohmaniah

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes neuropsychology bases of human memory. First, the author presents definitions of memory according to biopsycholo‐ gical point of view. Next, the human nervous system and how neurons work are explained. Finally, the paper explicates the major parts of human brain and their roles in memory.

  16. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  17. Computer memory management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, III, Whitson John

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  18. Making memories matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Gold

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem.

  19. Synaptic Mechanisms of Memory Consolidation during Sleep Slow Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yina; Krishnan, Giri P; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-04-13

    Sleep is critical for regulation of synaptic efficacy, memories, and learning. However, the underlying mechanisms of how sleep rhythms contribute to consolidating memories acquired during wakefulness remain unclear. Here we studied the role of slow oscillations, 0.2-1 Hz rhythmic transitions between Up and Down states during stage 3/4 sleep, on dynamics of synaptic connectivity in the thalamocortical network model implementing spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. We found that the spatiotemporal pattern of Up-state propagation determines the changes of synaptic strengths between neurons. Furthermore, an external input, mimicking hippocampal ripples, delivered to the cortical network results in input-specific changes of synaptic weights, which persisted after stimulation was removed. These synaptic changes promoted replay of specific firing sequences of the cortical neurons. Our study proposes a neuronal mechanism on how an interaction between hippocampal input, such as mediated by sharp wave-ripple events, cortical slow oscillations, and synaptic plasticity, may lead to consolidation of memories through preferential replay of cortical cell spike sequences during slow-wave sleep. Sleep is critical for memory and learning. Replay during sleep of temporally ordered spike sequences related to a recent experience was proposed to be a neuronal substrate of memory consolidation. However, specific mechanisms of replay or how spike sequence replay leads to synaptic changes that underlie memory consolidation are still poorly understood. Here we used a detailed computational model of the thalamocortical system to report that interaction between slow cortical oscillations and synaptic plasticity during deep sleep can underlie mapping hippocampal memory traces to persistent cortical representation. This study provided, for the first time, a mechanistic explanation of how slow-wave sleep may promote consolidation of recent memory events. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364231-17$15.00/0.

  20. Emerging memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  1. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  2. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting to ...

  3. Social Agglomeration Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Borck, Rainald

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines social agglomeration externalities. Using survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, I examine the link between city size and different measures of consumption, social interaction and social capital. Further, using responses to satisfaction questions, I analyse whether individuals are compensated for diseconomies of agglomeration by positive agglomeration externalities in other areas. This equilibrium hypothesis cannot be rejected.

  4. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  5. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  6. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  7. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  8. Internal and External Readings of Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    is infelicitous in the absence of parallelism. Hardt and Mikkelsen propose an account that applies uniformly to internal and external readings; however, the evidence they present largely targets external readings – they don’t offer empirical evidence that clearly supports the uniform approach. Furthermore, Barker...... (2007) argues that internal readings must be treated differently than external readings. In this paper, I show that the parallelism effects observed by Hardt and Mikkelsen in fact apply to internal readings as well. This provides support for a uniform treatment of internal and external readings of same...

  9. Offline consolidation of memory varies with time in slow wave sleep and can be accelerated by cuing memory reactivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Biggel, Simon; Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Memory representations are reactivated during slow-wave sleep (SWS) after learning, and these reactivations cause a beneficial effect of sleep for memory consolidation. Memory reactivations can also be externally triggered during sleep by associated cues which enhance the sleep-dependent memory consolidation process. Here, we compared in humans the influence of sleep periods (i) of 40min and (ii) of 90min without externally triggered reactivations and (iii) of externally triggered reactivations by an associated odor cue during a 40-min sleep period on the consolidation of previously learned hippocampus-dependent visuo-spatial memories. We show that external reactivation by an odor cue during the 40-min sleep period enhanced memory stability to the same extent as 90min of sleep without odor reactivation. In contrast, 40min of sleep without external reactivations were not sufficient to benefit memory. In the 90-min sleep condition, memory enhancements were associated with time spent in SWS and were independent of the presence or absence of REM sleep. These results suggest that the efficacy of hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation depends on the duration of sleep and particularly SWS. External reactivation cues can accelerate the consolidation process even during shorter sleep episodes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. About sleep's role in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  11. Place memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Daniela; Kahsai, Lily; Kramer, Elizabeth F; Knutson, Patrick; Zars, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Some memories last longer than others, with some lasting a lifetime. Using several approaches memory phases have been identified. How are these different phases encoded, and do these different phases have similar temporal properties across learning situations? Place memory in Drosophila using the heat-box provides an excellent opportunity to examine the commonalities of genetically-defined memory phases across learning contexts. Here we determine optimal conditions to test place memories that last up to three hours. An aversive temperature of 41°C was identified as critical for establishing a long-lasting place memory. Interestingly, adding an intermittent-training protocol only slightly increased place memory when intermediate aversive temperatures were used, and slightly extended the stability of a memory. Genetic analysis of this memory identified four genes as critical for place memory within minutes of training. The role of the rutabaga type I adenylyl cyclase was confirmed, and the latheo Orc3 origin of recognition complex component, the novel gene encoded by pastrel, and the small GTPase rac were all identified as essential for normal place memory. Examination of the dopamine and ecdysone receptor (DopEcR) did not reveal a function for this gene in place memory. When compared to the role of these genes in other memory types, these results suggest that there are genes that have both common and specific roles in memory formation across learning contexts. Importantly, contrasting the timing for the function of these four genes, plus a previously described role of the radish gene, in place memory with the temporal requirement of these genes in classical olfactory conditioning reveals variability in the timing of genetically-defined memory phases depending on the type of learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1988-01-01

    Three broad approaches to the measurement of memory functioning will be described. The first of these involves using memory as a general indicator of any dysfunction in the central nervous system. This approach will be illustrated using Sternberg's short-term memory scanning paradigm. Its strengths are that such tests are often very sensitive, but they are often very difficult to interpret both theoretically and in practical terms. A second approach is to use a range of tasks selected so as to tap different aspects of human memory. Such an approach is of considerably more theoretical interest, and is discussed in more detail by Eysenck (this volume). Its weaknesses are that theories of memory are still changing relatively quickly, and that mapping such results onto memory outside the laboratory is often complex. A third approach is to attempt a more direct measure of everyday memory. The use of questionnaires for this purpose will be critically discussed, and a new test of everyday memory will be described. This test, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, correlates well with observations of memory lapses in patients, and appears to offer a promising new line of development.

  13. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  14. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions...... in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. It contributes to the understanding of processes of memory transmission and negotiation across borders and cultures in Europe, emphasizing the interconnectedness of memory with emotions, mediation and politics....

  15. Tunable polymer multi-shape memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao

    2010-03-11

    Shape memory polymers are materials that can memorize temporary shapes and revert to their permanent shape upon exposure to an external stimulus such as heat, light, moisture or magnetic field. Such properties have enabled a variety of applications including deployable space structures, biomedical devices, adaptive optical devices, smart dry adhesives and fasteners. The ultimate potential for a shape memory polymer, however, is limited by the number of temporary shapes it can memorize in each shape memory cycle and the ability to tune the shape memory transition temperature(s) for the targeted applications. Currently known shape memory polymers are capable of memorizing one or two temporary shapes, corresponding to dual- and triple-shape memory effects (also counting the permanent shape), respectively. At the molecular level, the maximum number of temporary shapes a shape memory polymer can memorize correlates directly to the number of discrete reversible phase transitions (shape memory transitions) in the polymer. Intuitively, one might deduce that multi-shape memory effects are achievable simply by introducing additional reversible phase transitions. The task of synthesizing a polymer with more than two distinctive and strongly bonded reversible phases, however, is extremely challenging. Tuning shape memory effects, on the other hand, is often achieved through tailoring the shape memory transition temperatures, which requires alteration in the material composition. Here I show that the perfluorosulphonic acid ionomer (PFSA), which has only one broad reversible phase transition, exhibits dual-, triple-, and at least quadruple-shape memory effects, all highly tunable without any change to the material composition.

  16. Intracranial recordings and human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth L; Knight, Robert T

    2015-04-01

    Recent work involving intracranial recording during human memory performance provides superb spatiotemporal resolution on mnemonic processes. These data demonstrate that the cortical regions identified in neuroimaging studies of memory fall into temporally distinct networks and the hippocampal theta activity reported in animal memory literature also plays a central role in human memory. Memory is linked to activity at multiple interacting frequencies, ranging from 1 to 500Hz. High-frequency responses and coupling between different frequencies suggest that frontal cortex activity is critical to human memory processes, as well as a potential key role for the thalamus in neocortical oscillations. Future research will inform unresolved questions in the neuroscience of human memory and guide creation of stimulation protocols to facilitate function in the damaged brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.   ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...

  18. External incontinence devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. External incontinence devices are products (or appliances). These are worn on the outside of the ... us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National ...

  19. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  20. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  1. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  2. ADE Guide for External Reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADE Bulletin, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Helps external reviewers of academic departments draw on the experience of those who have learned by trial and error. Outlines the steps taken by an external reviewer. Considers the particular task for an external reviewer and presents some notes on self-preservation for the external reviewer. Discusses the external reviewer's responsibility of…

  3. External trade development in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Český statistický úřad

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the external trade development of the CR in total (turnover, export, import, trade balance). Main factors, which influence the external trade development. Territorial structure (by main blocks and selected countries) and commodity structure (by SITC, rev. 4) of the external trade. Comparisons of the CR external trade development with the external trade development of the other member states of the EU.

  4. Maternal scaffolding in a disadvantaged global context: The influence of working memory and cognitive capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Jelena; Portilla, Ximena A; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole; Siyal, Saima; Rasheed, Muneera A; Yousafzai, Aisha K

    2017-03-01

    The current study focuses on maternal cognitive capacities as determinants of parenting in a highly disadvantaged global context, where children's experiences at home are often the 1st and only opportunity for learning and intellectual growth. In a large sample of 1,291 biological mothers of preschool-aged children in rural Pakistan, we examined the unique association of maternal working memory skills (independent of related cognitive capacities) with cognitively stimulating parenting behaviors. Path analysis revealed that directly assessed working memory, short-term memory, and verbal intelligence independently predicted greater levels of observed maternal scaffolding behaviors. Mothers from poorer families demonstrated lower levels of working memory, short-term memory, and verbal intelligence. However, mothers' participation in an early childhood parenting intervention that ended 2 years prior to this study contributed to greater levels of working memory skills and verbal intelligence. Further, all 3 domains of maternal cognitive capacity mediated the effect of family economic resources on maternal scaffolding, and verbal intelligence also mediated the effect of early parenting intervention exposure on maternal scaffolding. The study demonstrates the unique relevance of maternal working memory for scaffolding behaviors that required continuously monitoring the child's engagement, providing assistance, and minimizing external distractions. These results highlight the importance of directly targeting maternal cognitive capacities in poor women with little or no formal education, using a 2-generation intervention approach that includes activities known to promote parental executive functioning and literacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Collaging Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  6. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  7. Memory integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweegers, C.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to characterize the neural mechanisms underlying memory integration. In chapter 2, we studied the neural underpinnings of regularity extraction across hippocampus-dependent episodic memories. We found higher connectivity between the hippocampus and the mPFC for the

  8. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  9. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  10. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  11. Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

  12. Working memory and the memory distortion component of hindsight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Dustin P

    2012-01-01

    One component of hindsight bias is memory distortion: Individuals' recollections of their predictions are biased towards known outcomes. The present study examined the role of working memory in the memory distortion component of hindsight bias. Participants answered almanac-like questions, completed a measure of working memory capacity, were provided with the correct answers, and attempted to recollect their original judgements in two conditions: with and without a concurrent working memory load. Participants' recalled judgements were more biased by feedback when they recalled these judgements with a concurrent memory load and working memory capacity was negatively correlated with memory distortion. These findings are consistent with reconstruction accounts of the memory distortion component of hindsight bias and, more generally, with dual process theories of cognition. These results also relate the memory distortion component of hindsight bias with other cognitive errors, such as source monitoring errors, the belief bias in syllogistic reasoning and anchoring effects. Implications for the separate components view of hindsight bias are discussed.

  13. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...

  14. Glucose, memory, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, D L; Gold, P E

    1998-04-01

    Circulating glucose concentrations regulate many brain functions, including learning and memory. Much of the evidence for this view comes from experiments assessing stress-related release of epinephrine with subsequent increases in blood glucose concentrations. One application of this work has been to investigate whether age-related memory impairments result from dysfunctions in the neuroendocrine regulation of the brain processes responsible for memory. Like humans, aged rodents exhibit some memory impairments that can be reversed by administration of epinephrine or glucose. In elderly humans, ingestion of glucose enhances some cognitive functions, with effects best documented thus far on tests of verbal contextual and noncontextual information. Glucose also effectively enhances cognition in persons with Alzheimer disease or Down syndrome. Although earlier evidence suggested that glucose does not enhance cognitive function in healthy young adults, more recent findings suggest that glucose is effective in this population, provided the tests are sufficiently difficult. In college students, glucose consumption significantly enhanced memory of material in a paragraph. Glucose also appeared to enhance attentional processes in these students. Neither face and word recognition nor working memory was influenced by treatment with glucose. The neurobiological mechanisms by which glucose acts are under current investigation. Initial evidence suggests that glucose or a metabolite may activate release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in rats when they are engaged in learning. Consequently, the issue of nutrition and cognition becomes increasingly important in light of evidence that circulating glucose concentrations have substantial effects on brain and cognitive functions.

  15. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  17. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  18. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  19. A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowich, Jacki; Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-07-16

    Goal-directed behavior is often impaired by interference from the external environment, either in the form of distraction by irrelevant information that one attempts to ignore, or by interrupting information that demands attention as part of another (secondary) task goal. Both forms of external interference have been shown to detrimentally impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM). Emerging evidence suggests that these different types of external interference exert different effects on behavior and may be mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. Better characterizing the distinct neuro-behavioral impact of irrelevant distractions versus attended interruptions is essential for advancing an understanding of top-down attention, resolution of external interference, and how these abilities become degraded in healthy aging and in neuropsychiatric conditions. This manuscript describes a novel cognitive paradigm developed the Gazzaley lab that has now been modified into several distinct versions used to elucidate behavioral and neural correlates of interference, by to-be-ignored distractors versus to-be-attended interruptors. Details are provided on variants of this paradigm for investigating interference in visual and auditory modalities, at multiple levels of stimulus complexity, and with experimental timing optimized for electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. In addition, data from younger and older adult participants obtained using this paradigm is reviewed and discussed in the context of its relationship with the broader literatures on external interference and age-related neuro-behavioral changes in resolving interference in working memory.

  20. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  1. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...... a section on that topic can be found in appendix....

  2. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically...

  3. PIYAS-Proceeding to Intelligent Service Oriented Memory Allocation for Flash Based Data Centric Sensor Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Shahla Rizvi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS. This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  4. The Evenki Memorial Tree and Trail: Negotiating with a Memorial Regime in the North Baikal, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika V. Simonova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based upon the ethnography gathered among Evenkis living in Kholodnoye village in the northern coastal area of Lake Baikal in Siberia this article discusses relationships between local memorial practices and official memorial regimes. Although negotiation between authoritative and alternative memories and histories is typically portrayed in terms of resistance, in North Baikal it should be approached differently. Thus Evenkis in alliance with the Taiga creatively engage with official memorial regime in a way local practices of remembering serve positively for the local community. Remembering becomes a 'language' to interact with state powers and external audiences.

  5. Multiferroic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritendu Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroism implies simultaneous presence of more than one ferroic characteristics such as coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. This phenomenon has led to the development of various kinds of materials and conceptions of many novel applications such as development of a memory device utilizing the multifunctionality of the multiferroic materials leading to a multistate memory device with electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic reading operations. Though, interdependence of electrical- and magnetic-order parameters makes it difficult to accomplish the above and thus rendering the device to only two switchable states, recent research has shown that such problems can be circumvented by novel device designs such as formation of tunnel junction or by use of exchange bias. In this paper, we review the operational aspects of multiferroic memories as well as the materials used for these applications along with the designs that hold promise for the future memory devices.

  6. A Primer on Memory Consistency and Cache Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    Many modern computer systems and most multicore chips (chip multiprocessors) support shared memory in hardware. In a shared memory system, each of the processor cores may read and write to a single shared address space. For a shared memory machine, the memory consistency model defines the architecturally visible behavior of its memory system. Consistency definitions provide rules about loads and stores (or memory reads and writes) and how they act upon memory. As part of supporting a memory consistency model, many machines also provide cache coherence protocols that ensure that multiple cached

  7. Modeling Implicit and Explicit Memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Ohta, N.; Izawa, C.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical models of memory are useful for describing basic processes of memory in a way that enables generalization across a number of experimental paradigms. Models that have these characteristics do not just engage in empirical curve-fitting, but may also provide explanations for puzzling

  8. The neurobiology of the human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietta, Pierluigi; Fietta, Pieranna

    2011-01-01

    Memory can be defined as the ability to acquire, process, store, and retrieve information. Memory is indispensable for learning, adaptation, and survival of every living organism. In humans, the remembering process has acquired great flexibility and complexity, reaching close links with other mental functions, such as thinking and emotions. Changes in synaptic connectivity and interactions among multiple neural networks provide the neurobiological substrates for memory encoding, retention, and consolidation. Memory may be categorized as short-term and long-term memory (according to the storage temporal duration), as implicit and explicit memory (with respect to the consciousness of remembering), as declarative (knowing that [fact]) and procedural (knowing how [skill]) memory, or as sensory (echoic, iconic and haptil), semantic, and episodic memory (according to the various remembering domains). Significant advances have been obtained in understanding memory neurobiology, but much remains to be learned in its cognitive, psychological, and phenomenological aspects.

  9. Stress effects on working memory, explicit memory, and implicit memory for neutral and emotional stimuli in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Mathias; Meier, Beat; Sandi, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Stress is a strong modulator of memory function. However, memory is not a unitary process and stress seems to exert different effects depending on the memory type under study. Here, we explored the impact of social stress on different aspects of human memory, including tests for explicit memory and working memory (for neutral materials), as well as implicit memory (perceptual priming, contextual priming and classical conditioning for emotional stimuli). A total of 35 young adult male students were randomly assigned to either the stress or the control group, with stress being induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were assessed repeatedly throughout the experiment to validate stress effects. The results support previous evidence indicating complex effects of stress on different types of memory: A pronounced working memory deficit was associated with exposure to stress. No performance differences between groups of stressed and unstressed subjects were observed in verbal explicit memory (but note that learning and recall took place within 1 h and immediately following stress) or in implicit memory for neutral stimuli. Stress enhanced classical conditioning for negative but not positive stimuli. In addition, stress improved spatial explicit memory. These results reinforce the view that acute stress can be highly disruptive for working memory processing. They provide new evidence for the facilitating effects of stress on implicit memory for negative emotional materials. Our findings are discussed with respect to their potential relevance for psychiatric disorders, such as post traumatic stress disorder.

  10. Stress effects on working memory, explicit memory, and implicit memory for neutral and emotional stimuli in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Luethi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a strong modulator of memory function. However, memory is not a unitary process and stress seems to exert different effects depending on the memory type under study. Here, we explored the impact of social stress on different aspects of human memory, including tests for explicit memory and working memory (for neutral materials, as well as implicit memory (perceptual priming, contextual priming and classical conditioning for emotional stimuli. A total of 35 young adult male students were randomly assigned to either the stress or the control group, with stress being induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed repeatedly throughout the experiment to validate stress effects. The results support previous evidence indicating complex effects of stress on different types of memory: A pronounced working memory deficit was associated with exposure to stress. No performance differences between groups of stressed and unstressed subjects were observed in verbal explicit memory (but note that learning and recall took place within 1 hour and immediately following stress or in implicit memory for neutral stimuli. Stress enhanced classical conditioning for negative but not positive stimuli. In addition, stress improved spatial explicit memory. These results reinforce the view that acute stress can be highly disruptive for working memory processing. They provide new evidence for the facilitating effects of stress on implicit memory for negative emotional materials. Our findings are discussed with respect to their potential relevance for psychiatric disorders, such as post traumatic stress disorder.

  11. Forced to remember: when memory is biased by salient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio

    2015-04-15

    The last decades have seen a rapid growing in the attempt to understand the key factors involved in the internal memory representation of the external world. Visual salience have been found to provide a major contribution in predicting the probability for an item/object embedded in a complex setting (i.e., a natural scene) to be encoded and then remembered later on. Here I review the existing literature highlighting the impact of perceptual- (based on low-level sensory features) and semantics-related salience (based on high-level knowledge) on short-term memory representation, along with the neural mechanisms underpinning the interplay between these factors. The available evidence reveal that both perceptual- and semantics-related factors affect attention selection mechanisms during the encoding of natural scenes. Biasing internal memory representation, both perceptual and semantics factors increase the probability to remember high- to the detriment of low-saliency items. The available evidence also highlight an interplay between these factors, with a reduced impact of perceptual-related salience in biasing memory representation as a function of the increasing availability of semantics-related salient information. The neural mechanisms underpinning this interplay involve the activation of different portions of the frontoparietal attention control network. Ventral regions support the assignment of selection/encoding priorities based on high-level semantics, while the involvement of dorsal regions reflects priorities assignment based on low-level sensory features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  13. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  14. Simulation of Dislocation and Transformation Plasticity in Shape Memory Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volkov, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A model of deformation of shape memory alloys has been developed. It takes into account deformation due to the phase transformation and plastic deformation, produced by an external stress or by inter-phase stresses...

  15. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  16. Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    techniques have refractory angina pectoris. It has been estimated that greater than 100,000 patients each year in the US may be diagnosed as having this condition. (3) Patients with refractory angina have marked limitation of ordinary physical activity or are unable to perform any ordinary physical activity without discomfort (CCS functional class III/IV). Also, there must be some objective evidence of ischemia as demonstrated by exercise treadmill testing, stress imaging studies or coronary physiologic studies. (1) Dejongste et al. (4)estimated that the prevalence of chronic refractory angina is about 100,000 patients in the United States. This would correspond to approximately 3,800 (100,000 x 3.8% [Ontario is approximately 3.8% of the population of the United States]) patients in Ontario having chronic refractory angina. Heart Failure Heart failure results from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to act as a pump. A recent study (5) revealed 28,702 patients were hospitalized for first-time HF in Ontario between April 1994 and March 1997. Women comprised 51% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent were aged 65 years or older, and 58% were aged 75 years or older. Patients with chronic HF experience shortness of breath, a limited capacity for exercise, high rates of hospitalization and rehospitalization, and die prematurely. (6) The New York Heart Association (NYHA) has provided a commonly used functional classification for the severity of HF (7): Class I: No limitation of physical activity. No symptoms with ordinary exertion. Class II: Slight limitations of physical activity. Ordinary activity causes symptoms. Class III: Marked limitation of physical activity. Less than ordinary activity causes symptoms. Asymptomatic at rest. Class IV: Inability to carry out any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms at rest. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (7) estimates that 35% of patients with HF are in functional NYHA

  17. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  18. Externally triggered microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  19. Agglomeration Externalities in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Eckhardt

    2004-01-01

    Several recent econometric investigations found externalities related to the density of economic activity to account for one fifth to one half of total regional variations in average labor productivity in the U.S. and big European countries, including Germany. The present paper shows for German NUTS 3 regions, first, that this result is not robust against a more extensive control for private returns that may be correlated with economic density. The paper presents, second, evidence of various ...

  20. Multi-Voxel Decoding and the Topography of Maintained Information During Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a “sensory recruitment” model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance. PMID:26912997

  1. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  2. External Memory Graph Algorithms and Range Searching Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walderveen, Freek van

    Every day larger amounts of data are generated that describe our world in terms of networks or graphs. Think for example about maps of roads or rivers, social networks, or the internet (either as a network of computers or as a network of hyperlinks). Besides this, also surface models, such as hei......Every day larger amounts of data are generated that describe our world in terms of networks or graphs. Think for example about maps of roads or rivers, social networks, or the internet (either as a network of computers or as a network of hyperlinks). Besides this, also surface models......). In order to present (for example geographic) data to a user, it is often necessary to select only a relatively small part of a dataset|such as all post oces in the region visible on the user's screen|and return some statictic about this part|such as the distance between the two furthest post oces...

  3. Dynamic Delayed Duplicate Detection for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami

    2008-01-01

    Duplicate detection is an expensive operation of disk-based model checkers. It consists of comparing some potentially new states, the candidate states, to previous visited states. We propose a new approach to this technique called dynamic delayed duplicate detection. This one exploits some typica...

  4. Worst-case efficient external-memory priority queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Katajainen, Jyrki

    1998-01-01

    data structure handles any intermixed sequence of Insert and DeleteMin operations such that in every disjoint interval of B consecutive priorityqueue operations at most clogM/B N/M I/Os are performed, for some positive constant c. These I/Os are divided evenly among the operations: if B ≥ clogM/B N....../M, one I/O is necessary for every B/(clogM/B N/M)th operation and if B I/Os are performed per every operation. Moreover, every operation requires O(log2 N) comparisons in the worst case. The best earlier solutions can only handle a sequence of S operations with O(σ i=1 S 1....../B log M/B Ni/M) I/Os, where N i denotes the number of elements stored in the data structure prior to the ith operation, without giving any guarantee for the performance of the individual operations...

  5. Oscillatory Reinstatement Enhances Declarative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Glen, James C; Halkiopoulos, Sara; Schulz, Mei; Spiers, Hugo J

    2017-10-11

    Declarative memory recall is thought to involve the reinstatement of neural activity patterns that occurred previously during encoding. Consistent with this view, greater similarity between patterns of activity recorded during encoding and retrieval has been found to predict better memory performance in a number of studies. Recent models have argued that neural oscillations may be crucial to reinstatement for successful memory retrieval. However, to date, no causal evidence has been provided to support this theory, nor has the impact of oscillatory electrical brain stimulation during encoding and retrieval been assessed. To explore this we used transcranial alternating current stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of human participants [n = 70, 45 females; age mean (SD) = 22.12 (2.16)] during a declarative memory task. Participants received either the same frequency during encoding and retrieval (60-60 or 90-90 Hz) or different frequencies (60-90 or 90-60 Hz). When frequencies matched there was a significant memory improvement (at both 60 and 90 Hz) relative to sham stimulation. No improvement occurred when frequencies mismatched. Our results provide support for the role of oscillatory reinstatement in memory retrieval.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent neurobiological models of memory have argued that large-scale neural oscillations are reinstated to support successful memory retrieval. Here we used transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to test these models. tACS has recently been shown to induce neural oscillations at the frequency stimulated. We stimulated over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a declarative memory task involving learning a set of words. We found that tACS applied at the same frequency during encoding and retrieval enhances memory. We also find no difference between the two applied frequencies. Thus our results are consistent with the proposal that reinstatement of neural oscillations during retrieval

  6. Future shock: automatic external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Sharon; Weissman, Charles; Kark, Jeremy; Lotan, Chaim; Matot, Idit

    2005-04-01

    This review provides a practical overview of the performance capabilities of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), and of advances in technology and dissemination programmes for these devices. Arrhythmia analysis by AEDs is extremely reliable in most settings (sensitivity 81-100%, specificity 99.9-97.6%). Accurate detection of arrhythmias has also been demonstrated in children, leading the US Food and Drug Administration to approve the use of several AEDs in children aged 8 years or younger. Factors that potentially may reduce the quality of arrhythmia detection are the presence of wide complex supraventricular tachycardia and location of an arrythmic event near to high-power lines. AED use by professional basic life support providers resulted in increased survival in the prehospital setting. However, provision of AEDs to nonmedical rescue services did not result in universal improvement in patient outcome. Public access defibrillation programmes have led to higher rates of survival from cardiac arrest. The role of AEDs in hospitals has yet to be elucidated, although in-hospital mortality from ventricular arrhythmias has been shown to decrease following AED deployment. Given the correct setting, AEDs can ensure that defibrillation is not limited by lack of medical knowledge or difficulties in decision making. However, event-related variables and operator-related factors, that are yet to be determined, can significantly affect the efficacy of automatic external defibrillation.

  7. External Auditors and Corporate Corruption: Implications for External Audit Regulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kassem, Rasha; Higson, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

      The purpose of the current study is to examine the responsibility of external auditors in relation to corporate corruption and to highlight the implications of this for external audit regulators...

  8. Age differences in perceptions of memory strategy effectiveness for recent and remote memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Horhota, Michelle; Crumley, Jessica; Geanon, Catherine T; Juett, Jacqueline J

    2016-12-26

    We examined whether young and older adults hold different beliefs about the effectiveness of memory strategies for specific types of memory tasks and whether memory strategies are perceived to be differentially effective for young, middle-aged, and older targets. Participants rated the effectiveness of five memory strategies for 10 memory tasks at three target ages (20, 50, and 80 years old). Older adults did not strongly differentiate strategy effectiveness, viewing most strategies as similarly effective across memory tasks. Young adults held strategy-specific beliefs, endorsing external aids and physical health as more effective than a positive attitude or internal strategies, without substantial differentiation based on task. We also found differences in anticipated strategy effectiveness for targets of different ages. Older adults described cognitive and physical health strategies as more effective for older than middle-aged targets, whereas young adults expected these strategies to be equally effective for middle-aged and older target adults.

  9. Strategic offloading of delayed intentions into the external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, we often use external artefacts such as diaries to help us remember intended behaviours. In addition, we commonly manipulate our environment, for example by placing reminders in noticeable places. Yet strategic offloading of intentions to the external environment is not typically permitted in laboratory tasks examining memory for delayed intentions. What factors influence our use of such strategies, and what behavioural consequences do they have? This article describes four online experiments (N = 1196) examining a novel web-based task in which participants hold intentions for brief periods, with the option to strategically externalize these intentions by creating a reminder. This task significantly predicted participants' fulfilment of a naturalistic intention embedded within their everyday activities up to one week later (with greater predictive ability than more traditional prospective memory tasks, albeit with weak effect size). Setting external reminders improved performance, and it was more prevalent in older adults. Furthermore, participants set reminders adaptively, based on (a) memory load, and (b) the likelihood of distraction. These results suggest the importance of metacognitive processes in triggering intention offloading, which can increase the probability that intentions are eventually fulfilled.

  10. Taste's memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruetti, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gustatory novelty ‘detection requires the comparison between on line sensorial information and off line information, i.e. memory; from there a cascade of events is trigger when a maladjustment between these situations is detected. This process require neuromodulator´s pathways, which involved several systems in different cerebral areas acting in parallel, modulating the gene expression, and at last altering the cortical pathways which encode the new information. The acquisition of this information can be study through different experimental procedures, in which the associations between the gustatory stimuli and the gastrointestinal consequences are evaluated. The main evidences in rodents of the neurotransmission systems mostly involved in the flavor memory, for the appetitive and aversive memories are revised in this work.

  11. Endogenous-cue prospective memory involving incremental updating of working memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halahalli, Harsha N; John, John P; Lukose, Ammu; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M

    2015-11-01

    Prospective memory paradigms are conventionally classified on the basis of event-, time-, or activity-based intention retrieval. In the vast majority of such paradigms, intention retrieval is provoked by some kind of external event. However, prospective memory retrieval cues that prompt intention retrieval in everyday life are commonly endogenous, i.e., linked to a specific imagined retrieval context. We describe herein a novel prospective memory paradigm wherein the endogenous cue is generated by incremental updating of working memory, and investigated the hemodynamic correlates of this task. Eighteen healthy adult volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a prospective memory task where the delayed intention was triggered by an endogenous cue generated by incremental updating of working memory. Working memory and ongoing task control conditions were also administered. The 'endogenous-cue prospective memory condition' with incremental working memory updating was associated with maximum activations in the right rostral prefrontal cortex, and additional activations in the brain regions that constitute the bilateral fronto-parietal network, central and dorsal salience networks as well as cerebellum. In the working memory control condition, maximal activations were noted in the left dorsal anterior insula. Activation of the bilateral dorsal anterior insula, a component of the central salience network, was found to be unique to this 'endogenous-cue prospective memory task' in comparison to previously reported exogenous- and endogenous-cue prospective memory tasks without incremental working memory updating. Thus, the findings of the present study highlight the important role played by the dorsal anterior insula in incremental working memory updating that is integral to our endogenous-cue prospective memory task.

  12. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function. Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available. Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt. Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically

  13. Memory and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a simple example of semantic memory. This type of memory also includes vocabulary and knowledge of language. In addition, procedural memory, your memory Other types of brain functions that decrease slightly or slow ...

  14. Memory training in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vanderhasselt, M.A.; Vrijsen, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Memory biases, that is, general memory impairments as well as specific mood-congruent memory biases, are important vulnerability factors in depression. Recently, computerized memory trainings have been developed to target these biases, reducing rumination and lightening depressive symptoms. This

  15. Magnetic shape memory: Magnetoelastic sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acet, Mehmet

    2009-11-01

    Nickel-manganese-gallium foams connected internally by sizeable single-crystalline elements provide magnetic-field-induced strains comparable to free-standing bulk single crystals, and demonstrate feasibility for the application of magnetic shape memory.

  16. Synthetic vision and memory for autonomous virtual humans

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Christopher; O'SULLIVAN, CAROL ANN

    2002-01-01

    PUBLISHED A memory model based on ?stage theory?, an influential concept of memory from the field of cognitive psychology, is presented for application to autonomous virtual humans. The virtual human senses external stimuli through a synthetic vision system. The vision system incorporates multiple modes of vision in order to accommodate a perceptual attention approach. The memory model is used to store perceived and attended object information at different stages in a filtering...

  17. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  18. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Brazis, Paul W

    2002-09-01

    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a descriptive term for a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by chronic, progressive, bilateral, and usually symmetric ocular motility deficit and ptosis. Significant pain, proptosis, or pupil involvement are not features of CPEO and should prompt evaluation for alternative etiologies. Mitochondrial DNA mutations are increasingly being recognized as the etiology for CPEO syndromes. Clinicians should recognize the specific syndromes associated with CPEO, characterized by variable systemic, neurologic, or other findings. Treatment is limited, but newer therapies are being investigated.

  19. Electrophysiological evidence for parts and wholes in visual face memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-10-01

    It is often assumed that upright faces are represented in a holistic fashion, while representations of inverted faces are essentially part-based. To assess this hypothesis, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a sequential face identity matching task where successively presented pairs of upright or inverted faces were either identical or differed with respect to their internal features, their external features, or both. Participants' task was to report on each trial whether the face pair was identical or different. To track the activation of visual face memory representations, we measured N250r components that emerge over posterior face-selective regions during the activation of visual face memory representations by a successful identity match. N250r components to full identity repetitions were smaller and emerged later for inverted as compared to upright faces, demonstrating that image inversion impairs face identity matching processes. For upright faces, N250r components were also elicited by partial repetitions of external or internal features, which suggest that the underlying identity matching processes are not exclusively based on non-decomposable holistic representations. However, the N250r to full identity repetitions was super-additive (i.e., larger than the sum of the two N250r components to partial repetitions of external or internal features) for upright faces, demonstrating that holistic representations were involved in identity matching processes. For inverted faces, N250r components to full and partial identity repetitions were strictly additive, indicating that the identity matching of external and internal features operated in an entirely part-based fashion. These results provide new electrophysiological evidence for qualitative differences between representations of upright and inverted faces in the occipital-temporal face processing system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Addiction memory as a specific, individually learned memory imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J

    2009-05-01

    The construct of "addiction memory" (AM) and its importance for relapse occurrence has been the subject of discussion for the past 30 years. Neurobiological findings from "social neuroscience" and biopsychological learning theory, in conjunction with construct-valid behavioral pharmacological animal models, can now also provide general confirmation of addiction memory as a pathomorphological correlate of addiction disorders. Under multifactorial influences, experience-driven neuronal learning and memory processes of emotional and cognitive processing patterns in the specific individual "set" and "setting" play an especially pivotal role in this connection. From a neuropsychological perspective, the episodic (biographical) memory, located at the highest hierarchical level, is of central importance for the formation of the AM in certain structural and functional areas of the brain and neuronal networks. Within this context, neuronal learning and conditioning processes take place more or less unconsciously and automatically in the preceding long-term-memory systems (in particular priming and perceptual memory). They then regulate the individually programmed addiction behavior implicitly and thus subsequently stand for facilitated recollection of corresponding, previously stored cues or context situations. This explains why it is so difficult to treat an addiction memory, which is embedded above all in the episodic memory, from the molecular carrier level via the neuronal pattern level through to the psychological meaning level, and has thus meanwhile become a component of personality.

  1. Cultural memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N; Rendell, Luke

    2013-09-09

    Humans have a form of externalised memory. They are able to transmit information across generations in the form of learned cultural traditions and preserve this knowledge in artefacts. How this capability evolved from the simpler traditions of other animals is an active area of research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2016-08-11

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described. In an embodiment, a paper-based memory device is prepared by coating one or more areas of a paper substrate with a conductor material such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode of a memory, depositing a layer of insulator material, such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing a layer of metal over one or more areas of the insulator material to form a second electrode of the memory. In an embodiment, the device can further include diodes printed between the insulator material and the second electrode, and the first electrode and the second electrodes can be formed as a crossbar structure to provide a WORM memory. The various layers and the diodes can be printed onto the paper substrate by, for example, an ink jet printer.

  3. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  4. Working Memory and Behavioural Problems in Relation to Malay Writing of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Teo-Sieak; Jiar, Yeo-Kee

    2017-01-01

    Deficit in working memory is common among young children across multiple abilities. Teachers have pointed to poor memory as one contributing factor to inattentiveness and short attention spans as well as some behavioural problems among students. This study aimed to explore the relationship among working memory, externalizing and internalizing…

  5. Negative emotion elicited in high school students enhances consolidation of item memory, but not source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The study examined the effect of negative emotion on consolidation of both item and source memory. Participants learned words read by either a male or female. Then they watched either a negative or a neutral video clip. Memory tests were carried out either 25min or 24h after learning. The study yielded the following findings. First, negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory as measured by recognition memory in the 25-min delay, and enhanced consolidation of item memory as measured by free recall in both the 25-min and the 24-h delay. Second, negative emotion had little effect on consolidation of source memory, either in the 25-min or the 24-h delay. These findings provide evidence for the differential effects of negative emotion on item memory and source memory and have implications for using emotion as a strategy to intervene memory consolidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. External conference: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Monday 12 June 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Quantum computers - dream and realization Prof. R. Blatt / University of Innsbruck, Austria Computational operations always rely on real physical processes, which are data input, data representation in a memory, data manipulation using algorithms and finally, the data output. With conventional computers all the processes are classical processes and can be described accordingly. Theoretically, it is known for several years now that certain computations could be processed much more efficiently using quantum mechanical operations. This requires the implementation of quantum bits (qubits), quantum registers and quantum gates and the development of quantum algorithms. Several approaches for the implementation of quantum computers will be presented, with special emphasis o...

  7. Encoding Mechano-Memories in Actin Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucard, Louis; Majumdar, Sayantan; Levine, Alex; Gardel, Margaret

    The ability of cells to sense and adapt to external mechanical stimuli is vital to many of its biological functions. A critical question is therefore to understand how mechanosensory mechanisms arise in living matter, with implications in both cell biology and smart materials design. Experimental work has demonstrated that the mechanical properties of semiflexible actin networks in Eukaryotic cells can be modulated (either transiently or irreversibly) via the application of external forces. Previous work has also shown with a combination of numerical simulations and analytic calculations shows that the broken rotational symmetry of the filament orientational distribution in semiflexible networks leads to dramatic changes in the mechanical response. Here we demonstrate with a combination of numerical and analytic calculations that the observed long-lived mechano-memory in the actin networks arise from changes in the nematic order of the constituent filaments. These stress-induced changes in network topology relax slowly under zero stress and can be observed through changes in the nonlinear mechanics. Our results provide a strategy for designing a novel class of materials and demonstrate a new putative mechanism of mechanical sensing in eukaryotic cells.

  8. Crystallographic attributes of a shape-memory alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    1999-01-01

    Shape-memory Alloys are attractive for many potential applications. In an attempt to provide ideas and guidelines for the development of new shape-memory alloys, this paper reports on a series of investigations that examine the reasons in the crystallography that make (i) shape-memory alloys special amongst martensites and (ii) Nickel-Titanium special among shape-memory alloys.

  9. Memory strength versus memory variability in visual change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Gold, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Observers made change-detection judgments for colored squares in a paradigm that manipulated the retention interval, the magnitude of change, and objective change probability. The probability of change judgments increased across the retention interval for “same” and “small-change” test items but stayed the same or decreased for “large-change” and “far” test items. A variety of formal models were fitted to the individual-subject data. The modeling results provided evidence that, beyond changes in visual-memory precision, there were decreases in memory strength of individual study items across the retention interval. In addition, the modeling results provided evidence of a zero-information, absence-of-memory state that required guessing. The data were not sufficiently strong to sharply distinguish whether the losses in memory strength across the retention interval were continuous in nature or all-or-none. The authors argue that the construct of memory strength as distinct from memory variability is an important component of the nature of forgetting from visual working memory.

  10. Emerging memory technologies design, architecture, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the design implications of emerging, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies on future computer memory hierarchy architecture designs. Since NVM technologies combine the speed of SRAM, the density of DRAM, and the non-volatility of Flash memory, they are very attractive as the basis for future universal memories. This book provides a holistic perspective on the topic, covering modeling, design, architecture and applications. The practical information included in this book will enable designers to exploit emerging memory technologies to improve significantly the performance/power/reliability of future, mainstream integrated circuits. • Provides a comprehensive reference on designing modern circuits with emerging, non-volatile memory technologies, such as MRAM and PCRAM; • Explores new design opportunities offered by emerging memory technologies, from a holistic perspective; • Describes topics in technology, modeling, architecture and applications; • Enables circuit designers to ex...

  11. The Evolving Roles of Memory Immune Cells in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Ghobrial, Rafik M; Li, Xian C

    2015-10-01

    Memory cells are the products of immune responses but also exert significant impact on subsequent immunity and immune tolerance, thus placing them in a unique position in transplant research. Memory cells are heterogeneous, including not only memory T cells but also memory B cells and innate memory cells. Memory cells are a critical component of protective immunity against invading pathogens, especially in immunosuppressed patients, but they also mediate graft loss and tolerance resistance. Recent studies suggest that some memory cells unexpectedly act as regulatory cells, promoting rather than hindering transplant survival. This functional diversity makes therapeutic targeting of memory cells a challenging task in transplantation. In this article, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of memory cells, focusing on diversity of memory cells and mechanisms involved in their induction and functions. We also provide a broad overview on the challenges and opportunities in targeting memory cells in the induction of transplant tolerance.

  12. A Pilot Memory Café for People with Learning Disabilities and Memory Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddle, Hannah; Drew, Neil; Crabbe, Paul; Wigmore, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Memory cafés have been found to normalise experiences of dementia and provide access to an accepting social network. People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of developing dementia, but the possible benefits of attending a memory café are not known. This study evaluates a 12-week pilot memory café for people with learning…

  13. Holographic Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, NCR; Berg, RH

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic...... storage. They exhibit high resolution, high diffraction efficiency, have long storage life, are fully erasable and are mechanically stable....

  14. Treadwell Memorial

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Frances K

    2015-01-01

    This is a memorial to gold mining in Southeast Alaska. The structure takes visitors from the Treadwell trail onto the edge of a popular local beach, reclaiming a forgotten place that was once the largest gold mine in the world. A tangible tribute to this obscure period of history, this building kindles a connection between artifacts and the community. It is a liminal space, connecting ocean and mountain, past and present, civilization and wilderness. An investigation of the Treadwell Gold...

  15. Generation difficulty and memory for source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieznański, Marek

    2011-08-01

    The role of the word predictability from sentence context for reality monitoring and external source monitoring was examined in two experiments. In a reality-monitoring task, discrimination of an internal source was better in the hard than in the easy condition. It is probable that extra cognitive operations engaged during word generation in the hard condition were effective cues for reality-monitoring judgements. In contrast, in an external source-monitoring task (recognition memory of item's colour), the hard condition resulted in worse source memory for generated words than did the easy condition. This result is consistent both with an item-context trade-off hypothesis and a processing hypothesis. Greater effort involved at the time of generation might limit resources available for encoding of an external source. It is also possible that for generated words, the hard condition promoted conceptual processing instead of perceptual processing; therefore the item's colour was not effectively encoded.

  16. A Working Memory Test Battery: Java-Based Collection of Seven Working Memory Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, James M.; Towse, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a key construct within cognitive science. It is an important theory in its own right, but the influence of working memory is enriched due to the widespread evidence that measures of its capacity are linked to a variety of functions in wider cognition. To facilitate the active research environment into this topic, we describe seven computer-based tasks that provide estimates of short-term and working memory incorporating both visuospatial and verbal material. The memory span ...

  17. Wavelet-based associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2004-04-01

    Faces provide important characteristics of a person"s identification. In security checks, face recognition still remains the method in continuous use despite other approaches (i.e. fingerprints, voice recognition, pupil contraction, DNA scanners). With an associative memory, the output data is recalled directly using the input data. This can be achieved with a Nonlinear Holographic Associative Memory (NHAM). This approach can also distinguish between strongly correlated images and images that are partially or totally enclosed by others. Adaptive wavelet lifting has been used for Content-Based Image Retrieval. In this paper, adaptive wavelet lifting will be applied to face recognition to achieve an associative memory.

  18. Quantum memories and Landauer's principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicki, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Two types of arguments concerning (im)possibility of constructing a scalable, exponentially stable quantum memory equipped with Hamiltonian controls are discussed. The first type concerns ergodic properties of open Kitaev models which are considered as promising candidates for such memories. It is shown that, although the 4D Kitaev model provides stable qubit observables, the Hamiltonian control is not possible. The thermodynamical approach leads to the new proposal of the revised version of Landauer's principle and suggests that the existence of quantum memory implies the existence of the perpetuum mobile of the second kind. Finally, a discussion of the stability property of information and its implications is presented.

  19. Mental representations of attachment figures facilitate recovery following upsetting autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Emre; Zayas, Vivian; Günaydin, Gül; Hazan, Cindy; Kross, Ethan

    2012-08-01

    A growing literature shows that even the symbolic presence of an attachment figure facilitates the regulation of negative affect triggered by external stressors. Yet, in daily life, pernicious stressors are often internally generated--recalling an upsetting experience reliably increases negative affect, rumination, and susceptibility to physical and psychological health problems. The present research provides the first systematic examination of whether activating the mental representation of an attachment figure enhances the regulation of affect triggered by thinking about upsetting memories. Using 2 different techniques for priming attachment figure representations and 2 types of negative affect measures (explicit and implicit), activating the mental representation of an attachment figure (vs. an acquaintance or stranger) after recalling an upsetting memory enhanced recovery--eliminating the negative effects of the memory recall (Studies 1-3). In contrast, activating the mental representation of an attachment figure before recalling an upsetting memory had no such effect (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, activating the mental representation of an attachment figure after thinking about upsetting memories reduced negative thinking in a stream of consciousness task, and the magnitude of the attachment-induced affective recovery effects as assessed with explicit affect measures predicted mental and physical health in daily life (Study 3). Finally, a meta-analysis of the 3 studies (Study 4) showed that the regulatory benefits conferred by the mental representation of an attachment figure were weaker for individuals high on attachment avoidance. The implications of these findings for attachment, emotion regulation, and mental and physical health are discussed.

  20. Switching memory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Shazia; Justice, Lucy V; Loveday, Catherine; Conway, Martin A

    2017-11-01

    The perspective in which memories were spontaneously recalled, field (original perspective) or observer (see oneself in the memory), was examined for both recent and remote memories. Recent memories were dominated by field perspective whilst remote memories were dominated by observer perspective. Further, field memories contained reliably more episodic detail than observer memories. After a 1-week interval, the same memories were recalled again but with a switched memory perspective. Switching from an observer to a field perspective did not reliably increase the amount of episodic details in a memory. Switching from field to observer perspective did, however, reliably reduce the number of episodic details. These findings suggest that memories may be represented in long-term memory with a fixed perspective, either field or observer, which can be temporarily altered sometimes changing the nature of a memory, i.e. how much detail remains accessible. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of memory theme and posttraumatic stress disorder on memory specificity in British and Iranian trauma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Laura; Cheraghi, Sepideh

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture, memory theme and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on autobiographical memory specificity in Iranian and British trauma survivors. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test and PTSD Diagnostic Scale. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more personal-themed memories than the Iranian group, while the Iranian group provided significantly more social-themed memories than the British group. The British group also provided a significantly greater proportion of specific personal-themed and social-themed memories than the Iranian group. Overall, in both cultural groups memory specificity was found to be significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms. These findings provide further evidence that regardless of memory theme, specificity of autobiographical memories function to differentiate the self from others and reaffirm the independent self. They also further highlight that pan-culturally an overgeneral retrieval style may be employed by those with PTSD symptoms.

  2. Relation of Memory and Linguistic Fields and ICT Tools for Memory and Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglaia Tourimpampa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of human memory in language   comprehension and   specifically to examine the relationship between the function of working memory and the fields of linguistic analysis which  are  phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Working memory -as one of the most important cognitive skills of human brain- comprises a system with specific functions with which the information from the external environment are being transferred, encoded, stored and retrieved. The present  study is an attempt to explore which specific function of working memory is activated in order to decode each linguistic field of analysis. Furthermore,   it features the current scientific achievements on the ICTs processes and tools, which exploit the cognitive skill of memory and they are applied   in the assessment of difficulties in text comprehension, intervention and training of the language comprehension ability.

  3. Methods, apparatus and system for notification of predictable memory failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2017-01-03

    A method for providing notification of a predictable memory failure includes the steps of: obtaining information regarding at least one condition associated with a memory; calculating a memory failure probability as a function of the obtained information; calculating a failure probability threshold; and generating a signal when the memory failure probability exceeds the failure probability threshold, the signal being indicative of a predicted future memory failure.

  4. Electromagnetic memory effect induced by axion dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Daiske; Soda, Jiro

    2017-09-01

    Memory effects of gravitational waves from astronomical events or a primordial universe might have the information of new physics. It is intriguing to observe that the memory effect exists in electrodynamics as a net momentum kick, while the memory effect in gravity appears as a net relative displacement. In particular, Winicour has shown that the B-mode memory, which characterizes parity-odd global distribution of memory, does not exist. We study the memory effect in axion electrodynamics and find that the B-mode memory effect can exist, provided the existence of coherently oscillating axion background field. Moreover, we examine the detectability of the axion dark matter using this effect.

  5. Decision theory, motor planning, and visual memory: deciding where to reach when memory errors are costly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Rachel A; Sims, Chris R

    2016-06-01

    Limitations in visual working memory (VWM) have been extensively studied in psychophysical tasks, but not well understood in terms of how these memory limits translate to performance in more natural domains. For example, in reaching to grasp an object based on a spatial memory representation, overshooting the intended target may be more costly than undershooting, such as when reaching for a cup of hot coffee. The current body of literature lacks a detailed account of how the costs or consequences of memory error influence what we encode in visual memory and how we act on the basis of remembered information. Here, we study how externally imposed monetary costs influence behavior in a motor decision task that involves reach planning based on recalled information from VWM. We approach this from a decision theoretic perspective, viewing decisions of where to aim in relation to the utility of their outcomes given the uncertainty of memory representations. Our results indicate that subjects accounted for the uncertainty in their visual memory, showing a significant difference in their reach planning when monetary costs were imposed for memory errors. However, our findings indicate that subjects memory representations per se were not biased by the imposed costs, but rather subjects adopted a near-optimal post-mnemonic decision strategy in their motor planning.

  6. Consumption externalities and preference complementarities

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Rebecca; Carlson, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions can lead to a variety of phenomena including consumption externalities and complementarities. Consumption externalities arise when the choices of others have an effect on the total value of a household's purchases; complementarities arise when the choices of others have an effect on the marginal value of a household's purchases. This paper develops a conceptual model that separately identifies consumption externalities and complementarities and illustrates their significan...

  7. Household External Finance and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy J.; Meads, Neil; Surico, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses mortgage data to construct a measure of terms on which households access to external finance, and relates it to consumption at both the aggregate and cohort levels. The Household External Finance (HEF) index is based on the spread paid by risky borrowers in the mortgage market. There is evidence that the terms of access to external finance matter more for the consumption of young cohorts in U.K. data. Results are robust to a wide variety of specifications.

  8. Incumbent's Incentive under Network Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaehong

    2001-01-01

    This paper shows that an incumbent monopolist's incentive confronting a new entrant depends on the degree of product differentiation and the strength of network externality. If products are homogeneous, the incumbent never wants to invite entry regardless of the degree of network externality. On the other hand, if products are differentiated, duopoly profit is higher than the monopoly profit when products are more differentiated and/or the network externality is weak. Conversely, the incumben...

  9. Skin-Inspired Haptic Memory Arrays with an Electrically Reconfigurable Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bowen; Wang, Hong; Liu, Yaqing; Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hua; Yu, Jiancan; Sherburne, Matthew; Wang, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-02-24

    Skin-inspired haptic-memory devices, which can retain pressure information after the removel of external pressure by virtue of the nonvolatile nature of the memory devices, are achieved. The rise of haptic-memory devices will allow for mimicry of human sensory memory, opening new avenues for the design of next-generation high-performance sensing devices and systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sleep-dependent learning and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew P; Stickgold, Robert

    2004-09-30

    While the functions of sleep remain largely unknown, one of the most exciting and contentious hypotheses is that sleep contributes importantly to memory. A large number of studies offer a substantive body of evidence supporting this role of sleep in what is becoming known as sleep-dependent memory processing. This review will provide evidence of sleep-dependent memory consolidation and sleep-dependent brain plasticity and is divided into five sections: (1) an overview of sleep stages, memory categories, and the distinct stages of memory development; (2) a review of the specific relationships between sleep and memory, both in humans and animals; (3) a survey of evidence describing sleep-dependent brain plasticity, including human brain imaging studies as well as animal studies of cellular neurophysiology and molecular biology. We close (4) with a consideration of unanswered questions as well as existing arguments against the role of sleep in learning and memory and (5) a concluding summary.

  11. Recent Advances in Shape Memory Soft Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benjamin Qi Yu; Low, Zhi Wei Kenny; Heng, Sylvester Jun Wen; Chan, Siew Yin; Owh, Cally; Loh, Xian Jun

    2016-04-27

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart and adaptive materials able to recover their shape through an external stimulus. This functionality, combined with the good biocompatibility of polymers, has garnered much interest for biomedical applications. In this review, we discuss the design considerations critical to the successful integration of SMPs for use in vivo. We also highlight recent work on three classes of SMPs: shape memory polymers and blends, shape memory polymer composites, and shape memory hydrogels. These developments open the possibility of incorporating SMPs into device design, which can lead to vast technological improvements in the biomedical field.

  12. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J

    2017-05-01

    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Electrical memory in Venus flytrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Baldwin, Andrew; Markin, Vladislav S

    2009-06-01

    Electrical signaling, memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. The electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf in 0.3 s without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. Here we developed a new method for direct measurements of the exact electrical charge utilized by the D. muscipula Ellis to facilitate the trap closing and investigated electrical short memory in the Venus flytrap. As soon as the 8 microC charge for a small trap or a 9 microC charge for a large trap is transmitted between a lobe and midrib from the external capacitor, the trap starts to close at room temperature. At temperatures 28-36 degrees C a smaller electrical charge of 4.1 microC is required to close the trap of the D. muscipula. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap. We also found sensory memory in the Venus flytrap. When one sustained mechanical stimulus was applied to only one trigger hair, the trap closed in a few seconds.

  14. How does the sparse memory "engram" neurons encode the memory of a spatial-temporal event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Song Guan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory in human brain is not a fixed 2-D picture but a highly dynamic movie serial, integrating information at both the temporal and the spatial domains. Recent studies in neuroscience reveal that memory storage and recall are closely related to the activities in discrete memory engram (trace neurons within the dentate gyrus region of hippocampus and the layer 2/3 of neocortex. More strikingly, optogenetic reactivation of those memory trace neurons is able to trigger the recall of naturally encoded memory. It is still unknown how the discrete memory traces encode and reactivate the memory. Considering a particular memory normally represents a natural event, which consists of information at both the temporal and spatial domains, it is unknown how the discrete trace neurons could reconstitute such enriched information in the brain. Furthermore, as the optogenetic-stimuli induced recall of memory did not depend on firing pattern of the memory traces, it is most likely that the spatial activation pattern, but not the temporal activation pattern of the discrete memory trace neurons encodes the memory in the brain. How does the neural circuit convert the activities in the spatial domain into the temporal domain to reconstitute memory of a natural event? By reviewing the literature, here we present how the memory engram (trace neurons are selected and consolidated in the brain. Then, we will discuss the main challenges in the memory trace theory. In the end, we will provide a plausible model of memory trace cell network, underlying the conversion of neural activities between the spatial domain and the temporal domain. We will also discuss on how the activation of sparse memory trace neurons might trigger the replay of neural activities in specific temporal patterns.

  15. Memory Training Interventions: What has been forgotten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A; Bugg, Julie M

    2012-03-01

    Memory training for older adults often produces gains that are limited to the particular memory tasks encountered during training. We suggest that memory training programs may be misguided by an implicit "generalist" assumption-memory training on a couple of memory tasks will have a positive benefit on memory ability in general. One approach to increase memory-training benefits is to target training for the everyday memory tasks for which older adults struggle. Examples include training retrieval strategies, prospective memory strategies, and strategies for learning and remembering names. Another approach is to design training to foster transfer. Possible elements to improve transfer are increasing the variation that is experienced during the course of training at the level of stimuli and tasks, incorporating "homework" that guides the older adult to become attuned to situations in which the strategies can be applied, and providing older adults with a better understanding of how memory works. Finally, incorporating aerobic exercise into memory training programs may potentiate the acquisition and maintenance of the trained cognitive strategies.

  16. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  17. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  18. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution (DK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark); Willumsen, E.; Kristensen, N.B. [COWI (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AiGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Inititally, a brief description of the ExternE Transport methodology is given and it is summarised how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area. (au)

  19. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bhinnety

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  20. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages....... The different systems are evaluated using 5 different types of existing walls....

  1. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  2. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  3. Visual working memory contaminates perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Hong, Sang Wook; Blake, Randolph; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2011-10-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that the contents of visual working memory may be maintained within sensory areas early in the visual hierarchy. We tested this possibility using a well-studied motion repulsion phenomenon in which perception of one direction of motion is distorted when another direction of motion is viewed simultaneously. We found that observers misperceived the actual direction of motion of a single motion stimulus if, while viewing that stimulus, they were holding a different motion direction in visual working memory. Control experiments showed that none of a variety of alternative explanations could account for this repulsion effect induced by working memory. Our findings provide compelling evidence that visual working memory representations directly interact with the same neural mechanisms as those involved in processing basic sensory events.

  4. Dissociation between source and item memory in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Panpan; Li, Youhai; Ma, Huijuan; Xi, Chunhua; Chen, Xianwen; Wang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory includes information about item memory and source memory. Many researches support the hypothesis that these two memory systems are implemented by different brain structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of item memory and source memory processing in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to further verify the hypothesis of dual-process model of source and item memory. We established a neuropsychological battery to measure the performance of item memory and source memory. Totally 35 PD individuals and 35 matched healthy controls (HC) were administrated with the battery. Item memory task consists of the learning and recognition of high-frequency national Chinese characters; source memory task consists of the learning and recognition of three modes (character, picture, and image) of objects. Compared with the controls, the idiopathic PD patients have been impaired source memory (PD vs. HC: 0.65 ± 0.06 vs. 0.72 ± 0.09, P = 0.001), but not impaired in item memory (PD vs. HC: 0.65 ± 0.07 vs. 0.67 ± 0.08, P = 0.240). The present experiment provides evidence for dissociation between item and source memory in PD patients, thereby strengthening the claim that the item or source memory rely on different brain structures. PD patients show poor source memory, in which dopamine plays a critical role.

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W

    2015-10-01

    This prospective longitudinal investigation examined the predictors of generation 2 (G2) parental substance use as related to their generation 3 (G3) offspring's externalizing behavior. The sample comprised 281 mother- or father- child (G2/G3) pairs. The results indicated that the G1/G2 (generations 1 and 2) parent-child relationship during G2's adolescence predicted externalizing behavior in the G2 young adults which correlated with G2 parental substance use. G2 parental substance use was related to subsequent G2 substance use disorders (SUDS), and to the G2/G3 parent-child relationship. The G2/G3 parent-child relationship and G2's SUDS each predicted G3 externalizing behavior. The results highlight the significance of breaking the chain of transmission of externalizing behavior across generations. Implications for policy and programs addressing the etiology of externalizing behavior in the offspring are discussed within a developmental framework.

  6. Accessing external innovation in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufféry, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    A decline in the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry research and development (R&D) pipeline has highlighted the need to reconsider the classical strategies of drug discovery and development, which are based on internal resources, and to identify new means to improve the drug discovery process. Accepting that the combination of internal and external ideas can improve innovation, ways to access external innovation, that is, opening projects to external contributions, have recently been sought. In this review, the authors look at a number of external innovation opportunities. These include increased interactions with academia via academic centers of excellence/innovation centers, better communication on projects using crowdsourcing or social media and new models centered on external providers such as built-to-buy startups or virtual pharmaceutical companies. The buzz for accessing external innovation relies on the pharmaceutical industry's major challenge to improve R&D productivity, a conjuncture favorable to increase interactions with academia and new business models supporting access to external innovation. So far, access to external innovation has mostly been considered during early stages of drug development, and there is room for enhancement. First outcomes suggest that external innovation should become part of drug development in the long term. However, the balance between internal and external developments in drug discovery can vary largely depending on the company strategies.

  7. Interactions of emotion and anxiety on visual working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Curtis, Hannah M; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2017-08-01

    It is a widely observed finding that emotion and anxiety interact; highly stressed or anxious individuals show robust attentional biases towards external negative information. More generally, research has suggested that exposure to threatening stimuli, as well as the experience of acute stress, also may impair top-down attentional control and working memory. In the current study, we investigated how the influence of emotion and anxiety may interact to influence working memory performance. Participants were required to encode the orientation of four simple shapes, eight, or four shapes while filtering out four other irrelevant shapes from memory. Before memory displays, an irrelevant neutral or fearful face cue also was presented. Memory performance was found to interact with self-reported state anxiety and cue valence; on neutral cue trials, state anxiety was negatively correlated with performance. This effect was absent following a fear cue. In addition, filtering efficiency was negatively associated with state anxiety solely following a fear cue. Our findings suggest that state anxiety's influence to visual working memory can be strongly modulated by external signals to threat. Most crucially, rather than anxious individuals having greater difficulty rejecting external threatening information, we observed that external threat may in its own right generally impair filtering efficiency in anxious individuals.

  8. Relevance of quality of life assessment for multiple sclerosis patients with memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baumstarck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Memory disturbances, in particular episodic verbal memory dysfunction, are the most frequent cognitive impairment observed in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these subjects has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcomes for use in this impaired population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL instrument, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL. METHODS: DESIGN: cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: MS patients of any disease subtype. DATA COLLECTION: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity and clinical data (MS subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration; QoL (MusiQoL and SF36; and memory performance (Grober and Buschke test. In accordance with the French norms of the memory test, non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for short- and long-delay free composites and for short- and long-delay total composites. For the 8 populations, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled. The analysis performed in the impaired populations showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the MusiQoL. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the reference population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that memory dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of the self-reported QoL questionnaires.

  9. Neural bases of prospective memory: a meta-analysis and the "Attention to Delayed Intention" (AtoDI) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cona, Giorgia; Scarpazza, Cristina; Sartori, Giuseppe; Moscovitch, Morris; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-05-01

    Remembering to realize delayed intentions is a multi-phase process, labelled as prospective memory (PM), and involves a plurality of neural networks. The present study utilized the activation likelihood estimation method of meta-analysis to provide a complete overview of the brain regions that are consistently activated in each PM phase. We formulated the 'Attention to Delayed Intention' (AtoDI) model to explain the neural dissociation found between intention maintenance and retrieval phases. The dorsal frontoparietal network is involved mainly in the maintenance phase and seems to mediate the strategic monitoring processes, such as the allocation of top-down attention both towards external stimuli, to monitor for the occurrence of the PM cues, and to internal memory contents, to maintain the intention active in memory. The ventral frontoparietal network is recruited in the retrieval phase and might subserve the bottom-up attention captured externally by the PM cues and, internally, by the intention stored in memory. Together with other brain regions (i.e., insula and posterior cingulate cortex), the ventral frontoparietal network would support the spontaneous retrieval processes. The functional contribution of the anterior prefrontal cortex is discussed extensively for each PM phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Memory Jog Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nikolaos; Soldatos, John; Polymenakos, Lazaros; Sturm, Janienke; Neumann, Joachim; Casas, Josep R.

    The CHIL Memory Jog service focuses on facilitating the collaboration of participants in meetings, lectures, presentations, and other human interactive events, occurring in indoor CHIL spaces. It exploits the whole set of the perceptual components that have been developed by the CHIL Consortium partners (e.g., person tracking, face identification, audio source localization, etc) along with a wide range of actuating devices such as projectors, displays, targeted audio devices, speakers, etc. The underlying set of perceptual components provides a constant flow of elementary contextual information, such as “person at location x0,y0”, “speech at location x0,y0”, information that alone is not of significant use. However, the CHIL Memory Jog service is accompanied by powerful situation identification techniques that fuse all the incoming information and creates complex states that drive the actuating logic.

  11. Spectral control of diode lasers using external waveguide circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated spectral control of diode lasers using external waveguide circuits. The purpose of this work is to investigate such external control for providing a new class of diode lasers with technologically interesting properties, such as a narrow spectral bandwidth and spectrally tunable

  12. A Legal Institutional Perspective on the European External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a legal perspective on the new European External Action Service (EEAS), and positions this new body in the reshuffled institutional balance of EU external relations. Towards that end, the paper examines the EEAS’ legal nature as compared to that of Council, Commission...

  13. 49 CFR 192.463 - External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Cathodic protection... for Corrosion Control § 192.463 External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. (a) Each cathodic protection system required by this subpart must provide a level of cathodic protection that complies with one...

  14. Full-scale implementation of external nitrification biological nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the external nitrification (EN) biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) system, the nitrification process is removed from the main BNRAS system to a fixed media system external to the AS system (Hu et al., 2003). The ENBNRAS system provides considerable advantages over the conventional BNRAS ...

  15. Field Induced Memory Effects in Random Nematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Ranjkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied numerically external field induced memory effects in randomly perturbed nematic liquid crystals. Random anisotropy nematic-type lattice model was used. The impurities imposing orientational disorder were randomly spatially distributed with the concentration p below the percolation threshold. Simulations were carried for finite temperatures, where we varied p, interaction strength between LC molecules, and impurities and external field B. In the {B,T} plane we determined lines separating short range—quasi long range and quasi long range—long range order. Furthermore, crossover regime separating external field and random field dominated regime was estimated. We calculated remanent nematic ordering in samples at B=0 as a function of the previously experienced external field strength B.

  16. Autobiographical thinking interferes with episodic memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Craig

    Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.

  17. Shape memory system with integrated actuation using embedded particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick R [New York, NY; Maitland, Duncan J [Pleasant Hill, CA

    2009-09-22

    A shape memory material with integrated actuation using embedded particles. One embodiment provides a shape memory material apparatus comprising a shape memory material body and magnetic pieces in the shape memory material body. Another embodiment provides a method of actuating a device to perform an activity on a subject comprising the steps of positioning a shape memory material body in a desired position with regard to the subject, the shape memory material body capable of being formed in a specific primary shape, reformed into a secondary stable shape, and controllably actuated to recover the specific primary shape; including pieces in the shape memory material body; and actuating the shape memory material body using the pieces causing the shape memory material body to be controllably actuated to recover the specific primary shape and perform the activity on the subject.

  18. Towards an image of a memory trace

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, M. Inês; Zachary F Mainen

    2008-01-01

    Learning and memory lead to functional and structural changes in the brain, ultimately providing a basis for adaptive behavior. The honeybee is an elegant model for the study of learning and memory formation as it permits both the visualization of neural activity related to the events occurring in olfactory learning and the behavioral assessment of olfactory learning (Galizia and Menzel, 2000 ). The formation of odor memories in the honeybee is thought to involve the two primary processing ce...

  19. Memory, collective memory, orality and the gospels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... by Durkheim, Halbwachs in The Social Frameworks of Memory. (1925) developed the view that memory is collective and constructed within a social framework. '... It is in society [smaller social groups] that people normally acquire their memories. It is also in society that they recall, recognize, and localize.

  20. High-Temperature Shape Memory Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Weiss, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    physical conformation changes when exposed to an external stimulus, such as a change in temperature. Such materials have a permanent shape, but can be reshaped above a critical temperature and fixed into a temporary shape when cooled under stress to below the critical temperature. When reheated above the critical temperature (Tc, also sometimes called the triggering or switching temperature), the materials revert to the permanent shape. The current innovation involves a chemically treated (sulfonated, carboxylated, phosphonated, or other polar function group), high-temperature, semicrystalline thermoplastic poly(ether ether ketone) (Tg .140 C, Tm = 340 C) mix containing organometallic complexes (Zn++, Li+, or other metal, ammonium, or phosphonium salts), or high-temperature ionic liquids (e.g. hexafluorosilicate salt with 1-propyl-3- methyl imidazolium, Tm = 210 C) to form a network where dipolar or ionic interactions between the polymer and the low-molecular-weight or inorganic compound forms a complex that provides a physical crosslink. Hereafter, these compounds will be referred to as "additives". The polymer is semicrystalline, and the high-melt-point crystals provide a temporary crosslink that acts as a permanent crosslink just so long as the melting temperature is not exceeded. In this example case, the melting point is .340 C, and the shape memory critical temperature is between 150 and 250 C. PEEK is an engineering thermoplastic with a high Young fs modulus, nominally 3.6 GPa. An important aspect of the invention is the control of the PEEK functionalization (in this example, the sulfonation degree), and the thermal properties (i.e. melting point) of the additive, which determines the switching temperature. Because the compound is thermoplastic, it can be formed into the "permanent" shape by conventional plastics processing operations. In addition, the compound may be covalently cross - linked after forming the permanent shape by S-PEEK by applying ionizing

  1. Autobiographical memory for stressful events: the role of autobiographical memory in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C

    2011-09-01

    To provide the three-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, we compared (1) most-stressful memories to other memories and (2) involuntary to voluntary memories (3) in 75 community dwelling adults with and 42 without a current diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Each rated their three most-stressful, three most-positive, seven most-important and 15 word-cued autobiographical memories, and completed tests of personality and mood. Involuntary memories were then recorded and rated as they occurred for 2 weeks. Standard mechanisms of cognition and affect applied to extreme events accounted for the properties of stressful memories. Involuntary memories had greater emotional intensity than voluntary memories, but were not more frequently related to traumatic events. The emotional intensity, rehearsal, and centrality to the life story of both voluntary and involuntary memories, rather than incoherence of voluntary traumatic memories and enhanced availability of involuntary traumatic memories, were the properties of autobiographical memories associated with PTSD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Everyday memory in individuals with Down syndrome: Validation of the Observer Memory Questionnaire - Parent Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Goffredina; Edgin, Jamie Ogline

    2017-07-01

    The memory profile of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) has mainly been examined through traditional laboratory tasks, often revealing substantial deficits in episodic and declarative memory. Little is known about the relation between memory abilities as measured in the laboratory versus naturalistic settings in this population, and no questionnaire assessments of everyday memory have been formally validated for this group. The current study's aims were twofold: 1) to describe the psychometric characteristics of a parent-reported everyday memory measure (the Observer Memory Questionnaire - Parent Form, OMQ-PF) in this population with known hippocampal and memory impairment (i.e., DS, ages 7-35 years), and 2) to determine if the measure has the sensitivity to detect impairments, thus providing some of the first data to document parent reports of everyday memory in individuals with DS. The results indicate that this scale is a reliable instrument for detecting and tracking memory deficits over time in this population. We found a correlation between parent reports of everyday memory difficulties and well-replicated deficits in a laboratory-based memory task (i.e., place-object paired associates learning). Our results suggest that the OMQ-PF has the potential to be used as a tool to help to track the status of memory function in this group both for use in descriptive studies and in studies of behavior and pharmacological intervention.

  3. Inventing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    and the website offers services as a calendar displaying anniversaries, different guestbook facilities etc. With a departure point in the works of, among others, Castells and Lofland, we argue that online mourning groups reflects different stagings or ritualizations of grief that reflect different aspects...... by designing online memory spaces for their loved one(s) displaying photographs, poetry, stories and expressions of grief and longing. They take part in expressions of empathy for others by lighting candles for other people's loved ones, they share their personal experiences in different chatrooms...... or degrees of the private and/or public by including different agents, different social matrices and different levels of performativity. In doing so we focus on the performative ritualization and relation-building strategies displayed on the website. Our basic assumption is that mindet.dk forms a genuine...

  4. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  5. Room-Temperature Ferrimagnet with Frustrated Antiferroelectricity: Promising Candidate Toward Multiple-State Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. S.; Xiang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of first-principles calculations, we show that the M-type hexaferrite BaFe12O19 exhibits frustrated antiferroelectricity associated with its trigonal bipyramidal Fe3+ sites. The ferroelectric state of BaFe12O19, reachable by applying an external electric field to the antiferroelectric state, can be made stable at room temperature by appropriate element substitution or strain engineering. Thus, M-type hexaferrite, as a new type of multiferoic with coexistence of antiferroelectricity and ferrimagnetism, provides a basis for studying the phenomenon of frustrated antiferroelectricity and realizing multiple-state memory devices.

  6. Designing quantum memories with embedded control: photonic circuits for autonomous quantum error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoff, Joseph; Nurdin, Hendra I; Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2010-07-23

    We propose an approach to quantum error correction based on coding and continuous syndrome readout via scattering of coherent probe fields, in which the usual steps of measurement and discrete restoration are replaced by direct physical processing of the probe beams and coherent feedback to the register qubits. Our approach is well matched to physical implementations that feature solid-state qubits embedded in planar electromagnetic circuits, providing an autonomous and "on-chip" quantum memory design requiring no external clocking or control logic.

  7. Support Net for Frontline Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With a multidisciplinary team that included an external evaluator (Dr. Robert Durham), and an extended research team (Drs. Alan Peterson and Bret...21.7%) indicated being single. The sample of providers included 13 clinical psychologists (21.7%), 17 counselors or psychotherapists (28.3%), three...a sample of service members from Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 172, 359–363. Figley, C. R. (2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists

  8. The cognitive neuroscience of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive neuroscience of long-term memory is ingrained with the assumptions that a particular task measures a single cognitive process and that each cognitive process is mediated by a single brain region. However, these assumptions are simplistic and hindering progress toward understanding the true mechanisms of memory. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents five empirical papers and two theoretical discussion papers with peer commentaries on the spatial and/or temporal mechanisms of memory. Using fMRI, Yu et al. show ventral parietal cortex sub-regions mediate dissociable aspects of recollection, and Mickley Steinmetz et al. study time-delay effects on processes engaged during emotional versus neutral item encoding. Employing ERPs, Galli et al. investigate anticipatory activity and recall, and Evans et al. study the effect of cognitive demands on recollection activity. Using fMRI and ERPs, Herzmann et al. investigate spatial-temporal activity associated with recognition. Voss et al. review electrophysiological, fMRI, and behavioral evidence indicating implicit memory can influence explicit memory measures. Gotts et al. review electrophysiological, fMRI, and modeling evidence to evaluate proposals of repetition priming and highlight neural synchronization. These papers embrace complex cognitive and neural processes, and thus will provide a framework for future studies to investigate the mechanisms of memory.

  9. Serotonin, neural markers and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals’ species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence

  10. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-22

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  11. Memory, microprocessor, and ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    System Timing. ROM/PROM/EPROM. SRAM. Embedded Memory. Flash Memories. Dynamic Random Access Memory. Low-Power Memory Circuits. Timing and Signal Integrity Analysis. Microprocessor Design Verification. Microprocessor Layout Method. Architecture. ASIC Design. Logic Synthesis for Field Programmable Gate Array (EPGA) Technology. Testability Concepts and DFT. ATPG and BIST. CAD Tools for BIST/DFT and Delay Faults.

  12. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n = 17) or wake group (n = 18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time × Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study.

  13. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi eTakeuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distill overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, thirty-five normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n=17 or wake group (n=18. The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT, a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 hours later, they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The Semantic Clustering Ratio (SCR, divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time-by-group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for less than 60 minutes for comparison with the wake group. A significant time-by-group interaction was noted; these good-sleepers showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further

  14. Models of memory: information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, M W

    1988-01-01

    A complete understanding of human memory will necessarily involve consideration of the active processes involved at the time of learning and of the organization and nature of representation of information in long-term memory. In addition to process and structure, it is important for theory to indicate the ways in which stimulus-driven and conceptually driven processes interact with each other in the learning situation. Not surprisingly, no existent theory provides a detailed specification of all of these factors. However, there are a number of more specific theories which are successful in illuminating some of the component structures and processes. The working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and modified subsequently has shown how the earlier theoretical construct of the short-term store should be replaced with the notion of working memory. In essence, working memory is a system which is used both to process information and to permit the transient storage of information. It comprises a number of conceptually distinct, but functionally interdependent components. So far as long-term memory is concerned, there is evidence of a number of different kinds of representation. Of particular importance is the distinction between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge, a distinction which has received support from the study of amnesic patients. Kosslyn has argued for a distinction between literal representation and propositional representation, whereas Tulving has distinguished between episodic and semantic memories. While Tulving's distinction is perhaps the best known, there is increasing evidence that episodic and semantic memory differ primarily in content rather than in process, and so the distinction may be of less theoretical value than was originally believed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  16. Suppressing Unwanted Memories Reduces Their Unintended Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M.; Gagnepain, Pierre; Anderson, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to control unwanted memories is critical for maintaining cognitive function and mental health. Prior research has shown that suppressing the retrieval of unwanted memories impairs their retention, as measured using intentional (direct) memory tests. Here, we review emerging evidence revealing that retrieval suppression can also reduce the unintended influence of suppressed traces. In particular, retrieval suppression (a) gradually diminishes the tendency for memories to intrude into awareness and (b) reduces memories’ unintended expressions on indirect memory tests. We present a neural account in which, during suppression, retrieval cues elicit hippocampally triggered neocortical activity that briefly reinstates features of the original event, which, in turn, are suppressed by targeted neocortical and hippocampal inhibition. This reactivation-dependent reinstatement principle could provide a broad mechanism by which suppressing retrieval of intrusive memories limits their indirect influences. PMID:28458471

  17. Test and evaluation of bubble memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, E.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a test program which has shown that well-constructed bubble memories can operate reliably over long periods of time and at low error rates. Even the relatively high error rate of one memory during burn-in can be considered acceptable if compared with tape recorder standards. No wear-out mechanism or aging could be detected. Bubble memories are now considered suitable for long-duration space missions and certainly are suitable for many military and commercial applications. It must be recognized, however, that bubble memories are complex devices and not yet fully understood. While the particular memory tested may never find practical applications, it nevertheless has provided insight into performance characteristics considered typical of bubble memories.

  18. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  19. Memory Map: A Multiprocessor Cache Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC architectures are mainly focused on by manufacturers to provide increased concurrency, instead of increased clock speed, for embedded systems. However, managing concurrency is a tough task. Hence, one major issue is to synchronize concurrent accesses to shared memory. An important characteristic of any system design process is memory configuration and data flow management. Although, it is very important to select a correct memory configuration, it might be equally imperative to choreograph the data flow between various levels of memory in an optimal manner. Memory map is a multiprocessor simulator to choreograph data flow in individual caches of multiple processors and shared memory systems. This simulator allows user to specify cache reconfigurations and number of processors within the application program and evaluates cache miss and hit rate for each configuration phase taking into account reconfiguration costs. The code is open source and in java.

  20. Control of crack pattern using memory effect of paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Akio; Shinohara, Yuu; Matsuo, Yousuke

    2011-09-01

    A densely packed colloidal suspension, called as a paste, remembers the direction of external mechanical fields, such as flow and vibration. When the pastes are dried, memories in pastes are visualized as macroscopically anisotropic crack patterns, such as lamellar, radial, ring and spiral. Here, we experimentally investigate how pastes remember such experiences by using paste with different size distribution of colloidal particles. We find that a paste with smaller particles have a better memory, in the sense it remembers external mechanical fields at smaller solid volume fraction, which implies that interparticle forces between colloidal particles play an important role in memory effects, causing a quantitative change in the phase diagram for the same material. This result supports the hypothesis that memories in pastes are maintained as microscopically anisotropic network structure of colloidal particles, connected via interparticle forces between colloidal particles, such as van der Waals interaction.

  1. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  2. Optoelectronic-cache memory system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarulli, D M; Levitan, S P

    1996-05-10

    We present an investigation of the architecture of an optoelectronic cache that can integrate terabit optical memories with the electronic caches associated with high-performance uniprocessors and multiprocessors. The use of optoelectronic-cache memories enables these terabit technologies to provide transparently low-latency secondary memory with frame sizes comparable with disk pages but with latencies that approach those of electronic secondary-cache memories. This enables the implementation of terabit memories with effective access times comparable with the cycle times of current microprocessors. The cache design is based on the use of a smart-pixel array and combines parallel free-space optical input-output to-and-from optical memory with conventional electronic communication to the processor caches. This cache and the optical memory system to which it will interface provide a large random-access memory space that has a lower overall latency than that of magnetic disks and disk arrays. In addition, as a consequence of the high-bandwidth parallel input-output capabilities of optical memories, fault service times for the optoelectronic cache are substantially less than those currently achievable with any rotational media.

  3. Episodic memory and the witness trump card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jeremy; Craver, Carl

    2018-01-01

    We accept Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) causal claim that episodic memory provides humans with the means for evaluating the veracity of reports about non-occurrent events. We reject their evolutionary argument that this is the proper function of episodic memory. We explore three intriguing implications of the causal claim, for cognitive neuropsychology, comparative psychology, and philosophy.

  4. Children's Memory: A Primer for Understanding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the opportunity to understand children's behavior from a memory viewpoint. For the last three decades, cognitive developmentalists have been asking the question, "what develops in children's memory?" Four answers to this question are presented, complete with explanations, examples, and possible applications where appropriate.…

  5. Working Memory Intervention: A Reading Comprehension Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tracy L.; Malaia, Evguenia

    2013-01-01

    For any complex mental task, people rely on working memory. Working memory capacity (WMC) is one predictor of success in learning. Historically, attempts to improve verbal WM through training have not been effective. This study provided elementary students with WM consolidation efficiency training to answer the question, Can reading comprehension…

  6. Flipping the switch: mechanisms that regulate memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Jocelyn; Robertson, Edwin M

    2014-12-01

    Memories can follow different processing routes. For example, some memories are enhanced during wakefulness while the enhancement of others is delayed until sleep. Converging evidence suggests that inhibitory mechanisms can 'switch off' a processing route, thereby preventing the consolidation of select memories during wakefulness. This switch arises due to an actively imposed 'bottleneck' generated by the brain. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can interfere with this bottleneck, allowing multiple memories to be consolidated simultaneously during wakefulness. This bottleneck restricts memory processing, perhaps allowing for the selection of only rewarded, or relevant memories. Overall, this bottleneck makes it necessary to select memories for consolidation, and the state of a switch ('on' or 'off') determines whether or not a memory is subsequently consolidated. Understanding how memory consolidation is regulated may provide novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Collective memory: a perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these memories as a property of individuals who are, to a greater or lesser extent, an integral part of their social environment (social memory). First, we argue that the understanding of collectivistic memory phenomena may benefit from drawing parallels with current psychological models such as the self-memory system theory of individualistic autobiographical memory. Second, we suggest that the social memory literature may inform the study of trauma-related disorders. We argue that a factual focus induced by collaborative remembering may be beneficial to natural recovery in the immediate aftermath of trauma, and propose that shared remembering techniques may provide a useful addition to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  8. "Reality" of near-death-experience memories: evidence from a psychodynamic and electrophysiological integrated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Arianna; Calvo, Vincenzo; Kleinbub, Johann R; Meconi, Federica; Marangoni, Matteo; Barilaro, Paolo; Broggio, Alice; Sambin, Marco; Sessa, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The nature of near-death-experiences (NDEs) is largely unknown but recent evidence suggests the intriguing possibility that NDEs may refer to actually "perceived," and stored, experiences (although not necessarily in relation to the external physical world). We adopted an integrated approach involving a hypnosis-based clinical protocol to improve recall and decrease memory inaccuracy together with electroencephalography (EEG) recording in order to investigate the characteristics of NDE memories and their neural markers compared to memories of both real and imagined events. We included 10 participants with NDEs, defined by the Greyson NDE scale, and 10 control subjects without NDE. Memories were assessed using the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire. Our hypnosis-based protocol increased the amount of details in the recall of all kind of memories considered (NDE, real, and imagined events). Findings showed that NDE memories were similar to real memories in terms of detail richness, self-referential, and emotional information. Moreover, NDE memories were significantly different from memories of imagined events. The pattern of EEG results indicated that real memory recall was positively associated with two memory-related frequency bands, i.e., high alpha and gamma. NDE memories were linked with theta band, a well-known marker of episodic memory. The recall of NDE memories was also related to delta band, which indexes processes such as the recollection of the past, as well as trance states, hallucinations, and other related portals to transpersonal experience. It is notable that the EEG pattern of correlations for NDE memory recall differed from the pattern for memories of imagined events. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, at a phenomenological level, NDE memories cannot be considered equivalent to imagined memories, and at a neural level, NDE memories are stored as episodic memories of events experienced in a peculiar state of consciousness.

  9. Reality of near-death-experience memories: Evidence from a psychodynamic and electrophysiological integrated study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna ePalmieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of near-death experiences (NDEs is largely unknown but recent evidence suggests the intriguing possibility that NDEs may refer to actually perceived, and stored, experiences (although not necessarily in relation to the external physical world. We adopted an integrated approach involving a hypnosis-based clinical protocol to improve recall and decrease memory inaccuracy together with Electroencephalography (EEG recording in order to investigate the characteristics of NDE memories and their neural markers compared to memories of both real and imagined events. We included 10 participants with NDEs, defined by the Greyson NDE scale, and 10 control subjects without NDE. Memories were assessed using the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire.Our hypnosis-based protocol increased the amount of details in the recall of all kind of memories considered (NDE, real, and imagined events. Findings showed that NDE memories were similar to real memories in terms of detail richness, self-referential, and emotional information. Moreover, NDE memories were significantly different from memories of imagined events. The pattern of EEG results indicated that real memories recall was positively associated with two memory-related frequency bands, i.e., high alpha and gamma. NDE memories were linked with theta band, a well-known marker of episodic memory. The recall of NDE memories was also related to delta band, which indexes processes such as the recollection of the past, as well as trance states, hallucinations, and other related portals to transpersonal experience. It is notable that the EEG pattern of correlations for NDE memories recall differed from the pattern for memories of imagined events. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, at a phenomenological level, NDE memories cannot be considered equivalent to imagined memories, and at a neural level, NDE memories are stored as episodic memories of events experienced in a peculiar state of consciousness.

  10. Salam Memorial

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    by T.W.B. KIBBLE / Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. Recollections of Abdus Salam at Imperial College I shall give a personal account of Professor Salam's life and work from the perspective of a colleague at Imperial College, concentrating particularly but not exclusively on the period leading up to the discovery of the electro-weak theory. If necessary I could perhaps give more detail, but only once I have given more thought to what ground I shall cover. by Sheldon Lee GLASHOW / Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. Memories of Abdus Salam. My interactions with Abdus Salam, weak as they have been, extended over five decades. I regret that we never once collaborated in print or by correspondence. I visited Abdus only twice in London and twice again in Trieste, and met him at the occasional conference or summer school. Our face-to-face encounters could be counted on one's fingers and toes, but we became the best of friends. Others will discuss Abdus as an inspiring teacher, as a great scientist,...

  11. External Squeeze-Film Damper For Hydrostatic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmann, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    External squeeze-film damping device suppresses vibrations of rapidly turning shaft supported by pivoted-pad hydrostatic bearing in high-pressure/high-power-density turbomachine. Stacked disks provide damping and clearance for alignment.

  12. Testing Method for External Cladding Systems - Incerc Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, A.; Dragne, H.

    2017-06-01

    This research presents a new testing method in a natural scale for external cladding systems tested on buildings with minimum than 3 floors [1]. The testing method is unique in Romania and it is similar about many fire testing current methods from European Union states. Also, presents the fire propagation and the effect of fire smoke on the building façade composed of thermal insulation. Laboratory of testing and research for building fire safety from National Institute INCERC Bucharest, provides a test method for determining the fire performance characteristics of non-loadbearing external cladding systems and external wall insulation systems when applied to the face of a building and exposed to an external fire under controlled conditions [2]. The fire exposure is representative of an external fire source or a fully-developed (post-flashover) fire in a room, venting through an opening such as a window aperture that exposes the cladding to the effects of external flames, or an external fire source. On the future, fire tests will be experimented for answer demande a number of high-profile fires where the external facade of tall buildings provided a route for vertical fire spread.

  13. External meeting: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél : + 41 22 379 63 83 (secrétariat) Tél : + 41 22 379 62 56 (réception) Fax: + 41 22 379 69 22 Lundi 20 novembre 2006 COLLOQUIUM 17:00 - Auditoire Stückelberg Electrical correlation measurements in quantum nano-structures Dr. Stefan Oberholzer / Basel University Measuring the current-voltage characteristics of small conductors is widely used to characterize their electronic transport properties. In addition to such time-averaged measurements, correlation measurements between temporal fluctuations (noise) around the time-averaged mean current provide us with very important supplementary information about electrical transport. In this talk, I review our experimental work on shot noise, noise which originates from the granularity of charge and the diffraction of the electronic wave-function, and especially address the fundamental relation between electronic scattering experiments and the statistical properties of indist...

  14. External conference: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Monday 11 June 2007 COLLOQUE DE LA SECTION DE PHYSIQUE at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). Motivation, concept, results and potential implications Prof. Konstantin ZIOUTAS / University of Patras/Greece & CERN and CAST-spokesperson Axion is one of the leading dark matter particle candidates. The last few years axion searches are in the spotlight. The physics motivation will be presented. Particles like the axions should be produced also in Stars like our Sun. In magnetic fields axions can coherently oscillate to photons and vice versa (Primakoff effect). CAST searches for solar axions pointing a recycled LHC magnet towards the Sun, and, it provides new results since 2002. Its working principle might well be already at work in outer space, asking for an alternative, though exotic, point of view for certain myst...

  15. Population growth and the benefits from optimally priced externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H R; Ng Y-k

    1995-06-01

    "In this article we show that, considering only economic effects, even if population growth, by natural increase or immigration, increases congestion, pollution, and other forms of external costs, that provided pre-existing citizens own the resources giving rise to the externalities, and provided they efficiently price usage of such, that existing citizens must, in net average terms, be better off with population growth than without it. In simple terms the increased revenues they gain from efficient pricing at increased demand levels will be strictly greater than the monetary value of the increased external costs together with the higher tax costs they incur as consumers of the resources." excerpt

  16. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: Implications for memory consolidation in sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Horton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one’s personal life history (autobiography. They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become more bizarre across the night. Salient fragmented memory features are activated in sleep and re-bound with fragments not necessarily emerging from the same memory, thus de-contextualising those memories and manifesting as experiences that differ from waking conceptions. The constructive nature of autobiographical recall further encourages synthesis of these hyper-associated images into an episode via recalling and reporting dreams. We use a model of autobiographical memory to account for the activation of memories in dreams as a reflection of sleep-dependent memory consolidation processes. We focus in particular on the hyperassociative nature of autobiographical memory during sleep.

  17. Organizational memory: from expectations memory to procedural memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational memory is not just the stock of knowledge about how to do things, but also of expectations of organizational members vis-à-vis each other and the organization as a whole. The central argument of this paper is that this second type of organizational memory -organizational expectations

  18. Differences between depression and paranoia: the role of emotional memories, shame and subordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Matos, Marcela; Castilho, Paula; Xavier, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how emotional memories, shame and submissive behaviour in adulthood are differently related to depression and paranoia, in a sample of 255 subjects from the general community population. Results show that emotional memories (especially, shame traumatic memory) are significantly correlated with external and internal shame. Emotional memories are significantly associated with submissive behaviour. Both types of shame are correlated with submissive behaviour, particularly internal shame. Emotional memories, external and internal shame are linked to depressive symptoms. Emotional memories, external and internal shame, and submissive behaviour are significantly related to paranoia. Path analysis results suggested that (1) shame traumatic memory and recall of threat and submissiveness in childhood predicted depressive symptoms through external and internal shame; (2) early emotional memories of shame, threat and submissiveness predicted paranoid ideation both directly and indirectly, through external shame; and (3) emotional memories impact on paranoid ideation both through their effect upon external shame and also through their indirect effect upon submission, which in turn fully mediates the effect of internal shame upon paranoid ideation. These findings highlight the differences between depression and paranoia. In depression, it is the internalization of early experiences of shame, threat and submissiveness that heighten the vulnerability to depressive states. In paranoia, not only shame traumas and recollections of threat and submissiveness directly influence paranoid beliefs but also these memories promote external and internal shame thoughts and feelings and submissive defenses, which in turn increase paranoid ideation. Individuals with shame traumas, threat and submissiveness experiences in childhood and high levels of external and internal shame report more depressive symptoms. High levels of paranoid beliefs are associated with high

  19. Recent life stress exposure is associated with poorer long-term memory, working memory, and self-reported memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Doty, Dominique; Shields, Rebecca H; Gower, Garrett; Slavich, George M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-11-01

    Although substantial research has examined the effects of stress on cognition, much of this research has focused on acute stress (e.g. manipulated in the laboratory) or chronic stress (e.g. persistent interpersonal or financial difficulties). In contrast, the effects of recent life stress on cognition have been relatively understudied. To address this issue, we examined how recent life stress is associated with long-term, working memory, and self-reported memory in a sample of 142 healthy young adults who were assessed at two time points over a two-week period. Recent life stress was measured using the newly-developed Stress and Adversity Inventory for Daily Stress (Daily STRAIN), which assesses the frequency of relatively common stressful life events and difficulties over the preceding two weeks. To assess memory performance, participants completed both long-term and working memory tasks. Participants also provided self-reports of memory problems. As hypothesized, greater recent life stress exposure was associated with worse performance on measures of long-term and working memory, as well as more self-reported memory problems. These associations were largely robust while controlling for possible confounds, including participants' age, sex, and negative affect. The findings indicate that recent life stress exposure is broadly associated with worse memory. Future studies should thus consider assessing recent life stress as a potential predictor, moderator, or covariate of memory performance.

  20. Resistively heated shape memory polymer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, III, John E.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2017-09-05

    A resistively heated shape memory polymer device is made by providing a rod, sheet or substrate that includes a resistive medium. The rod, sheet or substrate is coated with a first shape memory polymer providing a coated intermediate unit. The coated intermediate unit is in turn coated with a conductive material providing a second intermediate unit. The second coated intermediate unit is in turn coated with an outer shape memory polymer. The rod, sheet or substrate is exposed and an electrical lead is attached to the rod, sheet or substrate. The conductive material is exposed and an electrical lead is attached to the conductive material.

  1. Tracing Cultural Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    appropriation of mediated memories in the tourist practice. It furthermore pays particular attention to the absent and overlooked in photo graphs and at sites of memory affording cultural memory work . My findings support the current trend to turn to materiality and the multiplicity of agency in the study......We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired...... by their encounters – to address a question that thirty years of ground - breaking research into memory has not yet sufficiently answered: What can we learn about the dynamics of cultural memory by examining mundane accounts of touristic encounters with sites of memory? From Blaavand Beach in Western Denmark...

  2. Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; K Thieu, Monica; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relationship between chronic media multitasking and working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance. Four key findings are reported (1) heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) exhibited lower WM performance, regardless of whether external distraction was present or absent; (2) lower performance on multiple WM tasks predicted lower LTM performance; (3) media multitasking-related differences in memory reflected differences in discriminability rather than decision bias; and (4) attentional impulsivity correlated with media multitasking behavior and reduced WM performance. These findings suggest that chronic media multitasking is associated with a wider attentional scope/higher attentional impulsivity, which may allow goal-irrelevant information to compete with goal-relevant information. As a consequence, heavy media multitaskers are able to hold fewer or less precise goal-relevant representations in WM. HMMs' wider attentional scope, combined with their diminished WM performance, propagates forward to yield lower LTM performance. As such, chronic media multitasking is associated with a reduced ability to draw on the past--be it very recent or more remote--to inform present behavior.

  3. Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, Monica K.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relationship between chronic media multitasking and working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance. Four key findings are reported (1) heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) exhibited lower WM performance, regardless of whether external distraction was present or absent; (2) lower performance on multiple WM tasks predicted lower LTM performance; (3) media multitasking-related differences in memory reflected differences in discriminability rather than decision bias; and (4) attentional impulsivity correlated with media multitasking behavior and reduced WM performance. These findings suggest that chronic media multitasking is associated with a wider attentional scope/higher attentional impulsivity, which may allow goal-irrelevant information to compete with goal-relevant information. As a consequence, heavy media multitaskers are able to hold fewer or less precise goal-relevant representations in WM. HMMs’ wider attentional scope, combined with their diminished WM performance, propagates forward to yield lower LTM performance. As such, chronic media multitasking is associated with a reduced ability to draw on the past—be it very recent or more remote—to inform present behavior. PMID:26223469

  4. The Benefits of Targeted Memory Reactivation for Consolidation in Sleep are Contingent on Memory Accuracy and Direct Cue-Memory Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Scott A; Lindsay, Shane; Sobczak, Justyna M; Paller, Ken A; Gaskell, M Gareth

    2016-05-01

    To investigate how the effects of targeted memory reactivation (TMR) are influenced by memory accuracy prior to sleep and the presence or absence of direct cue-memory associations. 30 participants associated each of 50 pictures with an unrelated word and then with a screen location in two separate tasks. During picture-location training, each picture was also presented with a semantically related sound. The sounds were therefore directly associated with the picture locations but indirectly associated with the words. During a subsequent nap, half of the sounds were replayed in slow wave sleep (SWS). The effect of TMR on memory for the picture locations (direct cue-memory associations) and picture-word pairs (indirect cue-memory associations) was then examined. TMR reduced overall memory decay for recall of picture locations. Further analyses revealed a benefit of TMR for picture locations recalled with a low degree of accuracy prior to sleep, but not those recalled with a high degree of accuracy. The benefit of TMR for low accuracy memories was predicted by time spent in SWS. There was no benefit of TMR for memory of the picture-word pairs, irrespective of memory accuracy prior to sleep. TMR provides the greatest benefit to memories recalled with a low degree of accuracy prior to sleep. The memory benefits of TMR may also be contingent on direct cue-memory associations. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. What works in auditory working memory? A neural oscillations perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsch, Anna; Obleser, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is a limited resource: brains can only maintain small amounts of sensory input (memory load) over a brief period of time (memory decay). The dynamics of slow neural oscillations as recorded using magneto- and electroencephalography (M/EEG) provide a window into the neural mechanics of these limitations. Especially oscillations in the alpha range (8-13Hz) are a sensitive marker for memory load. Moreover, according to current models, the resultant working memory load is determined by the relative noise in the neural representation of maintained information. The auditory domain allows memory researchers to apply and test the concept of noise quite literally: Employing degraded stimulus acoustics increases memory load and, at the same time, allows assessing the cognitive resources required to process speech in noise in an ecologically valid and clinically relevant way. The present review first summarizes recent findings on neural oscillations, especially alpha power, and how they reflect memory load and memory decay in auditory working memory. The focus is specifically on memory load resulting from acoustic degradation. These findings are then contrasted with contextual factors that benefit neural as well as behavioral markers of memory performance, by reducing representational noise. We end on discussing the functional role of alpha power in auditory working memory and suggest extensions of the current methodological toolkit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Structural brain correlates of associative memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nina; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    Associative memory involves binding two or more items into a coherent memory episode. Relative to memory for single items, associative memory declines greatly in aging. However, older individuals vary substantially in their ability to memorize associative information. Although functional studies link associative memory to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), little is known about how volumetric differences in MTL and PFC might contribute to individual differences in associative memory. We investigated regional gray-matter volumes related to individual differences in associative memory in a sample of healthy older adults (n=54; age=60years). To differentiate item from associative memory, participants intentionally learned face-scene picture pairs before performing a recognition task that included single faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Gray-matter volumes were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. To examine volumetric differences specifically for associative memory, item memory was controlled for in the analyses. Behavioral results revealed large variability in associative memory that mainly originated from differences in false-alarm rates. Moreover, associative memory was independent of individuals' ability to remember single items. Older adults with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volumes primarily in regions of the left and right lateral PFC. These findings provide evidence for the importance of PFC in intentional learning of associations, likely because of its involvement in organizational and strategic processes that distinguish older adults with good from those with poor associative memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Working Memory and Learning: A Practical Guide for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercole, Susan E.; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

    2008-01-01

    A good working memory is crucial to becoming a successful leaner, yet there is very little material available in an easy-to-use format that explains the concept and offers practitioners ways to support children with poor working memory in the classroom. This book provides a coherent overview of the role played by working memory in learning during…

  8. Hippocampal Area CA1 and Remote Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Amber C.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal lesions often produce temporally graded retrograde amnesia (TGRA), whereby recent memory is impaired more than remote memory. This finding has provided support for the process of systems consolidation. However, temporally graded memory impairment has not been observed with the watermaze task, and the findings have been inconsistent…

  9. The Automatic External Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Martínez-Rubio

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In-hospital cardiac arrest remains a major problem but new technologies allowing fully automatic external defibrillation are available. These technologies allow the concept of “external therapeutic monitoring” of lethal arrhythmias. Since early defibrillation improves outcome by decreasing morbidity and mortality, the use of this device should improve the outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest victims. Furthermore, the use of these devices could allow safe monitoring and treatment of patients at risk of cardiac arrest who not necessarily must be in conventional monitoring units (Intensive or Coronary Care Units saving costs with a more meaningful use of resources. The capability to provide early defibrillation within any patient-care areas should be considered as an obligation (“standard of care” of the modern hospital.

  10. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts, having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has raised considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CERN fo...

  11. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has attracted considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. The CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CE...

  12. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  13. Development of multifunctional shape memory polymer foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Janice J.; Srivastava, Ijya; Naguib, Hani E.

    2015-05-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) are a class of stimuli-responsive materials which are able to respond to external stimulus such as temperature and deformation by changing their shape, and return to their original shape upon reversal or removal of the external stimulus. Although SMP materials have been studied extensively and have been used in a wide range of applications such as medicine, aerospace, and robotics, only few studies have looked at the potential of designing multifunctional SMP foams and blends. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a design of SMP foam materials and blends. The actuator construct will contain a core SMP epoxy and blend of polylactic acid and polyurethane. The effects of the processing parameters of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams on the shape memory effect (SME) were investigated. The solid state foaming technique was employed to obtain the desired foamed cellular structure. One particular point of interest is to understand how the processing parameters affect the SMP and its glass transition temperature (Tg). By correctly tailoring these parameters it is possible to modify the SMP to have an improved shape memory effect SME.

  14. Memory Without Parties or Parties Without Memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mario Solís Delgadillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of political parties in Argentina, Chile and Guatemala in relation to the implementation of public policies of memory after the return to democracy in each of these countries. To do this, we discuss the concept of memory and the problems of memorial obsession. We consider the uses and abuses of memory that human rights organizations manifest on the subject, and examine the work of the parties about the level of adaptation that allows claims of human rights movement to become matters of public policy.

  15. Shaping epigenetic memory via genomic bookmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michieletto, Davide; Chiang, Michael; Colì, Davide; Papantonis, Argyris; Orlandini, Enzo; Cook, Peter R; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2018-01-09

    Reconciling the stability of epigenetic patterns with the rapid turnover of histone modifications and their adaptability to external stimuli is an outstanding challenge. Here, we propose a new biophysical mechanism that can establish and maintain robust yet plastic epigenetic domains via genomic bookmarking (GBM). We model chromatin as a recolourable polymer whose segments bear non-permanent histone marks (or colours) which can be modified by 'writer' proteins. The three-dimensional chromatin organisation is mediated by protein bridges, or 'readers', such as Polycomb Repressive Complexes and Transcription Factors. The coupling between readers and writers drives spreading of biochemical marks and sustains the memory of local chromatin states across replication and mitosis. In contrast, GBM-targeted perturbations destabilise the epigenetic patterns. Strikingly, we demonstrate that GBM alone can explain the full distribution of Polycomb marks in a whole Drosophila chromosome. We finally suggest that our model provides a starting point for an understanding of the biophysics of cellular differentiation and reprogramming. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael A; Horowitz, Todd S; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2009-04-07

    Visual memory for scenes is surprisingly robust. We wished to examine whether an analogous ability exists in the auditory domain. Participants listened to a variety of sound clips and were tested on their ability to distinguish old from new clips. Stimuli ranged from complex auditory scenes (e.g., talking in a pool hall) to isolated auditory objects (e.g., a dog barking) to music. In some conditions, additional information was provided to help participants with encoding. In every situation, however, auditory memory proved to be systematically inferior to visual memory. This suggests that there exists either a fundamental difference between auditory and visual stimuli, or, more plausibly, an asymmetry between auditory and visual processing.

  17. Resistive content addressable memory based in-memory computation architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-12-08

    Various examples are provided examples related to resistive content addressable memory (RCAM) based in-memory computation architectures. In one example, a system includes a content addressable memory (CAM) including an array of cells having a memristor based crossbar and an interconnection switch matrix having a gateless memristor array, which is coupled to an output of the CAM. In another example, a method, includes comparing activated bit values stored a key register with corresponding bit values in a row of a CAM, setting a tag bit value to indicate that the activated bit values match the corresponding bit values, and writing masked key bit values to corresponding bit locations in the row of the CAM based on the tag bit value.

  18. Mental Imagery and Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage. PMID:22195024

  19. A Role for the Left Angular Gyrus in Episodic Simulation and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Preston P; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-08-23

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory. In the current study, we used MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess whether temporary disruption of the left angular gyrus would impair both episodic simulation and memory (16 participants, 10 females). Relative to TMS to a control site (vertex), disruption of the left angular gyrus significantly reduced the number of internal (i.e., episodic) details produced during the simulation and memory tasks, with a concomitant increase in external detail production (i.e., semantic, repetitive, or off-topic information), reflected by a significant detail by TMS site interaction. Difficulty in the simulation and memory tasks also increased after TMS to the left angular gyrus relative to the vertex. In contrast, performance in a nonepisodic control task did not differ statistically as a function of TMS site (i.e., number of free associates produced or difficulty in performing the free associate task). Together, these results are the first to demonstrate that the left angular gyrus is critical for both episodic simulation and episodic memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans have the ability to imagine future episodes (i.e., episodic simulation) and remember episodes from the past (i.e., episodic memory). A wealth of neuroimaging studies have revealed that these abilities are associated with enhanced activity in a core network of neural regions, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal

  20. Using Pictures to Facilitate Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Eve E.

    1977-01-01

    To improve memory in children in early grades or in children at all ages with cognitive problems, it is suggested that the teacher provide verbal interpretations of pictorial information, encourage children to verbalize the pictured material for themselves, and encourage children to create their own mental pictures. (SBH)

  1. Modeling the Role of Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Behavioral Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Zilli, Eric A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of goal-directed behavior have been studied using reinforcement learning theory, but these theoretical techniques have not often been used to address the role of memory systems in performing behavioral tasks. The present work addresses this shortcoming by providing a way in which working memory and episodic memory may be included in the reinforcement learning framework, then simulating the successful acquisition and performance of six behavioral tasks, drawn from or inspired by...

  2. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    suggests several gaps in prior research. One is a tendency to ignore the importance of business models, despite their central role in distinguishing open innovation from earlier research on interorganizational collaboration in innovation. Another gap is a tendency in open innovation to use “innovation......This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation......, it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear process—(1) obtaining, (2) integrating, and (3) commercializing external innovations—is combined with (4) interaction between the firm and its collaborators. This model is used to classify papers taken from the top 25 innovation journals, complemented by highly...

  3. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  4. Optical quantum memory based on electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijun; Slattery, Oliver; Tang, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a promising approach to implement quantum memory in quantum communication and quantum computing applications. In this paper, following a brief overview of the main approaches to quantum memory, we provide details of the physical principle and theory of quantum memory based specifically on EIT. We discuss the key technologies for implementing quantum memory based on EIT and review important milestones, from the first experimental demonstration to current applications in quantum information systems.

  5. Reducing external speedup requirements for input-queued crossbars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a modified architecture for an input queued switch that reduces external speedup. Maximal size scheduling algorithms for input-buffered crossbars requires a speedup between port card and switch card. The speedup is typically in the range of 2, to compensate for the scheduler...... performance degradation. This implies, that the required bandwidth between port card and switch card is 2 times the actual port speed, adding to cost and complexity. To reduce this bandwidth, a modified architecture is proposed that introduces a small amount of input and output memory on the switch card chip...

  6. Age-related changes in event-related prospective memory performance : A comparison of four prospective memory tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, WWA; Dekker, MR; Brouwer, WH; de Jong, R

    The primary purpose of the study was to identify event-based prospective-memory tasks that provide sensitive and reliable tools for assessing effects of normal aging in prospective-memory performance. Four prospective-memory tasks were selected from the literature or were newly developed, with the

  7. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... of the ‘inside’ costs of the sub-component, technical specifications of the product, opportunistic behavior from the suppliers and cognitive limitation. These are all aspects that easily can dismantle the market mechanism and make it counter-productive in the organization. Thus, by directing more attention...

  8. Spikes not slots: noise in neural populations limits working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    This opinion article argues that noise (randomness) in neural activity is the limiting factor in visual working memory (WM), determining how accurately we can maintain stable internal representations of external stimuli. Sharing of a fixed amount of neural activity between items in memory explains why WM can be successfully described as a continuous resource. This contrasts with the popular conception of WM as comprising a limited number of memory slots, each holding a representation of one stimulus - I argue that this view is challenged by computational theory and the latest neurophysiological evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Innate immune memory in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An implementation of SISAL for distributed-memory architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Patrick C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This thesis describes a new implementation of the implicitly parallel functional programming language SISAL, for massively parallel processor supercomputers. The Optimizing SISAL Compiler (OSC), developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was originally designed for shared-memory multiprocessor machines and has been adapted to distributed-memory architectures. OSC has been relatively portable between shared-memory architectures, because they are architecturally similar, and OSC generates portable C code. However, distributed-memory architectures are not standardized -- each has a different programming model. Distributed-memory SISAL depends on a layer of software that provides a portable, distributed, shared-memory abstraction. This layer is provided by Split-C, a dialect of the C programming language developed at U.C. Berkeley, which has demonstrated good performance on distributed-memory architectures. Split-C provides important capabilities for good performance: support for program-specific distributed data structures, and split-phase memory operations. Distributed data structures help achieve good memory locality, while split-phase memory operations help tolerate the longer communication latencies inherent in distributed-memory architectures. The distributed-memory SISAL compiler and run-time system takes advantage of these capabilities. The results of these efforts is a compiler that runs identically on the Thinking Machines Connection Machine (CM-5), and the Meiko Computing Surface (CS-2).

  11. Runtime Verification of C Memory Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, Grigore; Schulte, Wolfram; Şerbănuţă, Traian Florin

    C is the most widely used imperative system’s implementation language. While C provides types and high-level abstractions, its design goal has been to provide highest performance which often requires low-level access to memory. As a consequence C supports arbitrary pointer arithmetic, casting, and explicit allocation and deallocation. These operations are difficult to use, resulting in programs that often have software bugs like buffer overflows and dangling pointers that cause security vulnerabilities. We say a C program is memory safe, if at runtime it never goes wrong with such a memory access error. Based on standards for writing “good” C code, this paper proposes strong memory safety as the least restrictive formal definition of memory safety amenable for runtime verification. We show that although verification of memory safety is in general undecidable, even when restricted to closed, terminating programs, runtime verification of strong memory safety is a decision procedure for this class of programs. We verify strong memory safety of a program by executing the program using a symbolic, deterministic definition of the dynamic semantics. A prototype implementation of these ideas shows the feasibility of this approach.

  12. Emerging roles for MEF2 transcription factors in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A J; Cole, C J; Josselyn, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the brain, transcription factors are critical for linking external stimuli to protein production, enabling neurons and neuronal networks to adapt to the ever-changing landscape. Gene transcription and protein synthesis are also vital for the formation of long-term memory. Members of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors have a well-characterized role in the development of a variety of tissues, but their role in the adult brain is only beginning to be understood. Recent evidence indicates that MEF2 regulates the structural and synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. However, in stark contrast to most other transcription factors implicated in memory, MEF2-mediated transcription constrains (rather than promotes) memory formation. Here, we review recent data examining the role of MEF2 in adult memory formation in rodents. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  13. Memory Complaint Questionnaire performed poorly as screening tool : validation against psychometric tests and affective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Meagan; Parkinson, Lynne; Gibson, Richard; Schofield, Peter; D'Este, Catherine; Attia, John; Tavener, Meredith; Byles, Julie

    Objective: This study examined the internal and external validity of the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q), a brief measure of subjective memory complaint in people with normal cognitive function. Study Design and Setting: The Study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel was a

  14. Impact of Noise and Working Memory on Speech Processing in Adults with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Anne M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory processing of speech is influenced by internal (i.e., attention, working memory) and external factors (i.e., background noise, visual information). This study examined the interplay among these factors in individuals with and without ADHD. All participants completed a listening in noise task, two working memory capacity tasks, and two…

  15. Main Memory DBMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA main memory database system is a DBMS that primarily relies on main memory for computer data storage. In contrast, normal database management systems employ hard disk based persisntent storage.

  16. Music, memory and emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music...

  17. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  18. Unilateral Vestibular Loss Impairs External Space Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24523916

  19. Unilateral vestibular loss impairs external space representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Borel

    Full Text Available The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal and far (extrapersonal spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation, and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss.

  20. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas...

  1. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  2. Two measures of bilingualism in the memories of immigrants and indigenous minorities: crossover memories and codeswitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Carmit

    2015-04-01

    Two indices of bilingualism, crossover memories and codeswitching (CS), were explored in five groups of immigrant (English-Hebrew, Georgian-Hebrew Russian-Hebrew) and indigenous bilinguals (Arabic-Hebrew, Hebrew-English). Participants recalled memories in response to cue words and then were asked to report the language of retrieval and provide a more elaborate narrative. More memories were 'same language' memories, recalled in the language of the experimental session/cue word, but as many as 48 % of the memories were crossovers, i.e. memories reported in a language other than the language of the session/cue word. In an effort to examine the ecological validity of the self-reported language of the memories, the frequency of CS in the elaborated narratives was investigated. For the entire sample, more CS was found for self-reported crossover memories in L2 sessions. In a further analysis of CS in crossover memories, collapsed across L1 and L2 sessions, significant differences emerged between immigrants and indigenous bilinguals. Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant bilinguals are discussed in terms of the role of activation in crossover memories.

  3. How brain oscillations form memories--a processing based perspective on oscillatory subsequent memory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Staudigl, Tobias

    2014-01-15

    Brain oscillations are increasingly recognized by memory researchers as a useful tool to unravel the neural mechanisms underlying the formation of a memory trace. However, the increasing numbers of published studies paint a rather complex picture of the relation between brain oscillations and memory formation. Concerning oscillatory amplitude, for instance, increases as well as decreases in various frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta and gamma) were associated with memory formation. These results cast doubt on frameworks putting forward the idea of an oscillatory signature that is uniquely related to memory formation. In an attempt to clarify this issue we here provide an alternative perspective, derived from classic cognitive frameworks/principles of memory. On the basis of Craik's levels of processing framework and Tulving's encoding specificity principle we hypothesize that brain oscillations during encoding might primarily reflect the perceptual and cognitive processes engaged by the encoding task. These processes may then lead to later successful retrieval depending on their overlap with the processes engaged by the memory test. As a consequence, brain oscillatory correlates of memory formation could vary dramatically depending on how the memory is encoded, and on how it is being tested later. Focusing on oscillatory amplitude changes and on theta-to-gamma cross-frequency coupling, we here review recent evidence showing how brain oscillatory subsequent memory effects can be modulated, and sometimes even be reversed, by varying encoding tasks, and the contextual overlap between encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A mega-analysis of memory reports from eight peer-reviewed false memory implantation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoboria, Alan; Wade, Kimberley A; Lindsay, D Stephen; Azad, Tanjeem; Strange, Deryn; Ost, James; Hyman, Ira E

    2017-02-01

    Understanding that suggestive practices can promote false beliefs and false memories for childhood events is important in many settings (e.g., psychotherapeutic, medical, and legal). The generalisability of findings from memory implantation studies has been questioned due to variability in estimates across studies. Such variability is partly due to false memories having been operationalised differently across studies and to differences in memory induction techniques. We explored ways of defining false memory based on memory science and developed a reliable coding system that we applied to reports from eight published implantation studies (N = 423). Independent raters coded transcripts using seven criteria: accepting the suggestion, elaboration beyond the suggestion, imagery, coherence, emotion, memory statements, and not rejecting the suggestion. Using this scheme, 30.4% of cases were classified as false memories and another 23% were classified as having accepted the event to some degree. When the suggestion included self-relevant information, an imagination procedure, and was not accompanied by a photo depicting the event, the memory formation rate was 46.1%. Our research demonstrates a useful procedure for systematically combining data that are not amenable to meta-analysis, and provides the most valid estimate of false memory formation and associated moderating factors within the implantation literature to date.

  5. Is Poor Working Memory a Transdiagnostic Risk Factor for Psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; Shapiro, Zvi; Galloway-Long, Hilary; Weigard, Alex

    2017-11-01

    In contrast to historical conceptualizations that framed psychological disorders as distinct, categorical conditions, it is now widely understood that co- and multi-morbidities between disorders are extensive. As a result, there has been a call to better understand the dimensional liabilities that are common to and influence the development of multiple psychopathologies, as supported and exemplified by the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework. We use a latent variable SEM approach to examine the degree to which working memory deficits represent a cognitive liability associated with the development of common and discrete dimensions of psychopathology. In a sample of 415 community recruited children aged 8-12 (n = 170 girls), we fit a bi-factor model to parent reports of behavior from the DISC-4 and BASC-2, and included a latent working memory factor as a predictor of the internalizing, externalizing, and general "p-factor." We found that both the general "p-factor" and externalizing (but not internalizing) latent factor were significantly associated with working memory. When a bi-factor model of externalizing symptomology was fit to further explore this relationship, working memory was only correlated with the general externalizing dimension; correlation with specific inattention, hyperactive/impulsive, and oppositional factors did not survive once the general externalizing dimension was taken into consideration. These findings held regardless of the sex of the child. Our results suggest that working memory deficits represent both a common cognitive liability for mental health disorders, and a specific liability for externalizing disorders.

  6. Memory: Organization and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of memory research is to understand how cognitive processes in memory are supported at the level of brain systems and network representations. Especially promising in this direction are new findings in humans and animals that converge in indicating a key role for the hippocampus in the systematic organization of memories. New findings also indicate that the prefrontal cortex may play an equally important role in the active control of memory organization during both encoding and r...

  7. Extending Finite Memory Determinacy to Multiplayer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Le Roux

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that under some general conditions the finite memory determinacy of a class of two-player win/lose games played on finite graphs implies the existence of a Nash equilibrium built from finite memory strategies for the corresponding class of multi-player multi-outcome games. This generalizes a previous result by Brihaye, De Pril and Schewe. For most of our conditions we provide counterexamples showing that they cannot be dispensed with. Our proofs are generally constructive, that is, provide upper bounds for the memory required, as well as algorithms to compute the relevant winning strategies.

  8. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-02-01

    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  9. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...... are identified, based on results of earlier studies and some identified of specific relevance for Denmark. Importance is attached to the quantification of impacts for each of the three fuel cycles and to monetisation of the externalities....

  10. Optimal condition of memristance enhancement circuit using external voltage source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Tanaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Memristor provides nonlinear response in the current-voltage characteristic and the memristance is modulated using an external voltage source. We point out by solving nonlinear equations that an optimal condition of the external voltage source exists for maximizing the memristance in such modulation scheme. We introduce a linear function to describe the nonlinear time response and derive an important design guideline; a constant ratio of the frequency to the amplitude of the external voltage source maximizes the memristance. The analysis completely accounts for the memristance behavior.

  11. Probabilistic safety analysis of external floods. Method and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluegel, J.U. [Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken (Switzerland)

    2013-05-15

    The events of Fukushima amplified the scientific interest in the improvement of methods for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of extreme external events. The assessment of consequences of external floods belongs to this group of events. The paper presents the key steps of methodology for probabilistic safety assessment of external floods and a recent application for a nuclear power plant in Switzerland. The presented methodology is an extension of earlier activities and provides more focus on the PSA methodology part that may be applicable also for other studies. (orig.)

  12. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  13. Make-Believe Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2003-01-01

    Research on memory distortion has shown that postevent suggestion can contaminate what a person remembers. Moreover, suggestion can lead to false memories being injected outright into the minds of people. These findings have implications for police investigation, clinical practice, and other settings in which memory reports are solicited.

  14. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  15. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  16. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  17. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  18. Neural mechanism underlying autobiographical memory modulated by remoteness and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, DaHua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2012-03-01

    Autobiographical memory is the ability to recollect past events from one's own life. Both emotional tone and memory remoteness can influence autobiographical memory retrieval along the time axis of one's life. Although numerous studies have been performed to investigate brain regions involved in retrieving processes of autobiographical memory, the effect of emotional tone and memory age on autobiographical memory retrieval remains to be clarified. Moreover, whether the involvement of hippocampus in consolidation of autobiographical events is time dependent or independent has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of memory remoteness (factor1: recent and remote) and emotional valence (factor2: positive and negative) on neural correlates underlying autobiographical memory by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Although all four conditions activated some common regions known as "core" regions in autobiographical memory retrieval, there are some other regions showing significantly different activation for recent versus remote and positive versus negative memories. In particular, we found that bilateral hippocampal regions were activated in the four conditions regardless of memory remoteness and emotional valence. Thus, our study confirmed some findings of previous studies and provided further evidence to support the multi-trace theory which believes that the role of hippocampus involved in autobiographical memory retrieval is time-independent and permanent in memory consolidation.

  19. Episodic memories predict adaptive value-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; FeldmanHall, Oriel; Hunter, Lindsay E; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Davachi, Lila

    2016-05-01

    Prior research illustrates that memory can guide value-based decision-making. For example, previous work has implicated both working memory and procedural memory (i.e., reinforcement learning) in guiding choice. However, other types of memories, such as episodic memory, may also influence decision-making. Here we test the role for episodic memory-specifically item versus associative memory-in supporting value-based choice. Participants completed a task where they first learned the value associated with trial unique lotteries. After a short delay, they completed a decision-making task where they could choose to reengage with previously encountered lotteries, or new never before seen lotteries. Finally, participants completed a surprise memory test for the lotteries and their associated values. Results indicate that participants chose to reengage more often with lotteries that resulted in high versus low rewards. Critically, participants not only formed detailed, associative memories for the reward values coupled with individual lotteries, but also exhibited adaptive decision-making only when they had intact associative memory. We further found that the relationship between adaptive choice and associative memory generalized to more complex, ecologically valid choice behavior, such as social decision-making. However, individuals more strongly encode experiences of social violations-such as being treated unfairly, suggesting a bias for how individuals form associative memories within social contexts. Together, these findings provide an important integration of episodic memory and decision-making literatures to better understand key mechanisms supporting adaptive behavior. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Partitioned key-value store with atomic memory operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2017-02-07

    A partitioned key-value store is provided that supports atomic memory operations. A server performs a memory operation in a partitioned key-value store by receiving a request from an application for at least one atomic memory operation, the atomic memory operation comprising a memory address identifier; and, in response to the atomic memory operation, performing one or more of (i) reading a client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier and storing one or more key-value pairs from the client-side memory location in a local key-value store of the server; and (ii) obtaining one or more key-value pairs from the local key-value store of the server and writing the obtained one or more key-value pairs into the client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier. The server can perform functions obtained from a client-side memory location and return a result to the client using one or more of the atomic memory operations.

  1. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities ...

  2. Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Ljunglöf, Louise; Arshamian, Artin; Willander, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Auditory and visual memory in musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael A; Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that musicians outperform nonmusicians on a variety of tasks. Here we provide the first evidence that musicians have superior auditory recognition memory for both musical and nonmusical stimuli, compared to nonmusicians. However, this advantage did not generalize to the visual domain. Previously, we showed that auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory. Would this be true even for trained musicians? We compared auditory and visual memory in musicians and nonmusicians using familiar music, spoken English, and visual objects. For both groups, memory for the auditory stimuli was inferior to memory for the visual objects. Thus, although considerable musical training is associated with better musical and nonmusical auditory memory, it does not increase the ability to remember sounds to the levels found with visual stimuli. This suggests a fundamental capacity difference between auditory and visual recognition memory, with a persistent advantage for the visual domain.

  4. Interaction between categorical knowledge and episodic memory across domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Pernille; Persaud, Kimele

    2014-01-01

    Categorical knowledge and episodic memory have traditionally been viewed as separate lines of inquiry. Here, we present a perspective on the interrelatedness of categorical knowledge and reconstruction from memory. We address three underlying questions: what knowledge do people bring to the task of remembering? How do people integrate that knowledge with episodic memory? Is this the optimal way for the memory system to work? In the review of five studies spanning four category domains (discrete, continuous, temporal, and linguistic), we evaluate the relative contribution and the structure of influence of categorical knowledge on long-term episodic memory. These studies suggest a robustness of peoples' knowledge of the statistical regularities of the environment, and provide converging evidence of the quality and influence of category knowledge on reconstructive memory. Lastly, we argue that combining categorical knowledge and episodic memory is an efficient strategy of the memory system.

  5. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for...

  6. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for...

  7. Age differences in brain systems supporting transient and sustained processes involved in prospective memory and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peira, Nathalie; Ziaei, Maryam; Persson, Jonas

    2016-01-15

    In prospective memory (PM), an intention to act in response to an external event is formed, retained, and at a later stage, when the event occurs, the relevant action is performed. PM typically shows a decline in late adulthood, which might affect functions of daily living. The neural correlates of this decline are not well understood. Here, 15 young (6 female; age range=23-30years) and 16 older adults (5 female; age range=64-74years) were scanned with fMRI to examine age-related differences in brain activation associated with event-based PM using a task that facilitated the separation of transient and sustained components of PM. We show that older adults had reduced performance in conditions with high demands on prospective and working memory, while no age-difference was observed in low-demanding tasks. Across age groups, PM task performance activated separate sets of brain regions for transient and sustained responses. Age-differences in transient activation were found in fronto-striatal and MTL regions, with young adults showing more activation than older adults. Increased activation in young, compared to older adults, was also found for sustained PM activation in the IFG. These results provide new evidence that PM relies on dissociable transient and sustained cognitive processes, and that age-related deficits in PM can be explained by an inability to recruit PM-related brain networks in old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Destination memory in Alzheimer's Disease: when I imagine telling Ronald Reagan about Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Destination memory refers to remembering the destination of information that people output. This present paper establishes a new distinction between external and internal processes within this memory system for both normal aging and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Young adults, older adults, and mild AD patients were asked either to tell facts (i.e., external destination memory condition) or to imagine telling facts (i.e., internal destination memory condition) to pictures of famous people. The experiment established three major findings. First, the destination memory performance of the AD patients was significantly poorer than that of older adults, which in turn was poorer than that of the young adults. Furthermore, internal destination processes were more prone to being forgotten than external destination memory processes. In other words, participants had more difficulty in remembering whether they had previously imagined telling the facts to the pictures or not (i.e., imagined condition) than in remembering whether they had previously told the facts to the pictures or not (i.e., enacted condition). Second, significant correlations were detected between performances on destination memory and several executive measures such as the Stroop, the Plus-Minus and the Binding tasks. Third, among the executive measures, regression analyses showed that performance on the Stroop task was a main factor in explaining variance in destination memory performance. Our findings reflect the difficulty in remembering the destination of internally generated information. They also demonstrate the involvement of inhibitory processes in destination memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic memory management for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Atienza Alonso, David; Poucet, Christophe; Peón-Quirós, Miguel; Bartzas, Alexandros; Catthoor, Francky; Soudris, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and unified methodology, including basic principles and reusable processes, for dynamic memory management (DMM) in embedded systems.  The authors describe in detail how to design and optimize the use of dynamic memory in modern, multimedia and network applications, targeting the latest generation of portable embedded systems, such as smartphones. Coverage includes a variety of design and optimization topics in electronic design automation of DMM, from high-level software optimization to microarchitecture-level hardware support. The authors describe the design of multi-layer dynamic data structures for the final memory hierarchy layers of the target portable embedded systems and how to create a low-fragmentation, cost-efficient, dynamic memory management subsystem out of configurable components for the particular memory allocation and de-allocation patterns for each type of application.  The design methodology described in this book is based on propagating constraints among de...

  10. Digital thin-film color optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, C. J.; Steckl, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    A promising optical memory device called digital thin-film (DTF) color optical memory is presented. The DTF optical memory utilizes localized regions of varying thickness to adjust the spectral characteristic of reflected light from a broad band source. The DTF structure has been fabricated by Ga+ focused ion beam milling on thermally grown silicon dioxide on Si to prove the concept. A charge-coupled device array is used as the optical detector for the readout of the stored data. The reflected light image of the DTF memory reveals easily discriminated color levels and proves the suitability of using optical means to extract the stored data. DTF optical memory structures with 16 physical levels or 4 bits/pixel have been fabricated providing an equivalent storage density in excess of 5 Gb/in.2

  11. [Application of polymeric endoprostheses in surgery of external ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochikhin, A L; Markov, G I; Shilenkova, V V; Slanskaia, M E

    1998-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric endoprostheses EFOS are offered for endoprosthetic reconstruction of the external acoustic meatus in atresia. Such endoprostheses are safe for the adjacent tissues. Moreover, such prostheses contain antibacterial drugs (quinoxidine, dioxidin) and substances promoting tissue regeneration (orotic acid derivatives). This provides good epithelization of the walls of the newly established external acoustic meatus and sufficient lumen of the organ. The removal of the endoprosthesis is recommended on the postoperative day 90-120 in the outpatient setting.

  12. Glucocorticoids in the prefrontal cortex enhance memory consolidation and impair working memory by a common neural mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsegyan, Areg; Mackenzie, Scott M.; Kurose, Brian D.; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that acute administration of adrenocortical hormones enhances the consolidation of memories of emotional experiences and, concurrently, impairs working memory. These different glucocorticoid effects on these two memory functions have generally been considered to be independently regulated processes. Here we report that a glucocorticoid receptor agonist administered into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of male Sprague-Dawley rats both enhances memory consolidation and impairs working memory. Both memory effects are mediated by activation of a membrane-bound steroid receptor and depend on noradrenergic activity within the mPFC to increase levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. These findings provide direct evidence that glucocorticoid effects on both memory consolidation and working memory share a common neural influence within the mPFC. PMID:20810923

  13. Memory of Power Transformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  14. Fragile visual short-term memory is an object-based and location-specific store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y.; Sligte, I.G.; Shapiro, K.L.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile visual short-term memory (FM) is a recently discovered form of visual short-term memory. Evidence suggests that it provides rich and high-capacity storage, like iconic memory, yet it exists, without interference, almost as long as visual working memory. In the present study, we sought to

  15. Episodic-Like Memory in a Gorilla: A Review and New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, B.L.; Hoffman, M.L.; Evans, S.

    2005-01-01

    The current paper examines if gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) possess an episodic memory system. Episodic memory, in humans, is a neurocognitive system that stores information about the personal past. Unique to episodic memory is its palinscopic or past-focused orientation; most memory systems serve to provide the organism with up to date…

  16. Minimizing the disruptive effects of prospective memory in simulated air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Remington, Roger W

    2013-09-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or nonadjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40-min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared with a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39-42 min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of nonprospective memory air traffic management (nontarget aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by nonadjacent aids compared with no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared with nonadjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multitask performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Decoherence effect on quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Uncertainty principle significantly provides a bound to predict precision of measurement with regard to any two incompatible observables, and thereby plays a nontrivial role in quantum precision measurement. In this work, we observe the dynamical features of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (EUR) for a pair of incompatible measurements in an open system characterized by local generalized amplitude damping (GAD) noises. Herein, we derive the dynamical evolution of the entropic uncertainty with respect to the measurement affecting by the canonical GAD noises when particle A is initially entangled with quantum memory B. Specifically, we examine the dynamics of EUR in the frame of three realistic scenarios: one case is that particle A is affected by environmental noise (GAD) while particle B as quantum memory is free from any noises, another case is that particle B is affected by the external noise while particle A is not, and the last case is that both of the particles suffer from the noises. By analytical methods, it turns out that the uncertainty is not full dependent of quantum correlation evolution of the composite system consisting of A and B, but the minimal conditional entropy of the measured subsystem. Furthermore, we present a possible physical interpretation for the behavior of the uncertainty evolution by means of the mixedness of the observed system; we argue that the uncertainty might be dramatically correlated with the systematic mixedness. Furthermore, we put forward a simple and effective strategy to reduce the measuring uncertainty of interest upon quantum partially collapsed measurement. Therefore, our explorations might offer an insight into the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty relation in a realistic system, and be of importance to quantum precision measurement during quantum information processing.

  18. A multiplexed quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A

    2009-08-03

    A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes.

  19. External quality assessment schemes for toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    2002-08-14

    A variety of external quality assurance (EQA) schemes monitor quantitative performance for routine biochemical analysis of agents such as paracetamol, salicylate, ethanol and carboxyhaemoglobin. Their usefulness for toxicologists can be lessened where the concentrations monitored do not extend fully into the toxic range or where the matrix is synthetic, of animal origin or serum as opposed to whole human blood. A scheme for quantitative determinations of a wider range of toxicological analytes such as opioids, benzodiazepines and tricyclics in human blood has been piloted by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UKNEQAS). Specialist schemes are available for drugs of abuse testing in urine and for hair analysis. Whilst these programmes provide much useful information on the performance of analytical techniques, they fail to monitor the integrated processes that are needed in investigation of toxicological cases. In practice, both qualitative and quantitative tests are used in combination with case information to guide the evaluation of the samples and to develop an interpretation of the analytical findings that is used to provide clinical or forensic advice. EQA programs that combine the analytical and interpretative aspects of case studies are available from EQA providers such as UKNEQAS and the Dutch KKGT program (Stichting Kwaliteitsbewaking Klinische Geneesmiddelanalyse en Toxicologie).

  20. Recognition Confidence under Violated and Confirmed Memory Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Antonio; Cox, Justin C.; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' memory experiences typically covary with those of others' around them, and on average, an item is more likely to be familiar if a companion recommends it as such. Although it would be ideal if observers could use the external recommendations of others' as statistical priors during recognition decisions, it is currently unclear how or…

  1. Efficient and flexible memory architecture to alleviate data and context bandwidth bottlenecks of coarse-grained reconfigurable arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Liu, LeiBo; Yin, ShouYi; Wei, ShaoJun

    2014-12-01

    The computational capability of a coarse-grained reconfigurable array (CGRA) can be significantly restrained due to data and context memory bandwidth bottlenecks. Traditionally, two methods have been used to resolve this problem. One method loads the context into the CGRA at run time. This method occupies very small on-chip memory but induces very large latency, which leads to low computational efficiency. The other method adopts a multi-context structure. This method loads the context into the on-chip context memory at the boot phase. Broadcasting the pointer of a set of contexts changes the hardware configuration on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The size of the context memory induces a large area overhead in multi-context structures, which results in major restrictions on application complexity. This paper proposes a Predictable Context Cache (PCC) architecture to address the above context issues by buffering the context inside a CGRA. In this architecture, context is dynamically transferred into the CGRA. Utilizing a PCC significantly reduces the on-chip context memory and the complexity of the applications running on the CGRA is no longer restricted by the size of the on-chip context memory. Data preloading is the most frequently used approach to hide input data latency and speed up the data transmission process for the data bandwidth issue. Rather than fundamentally reducing the amount of input data, the transferred data and computations are processed in parallel. However, the data preloading method cannot work efficiently because data transmission becomes the critical path as the reconfigurable array scale increases. This paper also presents a Hierarchical Data Memory (HDM) architecture as a solution to the efficiency problem. In this architecture, high internal bandwidth is provided to buffer both reused input data and intermediate data. The HDM architecture relieves the external memory from the data transfer burden so that the performance is significantly

  2. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  3. Flexible kernel memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Nowicki

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces.

  4. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  5. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  6. Studies on the Mental Processes in Translation Memory-assisted Translation – the State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2011-01-01

    with a view to discovering their aims, data, methods and results. In doing so, the paper attempts to find out what we know by now about the mental aspects of translation memory-assisted translation. The analysis suggests fruitful avenues for future research and concludes that particularly more research......This article reviews research on the mental translation processes involved in translation memory-assisted translation. First, based on recent developments in cognitive science the article provides a working definition of mental TM research. Next the article analyses a selection of mental TM studies...... is needed which takes into account the recent developments within TM technology and looks into both internal and external translation processes....

  7. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrendorf, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG)

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  8. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrendorf, R. (Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA (FRG))

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  9. External tank space debris considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, N.; Baillif, F.; Robinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital debris issues associated with maintaining a Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on orbit are presented. The first issue is to ensure that the ET does not become a danger to other spacecraft by generating space debris, and the second is to protect the pressurized ET from penetration by space debris or meteoroids. Tests on shield designs for penetration resistance showed that when utilized with an adequate bumper, thermal protection system foam on the ET is effective in preventing penetration.

  10. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surg...

  11. The cognitive neuroscience of memory function and dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Charan; Minzenberg, Michael J; Ragland, J Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have pronounced deficits in memory for events--episodic memory. These deficits severely affect patients' quality of life and functional outcome, and current medications have only a modest effect, making episodic memory an important domain for translational development of clinical trial paradigms. The current article provides a brief review of the significant progress that cognitive neuroscience has made in understanding basic mechanisms of episodic memory formation and retrieval that were presented and discussed at the first CNTRICS (Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia) meeting in Washington, D.C. During that meeting a collaborative decision was made that measures of item-specific and relational memory were the most promising constructs for immediate translational development. A brief summary of research on episodic memory in schizophrenia is presented to provide a context for investigating item-specific and relational memory processes. Candidate brain regions are also discussed.

  12. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  13. A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Janowich, Jacki; Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior is often impaired by interference from the external environment, either in the form of distraction by irrelevant information that one attempts to ignore, or by interrupting information that demands attention as part of another (secondary) task goal. Both forms of external interference have been shown to detrimentally impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM). Emerging evidence suggests that these different types of external interference exert dif...

  14. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  15. External indebtedness of Croatian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Jurman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main characteristics of the foreign assets and foreign liabilities of the banks that to a great extent include credit and deposit activities with non-residents – foreign physical persons and legal entities, mostly with foreign banks. The author in this paper analyses the size and trends of the Republic of Croatia’s external debt with regard to gross domestic product, import, export, international reserve of the Croatian National Bank (HNB, etc. The author also discusses external debt of the banks that have, during the past few years, contributed substantially to the overall external debt of the Republic of Croatia. The autor points out that the banks have used foreign sources mainly for placing citizens’ loans, and less for financing development projects and economy. Thus, the banks have “spent”, i.e. used up their credit capacity as well as the credit capacity of the Republic of Croatia. Regardless of the fact that the banks have improved the quality of their assets, maintained liquidity/solvency and made extremely good profits, there have not been positive effects of the multiplication of credits/loans and deposits nor have there been the awaited effects on the growth of the gross domestic product and employment that otherwise might have been achieved via different foreign resources investment policy

  16. Genome-wide functional analysis of CREB/long-term memory-dependent transcription reveals distinct basal and memory gene expression programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel N; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Stein, Geneva; Keyes, William; Xu, Daniel; Murphy, Coleen T

    2015-01-21

    Induced CREB activity is a hallmark of long-term memory, but the full repertoire of CREB transcriptional targets required specifically for memory is not known in any system. To obtain a more complete picture of the mechanisms involved in memory, we combined memory training with genome-wide transcriptional analysis of C. elegans CREB mutants. This approach identified 757 significant CREB/memory-induced targets and confirmed the involvement of known memory genes from other organisms, but also suggested new mechanisms and novel components that may be conserved through mammals. CREB mediates distinct basal and memory transcriptional programs at least partially through spatial restriction of CREB activity: basal targets are regulated primarily in nonneuronal tissues, while memory targets are enriched for neuronal expression, emanating from CREB activity in AIM neurons. This suite of novel memory-associated genes will provide a platform for the discovery of orthologous mammalian long-term memory components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Memory effects for a stochastic fractional oscillator in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Romi; Laas, Katrin; Laas, Tõnu; Paekivi, Sander

    2018-01-01

    The problem of random motion of harmonically trapped charged particles in a constant external magnetic field is studied. A generalized three-dimensional Langevin equation with a power-law memory kernel is used to model the interaction of Brownian particles with the complex structure of viscoelastic media (e.g., dusty plasmas). The influence of a fluctuating environment is modeled by an additive fractional Gaussian noise. In the long-time limit the exact expressions of the first-order and second-order moments of the fluctuating position for the Brownian particle subjected to an external periodic force in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field have been calculated. Also, the particle's angular momentum is found. It is shown that an interplay of external periodic forcing, memory, and colored noise can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as memory-induced sign reversals of the angular momentum, multiresonance versus Larmor frequency, and memory-induced particle confinement in the absence of an external trapping field. Particularly in the case without external trapping, if the memory exponent is lower than a critical value, we find a resonancelike behavior of the anisotropy in the particle position distribution versus the driving frequency, implying that it can be efficiently excited by an oscillating electric field. Similarities and differences between the behaviors of the models with internal and external noises are also discussed.

  18. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jeremy; Hillis, Argye E.; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Spelling a word involves the retrieval of information about the word’s letters and their order from long-term memory as well as the maintenance and processing of this information by working memory in preparation for serial production by the motor system. While it is known that brain lesions may selectively affect orthographic long-term memory and working memory processes, relatively little is known about the neurotopographic distribution of the substrates that support these cognitive processes, or the lesions that give rise to the distinct forms of dysgraphia that affect these cognitive processes. To examine these issues, this study uses a voxel-based mapping approach to analyse the lesion distribution of 27 individuals with dysgraphia subsequent to stroke, who were identified on the basis of their behavioural profiles alone, as suffering from deficits only affecting either orthographic long-term or working memory, as well as six other individuals with deficits affecting both sets of processes. The findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence of substrates that selectively support orthographic long-term and working memory processes, with orthographic long-term memory deficits centred in either the left posterior inferior frontal region or left ventral temporal cortex, and orthographic working memory deficits primarily arising from lesions of the left parietal cortex centred on the intraparietal sulcus. These findings also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the neural instantiation of written language processes and spoken language, working memory and other cognitive skills. PMID:26685156

  20. Self-Imagining Enhances Recognition Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on a number of cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, the present study investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as “self-imagining” – or the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Method Fourteen individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits and fourteen healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Results Findings revealed a robust “self-imagination effect” as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F (1, 13) = 32.11, p imagination were not limited by severity of the memory disorder nor were they related to self-reported vividness of visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. Conclusions The findings suggest that the self-imagination effect may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing, and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment. PMID:20873930

  1. The biochemistry of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Jeffry B; Zhang, Sherry

    2013-09-09

    Almost fifty years ago, Julius Adler initiated a program of research to gain insights into the basic biochemistry of intelligent behavior by studying the molecular mechanisms that underlie the chemotactic responses of Escherichia coli. All living organisms share elements of a common biochemistry for metabolism, growth and heredity - why not intelligence? Neurobiologists have demonstrated that this is the case for nervous systems in animals ranging from worms to man. Motile unicellular organisms such as E. coli exhibit rudimentary behaviors that can be loosely described in terms of cognitive phenomena such as memory and learning. Adler's initiative at least raised the prospect that, because of the numerous experimental advantages provided by E. coli, it would be the first organism whose behavior could be understood at molecular resolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  3. New insights in human memory interference and consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Edwin M

    2012-01-24

    Learning new facts and skills in succession can be frustrating because no sooner has new knowledge been acquired than its retention is being jeopardized by learning another set of skills or facts. Interference between memories has recently provided important new insights into the neural and psychological systems responsible for memory processing. For example, interference not only occurs between the same types of memories, but can also occur between different types of memories, which has important implications for our understanding of memory organization. Converging evidence has begun to reveal that the brain produces interference independently from other aspects of memory processing, which suggests that interference may have an important but previously overlooked function. A memory's initial susceptibility to interference and subsequent resistance to interference after its acquisition has revealed that memories continue to be processed 'off-line' during consolidation. Recent work has demonstrated that off-line processing is not limited to just the stabilization of a memory, which was once the defining characteristic of consolidation; instead, off-line processing can have a rich diversity of effects, from enhancing performance to making hidden rules explicit. Off-line processing also occurs after memory retrieval when memories are destabilized and then subsequently restabalized during reconsolidation. Studies are beginning to reveal the function of reconsolidation, its mechanistic relationship to consolidation and its potential as a therapeutic target for the modification of memories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Development of Attention Systems and Working Memory in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg D. Reynolds

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review research and theory on the development of attention and working memory in infancy using a developmental cognitive neuroscience framework. We begin with a review of studies examining the influence of attention on neural and behavioral correlates of an earlier developing and closely related form of memory (i.e., recognition memory. Findings from studies measuring attention utilizing looking measures, heart rate, and event-related potentials (ERPs indicate significant developmental change in sustained and selective attention across the infancy period. For example, infants show gains in the magnitude of the attention related response and spend a greater proportion of time engaged in attention with increasing age (Richards & Turner, 2001. Throughout infancy, attention has a significant impact on infant performance on a variety of tasks tapping into recognition memory; however, this approach to examining the influence of infant attention on memory performance has yet to be utilized in research on working memory. In the second half of the paper, we review research on working memory in infancy focusing on studies that provide insight into the developmental timing of significant gains in working memory as well as research and theory related to neural systems potentially involved in working memory in early development. We also examine issues related to measuring and distinguishing between working memory and recognition memory in infancy. To conclude, we discuss relations between the development of attention systems and working memory.

  5. A dual-trace model for visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Marcus; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-11-01

    Visual sensory memory refers to a transient memory lingering briefly after the stimulus offset. Although previous literature suggests that visual sensory memory is supported by a fine-grained trace for continuous representation and a coarse-grained trace of categorical information, simultaneous separation and assessment of these traces can be difficult without a quantitative model. The present study used a continuous estimation procedure to test a novel mathematical model of the dual-trace hypothesis of visual sensory memory according to which visual sensory memory could be modeled as a mixture of 2 von Mises (2VM) distributions differing in standard deviation. When visual sensory memory and working memory (WM) for colors were distinguished using different experimental manipulations in the first 3 experiments, the 2VM model outperformed Zhang and Luck (2008) standard mixture model (SM) representing a mixture of a single memory trace and random guesses, even though SM outperformed 2VM for WM. Experiment 4 generalized 2VM's advantages of fitting visual sensory memory data over SM from color to orientation. Furthermore, a single trace model and 4 other alternative models were ruled out, suggesting the necessity and sufficiency of dual traces for visual sensory memory. Together these results support the dual-trace model of visual sensory memory and provide a preliminary inquiry into the nature of information loss from visual sensory memory to WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Development of Attention Systems and Working Memory in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Romano, Alexandra C

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review research and theory on the development of attention and working memory in infancy using a developmental cognitive neuroscience framework. We begin with a review of studies examining the influence of attention on neural and behavioral correlates of an earlier developing and closely related form of memory (i.e., recognition memory). Findings from studies measuring attention utilizing looking measures, heart rate, and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicate significant developmental change in sustained and selective attention across the infancy period. For example, infants show gains in the magnitude of the attention related response and spend a greater proportion of time engaged in attention with increasing age (Richards and Turner, 2001). Throughout infancy, attention has a significant impact on infant performance on a variety of tasks tapping into recognition memory; however, this approach to examining the influence of infant attention on memory performance has yet to be utilized in research on working memory. In the second half of the article, we review research on working memory in infancy focusing on studies that provide insight into the developmental timing of significant gains in working memory as well as research and theory related to neural systems potentially involved in working memory in early development. We also examine issues related to measuring and distinguishing between working memory and recognition memory in infancy. To conclude, we discuss relations between the development of attention systems and working memory.

  7. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation.

  8. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Luo, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation. PMID:28674512

  9. CONSEQUENCES OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ON ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine importance of business environment, social status of entrepreneurs, and country external conflicts as predictors of motivation to start a business in an environment, such as that in Iran, in which the economy is highly dependent on government initiatives. Data are collected from 106 MBA students through questionnaires. Respondents are questioned regarding the perceived importance of the business environment, socio-cultural factors (social status, and country external conflicts. The results show that the importance of business environment and country external conflicts contribute considerably to the level of entrepreneurial motivation. Further, the results reveal that social status is not a critical factor in determining the level of motivation to start a business. In particular, business environment is the most important factor in predicting entrepreneurial motivation. The results contribute to the growing body of literature in entrepreneurship and provide some implications for Iranian policy makers to create favourable external environment for potential entrepreneurs.

  10. Network externalities in telecommunication industry: An analysis of Serbian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with network competition and provides empirical analysis of market concentration, network and call externalities, access pricing, price discrimination and switching costs in Serbian mobile phone telecommunications market. It is shown that network externalities governed the expansion of this market until 2008. Upon entry of VIP incumbents didn't engage in predatory behaviour towards entrant aiming to benefit from locked- in users. The policy of mobile phone number portability reduced on-net prices and substantially increased consumer's surplus. In contrast to some previous research, this policy was pro-competitive in Serbia. We have also determined that users of the network with the largest market share benefit the most from call externalities. Finally, one network does not price discriminate between outgoing and incoming roaming calls, which implies that users of this network have higher level pecuniary externalities in roaming compared to users of price discriminating networks.

  11. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  12. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinglan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cunningham, Brian T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO{sub 2} dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  13. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  14. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  15. The episodicity of verbal reports of personally significant autobiographical memories: vividness correlates with narrative text quality more than with detailedness or memory specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2013-01-01

    How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories.

  16. Protecting Cryptographic Memory against Tampering Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Pratyay

    . In practice such attacks can be executed easily, e.g. by heating the device, as substantiated by numerous works in the past decade. Tampering attacks are a class of such physical attacks where the attacker can change the memory/computation, gains additional (non-black-box) knowledge by interacting...... with the faulty device and then tries to break the security. Prior works show that generically approaching such problem is notoriously difficult. So, in this dissertation we attempt to solve an easier question, known as memory-tampering, where the attacker is allowed tamper only with the memory of the device...... but not the computation. Such weaker model can still be practically useful and moreover, may provide nice building-blocks to tackle full-fledged tampering in future. In this dissertation we study different models of memory-tampering and provide a number of solutions with different flavors. Mainly we took two different...

  17. Prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation facilitates postnatal spatial learning but transiently impairs memory in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Roy, S; Pal, A; Sreenivas, V; Mathur, R; Wadhwa, S; Jain, S

    2011-01-01

    Early experience has a profound influence on brain development, and the modulation of prenatal perceptual learning by external environmental stimuli has been shown in birds, rodents and mammals. In the present study, the effect of prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation on postnatal spatial learning, memory and isolation stress was observed. Auditory stimulation with either music or species-specific sounds or no stimulation (control) was provided to separate sets of fertilized eggs from day 10 of incubation. Following hatching, the chicks at age 24, 72 and 120 h were tested on a T-maze for spatial learning and the memory of the learnt task was assessed 24 h after training. In the posthatch chicks at all ages, the plasma corticosterone levels were estimated following 10 min of isolation. The chicks of all ages in the three groups took less (p improvement with training. In both sound-stimulated groups, the total time taken to reach the target decreased significantly (p memory after 24 h of training, only the music-stimulated chicks at posthatch age 24 h took a significantly longer (p music sounds facilitates spatial learning, though the music stimulation transiently impairs postnatal memory. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Conscious and Unconscious Memory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Larry R.; Dede, Adam J.O.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that memory is not a single mental faculty has a long and interesting history but became a topic of experimental and biologic inquiry only in the mid-20th century. It is now clear that there are different kinds of memory, which are supported by different brain systems. One major distinction can be drawn between working memory and long-term memory. Long-term memory can be separated into declarative (explicit) memory and a collection of nondeclarative (implicit) forms of memory that include habits, skills, priming, and simple forms of conditioning. These memory systems depend variously on the hippocampus and related structures in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as on the amygdala, the striatum, cerebellum, and the neocortex. This work recounts the discovery of declarative and nondeclarative memory and then describes the nature of declarative memory, working memory, nondeclarative memory, and the relationship between memory systems. PMID:25731765

  19. A generalized memory test algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  20. Accident externality and vehicle size

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Lina; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle mass is a crucial factor for the distribution of injuries between occupants in involved vehicles in a two-vehicle crash. A larger vehicle mass protects the occupants in the vehicle while on the same time inflicts a higher injury risk on the occupants in the collision partner. This mass externality can be internalized to reach a situation where the drivers choose vehicle mass based on the social optimum instead of a private optimum that ignores the negative effects that a large vehicle...

  1. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-11-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required.

  2. What memory is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B

    2015-01-01

    I argue that our current practice of ascribing the term 'memory' to mental states and processes lacks epistemic warrant. Memory, according to the 'received view', is any state or process that results from the sequential stages of encoding, storage, and retrieval. By these criteria, memory, or its footprint, can be seen in virtually every mental state we are capable of having. This, I argue, stretches the term to the breaking point. I draw on phenomenological, historical, and conceptual considerations to make the case that an act of memory entails a direct, non-inferential feeling of reacquaintance with one's past. It does so by linking content retrieved from storage with autonoetic awareness during retrieval. On this view, memory is not the content of experience, but the manner in which that content is experienced. I discuss some theoretical and practical implications and advantages of adopting this more circumscribed view of memory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: cribeiro@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pcunha@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  4. Bidirectional Frontoparietal Oscillatory Systems Support Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth L; Dewar, Callum D; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Meling, Torstein R; Knight, Robert T

    2017-06-19

    The ability to represent and select information in working memory provides the neurobiological infrastructure for human cognition. For 80 years, dominant views of working memory have focused on the key role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1-8]. However, more recent work has implicated posterior cortical regions [9-12], suggesting that PFC engagement during working memory is dependent on the degree of executive demand. We provide evidence from neurological patients with discrete PFC damage that challenges the dominant models attributing working memory to PFC-dependent systems. We show that neural oscillations, which provide a mechanism for PFC to communicate with posterior cortical regions [13], independently subserve communications both to and from PFC-uncovering parallel oscillatory mechanisms for working memory. Fourteen PFC patients and 20 healthy, age-matched controls performed a working memory task where they encoded, maintained, and actively processed information about pairs of common shapes. In controls, the electroencephalogram (EEG) exhibited oscillatory activity in the low-theta range over PFC and directional connectivity from PFC to parieto-occipital regions commensurate with executive processing demands. Concurrent alpha-beta oscillations were observed over parieto-occipital regions, with directional connectivity from parieto-occipital regions to PFC, regardless of processing demands. Accuracy, PFC low-theta activity, and PFC → parieto-occipital connectivity were attenuated in patients, revealing a PFC-independent, alpha-beta system. The PFC patients still demonstrated task proficiency, which indicates that the posterior alpha-beta system provides sufficient resources for working memory. Taken together, our findings reveal neurologically dissociable PFC and parieto-occipital systems and suggest that parallel, bidirectional oscillatory systems form the basis of working memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. External Program Reviews (2012) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... IDRC commissions external program reviews toward the end of each program cycle. These final evaluations are our primary accountability mechanism in terms of the results, effectiveness, and relevance of program spending. External program reviews aim to:

  6. Recurrent Memory Array Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rocki, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The following report introduces ideas augmenting standard Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture with multiple memory cells per hidden unit in order to improve its generalization capabilities. It considers both deterministic and stochastic variants of memory operation. It is shown that the nondeterministic Array-LSTM approach improves state-of-the-art performance on character level text prediction achieving 1.402 BPC on enwik8 dataset. Furthermore, this report estabilishes baseline neural...

  7. Psychopharmacology and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Glannon, W

    2006-01-01

    Psychotropic and other drugs can alter brain mechanisms regulating the formation, storage, and retrieval of different types of memory. These include “off label” uses of existing drugs and new drugs designed specifically to target the neural bases of memory. This paper discusses the use of beta‐adrenergic antagonists to prevent or erase non‐conscious pathological emotional memories in the amygdala. It also discusses the use of novel psychopharmacological agents to enhance long term semantic an...

  8. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Sarp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Self and mind are constituted with the cumulative effects of significant life events. This description is regarded as a given explicitly or implicitly in vari-ous theories of personality. Such an acknowledgment inevitably brings together these theories on two basic concepts. The first one is the emotions that give meaning to experiences and the second one is the memory which is related to the storage of these experiences. The part of the memory which is responsible for the storage and retrieval of life events is the autobiographical memory. Besides the development of personality, emotions and autobiographical memory are important in the development of and maintenance of psychopathology. Therefore, these two concepts have both longitudinal and cross-sectional functions in understanding human beings. In case of psychopathology, understanding emotions and autobiographical memory developmentally, aids in understanding the internal susceptibility factors. In addition, understanding how these two structures work and influence each other in an acute event would help to understand the etiological mechanisms of mental disorders. In the literature, theories that include both of these structures and that have clinical implications, are inconclusive. Theories on memory generally focus on cognitive and semantic structures while neglecting emotions, whereas theories on emotions generally neglect memory and its organization. There are only a few theories that cover both of these two concepts. In the present article, these theories that include both emotions and autobiographical memory in the same framework (i.e. Self Memory System, Associative Network Theory, Structural and Contextual theories and Affect Regulation Theory were discussed to see the full picture. Taken together, these theories seem to have the potential to suggest data-driven models in understanding and explaining symptoms such as flashbacks, dissociation, amnesia, over general memory seen in

  9. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  10. T-cell memory: the connection between function, phenotype and migration pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, C R

    1991-06-01

    Immunological memory is a fundamental feature of vertebrate immune systems, providing enhanced protection against previously encountered antigens. The established view has been that immunological memory results from clonal expansion and long-term survival of specialized memory cells. Recently, the nature of memory T cells has come under closer scrutiny because of the ability to distinguish naive and memory T cells phenotypically, particularly in humans. In this article, Charles Mackay discusses three features of memory T cells that help to explain the nature and function of these cells: the increased expression of adhesion and activation molecules on memory T cells, their potent functional status and their specific pathways of recirculation.

  11. Memory profiles of Down, Williams, and fragile X syndromes: implications for reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Frances A; Moore, Marie S; Loveall, Susan J; Merrill, Edward C

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand the types of memory impairments that are associated with intellectual disability (ID, formerly called mental retardation) and the implications of these impairments for reading development. Specifically, studies on working memory, delayed memory and learning, and semantic/conceptual memory in Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, and fragile X syndrome were examined. A distinct memory profile emerged for each of the 3 etiologies of ID. Memory profiles are discussed in relation to strengths and weaknesses in reading skills in these three etiologies. We suggest that reading instruction be designed to capitalize on relatively stronger memory skills while providing extra support for especially challenging aspects of reading.

  12. Failure to filter: Anxious individuals show inefficient gating of threat from working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Stout

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispositional anxiety is a well-established risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders along the internalizing spectrum, including anxiety and depression. Importantly, many of the maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anxiety, such as anticipatory apprehension, occur when threat is absent. This raises the possibility that anxious individuals are less efficient at gating threat’s access to working memory, a limited capacity workspace where information is actively retained, manipulated, and used to flexibly guide goal-directed behavior when it is no longer present in the external environment. Using a well-validated neurophysiological index of working memory storage, we demonstrate that threat-related distracters were difficult to filter on average and that this difficulty was exaggerated among anxious individuals. These results indicate that dispositionally anxious individuals allocate excessive working memory storage to threat, even when it is irrelevant to the task at hand. More broadly, these results provide a novel framework for understanding the maladaptive thoughts and actions characteristic of internalizing disorders.

  13. Interplay of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alison R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have considerably advanced our understanding of the distinct roles of these brain areas in the encoding and retrieval of memories, and of how they interact in the prolonged process by which new memories are consolidated into our permanent storehouse of knowledge. These studies have led to a new model of how the hippocampus forms and replays memories and how the prefrontal cortex engages representations of the meaningful contexts in which related memories occur, as well as how these areas interact during memory retrieval. Furthermore, they have provided new insights into how interactions between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex support the assimilation of new memories into pre-existing networks of knowledge, called schemas, and how schemas are modified in this process as the foundation of memory consolidation. PMID:24028960

  14. Memory and Perception-based Facial Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Hsun; Nemrodov, Dan; Lee, Andy C H; Nestor, Adrian

    2017-07-26

    Visual memory for faces has been extensively researched, especially regarding the main factors that influence face memorability. However, what we remember exactly about a face, namely, the pictorial content of visual memory, remains largely unclear. The current work aims to elucidate this issue by reconstructing face images from both perceptual and memory-based behavioural data. Specifically, our work builds upon and further validates the hypothesis that visual memory and perception share a common representational basis underlying facial identity recognition. To this end, we derived facial features directly from perceptual data and then used such features for image reconstruction separately from perception and memory data. Successful levels of reconstruction were achieved in both cases for newly-learned faces as well as for familiar faces retrieved from long-term memory. Theoretically, this work provides insights into the content of memory-based representations while, practically, it may open the path to novel applications, such as computer-based 'sketch artists'.

  15. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  16. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam and globalizat......Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam...

  17. Phase change memory

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Moinuddin K

    2011-01-01

    As conventional memory technologies such as DRAM and Flash run into scaling challenges, architects and system designers are forced to look at alternative technologies for building future computer systems. This synthesis lecture begins by listing the requirements for a next generation memory technology and briefly surveys the landscape of novel non-volatile memories. Among these, Phase Change Memory (PCM) is emerging as a leading contender, and the authors discuss the material, device, and circuit advances underlying this exciting technology. The lecture then describes architectural solutions t

  18. Memories Persist in Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Arenas Grisales

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the hypothesis that memory artifacts, created to commemorate the victims of armed conflict in Colombia, are an expression of the underground memories and a way of political action in the midst of war. We analyze three cases of creations of memory artifacts in Medellín, Colombia, as forms of suffering, perceiving and resisting the power of armed groups in Medellín. The silence, inherent in these objects, should not be treated as an absence of language, but as another form of expression of memory. Silence is a tactic used to overcome losses and reset everyday life in contexts of protracted violence.

  19. Memories united in diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    During the 1990s the memory of the Holocaust became the negative core event (Diner 2003) for the European Union (EU). The Holocaust has turned into a symbol of a diseased past for which the EU is the cure. However, since the eastward enlargement of the EU the memory of the Holocaust has been...... challenged by the memory of Soviet Communism. Thus, when the EU-members from the former Eastern Bloc entered the EU they brought with them their memory of another diseased past. A past for which the Western members of the EU seems to have little understanding....

  20. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western Europ...... show that estimated damages due to the greenhouse effect are predominant, however, the uncertainty is high. The predominant damage at the local and regional level is related to emission of NOx, which results in effects on public health....

  1. Anchoring effects on early autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A

    2017-10-01

    Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.

  2. The reorganisation of memory during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Nina; Kuhn, Marion; Piosczyk, Hannah; Feige, Bernd; Baglioni, Chiara; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Frase, Lukas; Riemann, Dieter; Sterr, Annette; Nissen, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Sleep after learning promotes the quantitative strengthening of new memories. Less is known about the impact of sleep on the qualitative reorganisation of memory, which is the focus of this review. Studies have shown that, in the declarative system, sleep facilitates the abstraction of rules (schema formation), the integration of knowledge into existing schemas (schema integration) and creativity that requires the disbandment of existing patterns (schema disintegration). Schema formation and integration might primarily benefit from slow wave sleep, whereas the disintegration of a schema might be facilitated by rapid eye movement sleep. In the procedural system, sleep fosters the reorganisation of motor memory. The neural mechanisms of these processes remain to be determined. Notably, emotions have been shown to modulate the sleep-related reorganisation of memories. In the final section of this review, we propose that the sleep-related reorganisation of memories might be particularly relevant for mental disorders. Thus, sleep disruptions might contribute to disturbed memory reorganisation and to the development of mental disorders. Therefore, sleep-related interventions might modulate the reorganisation of memories and provide new inroads into treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Memory states influence value-based decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katherine D; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-11-01

    Using memory to guide decisions allows past experience to improve future outcomes. However, the circumstances that modulate how and when memory influences decisions are not well understood. Here, we report that the use of memories to guide decisions depends on the context in which these decisions are made. We show that decisions made in the context of familiar images are more likely to be influenced by past events than are decisions made in the context of novel images (Experiment 1), that this bias persists even when a temporal gap is introduced between the image presentation and the decision (Experiment 2), and that contextual novelty facilitates value learning whereas familiarity facilitates the retrieval and use of previously learned values (Experiment 3). These effects are consistent with neurobiological and computational models of memory, which propose that familiar images evoke a lingering "retrieval state" that facilitates the recollection of other episodic memories. Together, these experiments highlight the importance of episodic memory for decision-making and provide an example of how computational and neurobiological theories can lead to new insights into how and when different types of memories guide our choices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Non-pharmacological intervention for memory decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eCotelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological treatment of memory difficulties in healthy older adults, as well as those with brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders, has gained much attention in recent years (Ball et al., 2002, Willis et al., 2006, Acevedo and Loewenstein, 2007. The two main reasons that explain this growing interest in memory rehabilitation are the limited efficacy of current drug therapies and the plasticity of the human central nervous system (Cotelli et al., 2011c and the discovery that during aging, the connections in the brain are not fixed but retain the capacity to change with learning.Moreover, several studies have reported enhanced cognitive performance in patients with neurological disease, following non-invasive brain stimulation (i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to specific cortical areas. The present review provides an overview of memory rehabilitation in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD with particular regard to cognitive rehabilitation interventions focused on memory and non-invasive brain stimulation. Reviewed data suggest that in patients with memory deficits, memory intervention therapy could lead to performance improvements in memory, nevertheless further studies need to be conducted in order to establish the real value of this approach.

  5. Flexible memristive memory array on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjun; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Sung Kyu; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Keon Jae

    2011-12-14

    The demand for flexible electronic systems such as wearable computers, E-paper, and flexible displays has recently increased due to their advantages over present rigid electronic systems. Flexible memory is an essential part of electronic systems for data processing, storage, and communication and thus a key element to realize such flexible electronic systems. Although several emerging memory technologies, including resistive switching memory, have been proposed, the cell-to-cell interference issue has to be overcome for flexible and high performance nonvolatile memory applications. This paper describes the development of NOR type flexible resistive random access memory (RRAM) with a one transistor-one memristor structure (1T-1M). By integration of a high-performance single crystal silicon transistor with a titanium oxide based memristor, random access to memory cells on flexible substrates was achieved without any electrical interference from adjacent cells. The work presented here can provide a new approach to high-performance nonvolatile memory for flexible electronic applications.

  6. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  7. Collaborative inhibition in spatial memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolund, Lori A; Erdman, Matthew; Kelly, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the finding that pairs of people working together to retrieve information from memory-a collaborative group-often retrieve fewer unique items than do nominal pairs, who retrieve individually but whose performance is pooled. Two experiments were designed to explore whether collaborative inhibition, which has heretofore been studied using traditional memory stimuli such as word lists, also characterizes spatial memory retrieval. In the present study, participants learned a layout of objects and then reconstructed the layout from memory, either individually or in pairs. The layouts created by collaborative pairs were more accurate than those created by individuals, but less accurate than those of nominal pairs, providing evidence for collaborative inhibition in spatial memory retrieval. Collaborative inhibition occurred when participants were allowed to dictate the order of object placement during reconstruction (Exp. 1), and also when object order was imposed by the experimenter (Exp. 2), which was intended to disrupt the retrieval processes of pairs as well as of individuals. Individual tests of perspective taking indicated that the underlying representations of pair members were no different than those of individuals; in all cases, spatial memories were organized around a reference frame aligned with the studied perspective. These results suggest that inhibition is caused by the product of group recall (i.e., seeing a partner's object placement), not by the process of group recall (i.e., taking turns choosing an object to place). The present study has implications for how group performance on a collaborative spatial memory task may be optimized.

  8. Epigenetics, estradiol, and hippocampal memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations of histone proteins and DNA are essential for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, and contribute to the etiology of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hippocampal memory formation depends on histone alterations and DNA methylation, and increasing evidence suggests that regulation of these epigenetic processes by modulatory factors such as environmental enrichment, stress, and hormones substantially influences memory function. Recent work from our laboratory suggests that the ability of the sex-steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance novel object recognition memory consolidation in young adult female mice is dependent on histone H3 acetylation and DNA methylation in the dorsal hippocampus. Our data also suggest that enzymes mediating DNA methylation and histone acetylation work in concert to regulate the effects of E2 on memory consolidation. These findings shed light on the epigenetic mechanisms that influence hormonal modulation of cognitive function, and may have important implications for understanding how hormones influence cognition in adulthood and aging. This review will provide a brief overview of the literature on epigenetics and memory, describe in detail our findings demonstrating that epigenetic alterations regulate E2-induced memory enhancement in female mice, and discuss future directions for research on the epigenetic regulation of E2-induced memory enhancement. PMID:24028406

  9. 49 CFR 195.110 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External loads. 195.110 Section 195.110 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.110 External loads. (a) Anticipated external loads (e.g.), earthquakes...

  10. 187 AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AND EXTERNAL DEBT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Agricultural revenue has not been able to sustain the external debt in. Nigeria despite the effort made by the government in facilitating its projects using the external funds. This study adopted external debt elasticity indices as well as an ordinary least square analysis and error correction mechanism to isolate the ...

  11. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  12. Prefrontal Cortex Networks Shift from External to Internal Modes during Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincat, Scott L; Miller, Earl K

    2016-09-14

    As we learn about items in our environment, their neural representations become increasingly enriched with our acquired knowledge. But there is little understanding of how network dynamics and neural processing related to external information changes as it becomes laden with "internal" memories. We sampled spiking and local field potential activity simultaneously from multiple sites in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus (HPC)-regions critical for sensory associations-of monkeys performing an object paired-associate learning task. We found that in the PFC, evoked potentials to, and neural information about, external sensory stimulation decreased while induced beta-band (∼11-27 Hz) oscillatory power and synchrony associated with "top-down" or internal processing increased. By contrast, the HPC showed little evidence of learning-related changes in either spiking activity or network dynamics. The results suggest that during associative learning, PFC networks shift their resources from external to internal processing. As we learn about items in our environment, their representations in our brain become increasingly enriched with our acquired "top-down" knowledge. We found that in the prefrontal cortex, but not the hippocampus, processing of external sensory inputs decreased while internal network dynamics related to top-down processing increased. The results suggest that during learning, prefrontal cortex networks shift their resources from external (sensory) to internal (memory) processing. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/369739-16$15.00/0.

  13. Plasmonic external cavity laser refractometric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    Combining the high sensitivity properties of surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensing with a tunable external cavity laser, we demonstrate a plasmonic external cavity laser (ECL) for high resolution refractometric sensing. The plasmonic ECL utilizes a plasmonic crystal with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) as the wavelength-selective element, and achieves single mode lasing at the transmission peak of the EOT resonance. The plasmonic ECL refractometric sensor maintains the high sensitivity of a plasmonic crystal sensor, while simultaneously providing a narrow spectral linewidth through lasing emission, resulting in a record high figure of merit for refractometric sensing with an active or passive optical resonator. We demonstrate single-mode and continuous-wave operation of the electrically-pumped laser system, and show the ability to measure refractive index changes with a 3σ detection limit of 1.79 × 10−6 RIU. The demonstrated approach is a promising path towards label-free optical biosensing with enhanced signal-to-noise ratios for challenging applications in small molecule drug discovery and pathogen sensing. PMID:25321243

  14. A Prototype External Event Broker for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elan Alvarez, Gabriella; Stassun, Keivan; Burger, Dan; Siverd, Robert; Cox, Donald

    2015-01-01

    LSST plans to have an alerts system that will automatically identify various types of "events" appearing in the LSST data stream. These events will include things such as supernovae, moving objects, and many other types, and it is expected that there will be millions of events nightly. It is expected that there may be tens of millions of events each night. To help the LSST community parse and make full advantage of the LSST alerts stream, we are working to design an external "events alert broker" that will generate real-time notification of LSST events to users and/or robotic telescope facilities based on user-specified criteria. For example, users will be able to specify that they wish to be notified immediately via text message of urgent events, such as GRB counterparts, or notified only occasionally in digest form of less time-sensitive events, such as eclipsing binaries. This poster will summarize results from a survey of scientists for the most important features that such an alerts notification service needs to provide, and will present a preliminary design for our external event broker.

  15. Does "thinking about thinking" interfere with memory? An experimental memory study in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Friederike; Hauke, Walter; Jahn, Ina; Stengler, Katarina; Himmerich, Hubertus; Zaudig, Michael; Exner, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    Neuropsychological assessments of participants with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) indicate impaired verbal memory if to be remembered material has to be organized. People with OCD also tend to focus their attention on their thoughts (heightened cognitive self-consciousness). We tested the hypothesis that cognitive self-consciousness causes verbal memory deficits by provoking a division of attention between study task and thoughts. Thirty-six participants with OCD, 36 matched healthy controls and 36 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) learned under proactive interference in three study conditions: single-task condition, condition with heightened cognitive self-consciousness and condition with an external secondary task. Memory was impaired in the cognitive self-consciousness condition compared to both other conditions. Independent of condition, participants with OCD showed a reduced memory performance compared to healthy controls, but did not differ from participants with MDD. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that cognitive self-consciousness causes memory impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EPS Mid-Career Award 2011. Are there multiple memory systems? Tests of models of implicit and explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R; Berry, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent work aimed at developing a new framework, based on signal detection theory, for understanding the relationship between explicit (e.g., recognition) and implicit (e.g., priming) memory. Within this framework, different assumptions about sources of memorial evidence can be framed. Application to experimental results provides robust evidence for a single-system model in preference to multiple-systems models. This evidence comes from several sources including studies of the effects of amnesia and ageing on explicit and implicit memory. The framework allows a range of concepts in current memory research, such as familiarity, recollection, fluency, and source memory, to be linked to implicit memory. More generally, this work emphasizes the value of modern computational modelling techniques in the study of learning and memory.

  17. From Augustine of Hippo's Memory Systems to Our Modern Taxonomy in Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience of Memory: A 16-Century Nap of Intuition before Light of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Cassel, Daniel; Manning, Lilianne

    2013-03-01

    Over the last half century, neuropsychologists, cognitive psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists interested in human memory have accumulated evidence showing that there is not one general memory function but a variety of memory systems deserving distinct (but for an organism, complementary) functional entities. The first attempts to organize memory systems within a taxonomic construct are often traced back to the French philosopher Maine de Biran (1766-1824), who, in his book first published in 1803, distinguished mechanical memory, sensitive memory and representative memory, without, however, providing any experimental evidence in support of his view. It turns out, however, that what might be regarded as the first elaborated taxonomic proposal is 14 centuries older and is due to Augustine of Hippo (354-430), also named St Augustine, who, in Book 10 of his Confessions, by means of an introspective process that did not aim at organizing memory systems, nevertheless distinguished and commented on sensible memory, intellectual memory, memory of memories, memory of feelings and passion, and memory of forgetting. These memories were envisaged as different and complementary instances. In the current study, after a short biographical synopsis of St Augustine, we provide an outline of the philosopher's contribution, both in terms of questions and answers, and focus on how this contribution almost perfectly fits with several viewpoints of modern psychology and neuroscience of memory about human memory functions, including the notion that episodic autobiographical memory stores events of our personal history in their what, where and when dimensions, and from there enables our mental time travel. It is not at all meant that St Augustine's elaboration was the basis for the modern taxonomy, but just that the similarity is striking, and that the architecture of our current viewpoints about memory systems might have preexisted as an outstanding intuition in the philosopher

  18. Secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor with external power source and data logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2016-05-31

    A secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor system comprises a passive RFID tag having means for receiving radio signals from at least one base station and for transmitting radio signals to at least one base station, where the tag is capable of being powered exclusively by received radio energy, and an external power and data logging device having at least one battery and electronic circuitry including a digital memory configured for storing and recalling data. The external power and data logging device has a means for powering the tag, and also has a means.

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of visual cortex in memory: cortical state, interference and reactivation of visual content in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-01-01

    Memory for perceptual events includes the neural representation of the sensory information at short or longer time scales. Recent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies of human visual cortex provided evidence that sensory cortex contributes to memory functions. In this review, we provide an exhaustive overview of these studies and ascertain how well the available evidence supports the idea of a causal role of sensory cortex in memory retention and retrieval. We discuss the validity and implications of the studies using a number of methodological and theoretical criteria that are relevant for brain stimulation of visual cortex. While most studies applied TMS to visual cortex to interfere with memory functions, a handful of pioneering studies used TMS to 'reactivate' memories in visual cortex. Interestingly, similar effects of TMS on memory were found in different memory tasks, which suggests that different memory systems share a neural mechanism of memory in visual cortex. At the same time, this neural mechanism likely interacts with higher order brain areas. Based on this overview and evaluation, we provide a first attempt to an integrative framework that describes how sensory processes contribute to memory in visual cortex, and how higher order areas contribute to this mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The memory remains: Understanding collective memory in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Mollgaard, Anders; Tsvetkova, Milena; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-04-01

    Recently developed information communication technologies, particularly the Internet, have affected how we, both as individuals and as a society, create, store, and recall information. The Internet also provides us with a great opportunity to study memory using transactional large-scale data in a quantitative framework similar to the practice in natural sciences. We make use of online data by analyzing viewership statistics of Wikipedia articles on aircraft crashes. We study the relation between recent events and past events and particularly focus on understanding memory-triggering patterns. We devise a quantitative model that explains the flow of viewership from a current event to past events based on similarity in time, geography, topic, and the hyperlink structure of Wikipedia articles. We show that, on average, the secondary flow of attention to past events generated by these remembering processes is larger than the primary attention flow to the current event. We report these previously unknown cascading effects.

  1. Locus Coeruleus and Dopamine-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwako Yamasaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most everyday memories including many episodic-like memories that we may form automatically in the hippocampus (HPC are forgotten, while some of them are retained for a long time by a memory stabilization process, called initial memory consolidation. Specifically, the retention of everyday memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after the time of encoding. Converging evidence has indicated that dopamine (DA signaling via D1/D5 receptors in HPC is required for persistence of synaptic plasticity and memory, thereby playing an important role in the novelty-associated memory enhancement. In this review paper, we aim to provide an overview of the key findings related to D1/D5 receptor-dependent persistence of synaptic plasticity and memory in HPC, especially focusing on the emerging evidence for a role of the locus coeruleus (LC in DA-dependent memory consolidation. We then refer to candidate brain areas and circuits that might be responsible for detection and transmission of the environmental novelty signal and molecular and anatomical evidence for the LC-DA system. We also discuss molecular mechanisms that might mediate the environmental novelty-associated memory enhancement, including plasticity-related proteins that are involved in initial memory consolidation processes in HPC.

  2. A second look at the structure of human olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Theresa L

    2009-07-01

    How do we remember olfactory information? Is the architecture of human olfactory memory unique compared with that of memory for other types of stimuli? Ten years ago, a review article evaluated these questions, as well as the distinction between long- and short-term olfactory memory, with three lines of evidence: capacity differences, coding differences, and neuropsychological evidence, though serial position effects were also considered. From the data available at the time, the article preliminarily suggested that olfactory memory was a two-component system that was not qualitatively different from memory systems for other types of stimuli. The decade that has elapsed since then has ushered in considerable changes in theories of memory structure and provided huge advances in neuroscience capabilities. Not only have many studies exploring various aspects of olfactory memory been published, but a model of olfactory perception that includes an integral unitary memory system also has been presented. Consequently, the structure of olfactory memory is reevaluated in the light of further information currently available with the same theoretical lines of evidence previously considered. This evaluation finds that the preponderance of evidence suggests that, as in memory for other types of sensory stimuli, the short-term-long-term distinction remains a valuable dissociation for conceptualizing olfactory memory, though perhaps not as architecturally separate systems.

  3. FPGA Based Intelligent Co-operative Processor in Memory Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaki; Sotudeh, Reza; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2011-01-01

    benefits of PIM, a concept of Co-operative Intelligent Memory (CIM) was developed by the intelligent system group of University of Hertfordshire, based on the previously developed Co-operative Pseudo Intelligent Memory (CPIM). This paper provides an overview on previous works (CPIM, CIM) and realization......In a continuing effort to improve computer system performance, Processor-In-Memory (PIM) architecture has emerged as an alternative solution. PIM architecture incorporates computational units and control logic directly on the memory to provide immediate access to the data. To exploit the potential...

  4. Applications for Packetized Memory Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Myles Glen

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the memory subsystem has a large impact on the performance of modern computer systems. Many important applications are memory bound and others are expected to become memory bound in the future. The importance of memory performance makes it imperative to understand and optimize the interactions between applications and the system architecture. Prototyping and exploring various configurations of memory systems can give important insights, but current memory interfaces are lim...

  5. Analyses of Markov decision process structure regarding the possible strategic use of interacting memory systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Zilli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral tasks are often used to study the different memory systems present in humans and animals. Such tasks are usually designed to isolate and measure some aspect of a single memory system. However, it is not necessarily clear that any given task actually does isolate a system or that the strategy used by a subject in the experiment is the one desired by the experimenter. We have previously shown that when tasks are written mathematically as a form of partially-observable Markov decision processes, the structure of the tasks provide information regarding the possible utility of certain memory systems. These previous analyses dealt with the disambiguation problem: given a specific ambiguous observation of the environment, is there information provided by a given memory strategy that can disambiguate that observation to allow a correct decisionµ Here we extend this approach to cases where multiple memory systems can be strategically combined in different ways. Specifically, we analyze the disambiguation arising from three ways by which episodic-like memory retrieval might be cued (by another episodic-like memory, by a semantic association, or by working memory for some earlier observation. We also consider the disambiguation arising from holding earlier working memories, episodic-like memories or semantic associations in working memory. From these analyses we can begin to develop a quantitative hierarchy among memory systems in which stimulus-response memories and semantic associations provide no disambiguation while the episodic memory system provides the most flexible

  6. Self-imagining enhances recognition memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2010-11-01

    The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on several cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, we investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as self-imagining-the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Fourteen individuals with neurologically based memory deficits and 14 healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Findings revealed a robust "self-imagination effect (SIE)," as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F(1, 13) = 32.11, p visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. The findings suggest that the SIE may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment.

  7. Event Memory: A Theory of Memory for Laboratory, Autobiographical, and Fictional Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.; Umanath, Sharda

    2015-01-01

    An event memory is a mental construction of a scene recalled as a single occurrence. It therefore requires the hippocampus and ventral visual stream needed for all scene construction. The construction need not come with a sense of reliving or be made by a participant in the event, and it can be a summary of occurrences from more than one encoding. The mental construction, or physical rendering, of any scene must be done from a specific location and time; this introduces a ‘self’ located in space and time, which is a necessary, but need not be a sufficient, condition for a sense of reliving. We base our theory on scene construction rather than reliving because this allows the integration of many literatures and because there is more accumulated knowledge about scene construction’s phenomenology, behavior, and neural basis. Event memory differs from episodic memory in that it does not conflate the independent dimensions of whether or not a memory is relived, is about the self, is recalled voluntarily, or is based on a single encoding with whether it is recalled as a single occurrence of a scene. Thus, we argue that event memory provides a clearer contrast to semantic memory, which also can be about the self, be recalled voluntarily, and be from a unique encoding; allows for a more comprehensive dimensional account of the structure of explicit memory; and better accounts for laboratory and real world behavioral and neural results, including those from neuropsychology and neuroimaging, than does episodic memory. PMID:25330330

  8. Oscillatory Dynamics and Place Field Maps Reflect Hippocampal Ensemble Processing of Sequence and Place Memory under NMDA Receptor Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabral, H.O.; Vinck, M.; Fouquet, C.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Rondi-Reig, L.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Place coding in the hippocampus requires flexible combination of sensory inputs (e.g., environmental and self-motion information) with memory of past events. We show that mouse CA1 hippocampal spatial representations may either be anchored to external landmarks (place memory) or reflect memorized

  9. Variable stiffness corrugated composite structure with shape memory polymer for morphing skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwu; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Yanju

    2017-03-01

    This work presents a variable stiffness corrugated structure based on a shape memory polymer (SMP) composite with corrugated laminates as reinforcement that shows smooth aerodynamic surface, extreme mechanical anisotropy and variable stiffness for potential morphing skin applications. The smart composite corrugated structure shows a low in-plane stiffness to minimize the actuation energy, but also possess high out-of-plane stiffness to transfer the aerodynamic pressure load. The skin provides an external smooth aerodynamic surface because of the one-sided filling with the SMP. Due to variable stiffness of the shape memory polymer the morphing skin exhibits a variable stiffness with a change of temperature, which can help the skin adjust its stiffness according different service environments and also lock the temporary shape without external force. Analytical models related to the transverse and bending stiffness are derived and validated using finite element techniques. The stiffness of the morphing skin is further investigated by performing a parametric analysis against the geometry of the corrugation and various sets of SMP fillers. The theoretical and numerical models show a good agreement and demonstrate the potential of this morphing skin concept for morphing aircraft applications. We also perform a feasibility study of the use of this morphing skin in a variable camber morphing wing baseline. The results show that the morphing skin concept exhibits sufficient bending stiffness to withstand the aerodynamic load at low speed (less than 0.3 Ma), while demonstrating a large transverse stiffness variation (up to 191 times) that helps to create a maximum mechanical efficiency of the structure under varying external conditions.

  10. How Misinformation Alters Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

  11. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  12. Memories of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  13. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  14. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  15. The future of memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed ( 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  16. When forgetting preserves memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut eHupbach

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48 hours, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48 hours later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1 or second set (Exp. 3. As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies.

  17. Memory as a Life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Memory as a Life - Walking down Memory Lanes. S Krishnaswamy. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 79-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/07/0079-0081 ...

  18. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  19. Documenting a Contested Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2017-01-01

    to preserve the memory of the revolution through graffiti murals and the utilization of public space, and from the other, the authority’s efforts to replace those initiatives with its own official narrative. Building on the concept of collective memory, as well as Bartlett’s studies of serial reproductions...

  20. [Learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombroso, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Memory is broadly divided into declarative and nondeclarative forms of memory. The hippocampus is required for the formation of declarative memories, while a number of other brain regions including the striatum, amygdala and nucleus accumbens are involved in the formation of nondeclarative memories. The formation of all memories require morphological changes of synapses: new ones must be formed or old ones strengthened. These changes are thought to reflect the underlying cellular basis for persistent memories. Considerable advances have occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular bases of how these memories are formed. A key regulator of synaptic plasticity is a signaling pathway that includes the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. As this pathway is required for normal memory and learning, it is not surprising that mutations in members of this pathway lead to disruptions in learning. Neurofibromatosis, Coffin-Lowry syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome are three examples of developmental disorders that have mutations in key components of the MAP kinase signaling pathway.