WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing explicit instruction

  1. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...

  2. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  3. Orchestrating Semiotic Resources in Explicit Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Flury-Kashmanian, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Research and pedagogical information provided to teachers on implementing explicit strategy instruction has primarily focused on teachers' speech, with limited attention to other modes of communication, such as gesture and artefacts. This interpretive case study investigates two teachers' use of different semiotic resources when introducing…

  4. Implicit and explicit instruction of spelling rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a

  5. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  6. Explicit and Implicit Grammar Instructions in Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ayuni Madarina Abdul; Rashid, Radzuwan Ab

    2017-01-01

    Two universally accepted approaches to grammar instruction are explicit and implicit teaching of the grammar. Both approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Educators may face a dilemma whether to teach grammar explicitly or implicitly. This paper aims to provide insights into the educators' beliefs towards grammar teaching in Malaysian…

  7. The Role of Prosody and Explicit Instruction in Processing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nick; Jackson, Carrie N.; Dimidio, Jack

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of prosodic cues and explicit information (EI) in the acquisition of German accusative case markers. We compared 4 groups of 3rd-semester learners (low intermediate level) who completed 1 of 4 Processing Instruction (PI) treatments that manipulated the presence or absence of EI and focused prosody. The results…

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2 Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakura, Motoko

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of explicit instruction on second language (L2) learners' implicit and explicit knowledge of English. Explicit instruction on the generic and non-generic use of English articles was delivered by CALL activities. Four tasks assessed acquisition: elicited imitation, oral production, grammaticality judgement, and…

  9. Effect of explicit dimension instruction on speech category learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Learning non-native speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is under-weighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies, and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension. PMID:26542400

  10. A Framework for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.

    2015-01-01

    Academic vocabulary development is critical to the success of all learners--particularly English language learners (ELLs). This article presents a framework for integrating explicit academic vocabulary instruction for ELLs into middle school classrooms. The framework embodies five research-based principles and serves as a vehicle for structuring…

  11. The Order of Explicit Information in Processing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty Diaz, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The two main components of Processing Instruction (PI) are Explicit Information (EI) and Structured Input (SI). Most researchers have concluded that the SI is more responsible for learner gains than the EI (Benati, 2004a, 2004b; VanPatten & Oikennon, 1996; Wong, 2004). However, some researchers have found that EI does significantly impact…

  12. Explicit Instruction, Bilingualism, and the Older Adult Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about older adult language learners and effects of aging on L2 learning. This study investigated learning in older age through interactions of learner-internal and -external variables; specifically, late-learned L2 (bilingualism) and provision of grammar explanation (explicit instruction, EI). Forty-three older adults (age 60+) who…

  13. A Case for Explicit Grammar Instruction in English as Second/Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This paper will provide a review of research--regarding explicit grammar instruction--that groups recent studies into three main categories and then sub-categorizes these studies under key terms in second language acquisition (SLA) research. The overall purpose of this paper is to argue that in light of these issues, recent studies have shown that…

  14. Improve Student Understanding Ability Through Gamification in Instructional Media Based Explicit Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, N.; Prabawa, H. W.; Sutarno, H.

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to maximize a student’s academic growth, one of the tools available to educators is the explicit instruction. Explicit instruction is marked by a series of support or scaffold, where the students will be guided through the learning process with a clear statement of purpose and a reason for learning new skills, a clear explanation and demonstration of learning targets, supported and practiced with independent feedback until mastery has been achieved. The technology development trend of todays, requires an adjustment in the development of learning object that supports the achievement of explicit instruction targets. This is where the gamification position is. In the role as a pedagogical strategy, the use of gamification preformance study class is still relatively new. Gamification not only use the game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts, but also to empower and engage learners with the ability of motivation on learning approach and maintains a relaxed atmosphere. With using Reseach and Development methods, this paper presents the integration of technology (which in this case using the concept of gamification) in explicit instruction settings and the impact on the improvement of students’ understanding.

  15. CORI: Explicit Reading Instruction to Enhance Informational Text Comprehension and Reading Engagement for Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongkrachang, Salila; Chinwonno, Apasara

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effect of explicit reading instruction as an approach to Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework on EFL students' informational text comprehension and engagement. The explicit reading instruction was implemented with 39 first-year Thai undergraduate students over a 10-week period. It was found that the…

  16. Investigation the Relationship among Language Learning Strategies, English Self-Efficacy, and Explicit Strategy Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…

  17. Explicit argumentation instruction to facilitate conceptual understanding and argumentation skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda Cetin, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Argumentation is accepted by many science educators as a major component of science education. Many studies have investigated students' conceptual understanding and their engagement in argumentative activities. However, studies conducted in the subject of chemistry are very rare. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of argumentation-based chemistry lessons on pre-service science teachers' understanding of reaction rate concepts, their quality of argumentation, and their consideration of specific reaction rate concepts in constructing an argument. Moreover, students' perceptions of argumentation lessons were explored. Sample: There were 116 participants (21 male and 95 female), who were pre-service first-grade science teachers from a public university. The participants were recruited from the two intact classes of a General Chemistry II course, both of which were taught by the same instructor. Design and methods: In the present study, non-equivalent control group design was used as a part of quasi-experimental design. The experimental group was taught using explicit argumentation activities, and the control group was instructed using traditional instruction. The data were collected using a reaction rate concept test, a pre-service teachers' survey, and the participants' perceptions of the argumentation lessons questionnaire. For the data analysis, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, the Mann-Whitney U-test and qualitative techniques were used. Results: The results of the study indicated that an argumentation-based intervention caused significantly better acquisition of scientific reaction rate-related concepts and positively impacted the structure and complexity of pre-service teachers' argumentation. Moreover, the majority of the participants reported positive feelings toward argumentation activities. Conclusions: As students are encouraged to state and support their view in the chemistry classroom when studying reaction rate, it was

  18. Investigating the of Explicit Instruction of Apology Speech Act on Pragmatic Development of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Rajabi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning a foreign language requires students to acquire both grammatical knowledge and socio-pragmatic rules of a language. Pragmatic competence as one of the most difficult aspects of language provides several challenges to L2 learners in the process of learning a foreign language. To overcome this problem, EFL teachers should find the most effective way of teaching pragmatic knowledge to their students. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effect of explicit teaching of apology speech act, as an aspect of pragmatic competence, on the Iranian EFL learners’ appropriate use of the mentioned speech act. In so doing, a total of 73 EFL students at intermediate and advanced levels participated in a pre-posttest design research with experimental and control group. Data were collected using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT. The selection of apologetic situations in DCT was based on two variables of social status and social distance. The results revealed that explicit instruction was a facilitative tool that helped students use the proper apology strategies in different situations. Moreover, it was found that L2 proficiency had a significant influence on overall appropriateness of speech act production. Keywords: Explicit instruction; Apology speech act;   Pragmatic competence; Iranian EFL learners

  19. The Effect of Explicit vs. Implicit Instruction on the Learnability of English Consonant Clusters by Iranian Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbeiki, Ruhollah; Abdolmanafi-Rokni, Seyed Jalal

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at providing the English teachers across Iran with a good and fruitful method of teaching pronunciation. To this end, sixty female intermediate EFL learners were put in three different but equivalent groups of 20 based on the results of a pronunciation pre-test. One of the groups received explicit instruction including…

  20. Relationships of Teachers' Language and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction to Students' Vocabulary Growth in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne, Jocelyn Bonnes; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationships between aspects of Chilean teachers' explicit vocabulary instruction and students' vocabulary development in kindergarten. Classroom videotapes of whole-class instruction gathered during a randomized experimental evaluation of a coaching-based professional development program were analyzed. The amount of…

  1. A Study of Stimulus-Explicitness and Entering Behavior in Initial Speech Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Gordon Everard

    This study presented a model which described and classified incoming students and recommended the type of instruction they should receive in the initial speech course. The sample population used was 104 university students in a basic speech course. Conclusions reached are: (1) There was a direct relationship between explicitness of instruction and…

  2. How Explicit and Implicit Test Instructions in an Implicit Learning Task Affect Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Arnaud; Puspitawati, Ira; Vinter, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised. PMID:23326409

  3. Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Explicit Instruction Dengan Trainer PLC Untuk Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Merakit Sistem PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suroto Suroto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to implement the Explicit Instruction Learning Model using trainer PLC media to improve the students’ learning achievement and motivation in assembling PLC system subject. The research methodology used classroom action research with XII TOI students of SMK Negeri 2 Depok as the sample. The research instruments used were formative tests and practice job sheets. The result of research showed that the average formative test in cycle I was 76,10 ; in cycle II was 80,32 and in cycle III was 83,77. Based on the findings, it means that the students ‘scores were higher than the provided minimum requirement score after using the Explicit Instruction Model using trainer PLC media in cycle I,II and III. The students’ learning motivation in cycle I, II and III were 67, 82 ,and 85 respectively. It can be concluded that the students’ learning motivation was improving from (≤ 75 to ( ≥ 75 at the second and third cycles.

  4. Muscle Cells Provide Instructions for Planarian Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. Witchley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region.

  5. Muscle cells provide instructions for planarian regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchley, Jessica N; Mayer, Mirjam; Wagner, Daniel E; Owen, Jared H; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-08-29

    Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs) that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Explicit vs. Contrastive-based Instruction of Formulaic Expressions in Developing EFL Learners’ Reading Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Reza Abbasian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As an integrative component of textual structure, formulaic expressions (FEs play a key role in communicating the message and comprehending the text. Furthermore, interlingually contrastive features of FEs add to their both significance and complexity of their instruction. Given these facts, this study was an attempt to explore a sound mechanism on how to teach FEs; whether an explicit or CA-based approach to FEs instruction could entail various achievements among EFL learners’ reading ability. To this end, three groups of Iranian EFL learners, identified as homogeneous based on Nelson Proficiency Test, were classified into one control and two experimental (i.e. explicit and CA-based instruction ones. They were exposed to conventional, explicit and CA-based instructions of a set of selected FEs developed into and presented in the form of an instructional handout. Their Knowledge of reading was also tested based on a researcher-made diagnostic test prior to the experiment. Both quantitative and qualitative paradigms were employed to measure both the achievements and the extent of contrast between Persian and English languages in terms of FEs. The former analysis revealed significance difference among the groups in terms of instruction type effectiveness; both explicit and CA-based instruction groups outperformed the control group; on the contrary, no statistically significant difference was revealed between the experimental groups. Additionally, the latter paradigm revealed differences and mismatches between Persian and English FEs in terms of semantic, syntactic and pragmatic parameters. The findings could be insightful for EFL instructors, learners, textbook writers, and syllabus designers to take into account issues like these in their pedagogical programs.

  7. Impact of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction on Writing Achievement of Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solati-Dehkordi, Seyed Amir; Salehi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Studying explicit vocabulary instruction effects on improving L2 learners' writing skill and their short and long-term retention is the purpose of the present study. To achieve the mentioned goal, a fill-in-the-blank test including 36 single words and 60 lexical phrases were administrated to 30 female upper-intermediate EFL learners. The EFL…

  8. Using Repeated Reading and Explicit Instruction to Teach Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzien, Jonna L.; Richels, Corrin; Schwartz, Kathryn; Raver, Sharon A.; Hester, Peggy; Morin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss often experience communication and language delays that result in difficulties acquiring novel vocabulary and literacy skills. This research examined the effectiveness of using repeated storybook reading paired with explicit teacher instruction to teach novel vocabulary to young children with hearing loss who were…

  9. The Effects of Explicit and Implicit Pragmatic Instruction on the Development of Compliments and Compliment Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Saman; Pourzandi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effects of explicit and implicit instructions in the development of EFL learners' speech acts of complimenting (Cs) and complimenting response (CRs). The participants in this research were 56 intermediate EFL learners from a language center, participating as members of intact classes that were divided into three groups of…

  10. Sustainability of Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary after Implicit versus Explicit Instruction in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the sustained effects of explicit versus implicit instruction on the breadth and depth of children's vocabularies, while taking their general vocabulary and verbal short-term memory into account. Two experimental groups with 12 and 15 kindergarten children respectively learned two sets of 17 words counterbalanced to be taught first…

  11. Improving Summarizing Skills with TED Talks: An Account of a Teaching Lesson Using Explicit Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin'ichi; Fukuda, Eri; Okazaki, Hironobu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which investigated the effectiveness of an explicit instruction approach in a Japanese university setting with third-year science and technology students in an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course. The two aims of this study were: 1) to explore changes in students' attitudes and understanding of summary writing,…

  12. Meta-Analysis of Effects of Explicit Instruction for Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert-Drowns, Robert L.; Bankert, Esther

    Study effect meta-analysis was used to synthesize the results of explicit instruction on critical thinking (CT). The approach involved the collection of 250 studies (books, articles, dissertations, and abstracts) from the ERIC database and "Dissertation Abstracts International", coding of the study features, calculation of effect sizes,…

  13. Pedagogy for Developing Critical Thinking in Adolescents: Explicit Instruction Produces Greatest Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Lisa M.; Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    Although the development and transfer of critical thinking skills are recognized as primary goals for education, there is little empirical evidence to help educators decide how to teach in ways that enhance critical thinking. In two studies, we compared explicit and imbedded instructional modes and assessed critical thinking with the Halpern…

  14. Differential Effects of Explicit Form-Focused Instruction on Morphosyntactic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hainu; Lyster, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores whether and to what degree explicit form-focused instruction (FFI) facilitates the use of morphosyntactic forms in second language oral production and also whether it has differential effects on morphosyntactic forms with different linguistic variables. Twenty-seven university-level Chinese EFL participants were randomly…

  15. The Effects of Explicit Instruction with Manipulatives on the Fraction Skills of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jugnu

    2013-01-01

    This single-subject multiple-baseline across participants study was designed to investigate the effects of explicit instruction with manipulatives on the conceptual and procedural knowledge of addition and subtraction of like and unlike fractions of elementary school students with autism. This study included six 8- to 12-year-old students with…

  16. Some Effects of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Syntactic Priming on Students’ Written Language Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Asfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural or syntactic priming is a phenomenon in which prior exposure to specific language structures either facilitates or interferes with a learner’s subsequent language production [1]. Exposure to English structures through explicit instruction is reported to have inconclusive results. [2] reported that explicit and implicit grammar instruction ends up with automatization. This study reexamines the effect of syntactic priming and explicit grammar instruction on students’ writing. Specific grammatical features frequently appeared on TOEFL (Written Expression Section test were intensively practiced and then the students took a test whose items were specifically collected from TOEFL practice tests. Finally, the students were assigned to write a short essay. Sentences with similar structures which the students had been exposed to were extracted from the students’ essays. Out of 40 test items, only 59.86% in average could be answered correctly, and all of the grammatical features to which the students were previously exposed were contained in their essays. However, in average only eight out of 18 sentences were grammatically constructed. It can be concluded that although priming method with explicit instruction leads the students to use similar syntactic features in their writing, it seems to have little impact on students’ grammatical knowledge for immediate use in written language production.

  17. Explicitly Teaching Social Skills Schoolwide: Using a Matrix to Guide Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Myers, Diane; Everett, Susannah; Sugai, George; Spencer, Rebecca; LaBreck, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Socially skilled students are more successful in school. Just like academic skills, social skills need to be explicitly taught. Students, including students who display at-risk behavior, benefit when social skills instruction is delivered schoolwide as part of a comprehensive intervention approach. This article presents a seven-step action…

  18. Explicit Instruction and Implicit Use of L2 Learning Strategies in Higher Secondary EFL Course Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Alastuey, M. Camino; Agulló, Gloria Luque

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that teaching second language (L2) learning strategies explicitly promotes an increase in strategy use and in oral proficiency. Consequently, a checklist based on the six types of strategies from Oxford's taxonomy (1990) was created to analyze strategic instruction in the most common textbooks used in the last year of Higher…

  19. Sustainability of Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary after Implicit versus Explicit Instruction in Kindergarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhuis, C.M.P.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the sustained effects of explicit versus implicit instruction on the breadth and depth of children's vocabularies, while taking their general vocabulary and verbal short-term memory into account. Two experimental groups with 12 and 15 kindergarten children respectively learned two

  20. Phonological awareness: explicit instruction for young deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness.

  1. A Comment on "The Limited Effect of Explicit Instruction on Phrasal Verbs" by Julina A. Magnusson and C. Ray Graham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In previous reviews of studies comparing explicit and implicit instruction (Krashen, 1981, 1982, 1999, 2003), the author argued that explicit instruction will show a positive effect only when the following conditions for the use of the conscious Monitor are met: (1) the acquirer consciously knows the rule or the meaning of the item--that is, has…

  2. Effects of explicit instruction on the acquisition of students' science inquiry skills in grades 5 and 6 of primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.M.; Oostdam, R.J.; van den Berg, E.; Schuitema, J.

    In most primary science classes, students are taught science inquiry skills by way of learning by doing. Research shows that explicit instruction may be more effective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit instruction on the acquisition of inquiry skills. Participants

  3. Enhancing divergent thinking in visual arts education: Effects of explicit instruction of meta-cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Drie, Jannet; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-03-01

    The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students' creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product. This study aims to examine the effects of explicit instruction of meta-cognition on students' divergent thinking. A quasi-experimental design was implemented with 147 secondary school students in visual arts education. In the experimental condition, students attended a series of regular lessons with assignments on art reception and production, and they attended one intervention lesson with explicit instruction of meta-cognition. In the control condition, students attended a series of regular lessons only. Pre-test and post-test instances tests measured fluency, flexibility, and originality as indicators of divergent thinking. Explicit instruction of meta-cognitive knowledge had a positive effect on fluency and flexibility, but not on originality. This study implies that in the domain of visual arts, instructional support in building up meta-cognitive knowledge about divergent thinking may improve students' creative processes. This study also discusses possible reasons for the demonstrated lack of effect for originality. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Explicit or Implicit Instruction of Metadiscourse Markers and Writing Skill Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study is an attempt to investigate the explicit or the implicit instruction of metadiscourse markers and the writing skill improvement. The participants of the study (N = 90 were female Iranian students at Kish Institute of Science and Technology. Two experimental groups were defined in this study: experimental group “A” which received the explicit instruction of metadiscourse markers and experimental group “B” which were taught implicitly based on Hyland’s (2005 classification of metadiscourse markers. Two instruments were employed in the study: a pretest and a posttest. To elicit the pertinent data, the participants were given a pretest of writing ability to investigate if the learners had knowledge regarding the correct application of ‎metadiscourse markers in their writing. After 8-session treatment, a posttest was administered to compare the participants’ performance in use of matediscourse markers. The findings of the present study indicated that there was a significant difference in the participants’ pretest and posttest writing scores with regard to the application of metadiscourse markers. The findings revealed that metadiscourse instruction had a positive effect on the learners’ writing. In addition, the results showed that both the explicit and the implicit instruction of metadiscourse markers significantly improved participants’ writing ability.

  5. The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Connected Speech Features on Iranian EFL Learners’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmadian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Listening comprehension has found its right place in the field of SLA in recent decades. For years, among all language skills, speaking and writing were of high significance in teaching and learning a new language as they were considered to be productive skills. Listening and reading, on the other hand, were neglected since they were regarded as passive skills, means to other ends, rather than ends in themselves. This study investigates possible effects of explicit instruction of connected speech features on listening comprehension of Iranian English language learners. Forty adult female Persian speaking homogeneous English learners, aged 18-30, participated in the study. They were divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received explicit instructions on connected speech features, while the control group followed the routine instructions designed by their institute. Tests of connected speech features were used in pre- and post tests. The participants’ scores on the pre-posttests were compared via the paired samples t-tests and independent samples t-tests. The results indicated the outperformance of the experimental group over the control group, thus, suggesting that explicit instructions of connected speech features have facilitative roles in improving EFL learners’ listening comprehension skill. Possible implications of the findings for teaching listening comprehension are discussed.

  6. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading.

  7. The effect of explicit, inquiry instruction on freshman college science majors' understanding of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa Orvik

    dependent variable was student understanding of science as measured by the posttest, and the covariate was student understanding of nature of science as measured by the pretest. The results indicated that the understanding of the nature of science of freshman college science majors who have participated in explicit, inquiry instruction is statistically greater than the understanding of the nature of science of freshman college science majors who have participated in traditional instruction. The essays provided insight into the apparent increase in student understanding of the nature of science. The results from pretesting and posttesting indicated that a one-semester credit hour course, which focuses directly on teaching about the nature of science can improve freshman science majors' understanding of the nature of science.

  8. Effects of supported electronic text and explicit instruction on science comprehension by students with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Victoria Floyd

    Supported electronic text (eText), or text that has been altered to increase access and provide support to learners, may promote comprehension of science content for students with disabilities. According to CAST, Book Builder(TM) uses supported eText to promote reading for meaning for all students. Although little research has been conducted in the area of supported eText for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), technology (e.g., computer assisted instruction) has been used for over 35 years to instruct students with ASD in academic areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supported eText and explicit instruction on the science vocabulary and comprehension of four middle school students with ASD. Researchers used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate the Book Builder (TM) program on measures of vocabulary, literal comprehension, and application questions. Results indicated a functional relation between the Book Builder(TM) and explicit instruction (i.e., model-lead-test, examples and non-examples, and referral to the definition) and the number of correct responses on the probe. In addition, students were able to generalize concepts to untrained exemplars. Finally, teachers and students validate the program as practical and useful.

  9. Explicit Teaching of the Nature of Science: A Study of the Impact of Two Variations of Explicit Instruction on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Melissa

    The nature of science (NOS) is included in the National Science Education Standards and is described as a critical component in the development of scientifically literate students. Despite the significance of NOS in science education reform, research shows that many students continue to possess naive views of NOS. Explicit and reflective discussion as an instructional approach is relatively new in the field of research in NOS. When compared to other approaches, explicit instruction has been identified as more effective in promoting informed views of NOS, but gaps in student understanding still exist. The purpose of this study was to deepen the understanding of student learning of NOS through the investigation of two variations of explicit instruction. The subjects of the study were two seventh grade classes taught by the same classroom teacher. One class received explicit instruction of NOS within a plate tectonics unit and the second class received explicit instruction of NOS within a plate tectonics unit plus supporting activities focused on specific aspects of NOS. The instruction time for both classes was equalized and took place over a three week time period. The intention of this study was to see if the additional NOS activities helped students build a deeper understanding of NOS, or if a deep understanding could be formed solely through explicit and reflective discussion within content instruction. The results of the study showed that both classes progressed in their understanding of NOS. When the results of the two groups were compared, the group with the additional activities showed statistically significant gains on two of the four aspects of NOS assessed. These results suggest that the activities may have been valuable in promoting informed views, but more research is needed in this area.

  10. Explicit instructions increase cognitive costs of deception in predictable social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eFalkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT, which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e. atheist or conservative. In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue. In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue. With internal cues, reaction times are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues, reaction times are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when external cues were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only

  11. The Effect of Peer Tutoring and Explicit Instructional Strategies on Primary School Pupils Learning Outcomes in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tella

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of explicit and peer tutoring instructional strategies (treatment, pupils ability and gender on learning outcomes in primary school Mathematics. Data analysis involved the use of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. The sample consisted of 170 primary 5 pupils selected through simple random from eight schools. The findings revealed that there was significant main effect of treatment on achievement in Mathematics and attitude towards Mathematics. Pupil's ability and gender were found not to have significant main effect on achievement in Mathematics and attitude toward Mathematics. However there was a significant interaction effect of treatment and pupils’ ability on pupils’ attitude towards Mathematics. All the two and three ways interaction effects on achievement and attitude were found not to be significant. These findings and application indicate that the significant main effect of treatment on mathematics achievement and attitude respectively provide empirical basis to suggest that primary school practicing Mathematics teacher should constantly use peer-tutoring and explicit teaching instructional strategies in Mathematics classrooms. The use of these instructional strategies in improving Mathematics achievement and attitude toward the subject should also be encouraged irrespective of student pupil’s ability and gender. There is also a need for developers of curriculum materials (e.g. teacher trainee's, textbook associated trainer's guide in Mathematics methodology to incorporate the significant findings of the present study. The textual material should contain detail of hour peer-tutoring and explicit-teaching instructional strategies could be made an integral part of Mathematics teaching at the primary school level.

  12. Effects of Explicit Instruction on Incidental Noticing of Metaphorical Word Sequences during a Subsequent Reading Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mark Mueller

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine whether explicit instruction focusing on metaphorical collocations would promote the incidental noticing of similar phrases by English learners during a subsequent reading task. Noticing was operationalized using the remember-know protocol and learning was measured on a fill-in-the-blanks test. In Experiment 1 (N = 36, within-subjects comparisons showed that explicit instruction led to more incidents of noticing (p < .001. Experiment 2 (N = 24 sought to extend the findings by examining whether self-referential questions during instruction would lead to greater noticing compared to depersonalized questions. Experiment 2 confirmed the first experiment’s finding of effects of explicit instruction on noticing, but failed to show significant effects for self-referential prompts on subsequent noticing, although such prompts did lead learners to produce higher word counts during the writing task. The two experiments suggest that explicit instruction promotes incidental noticing of important semantic contrasts in subsequent input.Este estudio presenta resultados de dos experimentos realizados con el objetivo de determinar si la instrucción explícita de colocaciones contribuye a que aprendices de inglés se percaten implícitamente de frases similares en una prueba de lectura posterior. El concepto de percatarse fue operacionalizado por medio del paradigma ‘remember-know’ mientras que el aprendizaje fue medido por medio de un ejercicio de ‘fill-in-the-blanks’. En el primer experimento la comparación de variable intra-grupo reveló que los participantes efectivamente se percataron de un mayor número de frases (p < .001. El segundo experimento, cuyo objetivo era obtener resultados análogos, examinó qué tipo de preguntas, reflexivas o impersonales, contribuiría a que los aprendices se percatarán implícitamente de más colocaciones similares a las usadas en los estímulos. Los resultados se

  13. Fostering reading comprehension in fifth grade by explicit instruction in reading strategies and peer tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Hilde

    2004-03-01

    Research reveals that explicit reading strategies instruction and engaging students in interaction about texts promote students' reading comprehension ability. The present intervention study combines both aspects. The study examines the educational benefits of explicit reading strategies instruction, followed by practice in (a) teacher-led whole-class activities (STRAT), (b) reciprocal same-age (STRAT + SA), or (c) cross-age peer tutoring activities (STRAT + CA) on fifth graders' reading comprehension achievement. Twenty-two fifth-grade teachers and their 454 students from 19 different schools throughout Flanders (Belgium) participated. A quasi-experimental pretest post-test retention test design was used with three experimental (STRAT, STRAT + SA, and STRAT + CA) and a matched control group. The experimental interventions were implemented during an entire school year. Multilevel analysis revealed that the STRAT and STRAT + CA condition made a significantly larger pretest to retention test progress than the control group. The significant major progress was especially situated from pretest to post-test, during which the intervention took place. Concerning the STRAT + SA condition no significant differences with regard to the control group were detected. Pairwise comparisons of the experimental conditions indicated that the STRAT + CA condition's progress from pretest to retention test also exceeded the STRAT + SA condition's advancement significantly. The study corroborated the efficacy of the STRAT and STRAT + CA conditions' interventions as feasible tools to enhance fifth graders' reading comprehension achievement.

  14. L1 Explicit Instruction Can Improve L2 Online and Offline Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Kevin; Marsden, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of providing L1 explicit information (EI) with practice for making more accurate and faster interpretations of L2 French "Imparfait" (IMP). Two treatments were investigated: (a) "L2-only," providing EI about the L2 with L2 interpretation practice, and (b) "L2+L1," providing…

  15. Parents Using Explicit Reading Instruction with Their Children At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bethany M.; Kubina, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties were selected for participation in a parent implemented reading program. Each parent provided instruction to his or her child using the reading program "Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons" ("TYCTR"; Engelmann, Haddox, & Bruner, 1983). Parents were expected to…

  16. Effects of Explicit Instruction and Self-Directed Video Prompting on Text Comprehension of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, Emily Claire

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit instruction combined with video prompting to teach text comprehension skills to students with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 4 elementary school students with autism. A multiple probe across participants design was used to evaluate the intervention's…

  17. Influence of Explicit and Reflective versus Implicit Inquiry-Oriented Instruction on Sixth Graders' Views of Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the influence of an explicit and reflective inquiry-oriented instructional approach compared with an implicit inquiry-oriented approach on sixth grade students' understanding of the nature of science (NOS). Emphasizes tentative, empirical, inferential, and imaginative and creative NOS. Involves (n=62) sixth grade students in two…

  18. Improving students' critical thinking : Empirical support for explicit instructions combined with practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of different types of critical thinking instruction and dispositions on bias in economics students' (N=141) reasoning performance. The following conditions were compared: (A) implicit instruction; (B) implicit instruction with practice; (C) implicit

  19. The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Clustering New Words on Vocabulary Learning of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners through Hyperlinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of explicit instruction of clustering new thematic vocabulary items into two different categories through hyperlinks of PowerPoint was examined on vocabulary learning of 75 Iranian intermediate EFL learners. The sample was randomly assigned to three groups. Experimental group 1 received the meaning of new words in their First Language (L1 translation via PowerPoint, while experimental group 2 received the meanings in English definition in the same way; control group learned the meanings through a traditional method of instruction without employing any specific strategy. To measure the participants’ vocabulary learning, a pretest and a posttest were administered to all groups. The result of t-test indicated that such explicit strategy instruction enhanced vocabulary learning of the experimental groups. According to the results of One-Way ANOVA, although there was no significant difference between the experimental groups, a significant difference was observed between the experimental groups and the control group in vocabulary learning.

  20. Pacific CRYSTAL Project: Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction

  1. The Effectiveness of Using an Explicit Language Learning Strategy-Based Instruction in Developing Secondary School Students' EFL Listening Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…

  2. Using Blogging Software to Provide Additional Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lin B.; Todd, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Classroom teachers sometimes struggle trying to find time during the typical school day to provide the writing instruction students need to be successful. This study examined 29 fifth through twelfth grade classroom teachers' survey responses about their perception of the effectiveness of using an online blogging tool, Kidblog, to plan and provide…

  3. Using Blogging Software to Provide Additional Writing Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin B. CARVER

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom teachers sometimes struggle trying to find time during the typical school day to provide the writing instruction students need to be successful. This study examined 29 fifth through twelfth grade classroom teachers’ survey responses about their perception of the effectiveness of using an online blogging tool, Kidblog, to plan and provide writing instruction for a struggling writer through survey responses and reflective journal entries. In addition, qualitative data from 16 of the 29 teachers were collected through their journals. After eight weeks of using the blogging tool, teachers perceived the tool to be more effective than they had originally thought it would be. The teachers reported that they were able to evaluate their individual student’s writing progress to determine next steps in writing instruction. They perceived that student engagement with the writing process increased during the study. Additionally, using an online format encouraged teachers to incorporate other online tools into their instruction. However, barriers to using the blogging tool were also identified. Teachers reported that they would have liked the opportunity for more face-to-face interaction with their students and they also indicated that students may need strong keyboarding skills to effectively use the Kidblog tool. Additionally, prior to implementing the tool, teachers identified practice should have been provided for the teachers, as some found the blogging software difficult to use.

  4. The Effect of Peer Tutoring and Explicit Instructional Strategies on Primary School Pupils Learning Outcomes in Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tella

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of explicit and peer tutoring instructional strategies (treatment), pupils ability and gender on learning outcomes in primary school Mathematics. Data analysis involved the use of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The sample consisted of 170 primary 5 pupils selected through simple random from eight schools. The findings revealed that there was significant main effect of treatment on achievement in Mathematics and attitude towards Mathematics. Pupil's ability ...

  5. Effect of Explicit and Implicit Instruction on Free Written Response Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; de Glopper, Kees; Hacquebord, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    A classroom study was designed to test the hypothesis that explicit knowledge is used by second-language (L2) learners in a free written response task if that knowledge is present. Eighty-one 12-18-year-old learners of Dutch as an L2 took part in a computer-assisted language learning experiment receiving either explicit or implicit instruction…

  6. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  7. Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction is a critical component of early language and literacy programs. Vocabulary skills in the early elementary school years are strong predictors of later reading achievement and there is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Children who have limited vocabulary in kindergarten are at high risk of…

  8. Transforming English Language Learners' Work Readiness: Case Studies in Explicit, Work-Specific Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Hopes, Diana L.; Villavicencio, Edna; Foote, Martha M.; Green, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of a six-step framework for work-specific vocabulary instruction in adult English language learners (ELLs). Guided by research in English as a second language (ESL) methodology and the transactional theory, the researchers sought to unveil how these processes supported the acquisition and application of…

  9. Examining the Impact of Explicit Language Instruction in Writers Workshop on ELL Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Adrienne; McKernan, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    In the context of our work as literacy specialists, we taught teachers to use sentence frames to support ELL students' writing. We then studied the impact of their instruction on students. Our analysis of student writing samples revealed no group wide developmental trends so we posed deeper questions about their work using the data analysis…

  10. "You have to listen to me because I'm in charge": explicit instruction improves the supervision practices of older siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Schell, Stacey L

    2013-04-01

    Sibling supervision increases young children's risk of unintentional injury. Both noncompliance by the supervisee and insufficient supervision contribute to this risk. The current study examined whether explicitly instructing older siblings to supervise their younger siblings and prevent specific risky behaviors improves their supervision practices. Supervisees and older siblings were placed together in a playroom. One group of older siblings were given explicit instructions not to allow the supervisee to engage in specific risk behaviors, whereas a second group was not. Informing older siblings that they were "in charge" resulted in a higher frequency of proactive supervision strategies, more forceful reactions to stop supervisee risk taking, and a trend toward improved watchfulness. Supervisees in the no instruction condition also engaged in more hazard interactions compared with those in the instruction condition. Explicitly informing older children to supervise younger siblings may reduce younger children's risk of injury when siblings are supervising.

  11. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani; Mojtaba Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) and Guided Reading (GR) on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. T...

  12. Instructional Experiences of Graduate Assistants Implementing Explicit and Reflective Introductory Biology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag Bautista, Nazan; Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Rybczynski, Stephen M.

    2014-05-01

    Science education reform documents identify nature of science (NOS) as a critical component of scientific literacy and call for universities, colleges, and K-12 schools to explicitly integrate NOS learning into science curricula. In response to these calls, this study investigated the classroom practices of nine graduate assistants (GAs) who taught expository and inquiry laboratories that implemented an explicit and reflective (ER) pedagogy to teach NOS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the experiences that enabled or inhibited GA implementation of an ER strategy in a college setting. The findings revealed that achieving quality implementation in this setting was very difficult. Factors such as GAs' ability to foster meaningful classroom discussions, laboratory logistics (e.g. lack of time and supplies), and the value undergraduates and GAs saw in learning about NOS were identified by GAs and observed by the researchers as barriers to the technique maximizing its potential. Thus, for meaningful infusion of NOS into science curricula, pedagogical support for GAs to manage meaningful classroom discussions in support of NOS or other complex topics is recommended for an ER approach to NOS learning to be successful in college settings.

  13. Fostering Writing in Upper Primary Grades: A Study into the Distinct and Combined Impact of Explicit Instruction and Peer Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Fien; Van Keer, Hilde

    2018-01-01

    As writing is a complex and resource demanding task, high-quality writing instruction is indispensable from primary grades on to support beginning writers in developing effective writing skills. Writing research should therefore provide teachers and schools with evidence-based guidelines for teaching writing in daily practice. In this respect, the…

  14. Providing Business English Instruction: Thai Instructors' Practices and Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratoomrat, Panadda; Rajprasit, Krich

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine how Business English courses are conducted in the Thai Higher Education, and to investigate students' perceptions toward the instructional management of the courses in their universities. The participants were four instructors, and one hundred and forty students enrolling in the courses of four universities in…

  15. Making Information Literacy Instruction More Efficient by Providing Individual Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…

  16. The Effect of Explicit vs. Implicit Instruction on Mastering the Speech Act of Thanking among Iranian Male and Female EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmat, Mahdi; Alavi Nia, Parviz; Biria, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This pragmatic study investigated the speech act of thanking as used by non-native speakers of English. The study was an attempt to find whether the pragmatic awareness of Iranian EFL learners could be improved through explicit instruction of the structure of the speech act of "Thanking". In fact, this study aimed to find out if there…

  17. Investigating the Explicit Instruction of Apology Speech Act on Pragmatic Development of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Shima; Azizifar, Akbar; Gowhary, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Learning a foreign language requires students to acquire both grammatical knowledge and socio-pragmatic rules of a language. Pragmatic competence as one of the most difficult aspects of language provides several challenges to L2 learners in the process of learning a foreign language. To overcome this problem, EFL teachers should find the most…

  18. Self-reference modulates the processing of emotional stimuli in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Pauli, Paul; Herbert, Beate M

    2011-10-01

    Self-referential evaluation of emotional stimuli has been shown to modify the way emotional stimuli are processed. This study aimed at a new approach by investigating whether self-reference alters emotion processing in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects spontaneously viewed a series of emotional and neutral nouns. Nouns were preceded either by personal pronouns ('my') indicating self-reference or a definite article ('the') without self-reference. The early posterior negativity, a brain potential reflecting rapid attention capture by emotional stimuli was enhanced for unpleasant and pleasant nouns relative to neutral nouns irrespective of whether nouns were preceded by personal pronouns or articles. Later brain potentials such as the late positive potential were enhanced for unpleasant nouns only when preceded by personal pronouns. Unpleasant nouns were better remembered than pleasant or neutral nouns when paired with a personal pronoun. Correlation analysis showed that this bias in favor of self-related unpleasant concepts can be explained by participants' depression scores. Our results demonstrate that self-reference acts as a first processing filter for emotional material to receive higher order processing after an initial rapid attention capture by emotional content has been completed. Mood-congruent processing may contribute to this effect.

  19. Effects of Explicit Instruction in Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies on Iranian EFL Students' Reading Performance and Strategy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Reza; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of explicit teaching of reading strategies on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students' reading performance in Iran. The study employed a questionnaire adapted from Chamot and O'Malley's (1994) cognitive and metacognitive strategies framework. To test the effects of explicit teaching of cognitive and…

  20. Using Technology to Provide Differentiated Instruction for Deaf Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Carol M.; Alpert, Madelon

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge is power. Technological devices provide the new pathway to online learning and student retention. This is especially true for deaf learners, who have difficulty learning with the traditional pedagogies used in teaching. Results of studies have indicated that students using the suggested new technologies become more interested and…

  1. Ethical Considerations in the Use of Sexually Explicit Visuals as an Instructional Methodology in College Sexuality Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    This article examines ethical considerations in the use of sexually explicit materials (SEM) as an educational methodology in undergraduate human sexuality courses. While current research is lacking on the effects of this methodology on students, previous studies indicate that SEM use benefits student knowledge gain, attitude awareness, and…

  2. Perceived Learning Difficulty and Actual Performance: Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of L2 English Grammar Points among Instructed Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis Humberto Rodríguez; Roehr-Brackin, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on an approach that conceptualizes L2 learning difficulty in terms of implicit and explicit knowledge. In a study with first language Mexican Spanish university-level learners (n = 30), their teachers (n = 11), and applied linguistics experts (n = 3), we investigated the relationship between (a) these groups' difficulty…

  3. The Efficacy of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Its Impact on L2 Rule-Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Raafat

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial that foreign language teachers know well what kinds of grammar teaching strategies best aid learning in the classroom in order to adjust their teaching toward a practical and successful approach. Much of the debate about how to help EFL learners achieve grammatical proficiency centers on the implicit versus explicit, or deductive…

  4. "Flipping" Lessons in a Multi-Section Spanish Course: Implications for Assigning Explicit Grammar Instruction Outside of the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moranski, Kara; Kim, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Flipped or inverted classroom (IC) models are promising for foreign language instruction in that they appear to promote well-regarded practices that bridge both sociocultural and cognitive theoretical frameworks, such as allowing for higher degrees of learner agency and facilitating deeper levels of processing. To date, the majority of work on IC…

  5. Exploring the Interface: Explicit Focus-on-Form Instruction and Learned Attentional Biases in L2 Latin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate the attentional processes whereby different types of focus on form (FonF) instruction assist learners in overcoming learned attention and blocking effects in their online processing of second language input. English native speakers viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality…

  6. Children’s acquisition and use of the control-of-variables strategy: effects of explicit and implicit instructional guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Adrianus W.; Egberink, Angelique

    2014-01-01

    Direct instruction is a proven effective method to strengthen children’s ability to design unconfounded experiments using the control-of-variables strategy (CVS). Recent research suggests that task segmentation can also promote children’s use of this strategy. The present study investigated this

  7. Postsecondary Disability Service Providers' Perceptions about Implementing Universal Design for Instruction (UDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry, Priscilla B.; Parker, David R.; McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen disability service providers from 2-year and 4-year public and private postsecondary institutions were divided into 2 focus groups, each with 8 participants. When asked to share their perspectives on the implementation of Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) on their campus, service providers described strengths and weaknesses of UDI,…

  8. The instruction in pelvic floor exercises provided to women during pregnancy or following delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, L; Glenn, S; Walton, I; Hughes, C

    2001-03-01

    to examine the instruction in pelvic floor exercises given to women during pregnancy or following delivery, to assess the quality of any instruction provided, and to consider these in light of the women's views about the service. a postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of women when they reached 34 weeks of pregnancy and a second at 8 weeks postpartum. A sub-sample of women who reported symptoms of stress incontinence at 8 weeks postpartum were interviewed about the instruction in pelvic floor exercises that they received during their pregnancy, or in the puerperium. of the 918 women who were sent the first questionnaire, 717 returned it completed (78%). Five-hundred-and-seventy-two of 894 women (64%) completed the second questionnaire. Forty-two of 179 symptomatic women (23%) took part in an interview. 55% of women received some form of instruction in pelvic floor exercises by 34 weeks of pregnancy. Eighty-six percent received instruction following birth. The way the information was given varied, ranging from a brief reminder, to exercising in a class with an instructor. The information was provided by a range of health professionals, and no single profession appeared to undertake responsibility for the service. As a result, the views of the service varied. A few women reported that they had received good quality instruction, others were critical of it, and a small number reported that they had received no instruction at all. The widespread practice of leaving a leaflet by the women's beds during their stay in hospital, was criticised by a large proportion of the women. the instruction in pelvic floor exercises by health service professionals was provided on an ad hoc basis. In many instances, the programme of instruction did not meet recommendations made in the literature. It is likely that the success of randomised controlled trials reported in the literature would not be repeated in the 'real world' Implications for practice: there is a need for the service

  9. Administrator Views on Providing Self-Determination Instruction in Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Jenkins, Abbie B.; Magill, Lauren; Germer, Kathryn; Greiner, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    We report findings from a statewide study of 333 administrators focused on (a) the extent to which they prioritize each of seven self-determination skills, (b) whether and where staff at their schools are providing instruction on these seven skills, and (c) potential avenues for equipping educators to learn strategies for fostering…

  10. 28 CFR 58.25 - Qualifications for approval as providers of a personal financial management instructional course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a personal financial management instructional course. 58.25 Section 58.25 Judicial Administration... Qualifications for approval as providers of a personal financial management instructional course. (a) Definition... personal financial management instructional course must be in compliance with all applicable laws and...

  11. Providing Students with Foundational Field Instruction within a 50 Minute Class Period: A Practical Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing recognition among secondary educators and administrators that students need to have a science education that provides connections between familiar classes like biology, chemistry, and physics. Because of this waxing interest in an integrative approach to the sciences, there is a broader push for school districts to offer classes geared towards the earth sciences, a field that incorporates knowledge and skills gleaned from the three core science subjects. Within the contexts of a regular secondary school day on a traditional schedule (45- to 50-minute long classes), it is challenging to engage students in rigorous field-based learning, critical for students to develop a deeper understanding of geosciences content, without requiring extra time outside of the regular schedule. We suggest instruction using common, manmade features like drainage retention ponds to model good field practices and provide students with the opportunity to calculate basic hydrologic budgets, take pH readings, and, if in an area with seasonal rainfall, make observations regarding soils by way of trenching, and near-surface processes, including mass wasting and the effects of vegetation on geomorphology. Gains in student understanding are discussed by analyzing the difference in test scores between exams provided to the students after they had received only in-class instruction, and after they had received field instruction in addition to the in-class lectures. In an advanced setting, students made measurements regarding ion contents and pollution that allowed the classes to practice lab skills while developing a data set that was analyzed after field work was completed. It is posited that similar fieldwork could be an effective approach at an introductory level in post-secondary institutions.

  12. The Status of Home Intravenous Therapy Instruction Provided by U.S. Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Mary R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 74 pharmacy schools found under half offered home intravenous (IV) therapy instruction. About 13 percent offered a course primarily devoted to home IV therapy; only two schools required it. Clinical departments were the primary providers, and various instructional resources were used. Additional home health care coursework is…

  13. [Does impact factor influence the ethics of the instructions provided to journal authors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Gonçalves, Thiago Barbosa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Silva, José Antonio Cordero da

    2013-01-01

    Verify whether a journal's impact factor is a mechanism that modifies the ethical requirements described in the instructions provided to authors of articles published in Brazilian medical journals. 48 selected journals were divided into two groups: impact-factor (n=24), and no-impact-factor (n=24). The number of ethical requirements was compared between both groups based on a specific research protocol, ranging from zero to six points, analyzing the presence of an approval by a research ethics committee; reference to the fact that the research follows the precepts of the Declaration of Helsinki and the rules of Resolution 196/96; use of an informed consent; information about the authors' conflicts of interest; and a request for registration of clinical trials in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry. The average score of the impact-factor group was significantly higher than that of the no-impact-factor group (3.12 ± 1.03 vs. 2.08 ± 1.64, p=0.0121). When each ethical requirement was compared between the groups, there was significant difference only between the requirement of an informed consent and the disclosure of conflicts of interest (p impact factor is a determinant factor on the ethics included in the instructions to authors of articles in scientific journals, showing that higher-quality journals seek better-designed articles that are conscientious at the beginning of the research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeted Evolution of Embedded Librarian Services: Providing Mobile Reference and Instruction Services Using iPads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellrecht, Elizabeth; Chiarella, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The University at Buffalo Health Sciences Library provides reference and instructional services to support research, curricular, and clinical programs of the University at Buffalo. With funding from an NN/LM MAR Technology Improvement Award, the University at Buffalo Health Sciences Library (UBHSL) purchased iPads to develop embedded reference and educational services. Usage statistics were collected over a ten-month period to measure the frequency of iPad use for mobile services. While this experiment demonstrates that the iPad can be used to meet the library user's needs outside of the physical library space, this article will also offer advice for others who are considering implementing their own program.

  15. The Programed Math Tutorial--Paraprofessionals Provide One-to-one Instruction in Primary School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronshausen, Nina L.

    The "Programed Math Tutorial" is an approach to individualizing instruction through the use of tutoring by paraprofessionals and peer teaching. Designed for use in the primary grades, the program incorporates training tutors in the determination of acceptable or unacceptable answers. Tutors are given detailed instruction on the use of materials…

  16. Providing Off-Campus Bibliographic Instruction: When Off-Campus Means Someone Else's Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Anita; Long, Maxine M.

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of off-campus bibliographic instruction focuses on the experiences of Genesee Community College (New York) students who receive their bibliographic instruction in the library of the State University of New York College at Geneseo. Topics include cooperation between librarians, and communication between faculty and librarians.…

  17. Sleep promotes offline enhancement of an explicitly learned discrete but not an explicitly learned continuous task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siengsukon CF

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Catherine F Siengsukon, Alham Al-SharmanDepartment of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USABackground: Healthy young individuals benefit from sleep to promote offline enhancement of a variety of explicitly learned discrete motor tasks. It remains unknown if sleep will promote learning of other types of explicit tasks. The purpose of this study is to verify the role of sleep in learning an explicitly instructed discrete motor task and to determine if participants who practice an explicitly instructed continuous tracking task demonstrate sleep-dependent offline learning of this task.Methods: In experiment 1, 28 healthy young adults (mean age 25.6 ± 3.8 years practiced a serial reaction time (SRT task at either 8 am (SRT no-sleep group or 8 pm (SRT sleep group and underwent retention testing 12 ± 1 hours later. In experiment 2, 20 healthy young individuals (mean age 25.6 ± 3.3 years practiced a continuous tracking task and were similarly divided into a no-sleep (continuous tracking no-sleep group or sleep group (continuous tracking sleep group. Individuals in both experiments were provided with explicit instruction on the presence of a sequence in their respective task prior to practice.Results: Individuals in the SRT sleep group demonstrated a significant offline reduction in reaction time whereas the SRT no-sleep group did not. Results for experiment 1 provide concurrent evidence that explicitly learned discrete tasks undergo sleep-dependent offline enhancement. Individuals in the continuous tracking sleep group failed to demonstrate a significant offline reduction in tracking error. However, the continuous tracking no-sleep group did demonstrate a significant offline improvement in performance. Results for experiment 2 indicate that sleep is not critical for offline enhancement of an explicit learned continuous task.Conclusion: The findings that individuals who practiced an

  18. Library Research Instruction for Doctor of Ministry Students: Outcomes of Instruction Provided by a Theological Librarian and by a Program Faculty Member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Kamilos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At some seminaries the question of who is more effective teaching library research is an open question.  There are two camps of thought: (1 that the program faculty member is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is intimately engaged in the subject of the course(s, or (2 that the theological librarian is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is more familiar with the scope of resources that are available, as well as how to obtain “hard to get” resources.   What began as a librarian’s interest in determining the extent to which Doctor of Ministry (DMin students begin their research using Google, resulted in the development of a survey.  Given the interesting results returned from the first survey in fall of 2008, the survey was conducted again in the fall of 2011.  The results of the comparative data led to the discovery of some useful data that will be used to adjust future instruction sessions for DMin students.  The results of the surveys indicated that the instruction provided by the theological librarian was more effective as students were more prepared to obtain and use resources most likely to provide the best information for course projects. Additionally, following the instruction of library research skills by the librarian (2011 survey, DMin students were more likely to begin the search process for information resources using university provided catalogs and databases than what was reported in the 2008 survey. The responses to the two surveys piqued interest regarding both eBook use during the research process and the reduction of research frustration to be addressed in a follow-up survey to be given in 2014, results of which we hope to report in a future article.

  19. Effectiveness of a Glasgow Coma Scale instructional video for EMS providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Peter L; Báez, Amado Alejandro; Brabson, Thomas; Burmeister, David D; Kelly, John J

    2002-01-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the standard measure used to quantify the level of consciousness of patients who have sustained head injuries. Rapid and accurate GCS scoring is essential. To evaluate the effectiveness of a GCS teaching video shown to prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers. Participants and setting--United States, Mid-Atlantic region EMS providers. Intervention--Each participant scored all of the three components of the GCS for each of four scenarios provided before and after viewing a video-tape recording containing four scenarios. Design--Before-and-after single (Phase I) and parallel Cohort (Phase II). Analysis--Proportions of correct scores were compared using chi-square, and relative risk was calculated to measure the strength of the association. 75 participants were included in Phase I. In Phase II, 46 participants participated in a parallel cohort design: 20 used GCS reference cards and 26 did not use the cards. Before observing the instructional video, only 14.7% score all of the scenarios correctly, where as after viewing the video, 64.0% scored the scenarios results were observed after viewing the video for those who used the GCS cards (p = 0.001; RR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.29 to 3.10) than for those not using the cards (p < 0.0001; RR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.60 to 38.50). Post-video viewing scores were better than those observed before the video presentation. Ongoing evaluations include analysis of long-term skill retention and scoring accuracy in the clinical environment.

  20. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  1. Explicit Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwgren, Jonas; Eriksen, Mette Agger; Linde, Per

    2006-01-01

    as an interpretation of palpability, comprising usability as well as patient empowerment and socially performative issues. We present a prototype environment for video recording during physiotherapeutical consultation which illustrates our current thoughts on explicit interaction and serves as material for further...

  2. Enhancing "Reading Mastery" Programs Using Explicit "Reading to Learn" Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; McGlocklin, Linda M.; Miller, Darcey E.; Martella, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary and text comprehension strategies are acknowledged as critical components of any comprehensive reading program. This article highlights the scientifically-based research on effective reading instruction related to vocabulary and comprehension development. Specifically, the article provides explicit formats integrating these important…

  3. An Examination of the Instruction Provided in Australian Essay Guides for Students' Development of a Critical Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The argumentative essay has endured as a popular form of university assessment, yet students still struggle to meet key intended learning outcomes, such as those associated with critical thinking. This paper presents the results of a study that examines the instruction provided by Australian essay writing guides to support students' development of…

  4. Effectiveness of health instruction provided by student nurses in rural secondary schools of Zimbabwe: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munodawafa, D; Marty, P J; Gwede, C

    1995-02-01

    This demonstration project used student nurses (n = 12) on community deployment to provide health instruction among rural school-age populations in Zimbabwe. A quasi-experimental (pre- and post-test), non-equivalent control group design was used and consisted of 141 school pupils in the intervention group and 144 pupils in the comparison group (N = 285). The curriculum focused on prevention of STDs, HIV/AIDS and drugs (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana). A gain in health knowledge scores among the intervention group was reported at post-test. More than 70% of the pupils who received health instruction from student nurses gave a high approval rating of student nurses' performance. Further, student nurses, teachers and tutors all support school health instruction by student nurses although tutors and teachers differ on teaching about condoms.

  5. Providing Elementary Teachers in South Texas with Professional Development to Improve Earth Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, H.; Ellins, K. K.

    2011-12-01

    Through three years of participation in the TeXas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution, an NSF-sponsored teacher professional development program, my knowledge of earth science, new pedagogical approaches, and confidence has improved dramatically. I have also received instructional materials and learned how to access high quality online resources and use a variety of web-based tools. In this session, I will share my experiences and report on how I used my own learning to help both teachers and students to become more earth science literate individuals. Earth Science test scores at the elementary level throughout South Texas are consistently low in comparison to other regions in the state. The majority of the teachers lack the content-knowledge, confidence, or experience to teach Earth Sciences. My TXESS Revolution experience helped me to understand the needs of these teachers and to identify teaching resources that would be useful to them. Particularly noteworthy are TERC's EarthLabs: Earth System Science and GLOBE activities. Although these Earthlab investigations are designed for high schools students, I demonstrated how they could be adapted for elementary students. As a result, I have provided professional development in the Earth Sciences to about 300 South Texas elementary teachers. TXESS Revolution has also equipped me to empower the students I teach. My students this past year presented their challenge Legacy Cycle Project to the community. The TXESS Revolution teamed up with the Texas Water Development Board to deliver training on the implementation of a new online challenged-based curriculum called the Water Exploration Legacy Cycles. This training gave me the tools to guide my students learning through authentic scientific research. To carry out their challenge, students researched an area of interest, read literature, consulted with experts in the field, consider different prospective, and presented their final products via PowerPoint, poster

  6. Promoting Cooperative Learning in the Classroom: Comparing Explicit and Implicit Training Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elliott

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated whether providing 4th and 5th-grade students with explicit instruction in prerequisite cooperative-learning skills and techniques would enhance their academic performance and promote in them positive attitudes towards cooperative learning. Overall, students who received explicit training outperformed their peers on both the unit project and test and presented more favourable attitudes towards cooperative learning. The findings of this study support the use of explicitly instructing students about the components of cooperative learning prior to engaging in collaborative activities. Implications for teacher-education are discussed.

  7. Balancing the Roles of Explicit Instruction of Text Form Language and Schema Theory in Student Non-Fiction Writing: Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer van Arragon, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this study will be on the intersection of the following domains: Second Language Acquisition research on cohesion and coherence, discourse acquisition of young children, the effect of text form-focused instruction on student non-fiction writing and the impact of schema theory on student decision-making during the writing process.

  8. An Instructional Design Model to Teach Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2009-01-01

    The "explicit-reflective-embedded" approach is an effective way of teaching nature of science (NOS). But, the studies have not provided a clear or explicit definition of the approach in terms of an instructional design framework. The approach has two sides including embedding into content knowledge and purposively teaching the NOS aspects as a…

  9. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  10. Novel combined patient instruction and discharge summary tool improves timeliness of documentation and outpatient provider satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Meredith; Krein, Sarah L; Belanger, Karen; Fowler, Karen E; Dimcheff, Derek E; Solomon, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Incomplete or delayed access to discharge information by outpatient providers and patients contributes to discontinuity of care and poor outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a new electronic discharge summary tool on the timeliness of documentation and communication with outpatient providers. Methods: In June 2012, we implemented an electronic discharge summary tool at our 145-bed university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. The tool facilitates completion of a comprehensive discharge summary note that is available for patients and outpatient medical providers at the time of hospital discharge. Discharge summary note availability, outpatient provider satisfaction, and time between the decision to discharge a patient and discharge note completion were all evaluated before and after implementation of the tool. Results: The percentage of discharge summary notes completed by the time of first post-discharge clinical contact improved from 43% in February 2012 to 100% in September 2012 and was maintained at 100% in 2014. A survey of 22 outpatient providers showed that 90% preferred the new summary and 86% found it comprehensive. Despite increasing required documentation, the time required to discharge a patient, from physician decision to discharge note completion, improved from 5.6 h in 2010 to 4.1 h in 2012 (p = 0.04), and to 2.8 h in 2015 (p discharge summary tool improved the timeliness and comprehensiveness of discharge information as needed for the delivery of appropriate, high-quality follow-up care, without adversely affecting the efficiency of the discharge process. PMID:28491308

  11. Measuring Explicit Word Learning of Preschool Children: A Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth Spencer

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this article is to present preliminary results related to the development of a new measure of explicit word learning. The measure incorporated elements of explicit vocabulary instruction and dynamic assessment and was designed to be sensitive to differences in word learning skill and to be feasible for use in clinical settings. The explicit word learning measure included brief teaching trials and repeated fine-grained measurement of semantic knowledge and production of 3 novel words (2 verbs and 1 adjective). Preschool children (N = 23) completed the measure of explicit word learning; standardized, norm-referenced measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary; and an incidental word learning task. The measure of explicit word learning provided meaningful information about word learning. Performance on the explicit measure was related to existing vocabulary knowledge and incidental word learning. Findings from this development study indicate that further examination of the measure of explicit word learning is warranted. The measure may have the potential to identify children who are poor word learners. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5170738.

  12. An Explicit/Implicit Lead to Producing Requests: Eliciting Learners’ Awareness or Soliciting Metapragmatic Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Ariana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate the extent to which two types of pragmatic instruction -explicit versus implicit- affect learners’ knowledge in terms of their awareness and production of request strategies. Thirty students with the same level of proficiency were divided into two groups (explicit and implicit. They were exposed to listening excerpts taken from the book Tactics for Listening, with the focus on request making strategies. While the explicit group was equipped with direct awareness-raising tasks and written metapragmatic explanations on the use of appropriate requests, the implicit group was provided with a set of implicit awareness-raising tasks. Outcomes of the study demonstrate that pragmatic instruction of requesting improved learners’ awareness of both groups. Also an improvement of learners’ production of requests did take place in both groups after the interventional period. However, the explicit group outperformed the implicit one as far as production of request making was concerned.

  13. The Effectiveness of Guided Induction versus Deductive Instruction on the Development of Complex Spanish "Gustar" Structures: An Analysis of Learning Outcomes and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Luis; Caras, Allison; Leow, Ronald P.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic research suggests an edge of explicit over implicit instruction for the development of complex L2 grammatical structures, but the jury is still out as to which type of explicit instruction--"deductive" or "inductive," where rules are respectively provided or elicited--proves more effective. Avoiding this…

  14. Making Mathematical Practices Explicit in Urban Middle and High School Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selling, Sarah Kate

    2016-01-01

    To learn mathematical practices, students need opportunities to engage in them. But simply providing such opportunities may not be sufficient to support all students. Simultaneously, explicitly teaching mathematical practices could be problematic if instruction becomes prescriptive. This study investigated how teachers might make mathematical…

  15. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views about Nuclear Energy with Respect to Gender and University Providing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, H.; Saracoglu, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate pre-service science teachers' (PST) views about nuclear energy and to examine what effects, if any, of gender and the university of instruction had on their views. Data were collected through the Risks and Benefits about Nuclear Energy Scale (Iseri, 2012). The sample consisted of 214 PSTs who…

  16. An Analysis of Social Skills Instruction Provided in Teacher Education and In-Service Training Programs for General and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Nicole; Higgins, Kyle; Pierce, Tom; Tandy, Richard D.; Tincani, Matt

    2010-01-01

    An adapted version of the "Teacher/Staff Skillstreaming Checklist" was used to determine the level, type, and area of social skills instruction provided to general and special education teachers. Nine universities participated in the study in which facilitators advertised the adapted questionnaire to licensed general and special education teachers…

  17. Teaching nature of science explicitly in a first-grade internship setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Volrich, Morgan L.

    2006-04-01

    This case study focused on a preservice teachers' (Morgan) efforts to explicitly emphasize nature of science (NOS) elements in her first-grade internship classroom. The study assessed the change in first grade students' views of the inferential, tentative, and creative NOS as a result of the explicit instruction. Morgan held appropriate views of NOS, had the intention and motivation to teach NOS, and had a supporting experience explicitly emphasizing NOS embedded in physics content to peer college students. Data sources included weekly classroom observations of explicit NOS science lessons taught by Morgan, interview of Morgan to determine that her views of NOS were informed and that she would have the NOS content knowledge to teach in line with recommended reforms, and interviews of the first-grade students pre- and postinstruction to determine the influence of Morgan's instruction on their views of observation and inference, the tentative NOS, and the creative and imaginative NOS. Data were analyzed to determine (a) the approaches Morgan used to emphasize NOS in her instruction, and (b) students' views of NOS pre- and postinstruction to track change in their views. It was found that Morgan was able to explicitly emphasize NOS using three teacher-designed methods, and that the influence on student views of the inferential, tentative, and creative NOS was positive. Implications for teacher development are provided.

  18. Direct versus Indirect Explicit Methods of Enhancing EFL Students' English Grammatical Competence: A Concept Checking-Based Consciousness-Raising Tasks Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Trang Thi Doan; Nguyen, Huong Thu

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches to grammar instruction are often discussed in the ESL literature: direct explicit grammar instruction (DEGI) (deduction) and indirect explicit grammar instruction (IEGI) (induction). This study aims to explore the effects of indirect explicit grammar instruction on EFL learners' mastery of English tenses. Ninety-four…

  19. Implicit and Explicit Social Mentalizing: Dual Processes driven by a Shared Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eVan Overwalle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent social neuroscientific evidence indicates that implicit and explicit inferences on the mind of another person (i.e., intentions, attributions or traits, are subserved by a shared mentalizing network. Under both implicit and explicit instructions, ERP studies reveal that early inferences occur at about the same time, and fMRI studies demonstrate an overlap in core mentalizing areas, including the temporo-parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest a rapid shared implicit intuition followed by a slower explicit verification processes (as revealed by additional brain activation during explicit versus implicit inferences. These data provide support for a default-adjustment dual-process framework of social mentalizing.

  20. The Effects of L2 Proficiency on Pragmatics Instruction: A Web-Based Approach to Teaching Chinese Expressions of Gratitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether the effects of pragmatics instruction delivered via a self-access website in a Chinese as a foreign language learning environment vary according to learners' language proficiency. The website provided learners with explicit instruction in how to express gratitude appropriately in Chinese and offered them pragmatic…

  1. Provide for Student Safety. Second Edition. Module E-5 of Category E--Instructional Management. Professional Teacher Education Module Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    One in a series of 127 performance-based teacher education learning packages focusing on specific professional competencies of vocational teachers, this learning module deals with providing for student safety. It consists of four learning experiences. Covered in the individual learning experiences are the following topics: providing for student…

  2. Supporting students' scientific explanations: A case study investigating the synergy focusing on a teacher's practices when providing instruction and using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In

  3. An Experimental Evaluation of Guided Reading and Explicit Interventions for Primary-Grade Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Carolyn A; Fletcher, Jack M; Taylor, W Pat; Barth, Amy E; Vaughn, Sharon

    2014-07-03

    Considerable research evidence supports the provision of explicit instruction for students at risk for reading difficulties; however, one of the most widely implemented approaches to early reading instruction is Guided Reading (GR; Fountas & Pinnel, 1996), which deemphasizes explicit instruction and practice of reading skills in favor of extended time reading text. This study evaluated the two approaches in the context of supplemental intervention for at-risk readers at the end of Grade 1. Students (n = 218) were randomly assigned to receive GR intervention, explicit intervention (EX), or typical school instruction (TSI). Both intervention groups performed significantly better than TSI on untimed word identification. Significant effects favored EX over TSI on phonemic decoding and one measure of comprehension. Outcomes for the intervention groups did not differ significantly from each other; however, an analysis of the added value of providing each intervention relative to expected growth with typical instruction indicated that EX is more likely to substantially accelerate student progress in phonemic decoding, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension than GR. Implications for selection of Tier 2 interventions within a response-to-intervention format are discussed.

  4. An Experimental Evaluation of Guided Reading and Explicit Interventions for Primary-Grade Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Taylor, W. Pat; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research evidence supports the provision of explicit instruction for students at risk for reading difficulties; however, one of the most widely implemented approaches to early reading instruction is Guided Reading (GR; Fountas & Pinnel, 1996), which deemphasizes explicit instruction and practice of reading skills in favor of extended time reading text. This study evaluated the two approaches in the context of supplemental intervention for at-risk readers at the end of Grade 1. Students (n = 218) were randomly assigned to receive GR intervention, explicit intervention (EX), or typical school instruction (TSI). Both intervention groups performed significantly better than TSI on untimed word identification. Significant effects favored EX over TSI on phonemic decoding and one measure of comprehension. Outcomes for the intervention groups did not differ significantly from each other; however, an analysis of the added value of providing each intervention relative to expected growth with typical instruction indicated that EX is more likely to substantially accelerate student progress in phonemic decoding, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension than GR. Implications for selection of Tier 2 interventions within a response-to-intervention format are discussed. PMID:26779296

  5. How Explicit Knowledge Affects Online L2 Processing: Evidence from Differential Object Marking Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; Curcic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Form-focused instruction studies generally report larger gains for explicit types of instruction over implicit types on measures of controlled production. Studies that used online processing measures--which do not readily allow for the application of explicit knowledge--however, suggest that this advantage occurs primarily when the target…

  6. Age and time effects on implicit and explicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneau, Marion; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; de Looze, Michiel P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience against fatigue and secondary tasking after learning. It was also examined whether explicit learning in older adults can be promoted by alleviating time constraints during learning. The alternating serial reaction time task (ASRTT) was used. Experiment 1 compared the benefits of receiving full instructions about the stimulus sequence relative to receiving no instructions in young (20-25 years) and older (50-65 years) adults during retention and during transfer to fatigue and secondary task conditions. Experiment 2 alleviated time constraints during the initial bouts of practice with full instructions. Experiment 1 indicated that the older adults learned on the ASRTT and achieved similar performance as young adults when no instructions were given. In contrast to the young adults, learning was not superior in older adults who received full instructions compared with those who did not. Experiment 2 indicated that alleviating time constraints allowed some of the older adults to gain from instruction but only under relatively low time constraints, but there was no retention with rigorous time constraints. Explicit learning, but not implicit learning, declines in older adults. This is partly due to older adults difficulties to apply explicit knowledge. Less rigorous time constraints can help to ameliorate some of these difficulties and may induce levels of explicit learning in older adults that will result in superior performance compared with implicit learning. Implicit learning did occur under time constraints that prevented explicit learning.

  7. Multidisciplinary Views on Applying Explicit and Implicit Motor Learning in Practice: An International Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kleynen

    Full Text Available A variety of options and techniques for causing implicit and explicit motor learning have been described in the literature. The aim of the current paper was to provide clearer guidance for practitioners on how to apply motor learning in practice by exploring experts' opinions and experiences, using the distinction between implicit and explicit motor learning as a conceptual departure point.A survey was designed to collect and aggregate informed opinions and experiences from 40 international respondents who had demonstrable expertise related to motor learning in practice and/or research. The survey was administered through an online survey tool and addressed potential options and learning strategies for applying implicit and explicit motor learning. Responses were analysed in terms of consensus (≥ 70% and trends (≥ 50%. A summary figure was developed to illustrate a taxonomy of the different learning strategies and options indicated by the experts in the survey.Answers of experts were widely distributed. No consensus was found regarding the application of implicit and explicit motor learning. Some trends were identified: Explicit motor learning can be promoted by using instructions and various types of feedback, but when promoting implicit motor learning, instructions and feedback should be restricted. Further, for implicit motor learning, an external focus of attention should be considered, as well as practicing the entire skill. Experts agreed on three factors that influence motor learning choices: the learner's abilities, the type of task, and the stage of motor learning (94.5%; n = 34/36. Most experts agreed with the summary figure (64.7%; n = 22/34.The results provide an overview of possible ways to cause implicit or explicit motor learning, signposting examples from practice and factors that influence day-to-day motor learning decisions.

  8. Multidisciplinary Views on Applying Explicit and Implicit Motor Learning in Practice: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Lexis, Monique A S; Halfens, Jos; Wilson, Mark R; Masters, Rich S W; Beurskens, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    A variety of options and techniques for causing implicit and explicit motor learning have been described in the literature. The aim of the current paper was to provide clearer guidance for practitioners on how to apply motor learning in practice by exploring experts' opinions and experiences, using the distinction between implicit and explicit motor learning as a conceptual departure point. A survey was designed to collect and aggregate informed opinions and experiences from 40 international respondents who had demonstrable expertise related to motor learning in practice and/or research. The survey was administered through an online survey tool and addressed potential options and learning strategies for applying implicit and explicit motor learning. Responses were analysed in terms of consensus (≥ 70%) and trends (≥ 50%). A summary figure was developed to illustrate a taxonomy of the different learning strategies and options indicated by the experts in the survey. Answers of experts were widely distributed. No consensus was found regarding the application of implicit and explicit motor learning. Some trends were identified: Explicit motor learning can be promoted by using instructions and various types of feedback, but when promoting implicit motor learning, instructions and feedback should be restricted. Further, for implicit motor learning, an external focus of attention should be considered, as well as practicing the entire skill. Experts agreed on three factors that influence motor learning choices: the learner's abilities, the type of task, and the stage of motor learning (94.5%; n = 34/36). Most experts agreed with the summary figure (64.7%; n = 22/34). The results provide an overview of possible ways to cause implicit or explicit motor learning, signposting examples from practice and factors that influence day-to-day motor learning decisions.

  9. An alternative time for telling: when conceptual instruction prior to problem solving improves mathematical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Emily R; DeCaro, Marci S; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2014-09-01

    The sequencing of learning materials greatly influences the knowledge that learners construct. Recently, learning theorists have focused on the sequencing of instruction in relation to solving related problems. The general consensus suggests explicit instruction should be provided; however, when to provide instruction remains unclear. We tested the impact of conceptual instruction preceding or following mathematics problem solving to determine when conceptual instruction should or should not be delayed. We also examined the learning processes supported to inform theories of learning more broadly. We worked with 122 second- and third-grade children. In a randomized experiment, children received instruction on the concept of math equivalence either before or after being asked to solve and explain challenging equivalence problems with feedback. Providing conceptual instruction first resulted in greater procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge of equation structures than delaying instruction until after problem solving. Prior conceptual instruction enhanced problem solving by increasing the quality of explanations and attempted procedures. Providing conceptual instruction prior to problem solving was the more effective sequencing of activities than the reverse. We compare these results with previous, contrasting findings to outline a potential framework for understanding when instruction should or should not be delayed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. The Effects of a Supplemental Explicit Counting Intervention for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Vanessa M.; Flores, Margaret M.; Schweck, Kelly; Burton, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Counting skills are foundational for young children to build number concepts in mathematics. Multitiered instruction that involves core instruction as well as supplemental interventions is implemented to support young children in the learning process and promote early intervention of basic skills. Researchers show that explicit instruction is…

  11. Enhancing Core Mathematics Instruction for Students at Risk for Mathematics Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doabler, Christian T.; Cary, Mari Strand; Jungjohann, Kathleen; Clarke, Ben; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott; Smolkowski, Keith; Chard, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents eight practical guidelines that teachers can use to make core instruction more systematic and explicit for students with or at-risk for mathematics disabilities. In the paper, we use the notion of explicit and systematic instruction as a foundation for intensifying core math instruction. Explicit and systematic core instruction…

  12. Comparing inductive and deductive grammatical instruction in teaching German as a foreign language in Dutch classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Bazhutkina, Iryna; Steringa, Sharon; Hummel, Ingrid; Suhre, Cor

    2016-01-01

    Recent review studies show that explicit instruction is the most effective way when presenting grammar in a foreign language teaching setting. However, they do not distinguish between types of explicit instruction. This study explores what type of explicit instruction (i.e. deductive or inductive

  13. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  14. Metacognitive instruction in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Dianna

    The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.

  15. A comparative study of explicit and implicit modelling of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, for both speaker identification and verification tasks the explicit modelling provides relatively more complimentary information to the state-of-the-art vocal tract features. The contribution of the explicit features is relatively more robust against noise. We suggest that the explicit approach can be used to model the ...

  16. Instructional Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Prus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond promoting a mode of ethnographic inquiry that is conceptually informed and rigorously attentive to the actualities of human lived experience, this article encourages a more sustained, comparative analysis of the ways that administrators and instructors deal with education as a collectively developed venture. After (a establishing an analytic frame for a more comprehensive approach to education as a socially engaged process, this article focuses on (b the administration of educational programs and (c providing instruction as activity “in the making,” using an ethnographic study of two Protestant Christian seminaries as an empirical, illustrative case. While providing an agenda for examining the ways that people generate and sustain instructional ventures in any educational context, the material presented here also represents an important focal point for theoretically, conceptually, and methodologically integrating research that attends to the ways that instructional (administrative and teaching activities are accomplished in practice.

  17. Explicit and implicit motor learning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert; Masters, Rich S W

    2017-07-30

    The current study aimed to investigate the capacity for explicit and implicit learning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Children with left and right unilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children shuffled disks toward a target. A prism-adaptation design was implemented, consisting of pre-exposure, prism exposure, and post-exposure phases. Half of the participants were instructed about the function of the prism glasses, while the other half were not. For each trial, the distance between the target and the shuffled disk was determined. Explicit learning was indicated by the rate of adaptation during the prism exposure phase, whereas implicit learning was indicated by the magnitude of the negative after-effect at the start of the post-exposure phase. Results No significant effects were revealed between typically developing participants and participants with unilateral cerebral palsy. Comparison of participants with left and right unilateral cerebral palsy demonstrated that participants with right unilateral cerebral palsy had a significantly lower rate of adaptation than participants with left unilateral cerebral palsy, but only when no instructions were provided. The magnitude of the negative after-effects did not differ significantly between participants with right and left unilateral cerebral palsy. The capacity for explicit motor learning is reduced among individuals with right unilateral cerebral palsy when accumulation of declarative knowledge is unguided (i.e., discovery learning). In contrast, the capacity for implicit learning appears to remain intact among individuals with left as well as right unilateral cerebral palsy. Implications for rehabilitation Implicit motor learning interventions are recommended for individuals with cerebral palsy, particularly for individuals with right unilateral cerebral palsy Explicit motor learning interventions for individual with cerebral palsy - if used - best consist of singular verbal instruction.

  18. Making the Tacit Explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes an approach, broadly inspired by culturally inclusive pedagogy, to facilitate international student academic adaptation based on rendering tacit aspects of local learning cultures explicit to international full degree students, rather than adapting them. Preliminary findings...... are presented from a focus group-based exploratory study of international student experiences at different stages of their studies at a Danish business school, one of Denmark’s most international universities. The data show how a major source of confusion for these students has to do with the tacit logics...... and expectations that shape how the formal steps of the learning cycle are understood and enacted locally, notably how learning and assessment moments are defined and related to one another. Theoretically, the article draws on tacit knowledge and sense-making theories to analyse student narratives...

  19. USING GOOGLE+ FOR INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  20. Reading instruction in science: Teachers' practices, beliefs, & self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Christina M.

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, 2013) call on science teachers to play a stronger role in helping students learn from informational science texts. Curriculum implementation efforts aimed at addressing these new standards should build on what teachers are already doing to help students with reading in their classrooms and the pedagogical issues that they feel are important to science learning. However, few current studies have gathered these important insights from science teachers. Aiming to fill this gap in the literature, this study attempted to describe middle school science teachers' current practices, beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding reading and reading instruction in their classrooms. A conceptual model hypothesizing that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between teachers' beliefs about how important reading instruction is to science learning and how often they provide reading instruction in their science classes was also tested. Participants (N = 247) reported that students regularly engaged in reading-related tasks in science class. Somer's D correlation analyses highlighted positive associations between the frequency with which teachers reported that students engaged in various reading-related tasks and the frequency with which they reported providing reading instruction for those tasks, suggesting that students tended to receive explicit instruction or coaching for the reading-related tasks they engaged in most often. Middle school science teachers also expressed positive beliefs about the importance of reading-related tasks and explicit instruction or coaching for reading in science and tended to take on responsibility for helping students become better readers of science texts. Last, a path analysis confirmed that the association between teachers' beliefs and practices was mediated through teachers' self-efficacy (beta = .07, p self-efficacy can influence teacher practice: even if

  1. Best Practices in Educational Psychology: Using Evolving Concept Maps as Instructional and Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehl, Michelle M.; Fives, Helenrose

    2011-01-01

    We describe the implementation of evolving concept maps in two different graduate-level educational psychology courses: "The Adolescent Learner" and "Theories of Learning and Cognition." We provide an explicit description of how we used evolving concept maps as instructional and assessment tools in our respective classes, changes in the…

  2. What Instructional Coaches Need from Principals to Impact Teacher Effectiveness: Developing a Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Principals that work with instructional coaches need to understand the conditions necessary to maximize their impact on teacher effectiveness. With any school improvement initiative, the positive presence and explicit support provided by the principal is critical to its overall success (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003; Leithwood et al, 2008; Waters,…

  3. Working Memory Capacity Limits Motor Learning When Implementing Multiple Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Farrow, Damian; Verswijveren, Simone J J M; Reid, Machar; Williams, Jacqueline; Polman, Remco; Ling, Fiona Chun Man; Masters, Rich S W

    2017-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that certain practice conditions can place large demands on working memory (WM) when performing and learning a motor skill, the influence that WM capacity has on the acquisition of motor skills remains unsubstantiated. This study examined the role of WM capacity in a motor skill practice context that promoted WM involvement through the provision of explicit instructions. A cohort of 90 children aged 8 to 10 years were assessed on measures of WM capacity and attention. Children who scored in the lowest and highest thirds on the WM tasks were allocated to lower WM capacity (n = 24) and higher WM capacity (n = 24) groups, respectively. The remaining 42 participants did not participate in the motor task. The motor task required children to practice basketball shooting for 240 trials in blocks of 20 shots, with pre- and post-tests occurring before and after the intervention. A retention test was administered 1 week after the post-test. Prior to every practice block, children were provided with five explicit instructions that were specific to the technique of shooting a basketball. Results revealed that the higher WM capacity group displayed consistent improvements from pre- to post-test and through to the retention test, while the opposite effect occurred in the lower WM capacity group. This implies that the explicit instructions had a negative influence on learning by the lower WM capacity children. Results are discussed in relation to strategy selection for dealing with instructions and the role of attention control.

  4. From Explicit to Symbolic Types for Communication Protocols in CCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Kreiker, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    We study communication protocols having several rounds and expressed in value passing CCS. We develop a type-based analysis for providing an explicit record of all communications and show the usual subject reduction result. Since the explicit records can be infinitely large, we also develop a type......-based analysis for providing a finite, symbolic record of all communications. We show that it correctly approximates the explicit record and prove an adequacy result for it....

  5. Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on Explicit Rule Learning: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Fenfang; Pan, Wei; Sun, Shuyan

    2014-01-01

    Finding the match between individuals and educational treatments is the aim of both educators and the aptitude-treatment interaction research paradigm. Using the latent growth curve analysis, the present study investigates the interaction between the type of explicit instructional approaches (deductive vs. explicit-inductive) and the level of…

  6. Instructional Media

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments on using Instructional Television. Most experiments compare instruction using TV, with the conventional classroom instruction by the teacher. The findings are clear. ... scientific reliability, and all of these showed no significant difference.

  7. Using Explicit and Systematic Instruction to Support Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jean Louise M.; Sáez, Leilani; Doabler, Christian T.

    2016-01-01

    Students are frequently expected to complete multistep tasks within a range of academic or classroom routines and to do so independently. Students' ability to complete these tasks successfully may vary as a consequence of both their working-memory capacity and the conditions under which they are expected to learn. Crucial features in the design or…

  8. ACTUAL REQUIREMENTS REGARDING THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL AT AN EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL. THE ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORGANISATIONS PROVIDING INSTRUCTION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danut Neacsu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Council had and still has in view the profound changes taking place in society: globalization represents for Europe a competitors intensification in all the economical sectors, while the developing and the diversification of the information technologies can lead to a radical change of the whole learning and educational system, opening the perspectives for learning possibilities and accumulating knowledge during all one’s life. The topic actuality of this article consist from the fact that, due to the globalization and the international competition intensification the request for workers with a low qualification level decreases; the new jobs presuppose high performances, flexibility, stress on qualities such as: high level of performance, creativity, openness to change, initiative. People will be obliged to possess much more knowledge, competences and they will have to work in multi spheres teams. Of course that not all the people can become conceptual analysts, something like this cannot be required, but an adaptation to the new system, to the new economy is required. At present, more and more people work in domains in which information is created. In the future this percent will grow. The utilizing on a large scale of machines and installations will determine that even workers from the basic domains to be better and better prepared. In the countries OECD the unemployment rate is higher for the persons with a second education, unlike the persons with a higher education, the manpower being in this way forced to become more qualified. On the other hand, as more and more work is taking place at an intellectual level, the detaining and manipulating of information becomes an essential quality for each employee. This article has as a main objective the highlighting of actual requirements regarding the quality assurance in instruction services at an European and international level. Thus, the permanent learning strategies from the

  9. Mathematical knowledge for teaching: Making the tacit more explicit in mathematics teacher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee; Vimalanandan, Lena

    2017-05-01

    Teaching practice during school based experiences, afford an opportunity for pre service teachers to put into practice their knowledge for teaching mathematics. Like all knowledge, Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) is held in both tacit and explicit form, making it especially difficult to study and map during instruction. This study investigates the tacit and explicit nature of MKT held by pre service teachers in a Malaysian Teacher Education Program and how it impacts the Mathematical Quality of their instruction (MQI). This study of three mathematics pre-service teachers (PSTs), utilised videos of mathematics lessons, reflective debriefs and interviews. The findings suggest that factors such as reflecting, peer-sharing, conferencing with mentors and observing support in making tacit knowledge more explicit during planning and instruction. Implications for preparation of mathematics teachers capable of high Mathematical Quality of Instruction are also discussed.

  10. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2016-06-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  11. Control processes in voluntary and explicitly cued task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Michael E J; Carruthers, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Explicitly cued task switching slows performance relative to performing the same task on consecutive trials. This effect appears to be due partly to more efficient encoding of the task cue when the same cue is used on consecutive trials and partly to an additional task-switching process. These components were examined by comparing explicitly cued and voluntary task switching groups, with external cues presented to both groups. Cue-switch effects varied in predictable ways to dissociate explicitly cued and voluntary task switching, whereas task-switch effects had similar characteristics for both instructional groups. The data were well fitted by a mathematical model of task switching that included a cue-encoding mechanism (whereby cue repetition improves performance) and an additional process that was invoked on task-switch trials. Analyses of response-time distributions suggest that this additional process involves task-set reconfiguration that may or may not be engaged before the target stimulus is presented.

  12. CDPOP: A spatially explicit cost distance population genetics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin L. Landguth; S. A. Cushman

    2010-01-01

    Spatially explicit simulation of gene flow in complex landscapes is essential to explain observed population responses and provide a foundation for landscape genetics. To address this need, we wrote a spatially explicit, individual-based population genetics model (CDPOP). The model implements individual-based population modelling with Mendelian inheritance and k-allele...

  13. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  14. Teaching weight to explicitly address language ambiguities and conceptual difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Taibu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Language ambiguities in concept meanings can exacerbate student learning difficulties and conceptual understanding of physics concepts. This is especially true for the concept of “weight,” which has multiple meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. The term weight has been defined in several different ways, with nuances, but in textbooks and teaching the term is almost always defined in one of two ways: operationally either as the contact force between an object and a measuring scale or as the gravitational force on an object due to some other body such as Earth. The use of the same name for different concepts leads to much confusion, especially in accelerating situations, and to conflicting notions of “weightlessness” in free fall situations. In the present paper, we share an innovative approach that initially avoids the term weight entirely while teaching the physics of each situation, and then teaches the language ambiguities explicitly. We developed an instructional module with this approach and implemented it over two terms in three sections of an introductory physics course for preservice elementary teachers. Learning gains for content understanding were assessed using pretests and post-tests. Participants achieved remarkably high gains for both static and accelerating situations. Surveys pre- and postinstruction showed substantially improved appreciation of language issues and ambiguities associated with weight, weightlessness, and free fall. Interviews with instructors teaching the module provided additional insight into the advantages and teaching demands of the new approach.

  15. Two Views About Explicitly Teaching Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschl, Richard A.; Grandy, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Our focus is on the effects that dated ideas about the nature of science (NOS) have on curriculum, instruction and assessments. First we examine historical developments in teaching about NOS, beginning with the seminal ideas of James Conant. Next we provide an overview of recent developments in philosophy and cognitive sciences that have shifted NOS characterizations away from general heuristic principles toward cognitive and social elements. Next, we analyze two alternative views regarding `explicitly teaching' NOS in pre-college programs. Version 1 is grounded in teachers presenting `Consensus-based Heuristic Principles' in science lessons and activities. Version 2 is grounded in learners experience of `Building and Refining Model-Based Scientific Practices' in critique and communication enactments that occur in longer immersion units and learning progressions. We argue that Version 2 is to be preferred over Version 1 because it develops the critical epistemic cognitive and social practices that scientists and science learners use when (1) developing and evaluating scientific evidence, explanations and knowledge and (2) critiquing and communicating scientific ideas and information; thereby promoting science literacy.

  16. Teaching weight to explicitly address language ambiguities and conceptual difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibu, Rex; Schuster, David; Rudge, David

    2017-06-01

    Language ambiguities in concept meanings can exacerbate student learning difficulties and conceptual understanding of physics concepts. This is especially true for the concept of "weight," which has multiple meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. The term weight has been defined in several different ways, with nuances, but in textbooks and teaching the term is almost always defined in one of two ways: operationally either as the contact force between an object and a measuring scale or as the gravitational force on an object due to some other body such as Earth. The use of the same name for different concepts leads to much confusion, especially in accelerating situations, and to conflicting notions of "weightlessness" in free fall situations. In the present paper, we share an innovative approach that initially avoids the term weight entirely while teaching the physics of each situation, and then teaches the language ambiguities explicitly. We developed an instructional module with this approach and implemented it over two terms in three sections of an introductory physics course for preservice elementary teachers. Learning gains for content understanding were assessed using pretests and post-tests. Participants achieved remarkably high gains for both static and accelerating situations. Surveys pre- and postinstruction showed substantially improved appreciation of language issues and ambiguities associated with weight, weightlessness, and free fall. Interviews with instructors teaching the module provided additional insight into the advantages and teaching demands of the new approach.

  17. Instructional Leadership Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.; Jenkins, John M., Ed.

    Instructional leadership is the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school. This handbook reviews factors affecting that role in four broad domains: keeping informed about trends, planning for instructional improvement, implementing…

  18. Comparing Explicit and Implicit Teaching of Multiple Representation Use in Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, P.; Rosengrant, D.; Finkelstein, N.

    2007-01-01

    There exist both explicit and implicit approaches to teaching students how to solve physics problems involving multiple representations. In the former, students are taught explicit problem-solving approaches, such as lists of steps, and these approaches are emphasized throughout the course. In the latter, good problem-solving strategies are modeled for students by the instructor and homework and exams present problems that require multiple representation use, but students are rarely told explicitly to take a given approach. We report on comparative study of these two approaches; students at Rutgers University receive explicit instruction, while students from the University of Colorado receive implicit instruction. Students in each course solve five common electrostatics problems of varying difficulty. We compare student performances and their use of pictures and free-body diagrams. We also compare the instructional environments, looking at teaching approaches and the frequency of multiple-representation use in lectures and exams. We find that students learning via implicit instruction do slightly better and use multiple representations more often on the shorter problems, but that students learning via explicit instruction are more likely to generate correct free-body diagrams on the hardest problem.

  19. Reasons and resources for being explicit about the practices of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) promote a fundamental shift in the way science is taught. The new focus is on three-dimensional learning, which brings science and engineering practices together with disciplinary core ideas and cross-cutting concepts. A key component is performance expectations rather than bullet lists of content that students should know. One of the stated goals is that "all students should have sufficient knowledge of science and engineering to engage in public discussions on related issues." While the NGSS were developed for K-12, college instructors benefit from familiarity with them in two critical ways: first, they provide a research-based and clearly articulated approach to three-dimensional learning that applies across the grade spectrum, and second, future K-12 teachers are sitting in their college-level science courses, and awareness of the skills those future teachers need can help direct course design. More specifically, while most college-level science courses make use of the science and engineering practices described in the NGSS, few offer explicit instruction in them or how they intertwine with disciplinary core ideas and cross-cutting concepts. Yet this explicit instruction is critical to building scientific literacy in future teachers—and all students. Many textbooks and laboratory courses limit a discussion of the process of science to one chapter or exercise, and expect students to be able to apply those concepts. In contrast, new resources from Visionlearning (http://www.visionlearning.com), InTeGrate (http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate), and other projects hosted at the Science Education Resource Center (http://serc.carleton.edu) were developed with explicit and pervasive integration of the nature and practices of science in mind. These freely available, classroom-tested and reviewed resources support instructors in introductory/general education courses as well as teacher preparation and more advanced courses.

  20. Intersection Type Systems and Explicit Substitutions Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Daniel Lima; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio; Kamareddine, Fairouz

    The λ-calculus with de Bruijn indices, called λ dB , assembles each α-class of λ-terms into a unique term, using indices instead of variable names. Intersection types provide finitary type polymorphism satisfying important properties like principal typing, which allows the type system to include features such as data abstraction (modularity) and separate compilation. To be closer to computation and to simplify the formalisation of the atomic operations involved in β-contractions, several explicit substitution calculi were developed most of which are written with de Bruijn indices. Although untyped and simply types versions of explicit substitution calculi are well investigated, versions with more elaborate type systems (e.g., with intersection types) are not. In previous work, we presented a version for λ dB of an intersection type system originally introduced to characterise principal typings for β-normal forms and provided the characterisation for this version. In this work we introduce intersection type systems for two explicit substitution calculi: the λσ and the λs e . These type system are based on a type system for λ dB and satisfy the basic property of subject reduction, which guarantees the preservation of types during computations.

  1. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  2. Using Direct Instruction: Teaching Preposition Use to Students With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S Christy; Rivera, Christopher J; Wood, Charles L

    2015-07-01

    Students with intellectual disability often struggle with significant language delays or impairments and can require explicit instruction in language skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of direct instruction on the use of and response to prepositions by 3 elementary school students with intellectual disability. A multiple-baseline design across prepositions was used in this study with replication across students. Results of this study found that students were able to use and respond to prepositions consistently after receiving direct instruction on each of the 3 target prepositions. Furthermore, all 3 students demonstrated maintenance and generalization of the prepositions. These results have implications for practice that could influence preposition acquisition for students with intellectual disability, providing educators with a simple, efficient instructional approach.

  3. Individual Differences, Computers, and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von

    1995-01-01

    Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…

  4. Building an explicit de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Jan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik; Rummel, Markus; Valandro, Roberto [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2012-11-15

    We construct an explicit example of a de Sitter vacuum in type IIB string theory that realizes the proposal of Kaehler uplifting. As the large volume limit in this method depends on the rank of the largest condensing gauge group we carry out a scan of gauge group ranks over the Kreuzer-Skarke set of toric Calabi-Yau threefolds. We find large numbers of models with the largest gauge group factor easily exceeding a rank of one hundred. We construct a global model with Kaehler uplifting on a two-parameter model on CP{sup 4}{sub 11169}, by an explicit analysis from both the type IIB and F-theory point of view. The explicitness of the construction lies in the realization of a D7 brane configuration, gauge flux and RR and NS flux choices, such that all known consistency conditions are met and the geometric moduli are stabilized in a metastable de Sitter vacuum with spontaneous GUT scale supersymmetry breaking driven by an F-term of the Kaehler moduli.

  5. Working Memory Capacity Limits Motor Learning When Implementing Multiple Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Buszard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that certain practice conditions can place large demands on working memory (WM when performing and learning a motor skill, the influence that WM capacity has on the acquisition of motor skills remains unsubstantiated. This study examined the role of WM capacity in a motor skill practice context that promoted WM involvement through the provision of explicit instructions. A cohort of 90 children aged 8 to 10 years were assessed on measures of WM capacity and attention. Children who scored in the lowest and highest thirds on the WM tasks were allocated to lower WM capacity (n = 24 and higher WM capacity (n = 24 groups, respectively. The remaining 42 participants did not participate in the motor task. The motor task required children to practice basketball shooting for 240 trials in blocks of 20 shots, with pre- and post-tests occurring before and after the intervention. A retention test was administered 1 week after the post-test. Prior to every practice block, children were provided with five explicit instructions that were specific to the technique of shooting a basketball. Results revealed that the higher WM capacity group displayed consistent improvements from pre- to post-test and through to the retention test, while the opposite effect occurred in the lower WM capacity group. This implies that the explicit instructions had a negative influence on learning by the lower WM capacity children. Results are discussed in relation to strategy selection for dealing with instructions and the role of attention control.

  6. Teaching as Interaction: Challenges in Transitioning Teachers' Instruction to Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha; Chapman-DeSousa, Brook

    2017-01-01

    Although small group instruction is often endorsed in teaching young children, teachers are rarely given explicit instruction on how to move instruction into small groups where effective adult-child interactions can take place. This study examines how 14 early childhood educators transitioned their instruction from whole to small group teaching…

  7. Academic self-efficacy: from educational theory to instructional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R

    2012-05-01

    Self-efficacy is a personal belief in one's capability to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances. Often described as task-specific self-confidence, self-efficacy has been a key component in theories of motivation and learning in varied contexts. Furthermore, over the last 34 years, educational researchers from diverse fields of inquiry have used the notion of self-efficacy to predict and explain a wide range of human functioning, from athletic skill to academic achievement. This article is not a systematic review of the empirical research on self-efficacy; instead, its purpose is to describe the nature and structure of self-efficacy and provide a brief overview of several instructional implications for medical education. In doing so, this article is meant to encourage medical educators to consider and explicitly address their students' academic self-efficacy beliefs in an effort to provide more engaging and effective instruction.

  8. The Effect of Explicit Affective Strategy Training on Iranian EFL learners’ Oral Language Proficiency and Anxiety Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mostafavi

    2016-08-01

    control group.  The results confirm the positive effects of affective strategy instruction on oral language proficiency.  The findings of this study provide a greater understanding of affective strategy use among Iranian EFL learners.  This study might also have some implications for material developers to consider strategy use in materials development. Keywords: affective strategies, explicit strategy training, language anxiety

  9. Combating automatic autobiographical associations: the effect of instruction and training in strategically concealing information in the autobiographical implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2012-10-01

    One of the most heavily debated questions in implicit social cognition is the extent to which implicit measures can be voluntarily controlled. The experiment reported here is the first to employ a novel strategy for intentionally controlling performance in the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT). Specifically, when explicitly instructed to do so, participants were able to speed up their responses in the incongruent blocks of the aIAT and thus influence the outcome of the test. This effect was larger when the experimental instruction was followed by practice in speeding responses than when the instruction was given alone. A process-dissociation analysis suggested that the effect was due to reductions in the ability of participants' automatic associations to influence responses when instructions to speed up were provided. This experiment provides new insight into the potential for strategic control in the performance of implicit measures and into the interplay between automatic and controlled processes underlying performance on implicit measures.

  10. Explicit signal to noise ratio in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Chova, Luis; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    an alternative kernel MNF (KMNF) in which the noise is explicitly estimated in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. This enables KMNF dealing with non-linear relations between the noise and the signal features jointly. Results show that the proposed KMNF provides the most noise-free features when confronted...... with PCA, MNF, KPCA, and the previous version of KMNF. Extracted features with the explicit KMNF also improve hyperspectral image classification....

  11. Using High-Probability Instructional Sequences and Explicit Instruction to Teach Multiplication Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities often struggle with math fact fluency and require specialized interventions to recall basic facts. Deficits in math fact fluency can result in later difficulties when learning higher-level mathematical computation, concepts, and problem solving. The response-to-intervention (RTI) and…

  12. Effects of context on implicit and explicit lexical knowledge: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin

    2014-10-01

    Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parallel Explicit and Implicit Control of Reaching

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Mazzoni; Wexler, Nancy S

    2009-01-01

    Background Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control). Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including t...

  14. Explicit criteria for prioritization of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consensus techniques have been used previously to create explicit criteria to prioritize cataract extraction; however, the appropriateness of the intervention was not included explicitly in previous studies. We developed a prioritization tool for cataract extraction according to the RAND method. Methods Criteria were developed using a modified Delphi panel judgment process. A panel of 11 ophthalmologists was assembled. Ratings were analyzed regarding the level of agreement among panelists. We studied the effect of all variables on the final panel score using general linear and logistic regression models. Priority scoring systems were developed by means of optimal scaling and general linear models. The explicit criteria developed were summarized by means of regression tree analysis. Results Eight variables were considered to create the indications. Of the 310 indications that the panel evaluated, 22.6% were considered high priority, 52.3% intermediate priority, and 25.2% low priority. Agreement was reached for 31.9% of the indications and disagreement for 0.3%. Logistic regression and general linear models showed that the preoperative visual acuity of the cataractous eye, visual function, and anticipated visual acuity postoperatively were the most influential variables. Alternative and simple scoring systems were obtained by optimal scaling and general linear models where the previous variables were also the most important. The decision tree also shows the importance of the previous variables and the appropriateness of the intervention. Conclusion Our results showed acceptable validity as an evaluation and management tool for prioritizing cataract extraction. It also provides easy algorithms for use in clinical practice.

  15. Do Prosecutors Use Interview Instructions or Build Rapport with Child Witnesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Elizabeth C; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lyon, Thomas D

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the quality of interview instructions and rapport-building provided by prosecutors to 168 children aged 5-12 years testifying in child sexual abuse cases, preceding explicit questions about abuse allegations. Prosecutors failed to effectively administer key interview instructions, build rapport, or rely on open-ended narrative producing prompts during this early stage of questioning. Moreover, prosecutors often directed children's attention to the defendant early in the testimony. The productivity of different types of wh- questions varied, with what/how questions focusing on actions being particularly productive. The lack of instructions, poor quality rapport-building, and closed-ended questioning suggest that children may not be adequately prepared during trial to provide lengthy and reliable reports to their full ability. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Do Prosecutors Use Interview Instructions or Build Rapport with Child Witnesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Stolzenberg, Stacia N.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the quality of interview instructions and rapport-building provided by prosecutors to 168 children aged 5–12 years testifying in child sexual abuse cases, preceding explicit questions about abuse allegations. Prosecutors failed to effectively administer key interview instructions, build rapport, or rely on open-ended narrative producing prompts during this early stage of questioning. Moreover, prosecutors often directed children's attention to the defendant early in the testimony. The productivity of different types of wh- questions varied, with what/how questions focusing on actions being particularly productive. The lack of instructions, poor quality rapport-building, and closed-ended questioning suggest that children may not be adequately prepared during trial to provide lengthy and reliable reports to their full ability. PMID:26206485

  17. Effects of explicit cueing and ambiguity on the anticipation and experience of a painful thermal stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln M Tracy

    Full Text Available Many factors can influence the way in which we perceive painful events and noxious stimuli, but less is known about how pain perception is altered by explicit knowledge about the impending sensation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of explicit cueing on anxiety, arousal, and pain experience during the anticipation and delivery of noxious thermal heat stimulations. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were randomised to receive explicit instructions about visual cue-stimulus temperature pairings, or no explicit instructions about the cue-stimulus pairs. A pain anxiety task was used to investigate the effects of explicit cueing on anticipatory anxiety, pain experience and electrophysiological responses. Participants who received explicit instructions about the cue-stimulus pairs (i.e., the relationship between the colour of the cue and the temperature of the associated stimuli reported significantly higher subjective anxiety prior to the delivery of the thermal heat stimuli (p = .025, partial eta squared = .10. There were no effects of explicit cueing on subsequent pain intensity, unpleasantness, or the electrophysiological response to stimulus delivery. The perceived intensity and unpleasantness of the stimuli decreased across the blocks of the paradigm. In both groups anticipating the ambiguous cue elicited the largest change in electrophysiological arousal, indicating that not knowing the impending stimulus temperature led to increased arousal, compared to being certain of receiving a high temperature thermal stimulus (both p < .001. Perceived stimulus intensity varied between ambiguous and non-ambiguous cues, depending on the temperature of the stimulus. Together these findings highlight the impact and importance of explicit cueing and uncertainty in experimental pain studies, and how these factors influence the way healthy individuals perceive and react to noxious and innocuous thermal stimuli.

  18. Parallel explicit and implicit control of reaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Wexler, Nancy S

    2009-10-22

    Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control). Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes. We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit) control of the same reaching movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD). These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition. The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes.

  19. Parallel explicit and implicit control of reaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Mazzoni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control or attentively (explicit control. Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes.We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit control of the same reaching movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD. These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition.The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes.

  20. The emergence of explicit memory during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael; Haider, Hilde; Büchel, Christian

    2010-12-01

    In incidental learning situations, contingencies are extracted from the environment without the intention to learn and can change behavior without awareness for the extracted regularity. The development of explicit access to the learned regularity is an important learning mechanism that is rarely examined. With a series of behavioral, electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, we were able to show that the emergence of awareness for a hidden regularity is accompanied by an increase in neural activity and in high-frequency coupling between distant brain areas as observed with a time-frequency resolved EEG analysis. More importantly, the increase in neural coupling was observed before awareness for the learned material was established behaviorally. In addition, coupling increases were paralleled by an fMRI-signal increase in the ventral striatum and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex directly preceding the emergence of awareness. The involvement of this system, which has already been linked to the processing of predictions and prediction errors, indicates the relevance of a reinforcement signal to generate awareness for the learned contingencies. Thus, our data provide direct evidence for the necessity of large-scale coupling and the evaluation of a predictive stimulus value as the basis for a transition from implicit to explicit memory.

  1. Spatially explicit modelling of cholera epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, F.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Knox, A. C.; Gatto, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models can provide crucial understanding about the dynamics of infectious diseases. Possible applications range from real-time forecasting and allocation of health care resources to testing alternative intervention mechanisms such as vaccines, antibiotics or the improvement of sanitary conditions. We apply a spatially explicit model to the cholera epidemic that struck Haiti in October 2010 and is still ongoing. The dynamics of susceptibles as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic infectives are modelled at the scale of local human communities. Dissemination of Vibrio cholerae through hydrological transport and human mobility along the road network is explicitly taken into account, as well as the effect of rainfall as a driver of increasing disease incidence. The model is calibrated using a dataset of reported cholera cases. We further model the long term impact of several types of interventions on the disease dynamics by varying parameters appropriately. Key epidemiological mechanisms and parameters which affect the efficiency of treatments such as antibiotics are identified. Our results lead to conclusions about the influence of different intervention strategies on the overall epidemiological dynamics.

  2. Cybersex: regulating sexually explicit expression on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, F H

    1996-01-01

    While the First Amendment restricts the power of the government to control access by adults to sexually explicit expression that is not obscene, the government may restrict access by children, provided that those restrictions do not limit adults to reading only "what is fit for children." Controlling access by children presents special problems in the context of broadcasting, because broadcast programming is accessible to children too young to read and because of the impossibility of segregating adults and children in the audience. The Supreme Court therefore permits the government to require "channeling" of sexually explicit programming to times when fewer unsupervised children are in the audience, to facilitate parental control over children's access to sexually explicit material. Although Internet content includes less than one percent of sexually explicit expression, that material has been the subject of intensive media and government attention. Much of that attention ignores (1) the high level of constitutional protection applicable to non-obscene, sexually explicit expression; (2) features of the Internet which facilitate controlling access by children to sexually explicit expression far more effectively than in broadcasting or print media; and (3) the First Amendment values served by permitting expression of all forms on the Internet.

  3. Explicit Oral Narrative Intervention for Students with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Diez-Itza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrative skills play a crucial role in organizing experience, facilitating social interaction and building academic discourse and literacy. They are at the interface of cognitive, social, and linguistic abilities related to school engagement. Despite their relative strengths in social and grammatical skills, students with Williams syndrome (WS do not show parallel cognitive and pragmatic performance in narrative generation tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess retelling of a TV cartoon tale and the effect of an individualized explicit instruction of the narrative structure. Participants included eight students with WS who attended different special education levels. Narratives were elicited in two sessions (pre and post intervention, and were transcribed, coded and analyzed using the tools of the CHILDES Project. Narratives were coded for productivity and complexity at the microstructure and macrostructure levels. Microstructure productivity (i.e., length of narratives included number of utterances, clauses, and tokens. Microstructure complexity included mean length of utterances, lexical diversity and use of discourse markers as cohesive devices. Narrative macrostructure was assessed for textual coherence through the Pragmatic Evaluation Protocol for Speech Corpora (PREP-CORP. Macrostructure productivity and complexity included, respectively, the recall and sequential order of scenarios, episodes, events and characters. A total of four intervention sessions, lasting approximately 20 min, were delivered individually once a week. This brief intervention addressed explicit instruction about the narrative structure and the use of specific discourse markers to improve cohesion of story retellings. Intervention strategies included verbal scaffolding and modeling, conversational context for retelling the story and visual support with pictures printed from the cartoon. Results showed significant changes in WS students’ retelling of the

  4. Explicit Oral Narrative Intervention for Students with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Itza, Eliseo; Martínez, Verónica; Pérez, Vanesa; Fernández-Urquiza, Maite

    2018-01-01

    Narrative skills play a crucial role in organizing experience, facilitating social interaction and building academic discourse and literacy. They are at the interface of cognitive, social, and linguistic abilities related to school engagement. Despite their relative strengths in social and grammatical skills, students with Williams syndrome (WS) do not show parallel cognitive and pragmatic performance in narrative generation tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess retelling of a TV cartoon tale and the effect of an individualized explicit instruction of the narrative structure. Participants included eight students with WS who attended different special education levels. Narratives were elicited in two sessions (pre and post intervention), and were transcribed, coded and analyzed using the tools of the CHILDES Project. Narratives were coded for productivity and complexity at the microstructure and macrostructure levels. Microstructure productivity (i.e., length of narratives) included number of utterances, clauses, and tokens. Microstructure complexity included mean length of utterances, lexical diversity and use of discourse markers as cohesive devices. Narrative macrostructure was assessed for textual coherence through the Pragmatic Evaluation Protocol for Speech Corpora (PREP-CORP). Macrostructure productivity and complexity included, respectively, the recall and sequential order of scenarios, episodes, events and characters. A total of four intervention sessions, lasting approximately 20 min, were delivered individually once a week. This brief intervention addressed explicit instruction about the narrative structure and the use of specific discourse markers to improve cohesion of story retellings. Intervention strategies included verbal scaffolding and modeling, conversational context for retelling the story and visual support with pictures printed from the cartoon. Results showed significant changes in WS students’ retelling of the story, both at

  5. High School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Content-Related Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Theresa

    In order to achieve academic success, students must be able to comprehend written material in content-area textbooks. However, a large number of high school students struggle to comprehend science content. Research findings have demonstrated that students make measurable gains in comprehending content-area textbooks when provided quality reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how high school science teachers perceived their responsibility to provide content-related comprehension instruction and 10 high school science teachers were interviewed for this study. Data analysis consisted of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that 8 out of the 10 participants believed that it is their responsibility to provide reading comprehension. However, the findings also revealed that the participants provided varying levels of reading comprehension instruction as an integral part of their science instruction. The potential for positive social change could be achieved by teachers and administrators. Teachers may use the findings to reflect upon their own personal feelings and beliefs about providing explicit reading comprehension. In addition to teachers' commitment to reading comprehension instruction, administrators could deliberate about professional development opportunities that might improve necessary skills, eventually leading to better comprehension skills for students and success in their education.

  6. Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learners received small-group instruction, which included evidence-based direct instruction reading that explicitly targeted skills such as phonological/phonemic awareness, sight words and word identification, reading fluency, vocabulary knowledge, syntactic awareness, and the application of reading comprehension skills ...

  7. Pronunciation Instruction through Twitter: The Case of Commonly Mispronounced Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouz-González, Jonás

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study aimed at exploring the possibilities Twitter offers for pronunciation instruction. It investigates the potential of a Twitter-based approach based on explicit instruction and input enhancement techniques to help English Foreing Language (EFL) learners improve their pronunciation of segmental and…

  8. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  9. Learning to Write with Interactive Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri

    2018-01-01

    Interactive writing is a process-oriented instructional approach designed to make the composing and encoding processes of writing overt and explicit for young students who are learning to write. It is particularly suitable for students who struggle with literacy learning. This article describes one first-grade teacher's use of interactive writing…

  10. Understanding evolutionary potential in virtual CPU instruction set architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, David M; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1) genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2) memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3) decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4) explicit labels that allow programs to dynamically refer to specific genome positions, (5) position-relative search instructions, and (6) multiple new flow control instructions, including conditionals and jumps. Each of these features also adds complication to the instruction set and risks slowing evolution due to epistatic interactions. Two features (multiple argument specification and separated I/O) demonstrated substantial improvements in the majority of test environments, along with versions of each of the remaining architecture modifications that show significant improvements in multiple environments. However, some tested modifications were detrimental, though most exhibit no systematic effects on evolutionary potential, highlighting the robustness of digital evolution. Combined, these observations enhance our understanding of how instruction architecture impacts evolutionary potential, enabling the creation of architectures that support more rapid evolution of complex solutions to a

  11. Understanding evolutionary potential in virtual CPU instruction set architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bryson

    Full Text Available We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1 genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2 memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3 decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4 explicit labels that allow programs to dynamically refer to specific genome positions, (5 position-relative search instructions, and (6 multiple new flow control instructions, including conditionals and jumps. Each of these features also adds complication to the instruction set and risks slowing evolution due to epistatic interactions. Two features (multiple argument specification and separated I/O demonstrated substantial improvements in the majority of test environments, along with versions of each of the remaining architecture modifications that show significant improvements in multiple environments. However, some tested modifications were detrimental, though most exhibit no systematic effects on evolutionary potential, highlighting the robustness of digital evolution. Combined, these observations enhance our understanding of how instruction architecture impacts evolutionary potential, enabling the creation of architectures that support more rapid evolution of complex

  12. To Change the Things I Can: Making Instruction More Intensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Nathan A.; Reed, Deborah K.

    2017-01-01

    When students do not respond adequately to core instruction, teachers must provide instruction and intervention that is more intensive and, therefore, more effective. However, for many educators, it is often unclear what it means to intensify instruction and how intensive instruction differs from high-quality core instruction. This article…

  13. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  14. Instructional support and implementation structure during elementary teachers' science education simulation use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2016-07-01

    This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results indicated teachers used a one-to-one student-to-computer ratio most often either during class-wide individual computer use or during a rotating station structure. Worksheets, general support, and peer collaboration were the most common forms of instructional support. The least common instructional support forms included lesson pacing, initial play, and a closure discussion. Students' simulation use was supported in the fewest ways during a rotating station structure. Results suggest that simulation professional development with elementary teachers needs to explicitly focus on implementation structures and instructional support to enhance participants' pedagogical knowledge and improve instructional simulation use. In addition, research is needed to provide theoretical explanations for the observed patterns that should subsequently be addressed in supporting teachers' instructional simulation use during professional development or in teacher preparation programs.

  15. Instruction of Disabled Learners: A Reading Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartain, Harry W.

    1976-01-01

    Reading instruction for learning disabled students is discussed, with emphasis on the instruction provided by the general classroom teacher and by the reading specialist with cooperation from other personnel. (IM)

  16. Academic Publishing: Making the Implicit Explicit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Badenhorst

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For doctoral students, publishing in peer-reviewed journals is a task many face with anxiety and trepidation. The world of publishing, from choosing a journal, negotiating with editors and navigating reviewers’ responses is a bewildering place. Looking in from the outside, it seems that successful and productive academic writers have knowledge that is inaccessible to novice scholars. While there is a growing literature on writing for scholarly publication, many of these publications promote writing and publishing as a straightforward activity that anyone can achieve if they follow the rules. We argue that the specific and situated contexts in which academic writers negotiate publishing practices is more complicated and messy. In this paper, we attempt to make explicit our publishing processes to highlight the complex nature of publishing. We use autoethnographic narratives to provide discussion points and insights into the challenges of publishing peer reviewed articles. One narrative is by a doctoral student at the beginning of her publishing career, who expresses her desires, concerns and anxieties about writing for publication. The other narrative focuses on the publishing practices of a more experienced academic writer. Both are international scholars working in the Canadian context. The purpose of this paper is to explore academic publishing through the juxtaposition of these two narratives to make explicit some of the more implicit processes. Four themes emerge from these narratives. To publish successfully, academic writers need: (1 to be discourse analysts; (2 to have a critical competence; (3 to have writing fluency; and (4 to be emotionally intelligent.

  17. Development of Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies that examined developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-age children on two separate information-integration paradigms due to children's more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also…

  18. Perspective: Explicitly correlated electronic structure theory for complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneis, Andreas; Hirata, So; Ohnishi, Yu-Ya; Ten-No, Seiichiro

    2017-02-28

    The explicitly correlated approach is one of the most important breakthroughs in ab initio electronic structure theory, providing arguably the most compact, accurate, and efficient ansatz for describing the correlated motion of electrons. Since Hylleraas first used an explicitly correlated wave function for the He atom in 1929, numerous attempts have been made to tackle the significant challenges involved in constructing practical explicitly correlated methods that are applicable to larger systems. These include identifying suitable mathematical forms of a correlated wave function and an efficient evaluation of many-electron integrals. R12 theory, which employs the resolution of the identity approximation, emerged in 1985, followed by the introduction of novel correlation factors and wave function ansätze, leading to the establishment of F12 theory in the 2000s. Rapid progress in recent years has significantly extended the application range of explicitly correlated theory, offering the potential of an accurate wave-function treatment of complex systems such as photosystems and semiconductors. This perspective surveys explicitly correlated electronic structure theory, with an emphasis on recent stochastic and deterministic approaches that hold significant promise for applications to large and complex systems including solids.

  19. Motivational Measure Of The Instruction Compared: 
Instruction Based On The Arcs Motivation Theory 
V.S. Traditional Instruction In Blended Courses

    OpenAIRE

    COLAKOGLU, Ozgur M.; Omur AKDEMIR

    2015-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different experiences for learners in terms of motivation than instruction developed following the standard instructional design procedure for blended courses. Thi...

  20. Evaluating spatially explicit burn probabilities for strategic fire management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Miller; M.-A. Parisien; A. A. Ager; M. A. Finney

    2008-01-01

    Spatially explicit information on the probability of burning is necessary for virtually all strategic fire and fuels management planning activities, including conducting wildland fire risk assessments, optimizing fuel treatments, and prevention planning. Predictive models providing a reliable estimate of the annual likelihood of fire at each point on the landscape have...

  1. Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Gerben A.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Tobi, Hilde; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit

  2. Explicit predictability and dispersion scaling exponents in fully developed turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Francois G. [CNRS, UMR 8013 ELICO, Wimereux Marine Station, University of Lille 1, 28 av. Foch, 62930 Wimereux (France)]. E-mail: francois.schmitt@univ-lille1.fr

    2005-07-25

    We apply a simple method to provide explicit expressions for different scaling exponents in intermittent fully developed turbulence, that before were only given through a Legendre transform. This includes predictability exponents for infinitesimal and noninfinitesimal perturbations, Lagrangian velocity exponents, and dispersion exponents. We obtain also new results concerning inverse statistics corresponding to exit-time moments.

  3. Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Alice; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim; Berking, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to be an effective strategy to regulate depressed mood in healthy and remitted depressed individuals. However, individuals currently suffering from a clinical depression often experience difficulties in utilizing this strategy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal in major depressive disorder can be enhanced through the use of self-compassion and emotion-focused acceptance as preparatory strategies. Thereby, explicit cognitive reappraisal refers to purposefully identifying, challenging, and modifying depressiogenic cognitions to reduce depressed mood. To test our hypotheses, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 54 participants (64.8% female; age M = 35.59, SD = 11.49 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to either wait, or employ self-compassion, acceptance, or reappraisal to regulate their depressed mood. Depressed mood was assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation period on a visual analog scale. Results indicated that participants who had utilized self-compassion as a preparatory strategy experienced a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during reappraisal than did those who had been instructed to wait prior to reappraisal. Participants who had used acceptance as a preparatory strategy did not experience a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during subsequent reappraisal than those in the waiting condition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal is moderated by the precursory use of other emotion regulation strategies. In particular, they suggest that depressed individuals might benefit from using self-compassion to facilitate the subsequent use of explicit cognitive reappraisal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  5. Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…

  6. Gaze locations affect explicit process but not implicit process during visuomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Rentsch, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The role of vision in implicit and explicit processes involved in adaptation to novel visuomotor transformations is not well-understood. We manipulated subjects' gaze locations through instructions during a visuomotor rotation task that established a conflict between implicit and explicit processes. Subjects were informed of a rotated visual feedback (45° counterclockwise from the desired target) and instructed to counteract it by using an explicit aiming strategy to the neighboring target (45° clockwise from the target). Simultaneously, they were instructed to gaze at either the desired target (target-gaze group), the neighboring target (hand-target-gaze group), or anywhere (free-gaze group) during aiming. After initial elimination of behavioral errors caused by strategic aiming, the subjects gradually overcompensated the rotation in the early practice, thereby increasing behavioral errors (i.e., a drift). This was caused by an implicit adaptation overriding the explicit strategy. Notably, prescribed gaze locations did not affect this implicit adaptation. In the late practice, the target-gaze and free-gaze groups reduced the drift, whereas the hand-target-gaze group did not. Furthermore, the free-gaze group changed gaze locations for strategic aiming through practice from the neighboring target to the desired target. The onset of this change was correlated with the onset of the drift reduction. These results suggest that gaze locations critically affect explicit adjustments of aiming directions to reduce the drift by taking into account the implicit adaptation that is occurring in parallel. Taken together, spatial eye-hand coordination that ties the gaze and the reach target influences the explicit process but not the implicit process. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Spatially explicit dynamic N-mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Royle, Andy; Boomer, G. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of demographic parameters such as survival, reproduction, emigration, and immigration is essential to understand metapopulation dynamics. Traditionally the estimation of these demographic parameters requires intensive data from marked animals. The development of dynamic N-mixture models makes it possible to estimate demographic parameters from count data of unmarked animals, but the original dynamic N-mixture model does not distinguish emigration and immigration from survival and reproduction, limiting its ability to explain important metapopulation processes such as movement among local populations. In this study we developed a spatially explicit dynamic N-mixture model that estimates survival, reproduction, emigration, local population size, and detection probability from count data under the assumption that movement only occurs among adjacent habitat patches. Simulation studies showed that the inference of our model depends on detection probability, local population size, and the implementation of robust sampling design. Our model provides reliable estimates of survival, reproduction, and emigration when detection probability is high, regardless of local population size or the type of sampling design. When detection probability is low, however, our model only provides reliable estimates of survival, reproduction, and emigration when local population size is moderate to high and robust sampling design is used. A sensitivity analysis showed that our model is robust against the violation of the assumption that movement only occurs among adjacent habitat patches, suggesting wide applications of this model. Our model can be used to improve our understanding of metapopulation dynamics based on count data that are relatively easy to collect in many systems.

  8. Explicit free‐floating beam element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    A two‐node free‐floating beam element capable of undergoing arbitrary large displacements and finite rotations is presented in explicit form. The configuration of the beam in three‐dimensional space is represented by the global components of the position of the beam nodes and an associated set of...... interpolation of kinematic variables, resulting in a locking‐free formulation in terms of three explicit matrices. A set of classic benchmark examples illustrates excellent performance of the explicit beam element. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  9. Modeling Implicit and Explicit Memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Ohta, N.; Izawa, C.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical models of memory are useful for describing basic processes of memory in a way that enables generalization across a number of experimental paradigms. Models that have these characteristics do not just engage in empirical curve-fitting, but may also provide explanations for puzzling

  10. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  11. Absolute and Relative Measures of Instructional Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Alexander; Hartig, Johannes; Hochweber, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Valid inferences on teaching drawn from students' test scores require that tests are sensitive to the instruction students received in class. Accordingly, measures of the test items' instructional sensitivity provide empirical support for validity claims about inferences on instruction. In the present study, we first introduce the concepts of…

  12. Explicit equations of some elliptic modular surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, Jaap; Yui, Noriko

    2007-01-01

    We present explicit equations of semi-stable elliptic surfaces (i.e., having only type In singular fibers) which are associated to the torsion-free genus zero congruence subgroups of a modular group as previously classified.

  13. Designing the Implementation of Model and Instructional Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mawardi Mawardi

    2018-01-01

    The indicator of a professional teachers is the extent to which the teachers has the ability to design instructional well. A good instructional design will effectively achieve the instructional objectives that have been set. The problem that arises is that there is a signal that the teachers implement the learning without first doing systematic instructional design. This paper aims to provide guidance on how instructional components are designed. The instructional components include instructi...

  14. Topology Optimization using an Explicit Interface Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Bærentzen, J. Andreas

    Current methods for topology optimization primarily represent the interface between solid and void implicitly on fixed grids. In contrast, shape optimization methods represent the interface explicitly, but do not allow for any topological changes to the structure. Using an explicit interface repr...... seconds on an ordinary laptop utilizing a single thread. In addition, a coarse solution to the same problem has been obtained in approximately 10 seconds....

  15. A New Robotics Instructional Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Singer, Neal

    1985-01-01

    An instructional robotics laboratory that is unique in the United States was created in 1984 at the University of New Mexico. Descriptions of the laboratory, course work offered, student projects, and other areas are provided. (JN)

  16. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals with and without suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; Dereu, Mieke; Van den Abbeele, Dirk

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we have further explored implicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals. Since suicidal ideation is associated with lower self-esteem in depressed individuals, we measured both implicit and explicit self-esteem in a population of currently depressed (CD) individuals, with and without suicidal ideation (SI), and in a group of non-depressed controls (ND). The results indicate that only CD individuals with SI show a discrepancy between their implicit and explicit self-esteem: that is, they exhibit high implicit and low explicit self-esteem. CD individuals without SI exhibit both low implicit and low explicit self-esteem; and ND controls exhibit both normal implicit and normal explicit self-esteem. These results provide new insights in the study of implicit self-esteem and the combination of implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression.

  17. Attitude importance as a moderator of the relationship between implicit and explicit attitude measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Andrew; Steinman, Ross B; Hilton, James L

    2005-07-01

    The authors examined attitude importance as a moderator of the relationship between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit attitude measures. In Study 1 (N = 194), as ratings of attitude importance regarding the 2000 presidential election increased, the strength of the relationship between a Bush-Gore IAT and explicit attitude measures also increased. Study 2 provided a conceptual replication of these results using attitudes toward Coke and Pepsi (N = 112). In addition, across both studies, explicit attitude measures were better predictors of deliberative behaviors than IAT scores. In Study 3 (N = 77), the authors examined the role of elaboration as a mechanism by which attitude importance may moderate IAT-explicit attitude correlations. As predicted, increased elaboration resulted in stronger IAT-explicit attitude correlations. Other possible mechanisms by which attitude importance may moderate the IAT-explicit attitude relationship also are discussed.

  18. Advancing Climate Literacy through Investment in Science Education Faculty, and Future and Current Science Teachers: Providing Professional Learning, Instructional Materials, and a Model for Locally-Relevant and Culturally-Responsive Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halversen, C.; Apple, J. K.; McDonnell, J. D.; Weiss, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) call for 5th grade students to "obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect Earth's resources and environment". Achieving this, and other objectives in NGSS, will require changes in the educational system for both students and teachers. Teachers need access to high quality instructional materials and continuous professional learning opportunities starting in pre-service education. Students need highly engaging and authentic learning experiences focused on content that is strategically interwoven with science practices. Pre-service and early career teachers, even at the secondary level, often have relatively weak understandings of the complex Earth systems science required for understanding climate change and hold alternative ideas and naïve beliefs about the nature of science. These naïve understandings cause difficulties in portraying and teaching science, especially considering what is being called for in NGSS. The ACLIPSE program focuses on middle school pre-service science teachers and education faculty because: (1) the concepts that underlie climate change align well with the disciplinary core ideas and practices in NGSS for middle grades; and (2) middle school is a critical time for capturing students interest in science as student engagement by eighth grade is the most effective predictor of student pursuit of science in high school and college. Capturing student attention at this age is critical for recruitment to STEM careers and lifelong climate literacy. THE ACLIPSE program uses cutting edge research and technology in ocean observing systems to provide educators with new tools to engage students that will lead to deeper understanding of the interactions between the ocean and climate systems. Establishing authentic, meaningful connections between indigenous and place-based, and technological climate observations will help generate a more holistic perspective

  19. Types of verbal interaction with instructable robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, C.; Suppes, P.; Michalowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    An instructable robot is one that accepts instruction in some natural language such as English and uses that instruction to extend its basic repertoire of actions. Such robots are quite different in conception from autonomously intelligent robots, which provide the impetus for much of the research on inference and planning in artificial intelligence. Examined here are the significant problem areas in the design of robots that learn from vebal instruction. Examples are drawn primarily from our earlier work on instructable robots and recent work on the Robotic Aid for the physically disabled. Natural-language understanding by machines is discussed as well as in the possibilities and limits of verbal instruction. The core problem of verbal instruction, namely, how to achieve specific concrete action in the robot in response to commands that express general intentions, is considered, as are two major challenges to instructability: achieving appropriate real-time behavior in the robot, and extending the robot's language capabilities.

  20. Explicit expression for effective moment of inertia of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Patel

    Full Text Available AbstractDeflection is an important design parameter for structures subjected to service load. This paper provides an explicit expression for effective moment of inertia considering cracking, for uniformly distributed loaded reinforced concrete (RC beams. The proposed explicit expression can be used for rapid prediction of short-term deflection at service load. The explicit expression has been obtained from the trained neural network considering concrete cracking, tension stiffening and entire practical range of reinforcement. Three significant structural parameters have been identified that govern the change in effective moment of inertia and therefore deflection. These three parameters are chosen as inputs to train neural network. The training data sets for neural network are generated using finite element software ABAQUS. The explicit expression has been validated for a number of simply supported and continuous beams and it is shown that the predicted deflections have reasonable accuracy for practical purpose. A sensitivity analysis has been performed, which indicates substantial dependence of effective moment of inertia on the selected input parameters.

  1. The interaction of implicit learning, explicit hypothesis testing learning and implicit-to-explicit knowledge extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ron; Zhang, Xi; Slusarz, Paul; Mathews, Robert

    2007-01-01

    To further explore the interaction between the implicit and explicit learning processes in skill acquisition (which have been tackled before, e.g. in [Sun, R., Merrill, E., & Peterson, T. (2001). From implicit skill to explicit knowledge: A bottom-up model of skill learning. Cognitive Science, 25(2), 203-244; Sun, R., Slusarz, P., & Terry, C. (2005). The interaction of the explicit and the implicit in skill learning: A dual-process approach. Psychological Review, 112(1), 159-192]), this paper explores details of the interaction of different learning modes: implicit learning, explicit hypothesis testing learning, and implicit-to-explicit knowledge extraction. Contrary to the common tendency in the literature to study each type of learning in isolation, this paper highlights the interaction among them and various effects of the interaction on learning, including the synergy effect. This work advocates an integrated model of skill learning that takes into account both implicit and explicit learning processes; moreover, it also uniquely embodies a bottom-up (implicit-to-explicit) learning approach in addition to other types of learning. The paper shows that this model accounts for various effects in the human behavioural data from the psychological experiments with the process control task, in addition to accounting for other data in other psychological experiments (which has been reported elsewhere). The paper shows that to account for these effects, implicit learning, bottom-up implicit-to-explicit extraction and explicit hypothesis testing learning are all needed.

  2. Instructional design in a chemistry laboratory course: The impact of structure and aptitudes on performance and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert B.

    Elements of instructional design such as explicitly stated objectives, reviews, examples, questions, and feedback were incorporated into the laboratory manual and instruction for a unit on kinetics in a college laboratory course. This treatment (high structure) was given to five sections of students (N = 109), while a laboratory manual and instructions that emphasized informational content without the use of these design strategies (low structure) was given to another five sections (N = 108) taught by the same instructors. The students receiving the additional structure scored significantly higher on a quiz, took less time to solve a set of laboratory problems, and felt more satisfied with the instruction provided. There were no differences between groups in their comfort with the knowledge acquired. There were no interactions with performance outcomes, but several occurred for attitudes, treatments, and personality measures. The more conforming the students, the more satisfied they were with the instruction in the high-structured group and the less they liked it in the low-structured group. The more motivated the students, the more they liked the instruction in the high-structure treatment, and even more in the low-structure group. There was also a complex interaction among treatment, anxiety, ability, and treatment satisfaction.

  3. Under what conditions does explicit knowledge of a second language facilitate the acquisition of implicit knowledge? A research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; de Graaff, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes nine hypotheses fur empirical research aiming to assess under which conditions explicit grammar instruction helps the acquisition of implicit knowledge of a second language. The results of empirical studies, designed m the basis of these hypothesis, may replace the unqualified

  4. Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms of Word Learning in a Narrative Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of word meanings are learned simply by extracting them from context rather than by rote memorization or explicit instruction. Although this skill is remarkable, little is known about the brain mechanisms involved. In the present study, ERPs were recorded as participants read stories in which pseudowords were presented multiple…

  5. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  6. Brain Networks of Explicit and Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Are explicit versus implicit learning mechanisms reflected in the brain as distinct neural structures, as previous research indicates, or are they distinguished by brain networks that involve overlapping systems with differential connectivity? In this functional MRI study we examined the neural correlates of explicit and implicit learning of artificial grammar sequences. Using effective connectivity analyses we found that brain networks of different connectivity underlie the two types of learning: while both processes involve activation in a set of cortical and subcortical structures, explicit learners engage a network that uses the insula as a key mediator whereas implicit learners evoke a direct frontal-striatal network. Individual differences in working memory also differentially impact the two types of sequence learning. PMID:22952624

  7. Effect of phosphatidylcholine on explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, S L; Sommer, S A; LaBerge, S; Toscano, W

    1993-12-01

    Previous studies have not demonstrated a consistent relationship between precursors to acetylcholine (ACh) and memory function in normal human subjects. This experiment (N = 80, college students) employed a double-blind mixed design to test the effect of phosphatidylcholine (PCh) on explicit memory. Dose of placebo and PCh was compared at two levels (10 and 25 g) as was time of testing postingestion (60 and 90 min). With 25 g of PCh, which supplies 3.75 g of choline, significant improvement in explicit memory, as measured by a serial learning task, was observed at 90 min postingestion and slight improvement was observed at 60 min postigestion. Further analyses indicated that this improvement may have been due to the responses of slow learners. This is the first study to test the relationship between a single dose of PCh and explicit memory on normal human subjects.

  8. Implicit and explicit self-esteem as concurrent predictors of suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether explicit and implicit self-esteem, the interaction between these two constructs, and their discrepancy are associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the Name Letter Task to measure implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to assess explicit self-esteem. The results indicated that explicit but not implicit self-esteem was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. The interaction of implicit and explicit self-esteem was associated with suicidal ideation, indicating that participants with high implicit self-esteem combined with a low explicit self-esteem showed more suicidal ideation. Furthermore, the size of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem was positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, results showed that the direction of the discrepancy is an important: damaged self-esteem (high implicit self-esteem combined with low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness, while defensive or fragile self-esteem (high explicit and low implicit self-esteem) was not. Together, these findings provide new insights into the relationship of implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct Problem-Based Learning (DPBL): A Framework for Integrating Direct Instruction and Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarno, Sri; Muthu, Kalaiarasi Sonai; Ling, Lew Sook

    2018-01-01

    Direct instruction approach has been widely used in higher education. Many studies revealed that direct instruction improved students' knowledge. The characteristics of direct instruction include the subject delivered through face-to-face interaction with the lecturers and materials that sequenced deliberately and taught explicitly. However,…

  10. Explicit Precedence Constraints in Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Noulard, Eric; Pagetti, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Safety-critical Java (SCJ) aims at making the amenities of Java available for the development of safety-critical applications. The multi-rate synchronous language Prelude facilitates the specification of the communication and timing requirements of complex real-time systems. This paper combines...... to provide explicit support for precedence constraints. We present the considerations behind the design of this extension and discuss our experiences with a first prototype implementation based on the SCJ implementation of the Java Optimized Processor....

  11. Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2008-01-01

    In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...

  12. New explicit expressions for Dirac bilinears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    We derive new explicit expressions for the Dirac bilinears based on a generic representation of the massive Dirac spinors with canonical polarization. These bilinears depend on a direction n in Minkowski space which specifies the form of dynamics. We argue that such a dependence is unavoidable in a relativistic theory with spin, since it originates from Wigner rotation effects. Contrary to most of the expressions found in the literature, ours are valid for all momenta and canonical polarizations of the spinors. As a byproduct, we also obtain a generic explicit expression for the covariant spin vector.

  13. Electromagnetic radiation under explicit symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhiraj; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-04-10

    We report our observation that radiation from a system of accelerating charges is possible only when there is explicit breaking of symmetry in the electric field in space within the spatial configuration of the radiating system. Under symmetry breaking, current within an enclosed area around the radiating structure is not conserved at a certain instant of time resulting in radiation in free space. Electromagnetic radiation from dielectric and piezoelectric material based resonators are discussed in this context. Finally, it is argued that symmetry of a resonator of any form can be explicitly broken to create a radiating antenna.

  14. Dissociating Explicit and Implicit Timing in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Evidence from Bisection and Foreperiod Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mioni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A consistent body of literature reported that Parkinson’s disease (PD is marked by severe deficits in temporal processing. However, the exact nature of timing problems in PD patients is still elusive. In particular, what remains unclear is whether the temporal dysfunction observed in PD patients regards explicit and/or implicit timing. Explicit timing tasks require participants to attend to the duration of the stimulus, whereas in implicit timing tasks no explicit instruction to process time is received but time still affects performance. In the present study, we investigated temporal ability in PD by comparing 20 PD participants and 20 control participants in both explicit and implicit timing tasks. Specifically, we used a time bisection task to investigate explicit timing and a foreperiod task for implicit timing. Moreover, this is the first study investigating sequential effects in PD participants. Results showed preserved temporal ability in PD participants in the implicit timing task only (i.e., normal foreperiod and sequential effects. By contrast, PD participants failed in the explicit timing task as they displayed shorter perceived durations and higher variability compared to controls. Overall, the dissociation reported here supports the idea that timing can be differentiated according to whether it is explicitly or implicitly processed, and that PD participants are selectively impaired in the explicit processing of time.

  15. Does Supplemental Instruction Support the Transition from Spanish to English Reading Instruction for First-Grade English Learners at Risk of Reading Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Doris Luft; Burns, Darci; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott King

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of 30 min of small group explicit instruction on reading outcomes for first-grade Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) at risk of reading difficulties. Participants were 78 ELs from seven schools who were receiving Spanish only, or Spanish and English, whole group reading instruction in first grade. Students were…

  16. Sexually explicit media use and relationship satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veit, Maria; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Hald, Gert Martin

    2017-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional questionnaire design and a sample of 2284 coupled Croatian adults, this study investigated the association between Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) use and relationship satisfaction. Further, possible moderation of emotional intimacy on the relationship between SEM use and re...

  17. Uncertainty in spatially explicit animal dispersal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Wolf M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Uncertainty in estimates of survival of dispersing animals is a vexing difficulty in conservation biology. The current notion is that this uncertainty decreases the usefulness of spatially explicit population models in particular. We examined this problem by comparing dispersal models of three levels of complexity: (1) an event-based binomial model that considers only the occurrence of mortality or arrival, (2) a temporally explicit exponential model that employs mortality and arrival rates, and (3) a spatially explicit grid-walk model that simulates the movement of animals through an artificial landscape. Each model was fitted to the same set of field data. A first objective of the paper is to illustrate how the maximum-likelihood method can be used in all three cases to estimate the means and confidence limits for the relevant model parameters, given a particular set of data on dispersal survival. Using this framework we show that the structure of the uncertainty for all three models is strikingly similar. In fact, the results of our unified approach imply that spatially explicit dispersal models, which take advantage of information on landscape details, suffer less from uncertainly than do simpler models. Moreover, we show that the proposed strategy of model development safeguards one from error propagation in these more complex models. Finally, our approach shows that all models related to animal dispersal, ranging from simple to complex, can be related in a hierarchical fashion, so that the various approaches to modeling such dispersal can be viewed from a unified perspective.

  18. Refinement of protein structures in explicit solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linge, J.P.; Williams, M.A.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Nilges, M.

    2003-01-01

    We present a CPU efficient protocol for refinement of protein structures in a thin layer of explicit solvent and energy parameters with completely revised dihedral angle terms. Our approach is suitable for protein structures determined by theoretical (e.g., homology modeling or threading) or

  19. Antichrist, Explicit Sex, Anxiety, and Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes how von Trier's Antichrist uses explicit sex to discuss the relation between fear of human embodiment and a longing for care and spiritual intimacy. It discusses how lyrical episodes contrasts descriptions of embodied degradation and experiences of being imprisoned in the body....

  20. Explicit and implicit assessment of gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Ángeles; Escorial, Sergio; Privado, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Gender roles have been assessed by explicit measures and, recently, by implicit measures. In the former case, the theoretical assumptions have been questioned by empirical results. To solve this contradiction, we carried out two concatenated studies based on a relatively well-founded theoretical and empirical approach. The first study was designed to obtain a sample of genderized activities of the domestic sphere by means of an explicit assessment. Forty-two raters (22 women and 20 men, balanced on age, sex, and level of education) took part as raters. In the second study, an implicit assessment of gender roles was carried out, focusing on the response time given to the sample activities obtained from the first study. A total of 164 adults (90 women and 74 men, mean age = 43), with experience in living with a partner and balanced on age, sex, and level of education, participated. Taken together, results show that explicit and implicit assessment converge. The current social reality shows that there is still no equity in some gender roles in the domestic sphere. These consistent results show considerable theoretical and empirical robustness, due to the double implicit and explicit assessment.

  1. Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovidio, J.F.; Kawakami, K.L.; Gaertner, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined how implicit racial associations and explicit racial attitudes of Whites relate to behaviors and impressions in interracial interactions, Specifically, the authors examined how response latency and self-report measures predicted bias and perceptions of bias in verbal

  2. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  3. Measuring Mentalizing Ability: A Within-Subject Comparison between an Explicit and Implicit Version of a Ball Detection Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel D Nijhof

    Full Text Available The concept of mentalizing has been widely studied, but almost exclusively through tasks with explicit instructions. Recent studies suggest that people also mentalize on a more implicit level. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has directly contrasted the effects of implicit and explicit mentalizing processes on an implicit dependent measure within-subjects. We implemented this by using two versions of an object detection task, differing only on secondary catch questions. We hypothesized that if explicit mentalizing relies on complementary processes beyond those underlying implicit mentalizing, this would be reflected in enhanced belief effects in the explicit version. Twenty-eight healthy adults watched movies in which, during the first phase, both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of a ball, and although irrelevant, these beliefs could influence their ball detection reaction times in the second phase. After this response phase, there were occasional catch questions that were different for the explicit and implicit task version. Finally, self-report measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD symptomatology were included, as the literature suggests that ASD is related to a specific deficit in implicit mentalizing. Both in the explicit and implicit version, belief conditions had a significant effect on reaction times, with responses being slower when neither the participant nor the other agent expected the ball to be present compared to all other conditions. Importantly, after the implicit version, participants reported no explicit mentalizing awareness. In our neurotypical sample, ASD symptoms were not found to correlate with either explicit or implicit mentalizing. In conclusion, the reaction time patterns in the explicit and implicit version of the task show strikingly similar effects of mentalizing, indicating that participants processed beliefs to the same extent regardless of whether they

  4. Measuring Mentalizing Ability: A Within-Subject Comparison between an Explicit and Implicit Version of a Ball Detection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Brass, Marcel; Bardi, Lara; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has been widely studied, but almost exclusively through tasks with explicit instructions. Recent studies suggest that people also mentalize on a more implicit level. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has directly contrasted the effects of implicit and explicit mentalizing processes on an implicit dependent measure within-subjects. We implemented this by using two versions of an object detection task, differing only on secondary catch questions. We hypothesized that if explicit mentalizing relies on complementary processes beyond those underlying implicit mentalizing, this would be reflected in enhanced belief effects in the explicit version. Twenty-eight healthy adults watched movies in which, during the first phase, both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of a ball, and although irrelevant, these beliefs could influence their ball detection reaction times in the second phase. After this response phase, there were occasional catch questions that were different for the explicit and implicit task version. Finally, self-report measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology were included, as the literature suggests that ASD is related to a specific deficit in implicit mentalizing. Both in the explicit and implicit version, belief conditions had a significant effect on reaction times, with responses being slower when neither the participant nor the other agent expected the ball to be present compared to all other conditions. Importantly, after the implicit version, participants reported no explicit mentalizing awareness. In our neurotypical sample, ASD symptoms were not found to correlate with either explicit or implicit mentalizing. In conclusion, the reaction time patterns in the explicit and implicit version of the task show strikingly similar effects of mentalizing, indicating that participants processed beliefs to the same extent regardless of whether they mentalized explicitly or

  5. Performance feedback, paraeducators, and literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Jennifer M; Martin, Emma J

    2014-12-01

    Literacy skills are fundamental for all learners. For students with significant disabilities, strong literacy skills provide a gateway to generative communication, genuine friendships, improved access to academic opportunities, access to information technology, and future employment opportunities. Unfortunately, many educators lack the knowledge to design or implement appropriate evidence-based literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. Furthermore, students with significant disabilities often receive the majority of their instruction from paraeducators. This single-subject design study examined the effects of performance feedback on the delivery skills of paraeducators during systematic and explicit literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. The specific skills targeted for feedback were planned opportunities for student responses and correct academic responses. Findings suggested that delivery of feedback on performance resulted in increased pacing, accuracy in student responses, and subsequent attainment of literacy skills for students with significant disabilities. Implications for the use of performance feedback as an evaluation and training tool for increasing effective instructional practices are provided. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Approximate explicit analytic solution of the Elenbaas-Heller equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Ran; Li, Hui; Xia, Wei-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The Elenbaas-Heller equation describing the temperature field of a cylindrically symmetrical non-radiative electric arc has been solved, and approximate explicit analytic solutions are obtained. The radial distributions of the heat-flux potential and the electrical conductivity have been figured out briefly by using some special simplification techniques. The relations between both the core heat-flux potential and the electric field with the total arc current have also been given in several easy explicit formulas. Besides, the special voltage-ampere characteristic of electric arcs is explained intuitionally by a simple expression involving the Lambert W-function. The analyses also provide a preliminary estimation of the Joule heating per unit length, which has been verified in previous investigations. Helium arc is used to examine the theories, and the results agree well with the numerical computations.

  7. Explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities: The role of contact and participant demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Aidan J; Choudhury, Tanveen; Wilson, Michelle; Collerton, Eleanor; Patel, Maya; Scior, Katrina

    2017-11-23

    Intellectual disability research has concentrated on self-reported explicit attitudes with little focus on implicit attitudes. Such attitudes are evaluations which occur with or without conscious awareness, respectively. This investigation examined participants' (N = 234) attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities with reference to participants' gender, age, level of education, frequency of contact and closeness. UK adults completed explicit (ATTID) and implicit attitude (ST-IAT) measures, and provided demographics via an online survey. Participant demographics predicted explicit attitudes-with differing cognitive, affective and behavioural associations. Contact frequency was most significant. Implicit attitudes were not predicted, evidencing implicit-explicit attitude differences. The results encourage more implicit-explicit attitude relationship research regarding disability. The associations between demographics, contact and implicit attitudes should be explored further. Research should question whether implicit attitudes reflect participants' true beliefs-denoting less importance to demographics-or whether they reflect wider societal values rather than individuals' attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Inquiry-Based Instruction and Teaching About Nature of Science: Are They Happening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Daniel K.; Crawford, Barbara A.

    2013-04-01

    Anecdotal accounts from science educators suggest that few teachers are teaching science as inquiry. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this claim. This study aimed to provide evidence-based documentation of the state-of-use of inquiry-based instruction and explicit instruction about nature of science (NOS). We examined the teaching practice and views of inquiry and NOS of 26, well-qualified and highly motivated 5th-9th-grade teachers from across the country in order to establish the extent to which their views and practice aligned with ideas in reform-based documents. We used a mixed-methods approach analyzing lesson descriptions, classroom observations, videotape data, questionnaires, and interviews to assess teaching practice and views of inquiry and NOS of these teachers. We also determined the relationships between teachers' views and their teaching practice. Findings indicated the majority of these teachers held limited views of inquiry-based instruction and NOS. In general, these views were reflected in their teaching practice. Elements of inquiry including abilities, understandings, and essential features were observed or described in less than half the classrooms. Most commonly, teachers focused on basic abilities to do inquiry instead of the essential features or important understandings about inquiry. When aspects of inquiry were present, they were generally teacher-initiated. There was also little evidence of aspects of NOS in teachers' instruction. This study provides empirical evidence for the claim that even some of the best teachers currently struggle to enact reformed-based teaching. Further, it highlights the critical need for an agreement upon definition of inquiry-based instruction and the need to develop appropriate and feasible assessments that specifically target inquiry to track changes in teachers' views and practice. Important implications include the heightened need for rigorous and continuous professional development

  9. Evaluating the relationship between explicit and implicit drinking identity centrality and hazardous drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P. Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  10. Using an Instructional Design Model to Teach Medical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lawrence

    Educators are often tasked with developing courses and curricula that teach learners how to perform medical procedures. This instruction must provide an optimal, uniform learning experience for all learners. If not well designed, this instruction risks being unstructured, informal, variable amongst learners, or incomplete. This article shows how an instructional design model can help craft courses and curricula to optimize instruction in performing medical procedures. Educators can use this as a guide to developing their own course instruction.

  11. Evaluating the Relationship between Explicit and Implicit Drinking Identity Centrality and Hazardous Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Namaky, Nauder; Olin, Cecilia C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-12-01

    Drinking identity strength (how strongly one views oneself as a drinker) is a promising risk factor for hazardous drinking. A critical next step is to investigate whether the centrality of drinking identity (i.e., the relative importance of drinking vs. other identity domains, like well-being, relationships, education) also plays a role. Thus, we developed explicit and implicit measures of drinking identity centrality and evaluated them as predictors of hazardous drinking after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. Two studies were conducted (Ns = 360 and 450, respectively). Participants, who self-identified as full-time students, completed measures of explicit identity strength, explicit and implicit centrality, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Study 1a evaluated two variants of the implicit measure (short- vs. long-format of the Multi-category Implicit Association Test); Study 1b only included the long form and also assessed alcohol consumption. In Study 1a, implicit and explicit centrality measures were positively and significantly associated with AUDIT scores after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. There were no significant differences in the implicit measure variants, but the long format had slightly higher internal consistency. In Study 1b, results replicated for explicit, but not implicit, centrality. These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  12. Sending Nudes: Sex, Self-Rated Mate Value, and Trait Machiavellianism Predict Sending Unsolicited Explicit Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evita March

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern dating platforms have given rise to new dating and sexual behaviors. In the current study, we examine predictors of sending unsolicited explicit images, a particularly underexplored online sexual behavior. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of dark personality traits (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism and self-rated mate value in predicting attitudes toward and behavior of sending unsolicited explicit images. Two hundred and forty participants (72% female; Mage = 25.96, SD = 9.79 completed an online questionnaire which included a measure of self-rated mate value, a measure of dark personality traits, and questions regarding sending unsolicited explicit images (operationalized as the explicit image scale. Men, compared to women, were found to have higher explicit image scale scores, and both self-rated mate value and trait Machiavellianism were positive predictors of explicit image scale scores. Interestingly, there were no significant interactions between sex and these variables. Further, Machiavellianism mediated all relationships between other dark traits and explicit image scale scores, indicating this behavior is best explained by the personality trait associated with behavioral strategies. In sum, these results provide support for the premise that sending unsolicited explicit images may be a tactic of a short-term mating strategy; however, future research should further explore this claim.

  13. Evaluating the Relationship between Explicit and Implicit Drinking Identity Centrality and Hazardous Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Ramirez, Jason J.; Namaky, Nauder; Olin, Cecilia C.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Drinking identity strength (how strongly one views oneself as a drinker) is a promising risk factor for hazardous drinking. A critical next step is to investigate whether the centrality of drinking identity (i.e., the relative importance of drinking vs. other identity domains, like well-being, relationships, education) also plays a role. Thus, we developed explicit and implicit measures of drinking identity centrality and evaluated them as predictors of hazardous drinking after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. Methods Two studies were conducted (Ns = 360 and 450, respectively). Participants, who self-identified as full-time students, completed measures of explicit identity strength, explicit and implicit centrality, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Study 1a evaluated two variants of the implicit measure (short- vs. long-format of the Multi-category Implicit Association Test); Study 1b only included the long form and also assessed alcohol consumption. Results In Study 1a, implicit and explicit centrality measures were positively and significantly associated with AUDIT scores after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. There were no significant differences in the implicit measure variants, but the long format had slightly higher internal consistency. In Study 1b, results replicated for explicit, but not implicit, centrality. Conclusions These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies. PMID:28603766

  14. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  15. Psychometric Intelligence Dissociates Implicit and Explicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Guido F.; Mackintosh, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that performance on implicit learning tasks is unrelated to psychometric intelligence was examined in a sample of 605 German pupils. Performance in artificial grammar learning, process control, and serial learning did not correlate with various measures of intelligence when participants were given standard implicit instructions.…

  16. Explicit formulas for regularized products and series

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgenson, Jay; Goldfeld, Dorian

    1994-01-01

    The theory of explicit formulas for regularized products and series forms a natural continuation of the analytic theory developed in LNM 1564. These explicit formulas can be used to describe the quantitative behavior of various objects in analytic number theory and spectral theory. The present book deals with other applications arising from Gaussian test functions, leading to theta inversion formulas and corresponding new types of zeta functions which are Gaussian transforms of theta series rather than Mellin transforms, and satisfy additive functional equations. Their wide range of applications includes the spectral theory of a broad class of manifolds and also the theory of zeta functions in number theory and representation theory. Here the hyperbolic 3-manifolds are given as a significant example.

  17. Implicit and explicit memory bias in anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A; Mogg, K; May, J; Eysenck, M

    1989-08-01

    Previous investigations of recall and recognition for threatening information in clinically anxious subjects have yielded equivocal results. The present study contrasts implicit (word completion) with explicit (cued recall) memory and shows that indices of bias for emotional material derived from the two types of memory are independent of one another. The explicit measure was correlated with trait anxiety scores, but did not clearly distinguish between subjects with clinical anxiety states and normal control subjects. On the implicit memory measure, clinically anxious subjects produced more threat word completions, but only from a set to which they had recently been exposed. These results are taken as evidence that internal representations of threat words are more readily or more persistently activated in anxiety states, although they are not necessarily better elaborated.

  18. Explicit mentalizing mechanisms and their adaptive role in memory conformity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wheeler

    Full Text Available Memory conformity occurs when an individual endorses what other individuals remember about past events. Research on memory conformity is currently dominated by a 'forensic' perspective, which views the phenomenon as inherently undesirable. This is because conformity not only distorts the accuracy of an individual's memory, but also produces false corroboration between individuals, effects that act to undermine criminal justice systems. There is growing awareness, however, that memory conformity may be interpreted more generally as an adaptive social behavior regulated by explicit mentalizing mechanisms. Here, we provide novel evidence in support of this emerging alternative theoretical perspective. We carried out a memory conformity experiment which revealed that explicit belief-simulation (i.e. using one's own beliefs to model what other people believe systematically biases conformity towards like-minded individuals, even when there is no objective evidence that they have a more accurate memory than dissimilar individuals. We suggest that this bias is functional, i.e. adaptive, to the extent that it fosters trust, and hence cooperation, between in-group versus out-group individuals. We conclude that memory conformity is, in more fundamental terms, a highly desirable product of explicit mentalizing mechanisms that promote adaptive forms of social learning and cooperation.

  19. Explicit mentalizing mechanisms and their adaptive role in memory conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Rebecca; Allan, Kevin; Tsivilis, Dimitris; Martin, Douglas; Gabbert, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Memory conformity occurs when an individual endorses what other individuals remember about past events. Research on memory conformity is currently dominated by a 'forensic' perspective, which views the phenomenon as inherently undesirable. This is because conformity not only distorts the accuracy of an individual's memory, but also produces false corroboration between individuals, effects that act to undermine criminal justice systems. There is growing awareness, however, that memory conformity may be interpreted more generally as an adaptive social behavior regulated by explicit mentalizing mechanisms. Here, we provide novel evidence in support of this emerging alternative theoretical perspective. We carried out a memory conformity experiment which revealed that explicit belief-simulation (i.e. using one's own beliefs to model what other people believe) systematically biases conformity towards like-minded individuals, even when there is no objective evidence that they have a more accurate memory than dissimilar individuals. We suggest that this bias is functional, i.e. adaptive, to the extent that it fosters trust, and hence cooperation, between in-group versus out-group individuals. We conclude that memory conformity is, in more fundamental terms, a highly desirable product of explicit mentalizing mechanisms that promote adaptive forms of social learning and cooperation.

  20. Implicit and explicit memory bias in anxiety: a conceptual replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C; McLaughlin, K

    1995-01-01

    Williams, Watts, MacLeod and Mathews' (1988) [Cognitive psychology and the emotional disorders. Chichester, Wiley] model of anxiety and cognition leads to the prediction that anxious subjects will show an implicit, but not an explicit, memory advantage for threat-related information. Mathews, Mogg, May and Eysenck (1989) [Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 401-407] obtained marginally significant support for this prediction in an experiment that tested memory using word stem completion tasks following a self-referent encoding procedure. However, neither the reliability nor generality of these findings have been established. The current experiment was designed to provide a conceptual replication of Mathews et al.'s study, using different tests of implicit memory (i.e. tachistoscopic identification) and explicit memory (i.e. recognition) and an alternative type of encoding task (i.e. colour naming stimulus words). 16 generalised anxiety disorder patients, and 16 non-anxious control subjects were tested. As predicted, the anxiety patients showed a relative implicit memory advantage for threat-related stimulus words, while the two subject groups did not differ in their pattern of explicit memory performance. These results support the predictions generated by Williams et al.'s model of anxiety and cognition.

  1. Extrapolated stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vaquero, J.; Kleefeld, B.

    2016-12-01

    Extrapolated Stabilized Explicit Runge-Kutta methods (ESERK) are proposed to solve multi-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In such methods it is necessary to evaluate the function nt times per step, but the stability region is O (nt2). Hence, the computational cost is O (nt) times lower than for a traditional explicit algorithm. In that way stiff problems can be integrated by the use of simple explicit evaluations in which case implicit methods usually had to be used. Therefore, they are especially well-suited for the method of lines (MOL) discretizations of parabolic nonlinear multi-dimensional PDEs. In this work, first s-stages first-order methods with extended stability along the negative real axis are obtained. They have slightly shorter stability regions than other traditional first-order stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta algorithms (also called Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes). Later, they are used to derive nt-stages second- and fourth-order schemes using Richardson extrapolation. The stability regions of these fourth-order codes include the interval [ - 0.01nt2, 0 ] (nt being the number of total functions evaluations), which are shorter than stability regions of ROCK4 methods, for example. However, the new algorithms neither suffer from propagation of errors (as other Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes as ROCK4 or DUMKA) nor internal instabilities. Additionally, many other types of higher-order (and also lower-order) methods can be obtained easily in a similar way. These methods also allow adaptation of the length step with no extra cost. Hence, the stability domain is adapted precisely to the spectrum of the problem at the current time of integration in an optimal way, i.e., with minimal number of additional stages. We compare the new techniques with other well-known algorithms with good results in very stiff diffusion or reaction-diffusion multi-dimensional nonlinear equations.

  2. Isogeometric Collocation for Elastostatics and Explicit Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    of stresses at quadrature points. In this case, storage and compute cost are directly pro- portional to the number of quadrature points. Typical...that is, the one-point Gauss rule. This minimizes storage of stresses and the number of constitutive evaluations and results in an efficient...We confirm the higher-order con- vergence rates of the explicit multi-corrector method on a one-dimensional example and a two dimensional plane strain

  3. Sleep enhances explicit recollection in recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of memories, with the different sleep stages affecting different types of memory. In the present study, we used the process-dissociation procedure to...

  4. Explicit solvers in an implicit code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Montesinos, Beatriz; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Many geodynamic processes occur over long timescales (millions of years), and are best solved with implicit solvers. Yet, some processes, such as hydrofracking, or wave propagation, occur over smaller timescales. In those cases, it might be advantageous to use an explicit rather than an implicit approach as it requires significantly less memory and computational costs. Here, we discuss our ongoing work to include explicit solvers in the parallel software package LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model). As a first step, we focus on modelling seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous 3D poro-elasto-plastic models. To do that, we add inertial terms to the momentum equations as well as elastic compressibility to the mass conservation equations in an explicit way using the staggered grid finite difference discretization method. Results are similar to that of existing wave propagation codes and are capable to simulate wave propagation in heterogeneous media. To simulate geomechanical problems, timestep restrictions posed by the seismic wave speed are usually too severe to allow simulating deformation on a timescale of months-years. The classical (FLAC) method introduces a mass-density scaling in which a non-physical (larger) density is employed in the momentum equations. We will discuss how this method fits simple benchmarks for elastic and elastoplastic deformation. As an application, we use the code to model different complex media subject to compression and we investigate how mass scaling influence in our results.

  5. Towards an explicit account of implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkstam, Christian; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2005-08-01

    The human brain supports acquisition mechanisms that can extract structural regularities implicitly from experience without the induction of an explicit model. Reber defined the process by which an individual comes to respond appropriately to the statistical structure of the input ensemble as implicit learning. He argued that the capacity to generalize to new input is based on the acquisition of abstract representations that reflect underlying structural regularities in the acquisition input. We focus this review of the implicit learning literature on studies published during 2004 and 2005. We will not review studies of repetition priming ('implicit memory'). Instead we focus on two commonly used experimental paradigms: the serial reaction time task and artificial grammar learning. Previous comprehensive reviews can be found in Seger's 1994 article and the Handbook of Implicit Learning. Emerging themes include the interaction between implicit and explicit processes, the role of the medial temporal lobe, developmental aspects of implicit learning, age-dependence, the role of sleep and consolidation. The attempts to characterize the interaction between implicit and explicit learning are promising although not well understood. The same can be said about the role of sleep and consolidation. Despite the fact that lesion studies have relatively consistently suggested that the medial temporal lobe memory system is not necessary for implicit learning, a number of functional magnetic resonance studies have reported medial temporal lobe activation in implicit learning. This issue merits further research. Finally, the clinical relevance of implicit learning remains to be determined.

  6. Age effects on explicit and implicit memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eWard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that explicit memory (e.g., recognition declines with age. In contrast, many argue that implicit memory (e.g., priming is preserved in healthy aging. For example, priming on tasks such as perceptual identification is often not statistically different in groups of young and older adults. Such observations are commonly taken as evidence for distinct explicit and implicit learning/memory systems. In this article we discuss several lines of evidence that challenge this view. We describe how patterns of differential age-related decline may arise from differences in the ways in which the two forms of memory are commonly measured, and review recent research suggesting that under improved measurement methods, implicit memory is not age-invariant. Formal computational models are of considerable utility in revealing the nature of underlying systems. We report the results of applying single and multiple-systems models to data on age effects in implicit and explicit memory. Model comparison clearly favours the single-system view. Implications for the memory systems debate are discussed.

  7. Learning to Express Gratitude in Mandarin Chinese through Web-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of a self-access website as a tool to teach expressions of gratitude to learners of Mandarin Chinese. The web-based instruction included explicit instruction on how to express gratitude appropriately in Mandarin and various consciousness-raising exercises/activities. Two groups of learners who differed in…

  8. Optimising assembly learning in older adults through the manipulation of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Looze, M.P. de

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation assessed the putative benefits of reducing instructions for older adults' learning of an assembly task. Young and older adults had to build a product by assembling six components. Two groups practiced following instruction methods that differed in the degree of explicit

  9. Nurturing Self-Regulated Learners: Teacher, Peer, and Parental Support of Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Willems, Patricia P.

    2016-01-01

    Current educational needs call for learners who are self-directed and able to engage in problem solving and higher order thinking. However, most students are not getting explicit and systematic instruction to promote development of learning strategies that can advance these goals. Educators need to cultivate strategy instruction techniques that…

  10. Effects of task instruction on autobiographical memory specificity in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Rubin, David C; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    Older adults tend to retrieve autobiographical information that is overly general (i.e., not restricted to a single event, termed the overgenerality effect) relative to young adults' specific memories. A vast majority of studies that have reported overgenerality effects explicitly instruct participants to retrieve specific memories, thereby requiring participants to maintain task goals, inhibit inappropriate responses, and control their memory search. Since these processes are impaired in healthy ageing, it is important to determine whether such task instructions influence the magnitude of the overgenerality effect in older adults. In the current study participants retrieved autobiographical memories during presentation of musical clips. Task instructions were manipulated to separate age-related differences in the specificity of underlying memory representations from age-related differences in following task instructions. Whereas young adults modulated memory specificity based on task demands, older adults did not. These findings suggest that reported rates of overgenerality in older adults' memories might include age-related differences in memory representation, as well as differences in task compliance. Such findings provide a better understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved in age-related changes in autobiographical memory and may also be valuable for future research examining effects of overgeneral memory on general well-being.

  11. Effects of Task Instruction on Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Rubin, David C.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults tend to retrieve autobiographical information that is overly general (i.e. not restricted to a single event, termed the overgenerality effect) relative to young adults’ specific memories. A vast majority of studies that have reported overgenerality effects explicitly instruct participants to retrieve specific memories, thereby requiring participants to maintain task goals, inhibit inappropriate responses, and control their memory search. Since these processes are impaired in healthy aging, it is important to determine whether such task instructions influence the magnitude of the overgenerality effect in older adults. In the current study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories during presentation of musical clips. Task instructions were manipulated to separate age-related differences in the specificity of underlying memory representations from age-related differences in following task instructions. Whereas young adults modulated memory specificity based on task demands, older adults did not. These findings suggest that reported rates of overgenerality in older adults’ memories may include age-related differences in memory representation, as well as differences in task compliance. Such findings provide a better understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved in age-related changes in autobiographical memory and may also be valuable for future research examining effects of overgeneral memory on general well-being. PMID:23915176

  12. Explicit speech segmentation and syllabic onset structure: developmental trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelson, P; de Gelder, B; van Zon, M

    1997-01-01

    Recent applications of the hierarchical theory of the syllable to the development of explicit speech segmentation are critically examined. One particular prediction, that an initial consonant is more easily isolated when it constitutes the complete onset of a syllable than when it is part of a cluster onset, was tested on children with grade levels ranging from kindergarten to second grade. At each level, two independent groups of children worked with either CVCC (first consonant complete onset) or CCVC (part of cluster onset) syllables. First- and second-graders performed better on the CVCC than on the CCVC material in an initial consonant deletion task, but not when the task was comparison on the basis of that consonant. With the same instructions as the older children, kindergarten children performed at floor level on both tasks with both materials. However, in a new experiment in which the deletion task was presented as a puppet game, and with pretraining and selection on vowel deletion, a significantly higher level of success was achieved by the children working with the CVCC material. These results are consistent with the notion of developmental precedence of onset segmentation on phoneme segmentation. On the other hand, the results of the first and second graders show that onset superiority is not specific for the pre-reading stage.

  13. Integrating Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction into EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…

  14. ICT Education for Teachers and ICT Supported Instruction: Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    explicitly discussed. Equally, the various strategies information and communication technologies are used to support instructional delivery, as well as the associated problems of ICT applications in education were also reviewed. To dress this piece further, the prospects of ICT application in Nigeria education system was ...

  15. Memory Strategy Instruction, Contextual Learning and ESP Vocabulary Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…

  16. Instruction and Pragmatic Change during Study Abroad Email Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcón-Soler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the effect of instruction and study abroad (SA) on pragmatic knowledge. More specifically, the focus is on gains in explicit knowledge of request mitigators, and whether learners draw on this knowledge when they perform email requests. Email requests produced by 60 Spanish students staying abroad (30 treatment/30 control…

  17. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  18. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vander Heyden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and girls’ underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., ‘spatial ability is for boys’ in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT. Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest – instruction – posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children’s spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding. The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children’s choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  19. Metabolic Instruction of Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Michael D; Sowell, Ryan T; Kaech, Susan M; Pearce, Erika L

    2017-05-04

    Choices have consequences. Immune cells survey and migrate throughout the body and sometimes take residence in niche environments with distinct communities of cells, extracellular matrix, and nutrients that may differ from those in which they matured. Imbedded in immune cell physiology are metabolic pathways and metabolites that not only provide energy and substrates for growth and survival, but also instruct effector functions, differentiation, and gene expression. This review of immunometabolism will reference the most recent literature to cover the choices that environments impose on the metabolism and function of immune cells and highlight their consequences during homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Software Engineering Design Principles Applied to Instructional Design: What Can We Learn from Our Sister Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nor Hafizah; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2018-01-01

    The failure of many instructional design initiatives is often attributed to poor instructional design. Current instructional design models do not provide much insight into design processes for creating e-learning instructional solutions. Given the similarities between the fields of instructional design and software engineering, instructional…

  1. Standardized instructions urged for OCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    FDA has developed standardized, simplified instructions for all brands of combined estrogen and progestogen oral contraceptives (OCs) to help reduce unplanned pregnancies. FDA asked manufacturers in April to incorporate these changes into patient package inserts as soon as possible. Since current instructions vary significantly from brand to brand, problems can occur when women switch brands and compare instructions. If they become confused, women may either take the pills incorrectly or stop altogether, risking an unwanted pregnancy. In addition to reducing patients' confusion about correct use, the new recommended instructions reflect current research on the effective use of OCs. An important change concerns when women should start taking pills. The new instructions provide only 2 options (current instructions provide more): either start on day 1 of the next normal menstrual cycle ("Day 1 Start") or on the 1st Sunday after the next cycle begins ("Sunday Start"). Although the "Sunday Start" option is popular, the "Day 1 Start" has been shown to be more effective since back-up contraceptive methods are not required for the 1st week, as they are for the "Sunday Start." Other changes in the patient package insert simplify and clarify the instructions when different numbers of pills are missed. Any patient who is unsure about what to do when pills are missed is told to use a back-up method of birth control and to keep taking pills with hormones until she van consult with a health professional. The new labeling also advises women to consult a health professional regarding other methods of contraception if taking a daily pill is a problem. These new directions for patients are for combination pills and do not apply to progestin-only OCs. FDA is still developing new labeling for them. FDA's Fertility and Maternal Health Advisory Committee recommended on FEb. 8, 1991, that the agency ask manufacturers of OCs to make these changes in the patient package insert. full text

  2. Implicit and explicit timing in oculomotor control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhame Ameqrane

    Full Text Available The passage of time can be estimated either explicitly, e.g. before leaving home in the morning, or implicitly, e.g. when catching a flying ball. In the present study, the latency of saccadic eye movements was used to evaluate differences between implicit and explicit timing. Humans were required to make a saccade between a central and a peripheral position on a computer screen. The delay between the extinction of a central target and the appearance of an eccentric target was the independent variable that could take one out of four different values (400, 900, 1400 or 1900 ms. In target trials, the delay period lasted for one of the four durations randomly. At the end of the delay, a saccade was initiated by the appearance of an eccentric target. Cue&target trials were similar to target trials but the duration of the delay was visually cued. In probe trials, the duration of the upcoming delay was cued, but there was no eccentric target and subjects had to internally generate a saccade at the estimated end of the delay. In target and cue&target trials, the mean and variance of latency distributions decreased as delay duration increased. In cue&target trials latencies were shorter. In probe trials, the variance increased with increasing delay duration and scalar variability was observed. The major differences in saccadic latency distributions were observed between visually-guided (target and cue&target trials and internally-generated saccades (probe trials. In target and cue&target trials the timing of the response was implicit. In probe trials, the timing of the response was internally-generated and explicitly based on the duration of the visual cue. Scalar timing was observed only during probe trials. This study supports the hypothesis that there is no ubiquitous timing system in the brain but independent timing processes active depending on task demands.

  3. Spatially explicit non-Mendelian diploid model

    OpenAIRE

    Lanchier, N.; Neuhauser, C.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a spatially explicit model for the competition between type $a$ and type $b$ alleles. Each vertex of the $d$-dimensional integer lattice is occupied by a diploid individual, which is in one of three possible states or genotypes: $aa$, $ab$ or $bb$. We are interested in the long-term behavior of the gene frequencies when Mendel's law of segregation does not hold. This results in a voter type model depending on four parameters; each of these parameters measures the strength of comp...

  4. Implicit vs explicit renormalization and effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Arriola, E., E-mail: earriola@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Szpigel, S., E-mail: szpigel@mackenzie.br [Faculdade de Computação e Informática, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (Brazil); Timóteo, V.S., E-mail: varese@ft.unicamp.br [Grupo de Óptica e Modelagem Numérica – GOMNI, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP (Brazil)

    2014-01-20

    Effective interactions can be obtained from a renormalization group analysis in two complementary ways. One can either explicitly integrate out higher energy modes or impose given conditions at low energies for a cut-off theory. While the first method is numerically involved, the second one can be solved almost analytically. In both cases we compare the outcoming effective interactions for the two nucleon system as functions of the cut-off scale and find a strikingly wide energy region where both approaches overlap, corresponding to relevant scales in light nuclei Λ≲200 MeV. This amounts to a great simplification in the determination of the effective interaction parameters.

  5. A Model for Designing Library Instruction for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Angela Doucet

    2013-01-01

    Providing library instruction in distance learning environments presents a unique set of challenges for instructional librarians. Innovations in computer-mediated communication and advances in cognitive science research provide the opportunity for designing library instruction that meets a variety of student information seeking needs. Using a…

  6. 34 CFR 300.172 - Access to instructional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide books for adult blind,” approved March 3, 1931, 2 U.S.C. 135a; (ii) National Instructional... instructional materials to blind persons or other persons with print disabilities, in a timely manner after... Secretary that it will provide instructional materials to blind persons or other persons with print...

  7. Skill-related task structures, explicitness, and accountability: relationships with student achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, S; Kulinna, P H; Crull, G

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine relationships of task structures, explicitness, and accountability with student achievement in physical education. The subjects were teachers of 10 physical education classes and their 202 students. Each class participated in instruction that was videotaped, and the students were pre- and posttested. Videotapes were coded to collect data on each skill-related task including the task presentation time, skill being taught, explicitness of the task presentation, primary and secondary accountability systems used, level of student participation, and total task time. Among the many results, for the volleyball forearm pass, significant relationships were found for the total number of tasks and time spent in tasks when expectations included outcome, situation, and criteria-product. For the volleyball underhand serve, significant relationships were found for the total number of tasks and time spent in tasks when accountability included teacher feedback with follow-up and monitoring of off-task behavior.

  8. The Relative Effectiveness of Various Instructional Approaches During the Performance and Learning of Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredin, Viktor; Williams, A Mark

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the relative effectiveness of explicit internal-oriented instructions, explicit external-oriented instructions, and unguided discovery learning on the performance, acquisition, and learning of a motor skill using novice youth soccer players. Thirty-seven players (age = 9.9 ± 0.7 years) underwent 3 × 30 trials of instruction-specific blocks of practice. The accuracy of lofted soccer kicks was assessed under practice conditions (prior to and after the practice period and after each practice block) and transfer conditions (prior to and after the practice period). Our findings indicated that generalized explicit instructions have detrimental effects on performance, whereas the benefits of unguided discovery learning increase with the amount of practice undertaken and when performing under transfer conditions.

  9. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-06-19

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention of any numerical solver and the rule is optimal, that is, it requires minimal number of nodes. Numerical experiments validating the theoretical results and the error estimates of the quadrature rules are also presented.

  10. Does Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) Affect Me?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Træen, Bente; Noor, Syed W

    2015-01-01

    Using a self-selected online sample of 448 Norwegian men who have sex with men(MSM) and a cross-sectional design, the present study investigated first-person effectsof sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption on sexual knowledge, enjoyment of andinterest in sex, attitudes towards sex and underst......Using a self-selected online sample of 448 Norwegian men who have sex with men(MSM) and a cross-sectional design, the present study investigated first-person effectsof sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption on sexual knowledge, enjoyment of andinterest in sex, attitudes towards sex...... Scale (PCES). The study found that 93% of MSM reported smallto-largepositive effects from their SEM consumption on their sexual knowledge,enjoyment of and interest in sex, attitudes towards sex and understanding of theirsexual orientation. Only 7% reported any negative effects from their SEM...... consumptionon these outcomes. Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the revisedversion of the PCES were found to be very satisfactory. The results of the studyindicate that SEM consumption among MSM may play a positive role in MSM’ssexuality by enhancing their sex life, being a major source of sexual...

  11. Scientific Writing: A Blended Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, MaryAnn; Olson, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Scientific writing is composed of a unique skill set and corresponding instructional strategies are critical to foster learning. In an age of technology, the blended instructional model provides the instrumental format for student mastery of the scientific writing competencies. In addition, the course management program affords opportunities for…

  12. Processing Instruction: A Review of Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuki, Muhlisin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help…

  13. Are Individual Differences Undertreated in Instructional Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…

  14. Instructional Design Processes and Traditional Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasser, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…

  15. Individualizing Instruction in Spelling: A Practical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Roger A.; Floyd, Barbara J.

    This book outlines a plan for individualizing instruction in spelling. Part 1 describes how to organize and manage the program and provides examples of instructional materials. Part 2 concerns the ways that students learn to spell words as they work within this individualized spelling program. The appendixes which comprise over half the document,…

  16. Assessing Programming Costs of Explicit Memory Localization on a Large Scale Shared Memory Multiprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Picano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed experimental work involving a commercially available large scale shared memory multiple instruction stream-multiple data stream (MIMD parallel computer having a software controlled cache coherence mechanism. To make effective use of such an architecture, the programmer is responsible for designing the program's structure to match the underlying multiprocessors capabilities. We describe the techniques used to exploit our multiprocessor (the BBN TC2000 on a network simulation program, showing the resulting performance gains and the associated programming costs. We show that an efficient implementation relies heavily on the user's ability to explicitly manage the memory system.

  17. Classes of Instructional Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Merrill, M. David

    1979-01-01

    Describes three classes of variables which should be considered when one is designing instructional materials, doing research on instruction, or developing better methods of instruction, and proposes a classification scheme which is summarized in the last of the 13 figures that illustrate the article. A blbliography is included. (Author/RAO)

  18. Constrained Unfolding of a Helical Peptide: Implicit versus Explicit Solvents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailey R Bureau

    Full Text Available Steered Molecular Dynamics (SMD has been seen to provide the potential of mean force (PMF along a peptide unfolding pathway effectively but at significant computational cost, particularly in all-atom solvents. Adaptive steered molecular dynamics (ASMD has been seen to provide a significant computational advantage by limiting the spread of the trajectories in a staged approach. The contraction of the trajectories at the end of each stage can be performed by taking a structure whose nonequilibrium work is closest to the Jarzynski average (in naive ASMD or by relaxing the trajectories under a no-work condition (in full-relaxation ASMD--namely, FR-ASMD. Both approaches have been used to determine the energetics and hydrogen-bonding structure along the pathway for unfolding of a benchmark peptide initially constrained as an α-helix in a water environment. The energetics are quite different to those in vacuum, but are found to be similar between implicit and explicit solvents. Surprisingly, the hydrogen-bonding pathways are also similar in the implicit and explicit solvents despite the fact that the solvent contact plays an important role in opening the helix.

  19. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  20. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  1. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  2. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  3. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  4. New Approaches to String Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Music, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that use of the Suzuki, Orff, and Dalcroze methods have assisted string teachers in helping music students achieve mastery from the beginning of instruction. Describes how these methods are used by five music teachers. Includes addresses of organizations that provide information about these music teaching methods. CFR)

  5. Integrating remote sensing and spatially explicit epidemiological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Flavio; Knox, Allyn; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Bompangue, Didier; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Spatially explicit epidemiological models are a crucial tool for the prediction of epidemiological patterns in time and space as well as for the allocation of health care resources. In addition they can provide valuable information about epidemiological processes and allow for the identification of environmental drivers of the disease spread. Most epidemiological models rely on environmental data as inputs. They can either be measured in the field by the means of conventional instruments or using remote sensing techniques to measure suitable proxies of the variables of interest. The later benefit from several advantages over conventional methods, including data availability, which can be an issue especially in developing, and spatial as well as temporal resolution of the data, which is particularly crucial for spatially explicit models. Here we present the case study of a spatially explicit, semi-mechanistic model applied to recurring cholera outbreaks in the Lake Kivu area (Democratic Republic of the Congo). The model describes the cholera incidence in eight health zones on the shore of the lake. Remotely sensed datasets of chlorophyll a concentration in the lake, precipitation and indices of global climate anomalies are used as environmental drivers. Human mobility and its effect on the disease spread is also taken into account. Several model configurations are tested on a data set of reported cases. The best models, accounting for different environmental drivers, and selected using the Akaike information criterion, are formally compared via cross validation. The best performing model accounts for seasonality, El Niño Southern Oscillation, precipitation and human mobility.

  6. Reporting tendencies underlie discrepancies between implicit and explicit measures of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H; Hermann, Anthony D

    2007-04-01

    The assumption that implicit measures assess associations that are not accessible to consciousness abounds in current social cognition research. In the present report, we question this assumption, focusing on the construct of implicit self-esteem as a case in point. Although researchers often argue that implicitly measured self-esteem is unconscious, we provide evidence that it is not, and that discrepancies between implicit and explicit measures of self-esteem are the result of reporting tendencies. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals for whom explicitly measured self-esteem is relatively high and implicitly measured self-esteem is relatively low admit to overpresenting themselves. In Study 2, implicit and explicit measures of self-esteem were related when subjects were urged to avoid over- or underpresenting themselves when responding to the explicit measures. We discuss the critical distinction between awareness of one's attitudes and awareness of their influence.

  7. Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem: implications for mate retention strategies and perceived infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fulton, Jessica J; McLemore, Chandler

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the association between explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes was moderated by implicit self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 210 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships to complete measures of their explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, mate retention strategies, and likelihood of future infidelity. Implicit self-esteem was found to moderate the association between high explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes for male participants such that men with discrepant high self-esteem (i.e., high explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem) reported less use of mate retention strategies and perceived a greater likelihood of future infidelity in their relationships during the next year. These findings provide additional support for the idea that fragile self-esteem may have consequences for the manner in which individuals perceive their relationships.

  8. A Comparison of Schools: Teacher Knowledge of Explicit Code-Based Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rebecca A.; Mather, Nancy; Schneider, Deborah A.; White, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    One-hundred-fourteen kindergarten through third-grade teachers from seven different schools were surveyed using "The Survey of Preparedness and Knowledge of Language Structure Related to Teaching Reading to Struggling Students." The purpose was to compare their definitions and application knowledge of language structure, phonics, and…

  9. Teaching High School Students How to Write: The Importance of Direct Explicit Instruction and Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2017-01-01

    Learning how to teach writing is a skill just as learning how to write is a skill. Without a dedicated composition course in Education faculties pre-service teachers are not getting the training they require to be effective teachers of writing. In this report, a case is made for why teachers have to be more aware of how students learn to write and…

  10. Explicit Prewriting Instruction: Effect on Writing Quality of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundeen, Todd H.

    2012-01-01

    Many students with learning disabilities struggle with the writing process throughout their school years. As students approach graduation, effective communication though writing becomes more critical. Writing is a skill that can directly impact the quality of life for older students preparing to graduate and progress to college, a career, or…

  11. The Effects of Implicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit Knowledge Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the evidence for implicit second language (L2) learning, which comes largely from (semi-)artificial language research, to German. Upper-intermediate L2 German learners were flooded with spoken exemplars of a difficult morphological structure, namely strong, vowel-changing verbs. Toward the end of exposure, the mandatory vowel…

  12. Enhancing Divergent Thinking in Visual Arts Education: Effects of Explicit Instruction of Meta-Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Drie, Jannet; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students' creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product. Aims: This study aims to examine the effects…

  13. Enhancing divergent thinking in visual arts education: Effects of explicit instruction of meta-cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, M.-T.; Admiraal, W.; van Drie, J.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students’ creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product.

  14. Fast isogeometric solvers for explicit dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei

    2014-06-01

    In finite element analysis, solving time-dependent partial differential equations with explicit time marching schemes requires repeatedly applying the inverse of the mass matrix. For mass matrices that can be expressed as tensor products of lower dimensional matrices, we present a direct method that has linear computational complexity, i.e., O(N), where N is the total number of degrees of freedom in the system. We refer to these matrices as separable matrices. For non-separable mass matrices, we present a preconditioned conjugate gradient method with carefully designed preconditioners as an alternative. We demonstrate that these preconditioners, which are easy to construct and cheap to apply (O(N)), can deliver significant convergence acceleration. The performances of these preconditioners are independent of the polynomial order (p independence) and mesh resolution (h independence) for maximum continuity B-splines, as verified by various numerical tests. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Explicit model for searching behavior of predator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiutiunov, Iu V; Sapukhina, N Iu; Senina, I N; Arditi, R

    2002-01-01

    The authors present an approach for explicit modeling of spatio-temporal dynamics of predator-prey community. This approach is based on a reaction-diffusion-adjection PD (prey dependent) system. Local kinetics of population is determined by logistic reproduction function of prey, constant natural mortality of predator and Holling type 2 trophic function. Searching behavior of predator is described by the advective term in predator balance equation assuming the predator acceleration to be proportional to the prey density gradient. The model was studied with zero-flux boundary conditions. The influence of predator searching activity on the community dynamics, in particular, on the emergence of spatial heterogeneity, has been investigated by linear analysis and numerical simulations. It has been shown how searching activity may effect the persistence of species, stabilizing predator-prey interactions at very low level of pest density. It has been demonstrated that obtaining of such dynamic regimes does not require the use of complex trophic functions.

  16. Drawing explicit phylogenetic networks and their integration into SplitsTree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huson Daniel H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SplitsTree provides a framework for the calculation of phylogenetic trees and networks. It contains a wide variety of methods for the import/export, calculation and visualization of phylogenetic information. The software is developed in Java and implements a command line tool as well as a graphical user interface. Results In this article, we present solutions to two important problems in the field of phylogenetic networks. The first problem is the visualization of explicit phylogenetic networks. To solve this, we present a modified version of the equal angle algorithm that naturally integrates reticulations into the layout process and thus leads to an appealing visualization of these networks. The second problem is the availability of explicit phylogenetic network methods for the general user. To advance the usage of explicit phylogenetic networks by biologists further, we present an extension to the SplitsTree framework that integrates these networks. By addressing these two problems, SplitsTree is among the first programs that incorporates implicit and explicit network methods together with standard phylogenetic tree methods in a graphical user interface environment. Conclusion In this article, we presented an extension of SplitsTree 4 that incorporates explicit phylogenetic networks. The extension provides a set of core classes to handle explicit phylogenetic networks and a visualization of these networks.

  17. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  18. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  19. The Perception of Prosodically Ambiguous Intonation Patterns by L2 English Learners and the Effects of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokgoz Kurt, Burcu; Medlin, Julie; Tessarolo, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Considering the contradictory research on explicit teaching of suprasegmentals, the present study aims to investigate the effects of explicit instruction of L2 English learners' perception of prosodically ambiguous intonation patterns, as well as the possible effects of reported musical familiarity on intonation acquisition. A control group and a…

  20. Update on the endorsement of CONSORT by high impact factor journals: a survey of journal "Instructions to Authors" in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseer, Larissa; Hopewell, Sally; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2016-06-24

    The CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement provides a minimum standard set of items to be reported in published clinical trials; it has received widespread recognition within the biomedical publishing community. This research aims to provide an update on the endorsement of CONSORT by high impact medical journals. We performed a cross-sectional examination of the online "Instructions to Authors" of 168 high impact factor (2012) biomedical journals between July and December 2014. We assessed whether the text of the "Instructions to Authors" mentioned the CONSORT Statement and any CONSORT extensions, and we quantified the extent and nature of the journals' endorsements of these. These data were described by frequencies. We also determined whether journals mentioned trial registration and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; other than in regards to trial registration) and whether either of these was associated with CONSORT endorsement (relative risk and 95 % confidence interval). We compared our findings to the two previous iterations of this survey (in 2003 and 2007). We also identified the publishers of the included journals. Sixty-three percent (106/168) of the included journals mentioned CONSORT in their "Instructions to Authors." Forty-four endorsers (42 %) explicitly stated that authors "must" use CONSORT to prepare their trial manuscript, 38 % required an accompanying completed CONSORT checklist as a condition of submission, and 39 % explicitly requested the inclusion of a flow diagram with the submission. CONSORT extensions were endorsed by very few journals. One hundred and thirty journals (77 %) mentioned ICMJE, and 106 (63 %) mentioned trial registration. The endorsement of CONSORT by high impact journals has increased over time; however, specific instructions on how CONSORT should be used by authors are inconsistent across journals and publishers. Publishers and journals should encourage authors to

  1. The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

  2. The role of feedback in implicit and explicit artificial grammar learning: a comparison between dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Sasson, Ayelet; Star, Galit; Kahta, Shani

    2017-10-01

    The importance of feedback for learning has been firmly established over the past few decades. The question of whether feedback plays a significant role in the statistical learning abilities of adults with dyslexia, however, is currently unresolved. Here, we examined the role of feedback in grammaticality judgment, type of structural knowledge, and confidence rating in both typically developed and dyslexic adults. We implemented two artificial grammar learning experiments: implicit and explicit. The second experiment was directly analogous to the first experiment in all respects except training format: the standard memorization instruction was replaced with an explicit rule-search instruction. Each experiment was conducted with and without performance feedback. While both groups showed significantly improved learning in the feedback-based explicit artificial grammar learning task, only the typically developed adults demonstrated higher levels of conscious structural knowledge. The present study demonstrates that the basis for the grammaticality judgment of adults with dyslexia differs from that of typically developed adults, regardless of increase in the level of explicitness.

  3. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Danique; Vrijsen, Janna N; van Oostrom, Iris; Isaac, Linda; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study. To measure ESE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Preference Task (NLPT) were used to assess ISE. RDs reported lower ESE than NDs. However, the two groups did not differ on ISE. RDs exhibited a damaged self-esteem or a low-congruent self-esteem, similar to what has been found in currently depressed patients. Moreover, damaged self-esteem was associated with residual depressive symptoms. The results need to be interpreted with care because the IAT and NLPT did not reveal the same associations with the clinical measures. Implicit and explicit self-esteem may be different constructs in depression and studying the combination is important. The present study provides evidence indicating that damaged self-esteem may be more detrimental than low congruent self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Explicit Deconvolution of Well Test Data Dominated by Wellbore Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Razminia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses some methods for interpretation of oil and gas well test data distorted by wellbore storage effects. Using these techniques, we can deconvolve pressure and rate data from drawdown and buildup tests dominated by wellbore storage. Some of these methods have the advantage of deconvolving the pressure data without rate measurement. The two important methods that are applied in this study are an explicit deconvolution method and a modification of material balance deconvolution method. In cases with no rate measurements, we use a blind deconvolution method to restore the pressure response free of wellbore storage effects. Our techniques detect the afterflow/unloading rate function with explicit deconvolution of the observed pressure data. The presented techniques can unveil the early time behavior of a reservoir system masked by wellbore storage effects and thus provide powerful tools to improve pressure transient test interpretation. Each method has been validated using both synthetic data and field cases and each method should be considered valid for practical applications.

  5. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  6. Instructions That Enhance Multiple-Text Comprehension for College Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Kwon, Heekyung; Therriault, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that prereading instructions, including how to self-explain during reading, would enhance multiple-text comprehension for college readers. Three prereading instruction conditions included a control condition that provided only the instruction for participants to try to comprehend well; a definition-only…

  7. My Hopes for the Future of Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M. David

    2014-01-01

    This article provides the rationales for three recommendations for the future of Instructional Technology: (1) instructional technology as a field seems to have reached a tipping point, where the basic approach to instructional design has stabilized to where further research at this level has waned, suggesting that it is time for instructional…

  8. Brisk and Effective Fluency Instruction for Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Fluency is known as the bridge between phonics and comprehension. Teachers of reading provide high-quality instruction in phonics and decoding strategies, usually in a small-group format, but may be unsure how to insert fluency instruction into the small-group lesson. This article presents key concepts in fluency instruction and a description of…

  9. Student-Centered Instruction in a Theoretical Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates Prins, Samantha C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an example of how student-centered instruction can be used in a theoretical statistics class. The author taught a two-semester undergraduate probability and mathematical statistics sequence using primarily teacher-centered instruction in the first semester and primarily student-centered instruction in the second semester. A…

  10. The Role of Coaching within the Context of Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Jill E.

    2017-01-01

    Upon entry into the instructional design workforce, there is a need for instructional designers to continue to hone their craft and skill development. Often times novice instructional designers are paired with experts during the onboarding process. Coaching is utilized to provide novices and those less experienced with the necessary support they…

  11. Benchmarks in Tacit Knowledge Skills Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Strömgren, Ole; Sato, Toyoko

    2006-01-01

    While the knowledge management literature has addressed the explicit and tacit skills needed for successful performance in the modern enterprise, little attention has been paid to date in this particular literature as to how these wide-ranging skills may be suitably acquired during the course...... experience more empowering of essential tacit knowledge skills than that found in educational institutions in other national settings. We specify the program forms and procedures for consensus-based governance and group work (as benchmarks) that demonstrably instruct undergraduates in the tacit skill...

  12. The Effects of the Timing of Isolated FFI on the Explicit Knowledge and Written Accuracy of Learners with Different Prior Knowledge of the Linguistic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the timing of explicit instruction (EI) on grammatical accuracy. A total of 123 learners were divided into two groups: those with some productive knowledge of past-counterfactual conditionals (+Prior Knowledge) and those without such knowledge (-Prior Knowledge). Each group was divided into four conditions. Two…

  13. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  14. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the Personal Factors and Organizational Conditions that Facilitate Differentiated Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size,…

  15. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., “spatial ability is for boys”) in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest—instruction—posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  16. Integrating Explicit Learning about the Culture of Science into the Pre-Service Teacher Curriculum through Readings and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Teachers provide foundational science experiences that spark interest in some students to pursue science and serve as an endpoint for others. For both groups, getting a glimpse into the culture of science is important to their futures as citizens, but this glimpse is not something all teachers are equipped to offer. Explicit instruction in the culture of science is generally not part of college-level science courses; to reach future teachers, it should be incorporated into the curriculum for pre-service teachers. I have incorporated readings from Visionlearning's peer-reviewed, freely available, web-based Process of Science series (http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Process-of-Science/49) into my class for pre-service middle-level and secondary science teachers. The readings describe the development of the culture and process of science using deeply embedded examples of scientists and their work. Students reflected on each reading by describing what they learned and something they will use in their future teaching. Responses were graded for thoughtfulness and completeness and later compiled. In general, students with more science courses had a better initial understanding of the culture of science and found the readings engaging stories that explained in more depth what they already knew. However, all students reported learning some fundamental aspects of the culture and nature of science. Most commonly, they learned scientific language, often words with both colloquial and scientific definitions: theory, hypothesis, law, uncertainty, error, confidence. Other learning gains were reported in defining the difference between scientific controversy and social controversy over science, interactions between historical events and the scientific enterprise, how much scientists work in groups and interact at meetings, and the role that funding plays in guiding research. On their own, students struggled to describe explicit ways to incorporate these concepts into their

  17. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  18. The Relationships between Leadership Practice and Teacher Motivation, Capacity, and Work Setting as Related to Change in Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Linda Marie

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the necessity for changes in literacy assessment and instruction. Well respected authorities have agreed that direct, explicit, and systematic instruction in the five basic components of reading (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension) is essential to ensure that all students have an…

  19. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the personal factors and organizational conditions that facilitate differentiated instruction in elementary mathematics classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size, extra time and resources that allow for a highly individualized approach to instruction, teacher commitment, and subject-matter competency in mathema...

  20. Explicit constructions of automorphic L-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelbart, Stephen; Rallis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this research monograph is to derive the analytic continuation and functional equation of the L-functions attached by R.P. Langlands to automorphic representations of reductive algebraic groups. The first part of the book (by Piatetski-Shapiro and Rallis) deals with L-functions for the simple classical groups; the second part (by Gelbart and Piatetski-Shapiro) deals with non-simple groups of the form G GL(n), with G a quasi-split reductive group of split rank n. The method of proof is to construct certain explicit zeta-integrals of Rankin-Selberg type which interpolate the relevant Langlands L-functions and can be analyzed via the theory of Eisenstein series and intertwining operators. This is the first time such an approach has been applied to such general classes of groups. The flavor of the local theory is decidedly representation theoretic, and the work should be of interest to researchers in group representation theory as well as number theory.

  1. Explicit logic circuits discriminate neural states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Yoder

    Full Text Available The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength of the output neuron's response is a measure of the difference between the smallest of the high inputs and the largest of the low inputs. The networks generate correlates of known psychophysical phenomena. These results follow directly from the most cost-effective architectures for specific logic circuits and the minimal cellular capabilities of excitation and inhibition. The networks function dynamically, making their operation consistent with the speed of most brain functions. The networks show that well-known psychophysical phenomena do not require extraordinarily complex brain structures, and that a single network architecture can produce apparently disparate phenomena in different sensory systems.

  2. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  3. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  4. Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness: Explicit versus implicit neural processing of musical emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin; Sams, Mikko; Numminen, Jussi; Burunat, Iballa; Lampinen, Jouko; Brattico, Elvira

    2016-08-01

    Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music. Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition) in 4-s music clips. In the implicit vs. explicit condition, stimuli activated bilaterally the inferior parietal lobule, premotor cortex, caudate, and ventromedial frontal areas. The cortical dorsomedial prefrontal and occipital areas activated during explicit processing were those previously shown to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded with activation of the left anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus and down-regulation of the orbitofrontal cortex. Our study demonstrates for the first time in healthy subjects the neural underpinnings of the implicit processing of brief musical emotions, particularly in frontoparietal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and striatal areas of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiating Mathematics Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Brett

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching students based on their levels of development and ability, or differentiated instruction, has been used in Language Arts classes increasingly over the last decade. However, it is only recently that attention in research has been given to the use of differentiated instruction in a mathematics lesson. This paper aims to explore what research is being done to not only improve mathematics instruction in the classroom, but to better prepare future teachers for teaching m...

  6. Evaluation of pictorial assembly instructions for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cortney V; Smith-Jackson, Tonya L

    2008-08-01

    We examined the usability of common formats of pictorial toy assembly instructions for 6- and 9-year-old children. Interlocking building toys and models are increasingly prevalent and important for developing spatial abilities and fine motor skills among children. Little is known about how effectively the intended child users can interpret and carry out the instructions. Twenty-four children used five sets of manufacturer-supplied pictorial toy assembly instructions. We evaluated the impact of toy instruction set, age, gender, and previous experience on usability problems, assembly speed and accuracy, instruction gaze time, and subjective ratings. The children had difficulty with all but the simplest instructions and assemblies. As predicted, older participants assembled more quickly, with fewer errors and fewer instruction looks. However, the 6-year-old girls assembled the fewest parts correctly, and the 9-year-old girls reported having the least fun. Instruction look time and frequency revealed differences in instruction complexity and were correlated with subjective ratings of fun. Thirty-two usability problems were observed, and 10 are described in detail. Product age recommendations may not reflect developmentally appropriate instructions. Small design changes should contribute to improved instruction usability among young children. For instance, designers should avoid complex graphic syntax, depict colors accurately, select clear angles of view, and support natural tendencies to assemble top to bottom. This research provides pictorial assembly instruction guidelines to inform instruction designers and describes performance and look-time benchmarks for future usability studies.

  7. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. A General Symbolic PDE Solver Generator: Beyond Explicit Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sheshadri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extension of our Mathematica- and MathCode-based symbolic-numeric framework for solving a variety of partial differential equation (PDE problems. The main features of our earlier work, which implemented explicit finite-difference schemes, include the ability to handle (1 arbitrary number of dependent variables, (2 arbitrary dimensionality, and (3 arbitrary geometry, as well as (4 developing finite-difference schemes to any desired order of approximation. In the present paper, extensions of this framework to implicit schemes and the method of lines are discussed. While C++ code is generated, using the MathCode system for the implicit method, Modelica code is generated for the method of lines. The latter provides a preliminary PDE support for the Modelica language. Examples illustrating the various aspects of the solver generator are presented.

  9. Explicit free parametrization of the modified tetrahedron equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gehlen, G V; Sergeev, S

    2003-01-01

    The modified tetrahedron equation (MTE) with affine Weyl quantum variables at the Nth root of unity is solved by a rational mapping operator which is obtained from the solution of a linear problem. We show that the solutions can be parametrized in terms of eight free parameters and 16 discrete phase choices, thus providing a broad starting point for the construction of three-dimensional integrable lattice models. The Fermat-curve points parametrizing the representation of the mapping operator in terms of cyclic functions are expressed in terms of the independent parameters. An explicit formula for the density factor of the MTE is derived. For the example N=2 we write the MTE in full detail.

  10. ALADYN - a spatially explicit, allelic model for simulating adaptive dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, Katja H; Travis, Justin Mj

    2014-12-01

    ALADYN is a freely available cross-platform C++ modeling framework for stochastic simulation of joint allelic and demographic dynamics of spatially-structured populations. Juvenile survival is linked to the degree of match between an individual's phenotype and the local phenotypic optimum. There is considerable flexibility provided for the demography of the considered species and the genetic architecture of the traits under selection. ALADYN facilitates the investigation of adaptive processes to spatially and/or temporally changing conditions and the resulting niche and range dynamics. To our knowledge ALADYN is so far the only model that allows a continuous resolution of individuals' locations in a spatially explicit landscape together with the associated patterns of selection.

  11. Clustering recommenders in collaborative filtering using explicit trust information

    KAUST Repository

    Pitsilis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the benefits of combining clustering and social trust information for Recommender Systems. We demonstrate the performance advantages of traditional clustering algorithms like k-Means and we explore the use of new ones like Affinity Propagation (AP). Contrary to what has been used before, we investigate possible ways that social-oriented information like explicit trust could be exploited with AP for forming clusters of high quality. We conducted a series of evaluation tests using data from a real Recommender system Epinions.com from which we derived conclusions about the usefulness of trust information in forming clusters of Recommenders. Moreover, from our results we conclude that the potential advantages in using clustering can be enlarged by making use of the information that Social Networks can provide. © 2011 International Federation for Information Processing.

  12. Development and Exchange of Instructional Resources in Water Quality Control Programs, II: Instructional Materials Available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, John H.

    This document is one in a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Approximately 900 items are listed in this document along with guidelines for the production of instructional materials. Information is provided regarding the source, type of material, intended…

  13. Technology for Early Braille Literacy: Comparison of Traditional Braille Instruction and Instruction with an Electronic Notetaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, James O.; Falco, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here evaluated whether there was a difference in students' outcomes for braille fluency when instruction was provided with traditional braille media or refreshable braille. Students' and teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of the use of the different instructional media were analyzed. Methods: Nine students from…

  14. Universal Design for Instruction: Extending the Universal Design Paradigm to College Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.

    2006-01-01

    Universal design for instruction (UDI) represents the systematic application of universal design, the construct from architecture and product development, to instructional practices in higher education. In addition to a description of the deliberative process by which UDI was developed, this article provides confirmatory evidence of the validity…

  15. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B; Wagner, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger effects than home-based instruction; small-group instruction yielded larger effects than individual tutoring programs. We found minimal evidence of transfer of alphabet instruction to early phonological, reading, or spelling skills. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  16. The Effect of Explicit Teaching of Idioms on Strategy Choice for EFL Learners in a Reading Comprehension Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Khoshhal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that students tend to choose their preferred strategy when they are asked to find the meaning of idiomatic phrases in a text. This study investigates how English learners choose their preferred strategies to find the correct definition of idiomatic phrases. Thirty-three learners of English were given a reading passage which consisted of twenty idiomatic expressions, and their strategy choice in finding the correct definition of each phrase was examined. The participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group (with seventeen students was taught idioms explicitly during the course and the control group (with sixteen students did not receive any explicit instruction in learning idioms. The results showed that among the given strategies, the group which was taught explicitly tended to choose “using dictionary” more often whereas the other group preferred to “ask the teacher”. As Rodríguez and Winnberg (2013 observed, learners try different strategies and techniques when they encounter a problem and as teachers it is important to notice that every student has a particular way of learning. This study suggests that teaching idioms explicitly should be combined with implicit learning in EFL contexts. Furthermore, learners need more exposure (explicit or implicit to the meaning and usage of idiomatic phrases in order to master this complex field of learning.

  17. Spatially explicit modeling in ecology: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    The use of spatially explicit models (SEMs) in ecology has grown enormously in the past two decades. One major advancement has been that fine-scale details of landscapes, and of spatially dependent biological processes, such as dispersal and invasion, can now be simulated with great precision, due to improvements in computer technology. Many areas of modeling have shifted toward a focus on capturing these fine-scale details, to improve mechanistic understanding of ecosystems. However, spatially implicit models (SIMs) have played a dominant role in ecology, and arguments have been made that SIMs, which account for the effects of space without specifying spatial positions, have an advantage of being simpler and more broadly applicable, perhaps contributing more to understanding. We address this debate by comparing SEMs and SIMs in examples from the past few decades of modeling research. We argue that, although SIMs have been the dominant approach in the incorporation of space in theoretical ecology, SEMs have unique advantages for addressing pragmatic questions concerning species populations or communities in specific places, because local conditions, such as spatial heterogeneities, organism behaviors, and other contingencies, produce dynamics and patterns that usually cannot be incorporated into simpler SIMs. SEMs are also able to describe mechanisms at the local scale that can create amplifying positive feedbacks at that scale, creating emergent patterns at larger scales, and therefore are important to basic ecological theory. We review the use of SEMs at the level of populations, interacting populations, food webs, and ecosystems and argue that SEMs are not only essential in pragmatic issues, but must play a role in the understanding of causal relationships on landscapes.

  18. Spatially explicit methane inventory for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rebecca; Bretscher, Daniel; DelSontro, Tonya; Eugster, Werner; Henne, Stephan; Henneberger, Ruth; Künzle, Thomas; Merbold, Lutz; Neininger, Bruno; Schellenberger, Andreas; Schroth, Martin; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner1, Dominik

    2013-04-01

    Spatially explicit greenhouse gas inventories are gaining in importance as a tool for policy makers to plan and control mitigation measures, and are a required input for atmospheric models used to relate atmospheric concentration measurements with upstream sources. In order to represent the high spatial heterogeneity in Switzerland, we compiled the national methane inventory into a 500 m x 500 m cadaster. In addition to the anthropogenic emissions reported to the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), we also included natural and semi-natural methane fluxes, i.e., emissions from lakes and reservoirs, wetlands, wild animals as well as forest uptake. Methane emissions were disaggregated according to geostatistical information about source location and extent. In Switzerland, highest methane emissions originate from the agricultural sector (152 Gg CH4 yr-1), followed by emissions from waste management (16 Gg CH4 yr-1) with highest contributions from landfills, and the energy sector (13 Gg CH4 yr-1) with highest contributions from the distribution of natural gas. Natural and semi-natural emissions only add a small amount (inventory was evaluated against methane concentrations measured from a small research aircraft (METAIR-DIMO) above the Swiss Plateau on 18 different days from May 2009 to August 2010 over. Source sensitivities of the air measured were determined by backward runs of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-COSMO. Source sensitivities were multiplied with the methane inventory to derive simulated methane concentration time series. While the pattern of the variations can be reproduced well for some flight days (correlation coefficient up to 0.75), the amplitude of the variations for the simulated time series is underestimated by at least 20% suggesting an underestimation of CH4 emissions by the inventory, which is also concluded from inverse estimation using a Bayesian approach.

  19. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  20. Inclusive Design in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation [1]. The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes [2]. While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments [3]. This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.

  1. Explicit-ion Effects in the Coil-Globule Transition of Weak Polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Benjamin J.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.

    The first-order coil-globule transition in weak (annealed) polyelectrolytes involves a subtle balance of pH, charge strength, and solvation forces. In this work, we utilize a coarse-grain hybrid grand-canonical Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics approach to explore the free energetic topography of a model hydrophobic polybase [representing poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP)] and explore the role of salt concentration/valency in influencing polyelectrolyte conformations using both an implicit Debye-Hückel and explicit salt approach. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally measured behavior for dilute annealed polyelectrolytes, and present a solid foundation for understanding pH responsive polyelectrolyte materials.

  2. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship.

  3. Aligning Instructional Strategies with Learning Outcomes and Leadership Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel M; Allen, Scott J

    2017-12-01

    This chapter provides recommendations for aligning instructional strategies with learning outcomes and leadership competencies to foster intentional student leadership development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  4. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  5. SEARCH: Spatially Explicit Animal Response to Composition of Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Benjamin P; McCann, Nicholas P; Zollner, Patrick A; Cummings, Robert; Gilbert, Jonathan H; Gustafson, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Complex decisions dramatically affect animal dispersal and space use. Dispersing individuals respond to a combination of fine-scale environmental stimuli and internal attributes. Individual-based modeling offers a valuable approach for the investigation of such interactions because it combines the heterogeneity of animal behaviors with spatial detail. Most individual-based models (IBMs), however, vastly oversimplify animal behavior and such behavioral minimalism diminishes the value of these models. We present program SEARCH (Spatially Explicit Animal Response to Composition of Habitat), a spatially explicit, individual-based, population model of animal dispersal through realistic landscapes. SEARCH uses values in Geographic Information System (GIS) maps to apply rules that animals follow during dispersal, thus allowing virtual animals to respond to fine-scale features of the landscape and maintain a detailed memory of areas sensed during movement. SEARCH also incorporates temporally dynamic landscapes so that the environment to which virtual animals respond can change during the course of a simulation. Animals in SEARCH are behaviorally dynamic and able to respond to stimuli based upon their individual experiences. Therefore, SEARCH is able to model behavioral traits of dispersing animals at fine scales and with many dynamic aspects. Such added complexity allows investigation of unique ecological questions. To illustrate SEARCH's capabilities, we simulated case studies using three mammals. We examined the impact of seasonally variable food resources on the weight distribution of dispersing raccoons (Procyon lotor), the effect of temporally dynamic mortality pressure in combination with various levels of behavioral responsiveness in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and the impact of behavioral plasticity and home range selection on disperser mortality and weight change in virtual American martens (Martes americana). These simulations highlight the relevance of

  6. SEARCH: Spatially Explicit Animal Response to Composition of Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Pauli

    Full Text Available Complex decisions dramatically affect animal dispersal and space use. Dispersing individuals respond to a combination of fine-scale environmental stimuli and internal attributes. Individual-based modeling offers a valuable approach for the investigation of such interactions because it combines the heterogeneity of animal behaviors with spatial detail. Most individual-based models (IBMs, however, vastly oversimplify animal behavior and such behavioral minimalism diminishes the value of these models. We present program SEARCH (Spatially Explicit Animal Response to Composition of Habitat, a spatially explicit, individual-based, population model of animal dispersal through realistic landscapes. SEARCH uses values in Geographic Information System (GIS maps to apply rules that animals follow during dispersal, thus allowing virtual animals to respond to fine-scale features of the landscape and maintain a detailed memory of areas sensed during movement. SEARCH also incorporates temporally dynamic landscapes so that the environment to which virtual animals respond can change during the course of a simulation. Animals in SEARCH are behaviorally dynamic and able to respond to stimuli based upon their individual experiences. Therefore, SEARCH is able to model behavioral traits of dispersing animals at fine scales and with many dynamic aspects. Such added complexity allows investigation of unique ecological questions. To illustrate SEARCH's capabilities, we simulated case studies using three mammals. We examined the impact of seasonally variable food resources on the weight distribution of dispersing raccoons (Procyon lotor, the effect of temporally dynamic mortality pressure in combination with various levels of behavioral responsiveness in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus, and the impact of behavioral plasticity and home range selection on disperser mortality and weight change in virtual American martens (Martes americana. These simulations highlight the

  7. Designing Instruction That Supports Cognitive Learning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. DATA SOURCES: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. DATA SYNTHESIS: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning.

  8. Designing Instruction That Supports Cognitive Learning Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. Data Sources: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. Data Synthesis: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. Conclusions/Recommendations: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning. PMID:12937537

  9. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  10. Ameliorating Reading Disabilities Early: Examining an Effective Encoding and Decoding Prevention Instruction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Beverly L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether integrating encoding instruction with reading instruction provides stronger gains for students who struggle with reading than instruction that includes little or no encoding. An instructional design model was investigated to best fit the data of 175 first-grade readers at risk for reading…

  11. A comparative study of explicit and implicit modelling of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the explicit and implicit modelling of the subsegmental excitation information are experimentally compared. For explicit modelling, the static and dynamic values of the standard Liljencrants–Fant (LF) parameters that model the glottal flow derivative (GFD) are used. A simplified approximation method is.

  12. "Make It Explicit!": Improving Collaboration through Increase of Script Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, P. M.; Demetriadis, S. N.; Weinberger, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the proposed "Make It Explicit!" technique on students' learning when participating in scripted collaborative activities. The method posits that when asking students to proactively articulate their own positions explicitly, then improved peer interaction is triggered in a subsequent…

  13. Age and time effects on implicit and explicit learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Looze, M.P. de

    2014-01-01

    Study Context: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience

  14. Age and Time Effects on Implicit and Explicit Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.M.N.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Looze, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Context: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience

  15. Comparing the cognitive differences resulting from modeling instruction: Using computer microworld and physical object instruction to model real world problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oursland, Mark David

    This study compared the modeling achievement of students receiving mathematical modeling instruction using the computer microworld, Interactive Physics, and students receiving instruction using physical objects. Modeling instruction included activities where students applied the (a) linear model to a variety of situations, (b) linear model to two-rate situations with a constant rate, (c) quadratic model to familiar geometric figures. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze achievement differences between students (a) receiving different methods of modeling instruction, (b) with different levels of beginning modeling ability, or (c) with different levels of computer literacy. Student achievement was analyzed quantitatively through a three-factor analysis of variance where modeling instruction, beginning modeling ability, and computer literacy were used as the three independent factors. The SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) assessment framework was used to design written modeling assessment instruments to measure the students' modeling achievement. The same three independent factors were used to collect and analyze the interviews and observations of student behaviors. Both methods of modeling instruction used the data analysis approach to mathematical modeling. The instructional lessons presented problem situations where students were asked to collect data, analyze the data, write a symbolic mathematical equation, and use equation to solve the problem. The researcher recommends the following practice for modeling instruction based on the conclusions of this study. A variety of activities with a common structure are needed to make explicit the modeling process of applying a standard mathematical model. The modeling process is influenced strongly by prior knowledge of the problem context and previous modeling experiences. The conclusions of this study imply that knowledge of the properties about squares improved the students

  16. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  17. Speech-Assisted Learning Provides Unique Braille Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Sally S.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes Speech Assisted Learning (SAL), a portable, interactive Braille learning station that combines synthesized speech, full-page paper Braille exercises, and bar-code technology. Findings from field-testing of SAL with 25 individuals with visual impairments (grades K-adult) and 12 teachers indicate students acquired new…

  18. Self-supporting structure design in additive manufacturing through explicit topology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xu; Zhou, Jianhua; Zhang, Weisheng; Du, Zongliang; Liu, Chang; Liu, Ying

    2017-08-01

    One of the challenging issues in additive manufacturing (AM) oriented topology optimization is how to design structures that are self-supportive in a manufacture process without introducing additional supporting materials. In the present contribution, it is intended to resolve this problem under an explicit topology optimization framework where optimal structural topology can be found by optimizing a set of explicit geometry parameters. Two solution approaches established based on the Moving Morphable Components (MMC) and Moving Morphable Voids (MMV) frameworks, respectively, are proposed and some theoretical issues associated with AM oriented topology optimization are also analyzed. Numerical examples provided demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  20. The assessment of mangrove biomass and carbon in West Africa: a spatially explicit analytical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwu Tang; Wenpeng Feng; Meijuan Jia; Jiyang Shi; Huifang Zuo; Carl C. Trettin

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive and have large carbon sinks while also providing numerous goods and ecosystem services. However, effective management and conservation of the mangrove forests are often dependent on spatially explicit assessments of the resource. Given the remote and highly dispersed nature of mangroves, estimation of biomass and carbon...

  1. Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology: The case of cultured meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, G.A.; Fischer, A.R.; Tobi, H.; Trijp, H.C.M. van

    2017-01-01

    Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit

  2. Exploring the Interaction of Implicit and Explicit Processes to Facilitate Individual Skill Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Ron; Mathews, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    .... It helps us to explain (and eventually to predict) training and learning processes. The results of the experiments support the theory of the interactions of implicit and explicit learning processes during skill acquisition. The outcomes (data, models, and theories) provide a more detailed, clearer and more comprehensive perspective on skill learning.

  3. Measuring University-Level L2 Learners' Implicit and Explicit Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runhan

    2015-01-01

    Although many theoretical issues revolving around implicit and explicit knowledge in second language (L2) acquisition hinge on the ability to measure these two types of knowledge, few empirical studies have attempted to do so. However, R. Ellis (2005) did develop a battery of tests intended to provide relatively separate measures. This study aims…

  4. The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun eYu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedbacks to update initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN, identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential techniques combined with social tasks in which participants make explicit prediction (whether others will accept their ‘friend request’ or not, Experiment 1 or implicit prediction (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2 respectively and then receive social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation.

  5. Conjugate gradient based projection - A new explicit methodology for frictional contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Li, Maocheng; Sha, Desong

    1993-01-01

    With special attention towards the applicability to parallel computation or vectorization, a new and effective explicit approach for linear complementary formulations involving a conjugate gradient based projection methodology is proposed in this study for contact problems with Coulomb friction. The overall objectives are focussed towards providing an explicit methodology of computation for the complete contact problem with friction. In this regard, the primary idea for solving the linear complementary formulations stems from an established search direction which is projected to a feasible region determined by the non-negative constraint condition; this direction is then applied to the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate gradient method resulting in a powerful explicit methodology which possesses high accuracy, excellent convergence characteristics, fast computational speed and is relatively simple to implement for contact problems involving Coulomb friction.

  6. The relationship between explicit learning and consciousness-raising tasks within a communicative language context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscioli, Deise Caldart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating whether consciousness-raising tasks, used in a communicative learning environment of EFL, can be considered a valid instrument for eliciting explicit learning in that context. Five participants enrolled in the second level of a language course answered a cycle of tasks that intended to teach the use of comparatives. The materials used in this study consisted of a pre-task, consciousness-raising tasks, an untimed grammaticality judgment test, and a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the instruments used in this research were of a valid nature for eliciting explicit learning. The findings also provide empirical support regarding the importance of consciousness-raising tasks to assist students’ second language learning in a communicative classroom environment. Despite being a small scale research, this study may contribute to a greater understanding of the SLA processes within a communicative context and highlight the importance of explicit knowledge learning within a meaning focused approach

  7. The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedback to validate initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN), identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential (ERP) techniques combined with social tasks in which participants were required to make explicit predictions (whether others will accept their “friend request” or not, Experiment 1) or implicit predictions (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2) respectively, and then received social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation. PMID:25120457

  8. The effect of a content-embedded explicit-reflective approach on inservice teachers' views and practices related to nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Nader A. K.

    The phrase "nature of science" has been used to refer to "the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge" (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, & Schwartz, 2002, p. 497). Despite the disagreement about specific definitions, some aspects of NOS are shared and considered non-controversial and accessible to K-12 students. These aspects are that scientific knowledge is: "tentative (subject to change); empirically-based (based on and/or derived from observations of the natural world); theory-laden; partially based on human inference, imagination and creativity; and socially and culturally embedded" (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000b, p. 1063). Four other aspects of NOS that have been emphasized are the distinction between observation and inferences, the relationship between theories and laws, the myth of the scientific method, and the social dimension of scientific knowledge (Abd-El-Khalick, 1998; Akerson & Abd-El-Khalick, 2000). This study aimed to assess the influence of an explicit-reflective, metacognitive, content-embedded instructional approach undertaken from within a learning-as-conceptual change framework on inservice middle and high school science teachers' understandings of NOS. The study also aimed to examine whether this instructional approach would enable participant teachers to translate their NOS understandings into actual classroom practices, as well as document the factors that facilitate or hinder such translation. The study was guided by the following research questions: (a) What is the impact of the intervention on participant teachers' understandings of several target aspects of NOS? (b) What is the impact of the intervention on participant teachers' instructional planning and delivery related to NOS? (c) What factors mediate (i.e., enhance or impede) the translation of teachers' NOS understandings into instructional practice? The study used a pretest, posttest

  9. Control of boiler temperature with explicit MPC; Panntemperaturreglering med explicit MPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaetteke, Ola; Velut, Stefan; Raaberg, Martin

    2012-02-15

    MPC is the multivariable controller that has been most successful in the process industry and particularly the petrochemical industry. It has been described as one of the most significant developments in process control and the main reasons for this are: 1. It handles multivariable control problems in a natural manner. 2. It is relative easy to understand the structure of the controller, which is the same whether it is a simple loop or a multivariable system. 3. It handles limitations of both the process and other practical constraints in a systematic way. Examples of this is that a valve can only work between 0 and 100 %, but also that the CO-level in the flue gas must not exceed a certain level. 4. It allows for operating conditions near critical process boundaries, which in many cases is synonymous with increased production rates, reduced raw material consumption, better energy utilization, and faster process transitions. The aim of the project is to evaluate the potential of multivariable control in the form of explicit MPC in a boiler at Stora Enso Hylte Bruk. This research task can be divided into two sub-tasks: 1. General evaluation of explicit MPC. 2. Evaluation of multivariable control of boiler temperature The purpose of subtask one is to evaluate what is required of a facility owner to implement explicit MPC in a control system. This includes everything from available calculation tools, what is important to consider during the design phase of the controller, different pitfalls that exist, management of different operating modes, to how the controller should be implemented and commissioned. Subtask two is intended to evaluate the multivariable control of a boiler of CFB type (circulating fluidized bed). MPC controller will regulate the temperature in the boiler. In order to maintain the waste incineration directive, the temperature in the upper part of the boiler is controlled. This is done by means of changes in the flow of natural gas injection and

  10. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  11. Certain Verbs Are Syntactically Explicit Quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szabolcsi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantification over individuals, times, and worlds can in principle be made explicit in the syntax of the object language, or left to the semantics and spelled out in the meta-language. The traditional view is that quantification over individuals is syntactically explicit, whereas quantification over times and worlds is not. But a growing body of literature proposes a uniform treatment. This paper examines the scopal interaction of aspectual raising verbs (begin, modals (can, and intensional raising verbs (threaten with quantificational subjects in Shupamem, Dutch, and English. It appears that aspectual raising verbs and at least modals may undergo the same kind of overt or covert scope-changing operations as nominal quantifiers; the case of intensional raising verbs is less clear. Scope interaction is thus shown to be a new potential diagnostic of object-linguistic quantification, and the similarity in the scope behavior of nominal and verbal quantifiers supports the grammatical plausibility of ontological symmetry, explored in Schlenker (2006.ReferencesBen-Shalom, D. 1996. Semantic Trees. Ph.D. thesis, UCLA.Bittner, M. 1993. Case, Scope, and Binding. Dordrecht: Reidel.Cresswell, M. 1990. Entities and Indices. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Cresti, D. 1995. ‘Extraction and reconstruction’. Natural Language Semantics 3: 79–122.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01252885Curry, B. H. & Feys, R. 1958. Combinatory Logic I. Dordrecht: North-Holland.Dowty, D. R. 1988. ‘Type raising, functional composition, and non-constituent conjunction’. In Richard T. Oehrle, Emmon W. Bach & Deirdre Wheeler (eds. ‘Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures’, 153–197. Dordrecht: Reidel.Fox, D. 2002. ‘TOn Logical Form’. In Randall Hendrick (ed. ‘Minimalist Syntax’, 82–124. Oxford: Blackwell.Gallin, D. 1975. Intensional and higher-order modal logic: with applications to Montague semantics. North Holland Pub. Co.; American Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam

  12. Instructional Design and the Importance of Instructional Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Florence

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…

  13. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  14. Explicit B-spline regularization in diffeomorphic image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J; Avants, Brian B

    2013-01-01

    Diffeomorphic mappings are central to image registration due largely to their topological properties and success in providing biologically plausible solutions to deformation and morphological estimation problems. Popular diffeomorphic image registration algorithms include those characterized by time-varying and constant velocity fields, and symmetrical considerations. Prior information in the form of regularization is used to enforce transform plausibility taking the form of physics-based constraints or through some approximation thereof, e.g., Gaussian smoothing of the vector fields [a la Thirion's Demons (Thirion, 1998)]. In the context of the original Demons' framework, the so-called directly manipulated free-form deformation (DMFFD) (Tustison et al., 2009) can be viewed as a smoothing alternative in which explicit regularization is achieved through fast B-spline approximation. This characterization can be used to provide B-spline "flavored" diffeomorphic image registration solutions with several advantages. Implementation is open source and available through the Insight Toolkit and our Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) repository. A thorough comparative evaluation with the well-known SyN algorithm (Avants et al., 2008), implemented within the same framework, and its B-spline analog is performed using open labeled brain data and open source evaluation tools.

  15. Medium of Instruction in Thai Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjavanakul, Natpat

    The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.

  16. Knowledge engineering for the instructional developer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper explores the cognitive approach to instruction and provides several strategies for using knowledge engineering information in the instructional development process to strengthen the systems approach to training. When students learn using the behavioral approach to instruction, drawbacks have been noted because gaps are apparent between the students' high performance levels on objective tests and their inadequate problem solving performance levels. Augmentation of the behaviorist process with applications of knowledge engineering can result in obtaining detailed information about student misconceptions relative to expert knowledge. This information is then applied to individualized learning prescriptions. Normally, instructional developers are working under significant resource and time constraints, and this modified systems approach is an efficient solution to this problem. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  18. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gur, Bekir S; Wiley, David A

    2008-01-01

    .... A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility...

  19. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  20. Explicit representation of confidence informs future value-based decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Tomas; Jacobsen, Catrine; Fleming, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    follow a more consistent pattern (fewer transitivity violations). Finally, by tracking participants’ eye movements, we demonstrate that lower-level gaze dynamics can track uncertainty but do not directly impact changes of mind. These results suggest that an explicit and accurate representation......Humans can reflect on decisions and report variable levels of confidence. But why maintain an explicit representation of confidence for choices that have already been made and therefore cannot be undone? Here we show that an explicit representation of confidence is harnessed for subsequent changes...... of confidence has a positive impact on the quality of future value-based decisions....

  1. Explicit strong stability preserving multistep Runge–Kutta methods

    KAUST Repository

    Bresten, Christopher

    2015-10-15

    High-order spatial discretizations of hyperbolic PDEs are often designed to have strong stability properties, such as monotonicity. We study explicit multistep Runge-Kutta strong stability preserving (SSP) time integration methods for use with such discretizations. We prove an upper bound on the SSP coefficient of explicit multistep Runge-Kutta methods of order two and above. Numerical optimization is used to find optimized explicit methods of up to five steps, eight stages, and tenth order. These methods are tested on the linear advection and nonlinear Buckley-Leverett equations, and the results for the observed total variation diminishing and/or positivity preserving time-step are presented.

  2. Making It Totally Explicit | Dowell | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper begins by isolating the reductive component of Brandom's inferentialism. In order to assess to what extent the reductive component is supported by the considerations Brandom marshals in its defense, I assess the comparative degree of support these considerations provide for a non-reductive counterpart of ...

  3. Face Puzzle – Two new video-based tasks for measuring explicit and implicit aspects of facial emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit eKliemann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing others’ emotional states is crucial for effective social interaction. While most facial emotion recognition tasks use explicit prompts that trigger consciously controlled processing, emotional faces are almost exclusively processed implicitly in real life. Recent attempts in social cognition suggest a dual process perspective, whereby explicit and implicit processes largely operate independently. However, due to differences in methodology the direct comparison of implicit and explicit social cognition has remained a challenge.Here, we introduce a new tool to comparably measure implicit and explicit processing aspects comprising basic and complex emotions in facial expressions. We developed two video-based tasks with similar answer formats to assess performance in respective facial emotion recognition processes: Face Puzzle, implicit and explicit. To assess the tasks’ sensitivity to atypical social cognition and to infer interrelationship patterns between explicit and implicit processes in typical and atypical development, we included healthy adults (NT, n= 24 and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 24.Item analyses yielded good reliability of the new tasks. Group-specific results indicated sensitivity to subtle social impairments in high-functioning ASD. Correlation analyses with established implicit and explicit socio-cognitive measures were further in favor of the tasks’ external validity. Between group comparisons provide first hints of differential relations between implicit and explicit aspects of facial emotion recognition processes in healthy compared to ASD participants. In addition, an increased magnitude of between group differences in the implicit task was found for a speed-accuracy composite measure. The new Face Puzzle tool thus provides two new tasks to separately assess explicit and implicit social functioning, for instance, to measure subtle impairments as well as potential improvements due to social

  4. Innovative Agro-food Technologies Implementation through Instructional Communication Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research represents the valorization of the dissemination the design framework of an interdisciplinary area of research, validated through SPAS European FP6 project and a national BIOSIG- PN2 and has as objective to channel communication on target market, through personalized solution of instructional communication mechanisms. The main objective of the national research grant being the implementation of innovative biotechnology on agro-food market, in order to improve the fish diet’s benefits, the prospects must be provided with valuable explicit information. This paper is about the commitment to embedding the actual consumer experience from PN2 fish market research and agro-food agents’ capitalization knowledge behavior from SPAS virtual platform, through designing the adequate communication framework, in order to support and accelerate the implementation of the innovation biotechnology, through improving the target market experience. The projected solution is mainly concerning to offer adequate solutions to insure against current consumers fragilities, but we also underline the vulnerabilities of the whole agro food value chain, in terms of communication strategy, which is lacking of adequate common interest coordination. The current research solution is regarding the rising awareness about the translation from consumer preferences to perceived detriment by integrating previous validated solution of agro food market analysis.

  5. The emotional paradox: dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of emotional prosody in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, P; Christophe, A; Passerieux, C

    2010-10-01

    People with schizophrenia show well-replicated deficits on tasks of explicit recognition of emotional prosody. However it remains unclear whether they are still sensitive to the implicit cues of emotional prosody, particularly when they exhibit high levels of social anhedonia. A dual processing model suggesting a dissociation between the neural networks involved in explicit and implicit recognition of emotional prosody has yet to be validated. 21 participants with schizophrenia and 21 controls were recruited. In the explicit recognition task, individuals listened to semantically neutral words pronounced with two different emotions and judged their emotional prosody. In the vocal emotional Stroop task, patients and controls listened to words with a positive or negative emotional valence pronounced with congruent or incongruent emotional prosody and judged their emotional content. Patients were also assessed with the Chapman Anhedonia Questionnaire and the Schizophrenic Communication Disorders scale. Individuals with schizophrenia were impaired in their explicit recognition of emotional prosody related to controls. In contrast, they showed a vocal emotional Stroop effect that was identical to controls for reaction time and greater for accuracy: patients were still sensitive to implicit emotional prosody. In addition the vocal emotional Stroop score increased with social anhedonia but was unrelated to communication disorders. Whereas explicit vocal affect recognition is impaired, implicit processing of emotional prosody seems to be preserved in schizophrenia. Our results provide evidence that at a behavioural level, the implicit and explicit processing of emotional prosody can be dissociated. Remediation of emotional prosody recognition in schizophrenia should target cognitive rather than sensory processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Explicit filtering in large eddy simulation using a discontinuous Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Matthew J.

    The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a formulation of the finite element method (FEM). DG provides the ability for a high order of accuracy in complex geometries, and allows for highly efficient parallelization algorithms. These attributes make the DG method attractive for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for large eddy simulation (LES). The main goal of this work is to investigate the feasibility of adopting an explicit filter in the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with DG. Explicit filtering has been shown to increase the numerical stability of under-resolved simulations and is needed for LES with dynamic sub-grid scale (SGS) models. The explicit filter takes advantage of DG's framework where the solution is approximated using a polyno- mial basis where the higher modes of the solution correspond to a higher order polynomial basis. By removing high order modes, the filtered solution contains low order frequency content much like an explicit low pass filter. The explicit filter implementation is tested on a simple 1-D solver with an initial condi- tion that has some similarity to turbulent flows. The explicit filter does restrict the resolution as well as remove accumulated energy in the higher modes from aliasing. However, the ex- plicit filter is unable to remove numerical errors causing numerical dissipation. A second test case solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations of the Taylor-Green vortex flow (TGV). The TGV is useful for SGS model testing because it is initially laminar and transitions into a fully turbulent flow. The SGS models investigated include the constant coefficient Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model, and dynamic Heinz model. The constant coefficient Smagorinsky model is over dissipative, this is generally not desirable however it does add stability. The dynamic Smagorinsky model generally performs better, especially during the laminar-turbulent transition region as expected. The dynamic Heinz model which is

  7. The Need for Imagination and Creativity in Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the need for imagination and creativity in adult education instructional design both online and face-to-face. It defines both imagination and creativity as well as provides an overview of the history of instructional design. It provides an examination of imagination and its application in educational…

  8. Designing Instruction in the Face of Technology Transience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.; Summers, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    As we strive to provide quality and sustainable online learning experiences, we must frame instructional design decisions around learners' current needs and interaction with technology. This article explores the implications of technology transience on instructional design. We provide numerous examples of programs assuming a purposeful approach to…

  9. Managing Resistance to Instructional Modifications in Mainstreamed Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Howard; McGettigan, James

    1988-01-01

    Classroom teachers serving handicapped students in the mainstream often need to make instructional modifications. This article discusses reasons for teacher resistance to instructional modifications and provides strategies that consultative staff can use to prevent or reduce resistance. Expectancy theory is used to provide a framework for…

  10. Explicitly given pairs of dual frames with compactly supported generators and applications to irregular B-splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Sun, Wenchang

    2008-01-01

    We consider systems of functions appearing by letting a class of modulations act on a countable collection of functions. These systems correspond to shift-invariant systems, considered on the Fourier side. We provide sufficient conditions for the system to be a frame, as well as an explicit...... construction of a class of frames and associated duals. We use the result to construct frames based on B-splines with knot sequences satisfying a natural condition, as well as explicitly given duals....

  11. Explicit Dynamic DDA Method considering Dynamic Contact Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jian Zhao; Ming Xiao; Juntao Chen; Dongdong Li

    2016-01-01

      This paper proposes an explicit dynamic DDA method considering dynamic contact force, which aims at solving the problems of low efficiency of dynamic contact detection and the simulation of dynamic...

  12. Lightweight Solar Vehicle Impact Analysis Using ABAQUS/EXPLICIT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi Passarella; Zahari Taha

    2012-01-01

    Makalah ini menggambarkan the Abaqus/Explicit 6.7 simulasi performa kinerja untuk mempelajari dampak kondisi kecelakaan frontal untuk sebuah rancangan dan produksi struktur badan utama kendaraan ringan tenaga surya ringan rumahan...

  13. Optimal Explicit Binomial Confidence Interval with Guaranteed Coverage Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinjia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach for optimizing the explicit binomial confidence interval recently derived by Chen et al. The optimization reduces conservativeness while guaranteeing prescribed coverage probability.

  14. Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grancharova, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) has become the accepted methodology to solve complex control problems related to process industries. The main motivation behind explicit NMPC is that an explicit state feedback law avoids the need for executing a numerical optimization algorithm in real time. The benefits of an explicit solution, in addition to the efficient on-line computations, include also verifiability of the implementation and the possibility to design embedded control systems with low software and hardware complexity. This book considers the multi-parametric Nonlinear Programming (mp-NLP) approaches to explicit approximate NMPC of constrained nonlinear systems, developed by the authors, as well as their applications to various NMPC problem formulations and several case studies. The following types of nonlinear systems are considered, resulting in different NMPC problem formulations: Ø  Nonlinear systems described by first-principles models and nonlinear systems described by black-box models; �...

  15. Instructions for minipill users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, M; Hatcher, R A

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for women who use minipills. Minipills are low dose, progestin only oral contraceptives (OC), which are frequently prescribed for women who 1) experience estrogen related side effects if they take combined OCs; 2) are 35 years of age or older; 3) are 30 years of age or aver and smoke; 4) have a history of headaches, hypertension, or varicose veins; 5) desire immediate postpartum protection; or 6) are lactating. Minipills prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and implantation and by making the cervical mucus more impervious to sperm penetration. Minipills can be effective if they are used properly. Women who take minipills should be advised to carefully read and follow the instructions provided in the OC packet, initiate pill taking on the 1st day of menstrual bleeding, and take 1 pill every day without and breaks. A backup method should be used during the 1st month and subsequently, during each midcycle phase. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take a pill, take her next day's pill at regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation reoccurs. If a woman misses 2 pills, she should immediately, upon remembering, take 2 pills, take 2 pills the following day, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. Women should be advised that many minipill users experience irregular menstural cycles, including amenorrhea and spotting between periods. If menstruation is delayed for 45 days, a pregnancy test is advisable. Women should be advised to immediately seek medical attention if they experience severe chest pain, shortness breath, severe headaches, vision problems, or severe leg pain. Minipill users should let their clinicians know if they experience and changes in mood or sexual drive. These problems can frequently be avoided by switching to another brand of minipills.

  16. Explicit and implicit reinforcement learning across the psychosis spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Carter, Cameron S; Gold, James M; Johnson, Sheri L; Kring, Ann M; MacDonald, Angus W; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Ragland, J Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M; Strauss, Milton E

    2017-07-01

    Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically. None of the diagnostic groups differed significantly from controls on the implicit RL tasks in either bias toward a rewarded response or bias away from a punished response. However, on the explicit RL task, both the individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder performed significantly worse than controls, but the individuals with bipolar did not. Worse performance on the explicit RL task, but not the implicit RL task, was related to worse motivation and pleasure symptoms across all diagnostic categories. Performance on explicit RL, but not implicit RL, was related to working memory, which accounted for some of the diagnostic group differences. However, working memory did not account for the relationship of explicit RL to motivation and pleasure symptoms. These findings suggest transdiagnostic relationships across the spectrum of psychotic disorders between motivation and pleasure impairments and explicit RL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A shortcut for IMEX methods: integrate the residual explicitly

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Savio B.

    2017-01-01

    In numerical time-integration with implicit-explicit (IMEX) methods, a within-step adaptable decomposition called residual balanced decomposition is introduced. This decomposition allows any residual occurring in the implicit equation of the implicit-step to be moved into the explicit part of the decomposition. By balancing the residual, the accuracy of the local truncation error of the time-stepping method becomes independent from the accuracy by which the implicit equation is solved. In thi...

  18. Recent Advances in Explicit Multiparametric Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    KAUST Repository

    Domínguez, Luis F.

    2011-01-19

    In this paper we present recent advances in multiparametric nonlinear programming (mp-NLP) algorithms for explicit nonlinear model predictive control (mp-NMPC). Three mp-NLP algorithms for NMPC are discussed, based on which novel mp-NMPC controllers are derived. The performance of the explicit controllers are then tested and compared in a simulation example involving the operation of a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Translating Expertise into Effective Instruction: The Impacts of Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) on Lab Report Quality and Student Retention in the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldon, David F.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Stowe, Kirk A.; Showman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Poor instruction has been cited as a primary cause of attrition from STEM majors and a major obstacle to learning for those who stay [Seymour and Hewitt [1997]. Talking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciences. Boulder, CO: Westview]. Using a double-blind design, this study tests the hypothesis that the lack of explicit instructions in…

  20. Effectiveness of Supplemental Kindergarten Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners: A Randomized Study of Immediate and Longer-Term Effects of Two Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Nelson, J. Ron

    2015-01-01

    A two-cohort cluster-randomized trial was conducted to estimate effects of small-group supplemental vocabulary instruction for at-risk kindergarten English learners (ELs). Connections students received explicit instruction in high-frequency decodable root words, and interactive book reading (IBR) students were taught the same words in a storybook…

  1. Examining the Use of Video Study Groups for Developing Literacy Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction with Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Tochelli, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    This collective case study explored what nine elementary teachers' video study group discussions revealed about their understanding of pedagogical content knowledge for an explicit reading strategy instruction framework, Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction (CESI). Qualitative methods were used to inductively and deductively analyze…

  2. MOTIVATIONAL MEASURE OF THE INSTRUCTION COMPARED: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory V.S. Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur M. COLAKOGLU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different experiences for learners in terms of motivation than instruction developed following the standard instructional design procedure for blended courses. This study was conducted to compare the students’ motivational evaluation of blended course modules developed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory and students’ motivational evaluation of blended course modules developed following the standard instructional design procedure. Randomly assigned fifty junior undergraduate students studying at the department of Turkish Language and Literature participated in the study. Motivation Measure for the Blended Course Instruction (MMBCI instrument was used to collect data for the study after the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Results of the study indicated that designing instruction in blended courses based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides more motivational benefits for students and consequently contributes student learning.

  3. Pairing correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pillet, N; Libert, J

    2002-01-01

    A method to treat pairing correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving approach is proposed and discussed. It appears to be both tractable and reliable while using state of the art effective interactions, e.g. of the Skyrme type, for the particle-hole matrix elements. It corresponds to a highly truncated shell-model calculation approach. Its fast convergence in the particle-hole basis is due to the use of single-particle states stemming from an Hartree-Fock-like mean field defined from a one-body density matrix including self-consistently the one-body effect of the correlations. Results obtained in an non-fully consistent fashion, in that the residual interaction is mocked up by a delta interaction, are presented. They mainly confirm most of the physical properties underlying the BCS-like solutions, in particular the paramount importance of pair transfers. However in weak pairing situations, e.g. near subshell- or shell-closures, they provide a microscopic description quite at variance with the us...

  4. Spatially-explicit models of global tree density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Henry B.; Bettigole, Charlie; Maynard, Daniel S.; Covey, Kristofer R.; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Crowther, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing and geographic analysis of woody vegetation provide means of evaluating the distribution of natural resources, patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem structure, and socio-economic drivers of resource utilization. While these methods bring geographic datasets with global coverage into our day-to-day analytic spheres, many of the studies that rely on these strategies do not capitalize on the extensive collection of existing field data. We present the methods and maps associated with the first spatially-explicit models of global tree density, which relied on over 420,000 forest inventory field plots from around the world. This research is the result of a collaborative effort engaging over 20 scientists and institutions, and capitalizes on an array of analytical strategies. Our spatial data products offer precise estimates of the number of trees at global and biome scales, but should not be used for local-level estimation. At larger scales, these datasets can contribute valuable insight into resource management, ecological modelling efforts, and the quantification of ecosystem services. PMID:27529613

  5. Stimulus Novelty Energizes Actions in the Absence of Explicit Reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Koster

    Full Text Available Novelty seeking has been tied to impulsive choice and biased value based choice. It has been postulated that novel stimuli should trigger more vigorous approach and exploration. However, it is unclear whether stimulus novelty can enhance simple motor actions in the absence of explicit reward, a necessary condition for energizing approach and exploration in an entirely unfamiliar situation. In this study human subjects were cued to omit or perform actions in form of button presses by novel or familiar images. We found that subjects' motor actions were faster when cued by a novel compared to a familiar image. This facilitation by novelty was strongest when the delay between cue and action was short, consistent with a link between novelty and impulsive choices. The facilitation of reaction times by novelty was correlated across subjects with trait novelty seeking as measured in the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. However, this li between high novelty-seeking and action facilitation was driven by trials with a long delay between cue and action. This prolonged time window of energization following novelty could hint at a mechanistic underpinning of enhanced vigour for approach and exploration frequently postulated for novelty seeking humans. In conclusion, we show that stimulus novelty enhances the speed of a cued motor action. We suggest this is likely to reflect an adaptation to changing environments but may also provide a source of maladaptive choice and impulsive behaviour.

  6. Nonverbal local context cues explicit but not implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; Graf, P

    1996-01-01

    Memory research distinguishes two components of episodes--the event or item and the spatial-temporal setting or context in which it occurred. The word context is used either globally to denote the physical, social, or emotional environment at study and test or it is used locally to refer to another word or picture that was paired with a particular target. In this article, we report four experiments that investigated the influence of two different nonverbal local contexts on explicit word recognition and implicit word identification test performance. In each experiment, university students studied words that were displayed against various extra-item local contexts, and the contexts were either the same or different at study and test. What differed across experiments was the nature of the contexts: for Experiments 1 and 2, it was a band of color that stretched across the computer screen, and for Experiments 3 and 4, the context was a colored line drawing. The combined findings from all experiments provide no evidence of memory context effects (MCE) on priming. By contrast, recognition test performance showed reliable MCEs but only when the local context was a concrete drawing or when it was a color that was target-related or appropriate. The discussion compared these findings with those from previous studies that concerned the cueing effectiveness of verbal and nonverbal extra-item contexts.

  7. They do what they are told to do: the influence of instruction on (chess) expert perception-commentary on linhares and brum (2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalić, Merim; Gobet, Fernand

    2009-07-01

    Linhares and Brum (2007) argue that they provide evidence for analogy as the main principle behind experts' acquisition of perceptual knowledge. However, the methodology they used-asking players to pair positions using abstract similarity-raises the possibility that the task reflects more the effect of directional instructions than the principles underlying the acquisition of knowledge. Here we replicate and extend Linhares and Brum's experiment and show that the matching task they used is inadequate for drawing any conclusions about the nature of experts' perception. When expert chess players were instructed to match problems based on similarities at the abstract level (analogy), they produced more abstract pairs than pairs based on concrete similarity. However, the same experts produced more concrete pairs than abstract ones when instructed to match the problems based on concrete similarity. Asking experts to match problems using explicit instructions is not an appropriate way to show the importance of either analogy or similarity in the acquisition of expert knowledge. Experts simply do what they are told to do. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. What Third-Grade Students of Differing Ability Levels Learn about Nature of Science after a Year of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Avsar, Banu

    2014-01-01

    This study explored third-grade elementary students' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) over the course of an entire school year as they participated in explicit-reflective science instruction. The Views of NOS-D (VNOS-D) was administered pre instruction, during mid-school year, and at the end of the school year to track growth in understanding over time. The Young Children's Views of Science was used to describe how students conversed about NOS among themselves. All science lessons were videotaped, student work collected, and a researcher log was maintained. Data were analyzed by a team of researchers who sorted the students into low-, medium-, and high-achieving levels of NOS understandings based on VNOS-D scores and classwork. Three representative students were selected as case studies to provide an in-depth picture of how instruction worked differentially and how understandings changed for the three levels of students. Three different learning trajectories were developed from the data describing the differences among understandings for the low-, medium-, and high-achieving students. The low-achieving student could discuss NOS ideas, the medium-achieving student discussed and wrote about NOS ideas, the high-achieving student discussed, wrote, and raised questions about NOS ideas.

  9. Working memory moderates the effect of the integrative process of implicit and explicit autonomous motivation on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Alexandre; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i.e., implicit AM) and efficient executive functioning. A sample of 272 university students completed a questionnaire and a lexical decision task to assess their explicit and implicit AM, respectively, and they also completed working memory capacity measures. Grades were obtained at the end of the semester to examine the short-term prospective effect of implicit and explicit AM, working memory, and their interaction. Results of moderation analyses have provided support for a synergistic interaction in which the association between explicit AM and academic achievement was positive and significant only for individuals with high level of implicit AM. Moreover, working memory was moderating the synergistic effect of explicit and implicit AM. Explicit AM was positively associated with academic achievement for students with average-to-high levels of working memory capacity, but only if their motivation operated synergistically with high implicit AM. The integrative process thus seems to hold better proprieties for achievement than the sole effect of explicit AM. Implications for SDT are outlined. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Connecting free energy surfaces in implicit and explicit solvent: an efficient method to compute conformational and solvation free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nanjie; Zhang, Bin W; Levy, Ronald M

    2015-06-09

    The ability to accurately model solvent effects on free energy surfaces is important for understanding many biophysical processes including protein folding and misfolding, allosteric transitions, and protein–ligand binding. Although all-atom simulations in explicit solvent can provide an accurate model for biomolecules in solution, explicit solvent simulations are hampered by the slow equilibration on rugged landscapes containing multiple basins separated by barriers. In many cases, implicit solvent models can be used to significantly speed up the conformational sampling; however, implicit solvent simulations do not fully capture the effects of a molecular solvent, and this can lead to loss of accuracy in the estimated free energies. Here we introduce a new approach to compute free energy changes in which the molecular details of explicit solvent simulations are retained while also taking advantage of the speed of the implicit solvent simulations. In this approach, the slow equilibration in explicit solvent, due to the long waiting times before barrier crossing, is avoided by using a thermodynamic cycle which connects the free energy basins in implicit solvent and explicit solvent using a localized decoupling scheme. We test this method by computing conformational free energy differences and solvation free energies of the model system alanine dipeptide in water. The free energy changes between basins in explicit solvent calculated using fully explicit solvent paths agree with the corresponding free energy differences obtained using the implicit/explicit thermodynamic cycle to within 0.3 kcal/mol out of ∼3 kcal/mol at only ∼8% of the computational cost. We note that WHAM methods can be used to further improve the efficiency and accuracy of the implicit/explicit thermodynamic cycle.

  11. Cross Cultural Instruction: An Instructional Design Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica W. Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article describes the project background, initial design, the ID team's work in Dubai, illustrates the product, and summarizes the design experience.

  12. Self-Instructional Stragety Training: A Cognitive Prothesis for the Aged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichenbaum, D.

    1974-01-01

    Proposes a self-instructional strategy training paradigm designed to explicitly teach that the use of heuristic processes and mediational devices can be employed to compensate for age-associated deficits, such as poor problem solving. Format for the procedure was derived from the developmental research of the Soviet psychologists Vygotsky and…

  13. The Relative Effectiveness of Various Instructional Approaches in Developing Anticipation Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeton, Nicholas J.; Williams, A. Mark; Hodges, Nicola J.; Ward, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of explicit instruction, guided discovery, and discovery learning techniques in enhancing anticipation skill in young, intermediate-level tennis players was examined. Performance was assessed pre- and postintervention, during acquisition, and under transfer conditions designed to elicit anxiety through the use of…

  14. Critical Thinking Instruction in English for Academic Purposes Writing Courses: A Dialectical Thinking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Jay; Gilliland, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is usually taught as a list of practical skills for students to master. In this article, the authors argue that CT instruction should go beyond skills to engage students with issues of identifying their own biases and understanding multiple perspectives on issues. This explicit attention to one's own bias is essential for…

  15. The Impact of Instruction on Second-Language Implicit Knowledge: Evidence against Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Paul D.; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares explicit instruction in second-language Spanish with a control treatment on a written picture description task and a timed auditory grammaticality judgment task. Participants came from two intact, third-year US high school classes, with one experiencing a week of communicative lessons on the Spanish clitic "se"…

  16. Self-Esteem Modulates the Time Course of Self-Positivity Bias in Explicit Self-Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Yang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that certain individuals may show a self-positivity bias, rating themselves as possessing more positive personality traits than others. Previous evidence has shown that people evaluate self-related information in such a way as to maintain or enhance self-esteem. However, whether self-esteem would modulate the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation has never been explored. In the present study, 21 participants completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and then completed a task where they were instructed to indicate to what extent positive/negative traits described themselves. Behavioral data showed that participants endorsed positive traits as higher in self-relevance compared to the negative traits. Further, participants’ self-esteem levels were positively correlated with their self-positivity bias. Electrophysiological data revealed smaller N1 amplitude and larger late positive component (LPC) amplitude to stimuli consistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-high self-relevant stimuli) when compared to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Moreover, only in individuals with low self-esteem, the latency of P2 was more pronounced in processing stimuli that were consistent with the self-positivity bias (negative-low self-relevant stimuli) than to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Overall, the present study provides additional support for the view that low self-esteem as a personality variable would affect the early attentional processing. PMID:24339908

  17. Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology: The case of cultured meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerben A; Fischer, Arnout R H; Tobi, Hilde; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2017-01-01

    Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in developing anticipation skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeton, Nicholas J; Williams, A Mark; Hodges, Nicola J; Ward, Paul

    2005-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of explicit instruction, guided discovery, and discovery learning techniques in enhancing anticipation skill in young, intermediate-level tennis players was examined. Performance was assessed pre- and postintervention, during acquisition, and under transfer conditions designed to elicit anxiety through the use of laboratory and on-court measures. The 3 intervention groups improved from pre- to posttest compared with a control group (n = 8), highlighting the benefits of perceptual-cognitive training. Participants in the explicit (n = 8) and guided discovery (n = 10) groups improved their performance during acquisition at a faster rate than did the discovery learning (n = 7) group. However, the explicit group showed a significant decrement in performance when tested under anxiety provoking conditions compared with the guided discovery and discovery learning groups. Although training facilitated anticipation skill, irrespective of the type of instruction used in this experiment, guided discovery methods are recommended for expediency in learning and resilience under pressure. (c) 2005 APA

  19. Enhanced attentional bias towards sexually explicit cues in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy J Mechelmans

    Full Text Available Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance 'behavioural' addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB.

  20. Stimulus devaluation induced by action stopping is greater for explicit value representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R Wessel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that rapidly stopping an action in the face of a reward-related stimulus reduces the subjective value of that stimulus (Wessel et al., 2014. In that study, there were three phases. In an initial learning phase, geometric shapes were associated with monetary value via implicit learning. In a subsequent treatment phase, half the shapes were paired with action-stopping, and half were not. In a final auction phase, shapes that had been paired with stopping in the treatment phase were subjectively perceived as less valuable compared to those that were not. Exploratory post-hoc analysis showed that the stopping-induced devaluation effect was larger for participants with greater explicit knowledge of stimulus values. Here, we repeated the study in 65 participants to systematically test whether the level of explicit knowledge influences the degree of devaluation. The results replicated the core result that action-stopping reduces stimulus value. Furthermore, they showed that this effect was indeed significantly larger in participants with more explicit knowledge of the relative stimulus values in the learning phase. These results speak to the robustness of the stopping-induced devaluation effect, and furthermore imply that behavioral therapies using stopping could be successful in devaluing real-world stimuli, insofar as stimulus values are explicitly represented. Finally, to facilitate future investigations into the applicability of these findings as well as the mechanisms underlying stopping-induced stimulus devaluation, we herein provide open source code for the behavioral paradigm.

  1. Why be moral? Children's explicit motives for prosocial-moral action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengsavang, Sonia; Willemsen, Kayleen; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on young children's morality has stressed the autonomous and internal nature of children's moral motivation. However, this research has mostly focused on implicit moral motives, whereas children's explicit motives have not been investigated directly. This study examined children's explicit motives for why they want to engage in prosocial actions and avoid antisocial behavior. A total of 195 children aged 4-12 years were interviewed about their motives for everyday prosocial-moral actions, as well as reported on their relationship with their parents. Children's explicit motives to abstain from antisocial behavior were found to be more external and less other-oriented than their motives for prosocial action. Motives that reflected higher levels of internal motivation became more frequent with age. Moreover, positive parent-child relationships predicted more other-oriented motives and greater explication of moral motives. Overall, the study provides evidence that children's explicit moral motivation is far more heterogeneous than prominent theories of moral development (past and present) suggest.

  2. Why Be Moral? Children's Explicit Motives for Prosocial-Moral Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eSengsavang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on young children's morality has stressed the autonomous and internal nature of children's moral motivation. However, this research has mostly focused on implicit moral motives, whereas children's explicit motives have not been investigated directly. This study examined children’s explicit motives for why they want to engage in prosocial actions and avoid antisocial behavior. A total of 195 children aged 4 to 12 years were interviewed about their motives for everyday prosocial-moral actions, as well as reported on their relationship with their parents. Children's explicit motives to abstain from antisocial behavior were found to be more external and less other-oriented than their motives for prosocial action. Motives that reflected higher levels of internal motivation became more frequent with age. Moreover, positive parent-child relationships predicted more other-oriented motives and greater explication of moral motives. Overall, the study provides evidence that children’s explicit moral motivation is far more heterogeneous than prominent theories of moral development (past and present suggest.

  3. The nature of skilled adult reading varies with type of instruction in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G Brian; Connelly, Vincent; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Hodson, Sheryl J

    2009-03-01

    Does the type of reading instruction experienced during the initial years at school have any continuing effect on the ways in which adults read words? The question has arisen in current discussions about computational models of mature word-reading processes. We tested predicted continuing effects by comparing matched samples of skilled adult readers of English who had received explicit phonics instruction in childhood and those who had not. In responding to nonwords that can receive alternative legitimate pronunciations, those adults having childhood phonics instruction used more regular grapheme-phoneme correspondences that were context free and used fewer vocabulary-based contextually dependent correspondences than did adults who had no phonics instruction. These differences in regularization of naming responses also extended to some low-frequency words. This apparent cognitive footprint of childhood phonics instruction is a phenomenon requiring consideration when researchers attempt to model adult word reading and when they select participants to test the models.

  4. Effective literacy instruction for adults with specific learning disabilities: implications for adult educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts.

  5. Are mixed explicit/implicit solvation models reliable for studying phosphate hydrolysis? A comparative study of continuum, explicit and mixed solvation models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamerlin, Shina C. L.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Warshel, Arieh

    2009-05-01

    Phosphate hydrolysis is ubiquitous in biology. However, despite intensive research on this class of reactions, the precise nature of the reaction mechanism remains controversial. In this work, we have examined the hydrolysis of three homologous phosphate diesters. The solvation free energy was simulated by means of either an implicit solvation model (COSMO), hybrid quantum mechanical / molecular mechanical free energy perturbation (QM/MM-FEP) or a mixed solvation model in which N water molecules were explicitly included in the ab initio description of the reacting system (where N=1-3), with the remainder of the solvent being implicitly modelled as a continuum. Here, both COSMO and QM/MM-FEP reproduce Delta Gobs within an error of about 2kcal/mol. However, we demonstrate that in order to obtain any form of reliable results from a mixed model, it is essential to carefully select the explicit water molecules from short QM/MM runs that act as a model for the true infinite system. Additionally, the mixed models tend to be increasingly inaccurate the more explicit water molecules are placed into the system. Thus, our analysis indicates that this approach provides an unreliable way for modelling phosphate hydrolysis in solution.

  6. Effective Instructional Strategies for Kindergarten and First-Grade Students at Risk in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Nelson, Nancy J.; Shanley, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of effective instructional strategies and interventions for kindergarten and first-grade students at risk in mathematics. The article reviews instructional strategies and interventions within a multitier instructional model in order to provide a framework for teachers and schools looking to increase the…

  7. Instruction manual for operating the Sensys System for temporary traffic counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This instruction manual provides information and the procedures for using the Sensys System, which was initially designed to operate in a server controlled network, for temporary traffic counts. The instructions will allow the user to fully understan...

  8. Lexical Ways of Expressing Explicit Politeness in German Linguoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Рафаэль Аркадьевич Газизов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with lexical ways of expressing explicit politeness forms in the German linguocultural community. Speech acts of greeting, saying good-bye, apologizing, thanking, requesting, giving advice, offering help and making invitations are used to analyze most frequent means of realization of explicit politeness, the latter acting in verbal communication as a graded phenomenon. The use of modal and introductory verbs, modal particles, adjectives, adverbs, distant and contact communication forms, specific politeness modificators are demonstrated to be most common lexical means of expressing the type of politeness under consideration. Frequency of use of different parts of speech in the structure of etiquette formulas in German allows us to situate politeness at one or another level (high - medium - low i. e. etiquette units implement the category of explicit politeness with various degrees of intensity. The use of the forms expliciting varoius levels of politeness is connected with communicants' specific intentions, such as paying attention, showing interest, mitigating imposition, and implying further incentive to act. The German linguocultural community is characterized by frequent use of neutral forms of expressive speech acts and stylistically elevated forms of incentive statements representing undogmatic and nonurgent forms. To conclude, specific national peculiarities of explicit politeness in German liguoculture are formulated.

  9. Gender differences in implicit and explicit memory for affective passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Leslie A; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was repeated three times, and alternated with other previously unread passages. The Implicit Affective and Neutral passages had strong affective or neutral content, respectively. The Explicit Tasks were administered at the end of testing, and consisted of multiple choice questions regarding the passages. Priming effects in terms of more rapid reading speed for the target compared to non-target passages were seen for both the Implicit Affective Task and the Implicit Neutral Task. Overall reading speed was faster for the passages with neutral compared to affective content, consistent with studies of the emotional Stroop effect. For the Explicit memory tasks, overall performance was better on the items from the repeated passage, and on the Affective compared to Neutral Task. The male subjects showed greater priming for affective material than female subjects, and a greater gain than female subjects in explicit memory for affective compared to neutral material.

  10. Business faculty e-readiness and willingness towards online instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elsaadani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Online instruction provides a rich integrated environment, as recent innovative educational technologies are changing lives of both students and faculty staff. This research aims to investigate e-readiness and willingness of Business faculty staff towards online instruction, and whether their experience in using educational technologies influences their attitude. Survey methodology is facilitated through the use of the questionnaires. The survey domain is a random sampling of Business faculty staff in Egyptian HEI. The population for this study was 479 full- time Faculty staff, and only 456 returned and completed questionnaires are considered as the study sample. Results showed that faculty attitude toward online instruction is positive, which reflect their e-readiness and willingness to include online instruction, but experience in using educational technology did not significantly predict their attitude towards online instruction. The result of this research has significant implications to HEI when they plan, develop, and adopt online instruction strategies.

  11. Equity Conscious Instruction in Problem-based Multilingual Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth

    This dissertation examines the instructional and relational moves implemented by an equity-conscious teacher in service of supporting discursive participation among her English Learners specifically in a problem-based science classroom. The research included also examines the evolution of discursive participation among English Learners as well as the nature of collaboration among English Learners and their English Fluent peers. Initial findings suggest that there were productive, unproductive, and problematic responses to the teacher's caring approach. Students saw the teacher as approachable and accessible which resulted in students seeking the teacher out, which in turn meant that the teacher was able to scaffold instruction for her students. Students recognized and appreciated teacher strategies, but did not generally take up or adopt her instructional supports when working with their peers. English Fluent students shielded English Learners from more rigorous participation in an effort to prevent them from feeling uncomfortable. Furthermore, English Learners and their English Fluent peers defined "help" in the context of group work differently. The implications for this work include further addressing the ways in which teachers support and scaffold science instruction, thinking more critically about the ways in which teachers are explicit in modeling instructional strategies, and working with students to better understand the implications of differences in the ways that they define help and collaborate.

  12. The effects of teaching a science topic in the Regents Living Environment course in a mini-lesson instructional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Calder James

    This study investigated the effects on high school students' understanding of studying a science topic in the Regents Living Environment course using a Mini-Lesson educational protocol. Mini-Lesson instruction is one of guided instruction, which consists primarily of three sections. First, a brief, focused section in which the teachers explicitly teach the skills and strategies that students need to know in preparation for the second part, the students engagement or workshop activity session. During this time, students work with one another, working independently, in pairs and in groups applying various skills. Students read, discuss ideas, make interpretations, investigate and talk about the focus of the lesson with peers and teacher. A variety of resources are used, including notes, textbooks, teacher handouts, and the teacher providing guidance, monitoring student work and sometimes calling brief call conferences to link ideas and explain student concerns. The third section of Mini-Lesson brings students together as a whole to integrate and share their findings. In the Mini-Lesson instructional process there is a gradual shift of the learning responsibility from the teacher to the students. In this study two sets of clinical interviews were conducted after students' participation in pre-test, and formal instruction about the cell structure and function using the Mini-Lesson instructional protocol, and post-test. Fourteen students enrolled in a regular New York State Regents living environment course and three teachers were interviewed. Three other students participated in the pilot study. The findings from the study showed that students had considerable difficulty with several areas relating to basic biology about the cell structure and function, and did not have an integrated conceptual understanding of the topic. The study revealed that Mini-Lesson instruction appeared to impact student learning and understanding as to how to communicate and share ideas. As a

  13. Enhancing Instructional Design Efficiency: Methodologies Employed by Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roytek, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…

  14. Instructional Conceptions: Analysis from an Instructional Design Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowyck, Joost; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2004-01-01

    Learners are active actors in learning environments and not mere consumers of instructional designers' products. In line with mediating paradigm instructional conceptions of students are analysed. These conceptions act as cognitive filters that affect students' use of both instructional interventions and support in learning environments. To gain…

  15. New explicit methods for the numerical solution of diffusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David J.

    In this survey paper, Part 1 is concerned with new explicit methods for the finite difference solution of a parabolic partial differential equation in 1 space dimension. The new methods use stable asymmetric approximations to the partial differential equation which when coupled in groups of 2 adjacent points on the grid result in implicit equations which can be easily converted to explicit form which in turn offer many advantages. By judicious use of alternating this strategy on the grid points of the domain results in an algorithm which possesses unconditional stability. Part II briefly surveys existing methods and then an explicit finite difference approximation procedure which is unconditionally stable for the solution of the two-dimensional nonhomogeneous diffusion equation is presented. This method possesses the advantages of the implicit methods, i.e., no severe limitation on the size of the time increment.

  16. Implicit-explicit (IMEX) evolution of single black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Stephen R; Pfeiffer, Harald P

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations of binary black holes---an important predictive tool for the detection of gravitational waves---are computationally expensive, especially for binaries with high mass ratios or with rapidly spinning constituent holes. Existing codes for evolving binary black holes rely on explicit timestepping methods for which the timestep size is limited by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. In explicit evolutions of binary black holes, the timestep size is typically orders of magnitude smaller than the relevant physical timescales. Implicit timestepping methods allow for larger timesteps and often reduce the total computational cost. However, fully implicit methods can be difficult to implement for nonlinear evolution systems like the Einstein equations. Therefore, in this paper we explore implicit-explicit (IMEX) methods and use them for the first time to evolve black-hole spacetimes. Specifically, as a first step toward IMEX evolution of a full binary-black-hole spacetime, we develop an IMEX algo...

  17. Explicit Dynamic DDA Method considering Dynamic Contact Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an explicit dynamic DDA method considering dynamic contact force, which aims at solving the problems of low efficiency of dynamic contact detection and the simulation of dynamic contact force in the conventional DDA method. The mutual contact between blocks can be regarded as the application of point loading on a single block, and the corresponding contact submatrix can be calculated and the simultaneous equations of the block system can be integrated. The central difference method is adopted to deduce the explicit expression of block displacement containing dynamic contact force. With the relationship between displacement and dynamic contact force, contact constraint equations of a block system are obtained to calculate the dynamic contact force and the corresponding block displacement. The accuracy of the explicit dynamic DDA method is verified using two numerical cases. The calculation results show that the new DDA method can be applied in large-scale geotechnical engineering.

  18. Explicit Solutions for One-Dimensional Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Prazeres, Mariana

    2017-04-05

    In this thesis, we consider stationary one-dimensional mean-field games (MFGs) with or without congestion. Our aim is to understand the qualitative features of these games through the analysis of explicit solutions. We are particularly interested in MFGs with a nonmonotonic behavior, which corresponds to situations where agents tend to aggregate. First, we derive the MFG equations from control theory. Then, we compute explicit solutions using the current formulation and examine their behavior. Finally, we represent the solutions and analyze the results. This thesis main contributions are the following: First, we develop the current method to solve MFG explicitly. Second, we analyze in detail non-monotonic MFGs and discover new phenomena: non-uniqueness, discontinuous solutions, empty regions and unhappiness traps. Finally, we address several regularization procedures and examine the stability of MFGs.

  19. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  20. Making context explicit for explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezillon, P. [Univ. Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Intelligent systems may be improved by making context explicit in problem solving. This is a lesson drawn from a study of the reasons why a number of knowledge-based systems (KBSs) failed. We discuss the interest to make context explicit in explanation generation and incremental knowledge acquisition, two important aspects of intelligent systems that aim to cooperate with users. We show how context can be used to better explain and incrementally acquire knowledge. The advantages of using context in explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition are discussed through SEPIT, an expert system for supporting diagnosis and explanation through simulation of power plants. We point out how the limitations of such systems may be overcome by making context explicit.

  1. Explicit solution of Calderon preconditioned time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2013-07-01

    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving Calderon-preconditioned time domain integral equations is proposed. The scheme uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson and Buffa-Christiansen functions to discretize the domain and range of the integral operators and a PE(CE)m type linear multistep to march on in time. Unlike its implicit counterpart, the proposed explicit solver requires the solution of an MOT system with a Gram matrix that is sparse and well-conditioned independent of the time step size. Numerical results demonstrate that the explicit solver maintains its accuracy and stability even when the time step size is chosen as large as that typically used by an implicit solver. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. The time course of explicit and implicit categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Herberger, Eric R; Boomer, Joseph; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary theory in cognitive neuroscience distinguishes, among the processes and utilities that serve categorization, explicit and implicit systems of category learning that learn, respectively, category rules by active hypothesis testing or adaptive behaviors by association and reinforcement. Little is known about the time course of categorization within these systems. Accordingly, the present experiments contrasted tasks that fostered explicit categorization (because they had a one-dimensional, rule-based solution) or implicit categorization (because they had a two-dimensional, information-integration solution). In Experiment 1, participants learned categories under unspeeded or speeded conditions. In Experiment 2, they applied previously trained category knowledge under unspeeded or speeded conditions. Speeded conditions selectively impaired implicit category learning and implicit mature categorization. These results illuminate the processing dynamics of explicit/implicit categorization.

  3. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  4. Revitalizing Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalone-Raccaro, Nancy A.

    2017-01-01

    The national focus on teacher accountability and the resulting emphasis on raising the bar for teacher evaluations challenge teachers of students with learning disabilities (LD) to rethink instructional design and delivery. In response to these challenges, this article introduces a two-part protocol for planning and teaching strategy instruction…

  5. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  6. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  7. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    includes evaluative essays on mental measurement and the contributions of E. L. Thorndike, Piaget, Freud , Skinner, and others. A recent book edited by...as a private audio visual aid. Instructional Science, 1980, 9, 295-309. Paolitto, D. P. The effect of cross-age tutoring on adolescence : An inquiry

  8. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  9. Safety Instruction No 43

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335809/LAST_RELEASED/ Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. SC Secretariat

  10. Computers in writing instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies

    1992-01-01

    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  11. New instructional technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Sal; Odle, Teresa

    2008-09-01

    An ASRT task force on new educational delivery methods produced research and resources to guide publication of a white paper titled New Models, New Tools: The Role of Instructional Technology in Radiologic Science Education. This special report summarizes the white paper findings.

  12. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  13. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  14. Learning, Instruction, and Hypermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wayne A.; Palumbo, David B.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the psychological basis of hypermedia as a medium for learning, surveys the characteristics of current hypermedia systems, and suggests ways to make hypermedia systems more valuable as instructional environments. Highlights include parallels between human memory and hypermedia architectures; and hypermedia as knowledge presentation,…

  15. Wind Power. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  16. Developing Effective Instructional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…

  17. Guide to Instructional Videoconferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Denise; Reiss, John G.

    An instructional videoconference (IVC) is an interactive delivery mechanism for long-distance communication and education, which uses 2-way audio and 1- or 2-way video to facilitate interaction between presenters and learners who are separated by significant distance. This guide, intended for the staff of federal, state, and local programs that…

  18. Characteristics of Instructional Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  19. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  20. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  1. Revisiting "Beyond Instructional Design"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…

  2. Individualistic Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet Can

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to the Instructional Design field. By the constructivism, education systems are moving from a massive structure to the more learner centered and more individualist structure. So far, ID field has adopted and digested the individualism notion partly. This paper proposes an individualistic approach to the…

  3. Differentiated Instruction for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kym

    2010-01-01

    Gender based learning has become an acceptable facet of the differentiated classroom. The female learner has unique needs that can be addressed through differentiated instruction. There are distinct differences between men and women. These differences effect how females approach learning as well as how they retain information. "A fundamental…

  4. Orwell's Instructive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Liam

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…

  5. A Pilot Study of the Impact of Double-Dose Robust Vocabulary Instruction on Children's Vocabulary Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ann M.; Davis, Dawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Double-dose instruction, in which instructional lessons are supplemented to provide additional instructional time, is a mechanism used in some schools for boosting outcomes in certain academic areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of double-dose vocabulary instruction, relative to single-dose and business-as-usual control…

  6. Tutorial Instruction in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Miles

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.

  7. Sex Stereotyping in Instructional Materials and Television: Awareness Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matilda

    This awareness kit provides information on the portrayals of women and men in two media--instructional materials and television; discusses how to evaluate and choose the best media materials from those that exist; recommends actions that will help to eliminate sex stereotyping in instructional materials and television; and suggests an approach to…

  8. Correlation of Emotional Intelligence and Instructional Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Myra D.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors contributing to student learning (Marzano et al., 2005). Understanding the role of emotional intelligence in instructional leadership behaviors with a focus on establishing expectations for student academic success provides valuable information about practices…

  9. Intravenous Therapy Instruction for Licensed Practical Nurses. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Pam; Carey, Jean

    This Idaho instructor's guide lists tasks and enabling objectives, outlines instruction, and provides handout masters, overhead masters, and tests for intravenous therapy (IV) instruction for licensed practical nurses. Following an introduction and a list of criteria for successful completion of IV therapy courses, the document lists tasks and…

  10. Multimedia Instructional Tools and Student Learning in Computer Applications Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Debra Laier

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology and changes in educational strategies have resulted in the integration of technology into the classroom. Multimedia instructional tools (MMIT) have been identified as a way to provide student-centered active-learning instructional material to students. MMITs are common in introductory computer applications courses based on…

  11. Instructional Coaching as High-Quality Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Laura M.; Pak, Katie

    2017-01-01

    In response to policy initiatives calling for the implementation of evidence-based classroom practice, instructional coaches are frequently utilized as providers of professional development (PD). Despite the demand for instructional coaches, there is little empirical evidence that coaching improves teacher practice. We address this limitation by…

  12. Instructional strategy and aptitude in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, M.L. van

    2004-01-01

    In the search for innovative instruction and feedback concepts for simulator training, this paper provides a description of the final experiment of a series of three that was done to compare the effectiveness of verbal versus non-verbal instructions in a driving simulator. In the experiment,

  13. Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…

  14. Dynamic instruction set extension of microprocessors with embedded FPGAs

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly complex applications and recent shifts in technology scaling have created a large demand for microprocessors which can perform tasks more quickly and more energy efficient. Conventional microarchitectures exploit multiple levels of parallelism to increase instruction throughput and use application specific instruction sets or hardware accelerators to increase energy efficiency. Reconfigurable microprocessors adopt the same principle of providing application specific hardware, how...

  15. Effects of Differentiated Instruction on Student Achievement in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Darryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Reading teachers are faced with the challenge of providing instruction to a population of diverse students with various abilities and styles of learning within local and state school districts. In an effort to improve student performance on high-stake examinations in reading, teachers continue to seek the most effective instructional strategies.…

  16. Restructuring the Inclusion Classroom to Facilitate Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joshua L.; Conolly, Mindy C.; Ritter, Shirley A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how the teachers in a sixth grade mathematics inclusion class used differentiated instruction to better meet the needs of all learners in the classroom. In an inclusion class with students of mixed abilities, differentiated instruction allows the teacher to meet the needs of every learner by providing students with multiple…

  17. American Reading Instruction: Pre-Revolutionary Religious Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, Douglas Ray

    To provide some understanding of current reading methodology, this paper traces the history of reading instruction from ancient times to pre-Revolutionary America and examines the influences exerted upon that instruction by religion. The major portion of the paper discusses the cultures, religions, and educational systems of ancient Egypt;…

  18. Trp-cage: Folding free energy landscape in explicit water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruhong

    2003-01-01

    Trp-cage is a 20-residue miniprotein, which is believed to be the fastest folder known so far. In this study, the folding free energy landscape of Trp-cage has been explored in explicit solvent by using an OPLSAA force field with periodic boundary condition. A highly parallel replica exchange molecular dynamics method is used for the conformation space sampling, with the help of a recently developed efficient molecular dynamics algorithm P3ME/RESPA (particle–particle particle–mesh Ewald/reference system propagator algorithm). A two-step folding mechanism is proposed that involves an intermediate state where two correctly formed partial hydrophobic cores are separated by an essential salt-bridge between residues Asp-9 and Arg-16 near the center of the peptide. This metastable intermediate state provides an explanation for the superfast folding process. The free energy landscape is found to be rugged at low temperatures, and then becomes smooth and funnel-like above 340 K. The lowest free energy structure at 300 K is only 1.50 Å Cα-RMSD (Cα-rms deviation) from the NMR structures. The simulated nuclear Overhauser effect pair distances are in excellent agreement with the raw NMR data. The temperature dependence of the Trp-cage population, however, is found to be significantly different from experiment, with a much higher melting transition temperature above 400 K (experimental 315 K), indicating that the current force fields, parameterized at room temperature, need to be improved to correctly predict the temperature dependence. PMID:14581616

  19. A Spatially explicit risk assessment approach: Cetaceans and marine traffic in the Pelagos Sanctuary (Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Pennino, Maria Grazia; Arcangeli, Antonella; Prado Fonseca, Vinícius; Campana, Ilaria; Pierce , Graham J.; Rotta, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Spatially explicit risk assessment is an essential component of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which provides a comprehensive framework for managing multiple uses of the marine environment, minimizing environmental impacts and conflicts among users. In this study, we assessed the risk of the exposure to high intensity vessel traffic areas for the three most abundant cetacean species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus and Balaenoptera physalus) in the southern area of the Pelagos Sanct...

  20. The green brand: Explicit and implicit framing effects of ecolabelling on brand knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Steffen; Langner, Sascha; Hennigs, Nadine; Wiedmann, Klaus-Peter; Karampournioti, Evmorfia; Lischka, Gesa

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of brands rely on ecolabelling as associative branding strategy for communicating their sustainability performance. Specifically, associative branding aims to link a brand to an ecolabel to embed sustainability into brand knowledge to provide an added value for consumers. In this regard, the present study applies a combined measurement approach that examines both implicit and explicit information processing to assess consumers’ brand associations related to sustainability...