WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing expert knowledge

  1. Inductive acquisition of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggleton, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Expert systems divide neatly into two categories: those in which (1) the expert decisions result in changes to some external environment (control systems), and (2) the expert decisions merely seek to describe the environment (classification systems). Both the explanation of computer-based reasoning and the bottleneck (Feigenbaum, 1979) of knowledge acquisition are major issues in expert-systems research. The author contributed to these areas of research in two ways: 1. He implemented an expert-system shell, the Mugol environment, which facilitates knowledge acquisition by inductive inference and provides automatic explanation of run-time reasoning on demand. RuleMaster, a commercial version of this environment, was used to advantage industrially in the construction and testing of two large classification systems. 2. He investigated a new techniques called 'sequence induction' that can be used in construction of control systems. Sequence induction is based on theoretical work in grammatical learning. He improved existing grammatical learning algorithms as well as suggesting and theoretically characterizing new ones. These algorithms were successfully applied to acquisition of knowledge for a diverse set of control systems, including inductive construction of robot plans and chess end-gam strategies.

  2. Adaptive capture of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hand, Un Kyong [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[US Navy (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

  3. Knowledge representation and use. I. Expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauriere, J L

    1982-01-01

    Expert systems are designed as aids in human reasoning in various specific areas. Symbolic knowledge manipulation, uncertain and incomplete deduction capabilities, natural communication with humans in non-procedural ways are their essential features. The paper describes their design and several implementations. 105 references.

  4. Developing knowledge management systems with an active expert methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, K.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge management, understood as the ability to store, distribute and utilize human knowledge in an organization, is the subject of this dissertation. In particular we have studied the design of methods and supporting software for this process. Detailed and systematic description of the design and development processes of three case-study implementations of knowledge management software are provided. The outcome of the projects is explained in terms of an active expert development methodology, which is centered around support for a domain expert to take substantial responsibility for the design and maintenance of a knowledge management system in a given area of application. Based on the experiences from the case studies and the resulting methodology, an environment for automatically supporting knowledge management was designed in the KNOWLEDGE-LINKER research project. The vital part of this architecture is a knowledge acquisition tool, used directly by the experts in creating and maintaining a knowledge base. An elaborated version of the active expert development methodology was then formulated as the result of applying the KNOWLEDGE-LINKER approach in a fourth case study. This version of the methodology is also accounted for and evaluated together within the supporting KNOWLEDGE-LINKER architecture. (au)

  5. Values and stances towards expert knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Ahola, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Laypeople’s stances towards expert knowledge and the relationships of personal values to such stances are little studied and remain less than clear. The purpose of this dissertation was to shed more light on these stances and their relationships to personal values, and thereby to contribute to a greater understanding of them. More specifically, this study focusses on the readiness of laypeople to question experts’ views, their non-adherence to doctors’ instructions, and their preferences to ...

  6. Expert Seeker: A People-Finder Knowledge Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Fernandez, Irma

    2000-01-01

    The first objective for this report was to perform a comprehensive research of industry models currently being used for similar purposes, in order to provide the Center with ideas of what is being done in area by private companies and government agencies. The second objective was to evaluate the use of taxonomies or ontologies to describe and catalog the areas of expertise at GSFC. The creation of a knowledge taxonomy is necessary for information extraction in order for The Expert Seeker to adequately search and find experts in a particular area of expertise. The requirements to develop a taxonomy are: provide minimal descriptive text; have the appropriate level of abstration; facilitate browsing; ease of use and speed of data entry are critical for success; customized to the organization and its culture; extent of knowledge areas; expandable, so new skills could be develop; could be complemented with free text fields to allow users the option to describe their knowledge in detail.

  7. Knowledge Representation Using Multilevel Flow Model in Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    As for the knowledge representation, of course, there are a great many methods available for knowledge representation. These include frames, causal models, and many others. This paper presents a novel method called Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), which is used for knowledge representation in G2 expert system. Knowledge representation plays a vital role in constructing knowledge bases. Moreover, it also has impact on building of generic fault model as well as knowledge bases. The MFM is particularly useful to describe system knowledge concisely as domain map in expert system when domain experts are not available

  8. Knowledge Representation Using Multilevel Flow Model in Expert System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2015-05-15

    As for the knowledge representation, of course, there are a great many methods available for knowledge representation. These include frames, causal models, and many others. This paper presents a novel method called Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), which is used for knowledge representation in G2 expert system. Knowledge representation plays a vital role in constructing knowledge bases. Moreover, it also has impact on building of generic fault model as well as knowledge bases. The MFM is particularly useful to describe system knowledge concisely as domain map in expert system when domain experts are not available.

  9. Expert knowledge as defined by the X-Ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection officer or any person responsible for radiation safety have to give proof of their expert knowledge in accordance with sections 3, 4 of the X-Ray Ordinance. Proof of expert knowledge has to be furnished within the procedure of appointment (sec. 13, sub-sec. (3) X-Ray Ordinance). The directive defines the scope of the expert knowledge required, and the scope of expert knowledge persons must have, or acquire, who are responsible for radiation protection within the preview of sec. 23, no. 2, 4 and sec. 29, sub-sec. 1, no. 3 of the X-Ray Ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Real-time expert systems and deep knowledge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1990-01-01

    To guide operators in normal and disturbed plant conditions expert systems are feasible. These, however, must be on-line and real-time systems. The knowledge contained in such a system cannot be represented in a 'classical' role-based manner. The paper describes problems and solutions with regard to process reference models as these are important in order to provide so-called deep-knowledge for the operators. The system described is being implemented and is meant to support both diagnosis and prediction

  11. Expert Performance Transfer: Making Knowledge Transfer Count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.L.; Braudt, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    'Knowledge Transfer' is a high-priority imperative as the nuclear industry faces the combined effects of an aging workforce and economic pressures to do more with less. Knowledge Transfer is only a part of the solution to these challenges, however. The more compelling and immediate need faced by industry is Accomplishment Transfer, or the transference of the applied knowledge necessary to assure optimal performance transfer from experienced, high-performing staff to inexperienced staff. A great deal of industry knowledge and required performance information has been documented in the form of procedures. Often under-appreciated either as knowledge stores or as drivers of human performance, procedures, coupled with tightly-focused and effective training, are arguably the most effective influences on human and plant performance. (author)

  12. Expert knowledge for computerized ECG interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Kors (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, two main questions are addressed: (1) Can the time consuming and cumbersome development and refinement of (heuristic) ECG classifiers be alleviated, and (2) Is it possible to increase diagnostic performance of ECG computer programs by combining knowledge from multiple

  13. Diffusing Scientific Knowledge to Innovative Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    Communicating science to scientists works well thanks to well-defined communication structures based on both printed material in peer-reviewed publications and oral presentations, e.g.\\ at conferences and seminars. However, when science is communicated to practitioners, the structures become fuzz...... and argued for more collaboration between scientists and practitioners. This can be done by implementing fast-learning via online website, but it needs to be assisted by slower-paced face-to-face learning to lessen the risk of a digital knowledge divide within the community.......Communicating science to scientists works well thanks to well-defined communication structures based on both printed material in peer-reviewed publications and oral presentations, e.g.\\ at conferences and seminars. However, when science is communicated to practitioners, the structures become fuzzy....... We are looking at how to implement Web2.0 technologies to Danish seed scientists communicating to seed consultants, agricultural advisors, and seed growers, and we are met with the challenge of securing effective knowledge diffusion to the community. Our investigation's focal point is on Rogers...

  14. Knowledge based economy: The role of expert diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diasporas stand out as an economic or cultural avant-garde of transformation. This is especially true for academic and other intellectual Diaspora communities, because science and knowledge creation are global enterprises. Proclivity of knowledge workers to move in order to improve and absorb transnational knowledge through Diaspora networks might be an essential quality of an emerging national economy of a developing country. The article treats the role of expert Diaspora in knowledge based economy, innovation and talent management. Besides presenting the essentials of knowledge based economy and innovation, it discusses the role of expert Diaspora in science, technology and innovation (STI capacity building. Also, the article emphasizes the importance of leadership for talent and its implications for Diaspora. Using WEF statistics, it illustrates negative consequences of the sad policy of “Chaseaway the brightest and the best” for innovative capacity, competitiveness, and prosperity of nations.

  15. Integration of expert knowledge and uncertainty in natural risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mirko; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and

  16. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  17. The structure of expert diagnostic knowledge in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, P; McCoy, J M; Shimozaki, S; Coffman, P; Bailey, K

    1991-01-01

    Development of an artificial intelligence expert system for diagnosing occupational lung disease requires explicit specification of the structure of knowledge necessary in clinical occupational medicine independent of the process by which the knowledge is utilized. Furthermore, explicit recognition of sources of uncertainty is necessary. Seven categories of knowledge define the diagnostic knowledge base in occupational pulmonary medicine. These include four objects (jobs, industries, exposures, and diseases) and three relationships between pairs of objects. This analysis demonstrates some of the unique aspects of occupational medicine expertise.

  18. Expert knowledge maps for knowledge management: a case study in Traditional Chinese Medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Yang, Shuo; Yu, Tong; Yang, Ce; Gao, Yonghong; Zhu, Haiyan

    2013-10-01

    To design a model to capture information on the state and trends of knowledge creation, at both an individual and an organizational level, in order to enhance knowledge management. We designed a graph-theoretic knowledge model, the expert knowledge map (EKM), based on literature-based annotation. A case study in the domain of Traditional Chinese Medicine research was used to illustrate the usefulness of the model. The EKM successfully captured various aspects of knowledge and enhanced knowledge management within the case-study organization through the provision of knowledge graphs, expert graphs, and expert-knowledge biography. Our model could help to reveal the hot topics, trends, and products of the research done by an organization. It can potentially be used to facilitate knowledge learning, sharing and decision-making among researchers, academicians, students, and administrators of organizations.

  19. Lessons Learnt from Experts in Design Rationale Knowledge Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Mark; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo; Ravindranath, Ranjitun

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the use of argumentation models and software tools to support knowledge capture in the design of long-life engineering products. The results of semi-structured interviews with a number of experts in the field are presented, exploring their collective experience...... of knowledge capture and eliciting guidelines for successful implementation of such models and tools. The results of this research may be used as the basis for the design of future tools and techniques for knowledge capture....

  20. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical foundations of research regarding the different knowledge management strategies has been done And factors influencing the knowledge management strategy selection have been extracted from conceptual frameworks and models. How these factors influence the knowledge management strategy selection is extracted through the fuzzy Delphi. Next a fuzzy expert system for the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategy is designed with respect to factors that have an impact on knowledge management strategy. The factors which influence the selection of knowledge management strategy include: general business strategy, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, strategic human resource management, social level, the types of knowledge creation processes and release it. The factors which influence the knowledge management strategy selection include: business strategy general, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, human resource management strategies, socialization level, knowledge types and its creation and diffusion processes. According to identified factors which affect the knowledge management strategy, the final strategy is recommended based on the range of human-oriented and system-oriented by keep the balance of explicit and implicit knowledge. The Designed system performance is tested and evaluated by the information related to three Iranian organization.

  1. Using expert knowledge in landscape ecology [Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    This volume perfectly illustrates the truism—"we don't know what it is that we don't know." I have been a landscape ecologist for over 20 years, and have even used expert knowledge many times in my own research. Yet I learned something profoundly new in almost every chapter of this collection of primers and case studies focused on the use...

  2. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  3. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E. Chamberlain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds. For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community.

  4. A preliminary study to understand tacit knowledge and visual routines of medical experts through gaze tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Blake; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2010-11-13

    Many decisions made by medical experts are based on scans from advanced imaging technologies. Interpreting a medical image is a trained, systematic procedure and an excellent target for identifying potential visual routines through image informatics. These visual routines derived from experts contain many clues about visual knowledge and its representation. This study uses an inexpensive webcam-based gaze tracking method to collect data from multiple technologists' survey of medical and non-medical images. Through computational analysis of the results, we expect to provide insight into the behaviors and properties related to medical visual routines. Discovering the visual processes associated with medical images will help us recognize and understand the tacit knowledge gained from extensive experience with medical imagery. These expert routines could potentially be used to reduce medical error, train new experts, and provide an understanding of the human visual system in medicine.

  5. Using Pathfinder networks to discover alignment between expert and consumer conceptual knowledge from online vaccine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amith, Muhammad; Cunningham, Rachel; Savas, Lara S; Boom, Julie; Schvaneveldt, Roger; Tao, Cui; Cohen, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the use of distributed vector representations and Pathfinder Network Scaling (PFNETS) to represent online vaccine content created by health experts and by laypeople. By analyzing a target audience's conceptualization of a topic, domain experts can develop targeted interventions to improve the basic health knowledge of consumers. The underlying assumption is that the content created by different groups reflects the mental organization of their knowledge. Applying automated text analysis to this content may elucidate differences between the knowledge structures of laypeople (heath consumers) and professionals (health experts). This paper utilizes vaccine information generated by laypeople and health experts to investigate the utility of this approach. We used an established technique from cognitive psychology, Pathfinder Network Scaling to infer the structure of the associational networks between concepts learned from online content using methods of distributional semantics. In doing so, we extend the original application of PFNETS to infer knowledge structures from individual participants, to infer the prevailing knowledge structures within communities of content authors. The resulting graphs reveal opportunities for public health and vaccination education experts to improve communication and intervention efforts directed towards health consumers. Our efforts demonstrate the feasibility of using an automated procedure to examine the manifestation of conceptual models within large bodies of free text, revealing evidence of conflicting understanding of vaccine concepts among health consumers as compared with health experts. Additionally, this study provides insight into the differences between consumer and expert abstraction of domain knowledge, revealing vaccine-related knowledge gaps that suggest opportunities to improve provider-patient communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  7. Fabricating Expert Knowledge of the Behaviour of Problematic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Anne; Lanas, Maija

    2016-01-01

    This article examines what constitutes students' disruptive and good behaviour, as described and defined by teachers. Teachers are viewed as professional experts who produce official information regarding their students. The present study analysed the overarching features of behaviour descriptions provided by teachers in official statements…

  8. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...... in the commissioning of work, constituent audiences and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  9. A Semiautomated Framework for Integrating Expert Knowledge into Disease Marker Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Hoidal, John R.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Pounds, Joel G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Rodland, Karin D.; McDermott, Jason E.

    2013-10-01

    Background. The availability of large complex data sets generated by high throughput technologies has enabled the recent proliferation of disease biomarker studies. However, a recurring problem in deriving biological information from large data sets is how to best incorporate expert knowledge into the biomarker selection process. Objective. To develop a generalizable framework that can incorporate expert knowledge into data-driven processes in a semiautomated way while providing a metric for optimization in a biomarker selection scheme. Methods. The framework was implemented as a pipeline consisting of five components for the identification of signatures from integrated clustering (ISIC). Expert knowledge was integrated into the biomarker identification process using the combination of two distinct approaches; a distance-based clustering approach and an expert knowledge-driven functional selection. Results. The utility of the developed framework ISIC was demonstrated on proteomics data from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biomarker candidates were identified in a mouse model using ISIC and validated in a study of a human cohort. Conclusions. Expert knowledge can be introduced into a biomarker discovery process in different ways to enhance the robustness of selected marker candidates. Developing strategies for extracting orthogonal and robust features from large data sets increases the chances of success in biomarker identification.

  10. A method of knowledge base verification and validation for nuclear power plants expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Won

    1996-02-01

    The adoption of expert systems mainly as operator supporting systems is becoming increasingly popular as the control algorithms of system become more and more sophisticated and complicated. As a result of this popularity, a large number of expert systems are developed. The nature of expert systems, however, requires that they be verified and validated carefully and that detailed methodologies for their development be devised. Therefore, it is widely noted that assuring the reliability of expert systems is very important, especially in nuclear industry, and it is also recognized that the process of verification and validation is an essential part of reliability assurance for these systems. Research and practices have produced numerous methods for expert system verification and validation (V and V) that suggest traditional software and system approaches to V and V. However, many approaches and methods for expert system V and V are partial, unreliable, and not uniform. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to expert system V and V, based on Petri nets, providing a uniform model. We devise and suggest an automated tool, called COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net), for checking incorrectness, inconsistency, and incompleteness in a knowledge base. We also suggest heuristic analysis for validation process to show that the reasoning path is correct

  11. Structure of the knowledge base for an expert labeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, N. S.

    1981-01-01

    One of the principal objectives of the NASA AgRISTARS program is the inventory of global crop resources using remotely sensed data gathered by Land Satellites (LANDSAT). A central problem in any such crop inventory procedure is the interpretation of LANDSAT images and identification of parts of each image which are covered by a particular crop of interest. This task of labeling is largely a manual one done by trained human analysts and consequently presents obstacles to the development of totally automated crop inventory systems. However, development in knowledge engineering as well as widespread availability of inexpensive hardware and software for artificial intelligence work offers possibilities for developing expert systems for labeling of crops. Such a knowledge based approach to labeling is presented.

  12. Ask-the-expert: Active Learning Based Knowledge Discovery Using the Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kamalika; Avrekh, Ilya; Matthews, Bryan; Sharma, Manali; Oza, Nikunj

    2017-01-01

    Often the manual review of large data sets, either for purposes of labeling unlabeled instances or for classifying meaningful results from uninteresting (but statistically significant) ones is extremely resource intensive, especially in terms of subject matter expert (SME) time. Use of active learning has been shown to diminish this review time significantly. However, since active learning is an iterative process of learning a classifier based on a small number of SME-provided labels at each iteration, the lack of an enabling tool can hinder the process of adoption of these technologies in real-life, in spite of their labor-saving potential. In this demo we present ASK-the-Expert, an interactive tool that allows SMEs to review instances from a data set and provide labels within a single framework. ASK-the-Expert is powered by an active learning algorithm for training a classifier in the backend. We demonstrate this system in the context of an aviation safety application, but the tool can be adopted to work as a simple review and labeling tool as well, without the use of active learning.

  13. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  14. Vernacular Knowledge and Water Management – Towards the Integration of Expert Science and Local Knowledge in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problems cannot be solved using expert science alone. Rather, these kinds of problems benefit from problem-solving processes that draw on 'vernacular' knowledge. Vernacular knowledge integrates expert science and local knowledge with community beliefs and values. Collaborative approaches to water problem-solving can provide forums for bringing together diverse, and often competing, interests to produce vernacular knowledge through deliberation and negotiation of solutions. Organised stakeholder groups are participating increasingly in such forums, often through involvement of networks, but it is unclear what roles these networks play in the creation and sharing of vernacular knowledge. A case-study approach was used to evaluate the involvement of a key stakeholder group, the agricultural community in Ontario, Canada, in creating vernacular knowledge during a prescribed multi-stakeholder problem-solving process for source water protection for municipal supplies. Data sources – including survey questionnaire responses, participant observation, and publicly available documents – illustrate how respondents supported and participated in the creation of vernacular knowledge. The results of the evaluation indicate that the respondents recognised and valued agricultural knowledge as an information source for resolving complex problems. The research also provided insight concerning the complementary roles and effectiveness of the agricultural community in sharing knowledge within a prescribed problem-solving process.

  15. Expert panel on additional cross subsidisation. Considering arguments and providing expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Lowe, S.; Mason, A.

    2007-10-01

    market share on markets where they compete directly with EU based airlines by undercutting fares on these markets, subsidising potential losses on these markets by increased prices on routes at which they do not compete with EU airlines, and thus increase their total profits. As part of the project, a panel of experts will be contacted to provide input to the study. This note elaborates the input that we ask for. But first, it provides an analytical background on the study

  16. Solving black box computation problems using expert knowledge theory and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Jane M.; McNamara, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    The challenge problems for the Epistemic Uncertainty Workshop at Sandia National Laboratories provide common ground for comparing different mathematical theories of uncertainty, referred to as General Information Theories (GITs). These problems also present the opportunity to discuss the use of expert knowledge as an important constituent of uncertainty quantification. More specifically, how do the principles and methods of eliciting and analyzing expert knowledge apply to these problems and similar ones encountered in complex technical problem solving and decision making? We will address this question, demonstrating how the elicitation issues and the knowledge that experts provide can be used to assess the uncertainty in outputs that emerge from a black box model or computational code represented by the challenge problems. In our experience, the rich collection of GITs provides an opportunity to capture the experts' knowledge and associated uncertainties consistent with their thinking, problem solving, and problem representation. The elicitation process is rightly treated as part of an overall analytical approach, and the information elicited is not simply a source of data. In this paper, we detail how the elicitation process itself impacts the analyst's ability to represent, aggregate, and propagate uncertainty, as well as how to interpret uncertainties in outputs. While this approach does not advocate a specific GIT, answers under uncertainty do result from the elicitation

  17. Integrating Expert Knowledge into Mapping Ecosystem Services Trade-offs for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to global change. In fact, the continued capacity of mountain regions to provide goods and services to society is threatened by the impact of environmental changes on ecosystems. Although mapping ecosystem services values is known to support sustainable resource management, the integration of spatially explicit local expert knowledge on ecosystem dynamics and social responses to global changes has not yet been integrated in the modeling process. This contribution demonstrates the importance of integrating local knowledge into the spatially explicit valuation of ecosystem services. Knowledge acquired by expert surveys flows into a GIS-based Bayesian Network for valuing forest ecosystem services under a land-use and a climate change scenario in a case study in the Swiss Alps. Results show that including expert knowledge in ecosystem services mapping not only reduces uncertainties considerably, but also has an important effect on the ecosystem services values. Particularly the iterative process between integrating expert knowledge into the modeling process and mapping ecosystem services guarantees a continuous improvement of ecosystem services values maps while opening a new way for mutual learning between scientists and stakeholders which might support adaptive resource management.

  18. A guide on the elicitation of expert knowledge in constructing BBN for quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Chang, S. C.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the methodology which could elicit probabilistic representation from the experts' knowledge or qualitative data. It is necessary to elicit expert's knowledge while we quantitatively assess the reliability of safety critical software using Bayesian Belief Nets(BBNs). Especially in composing the node probability table and in making out the input data for BBN model, experts' qualitative judgment or qualitative data should be converted into probabilistic representation. This conversion process is vulnerable to bias or error. The purpose of the report is to provide the guideline to avoid the occurrence of this kinds of bias/error or to eliminate them which is included in the existing data prepared by experts. The contents of the report are: o The types and the explanation of bias and error The types of bias and error which might be occur in the process of eliciting the expert's knowledge. o The procedure of expert's judgment elicitation. The process and techniques to avoid bias and error in eliciting the expert's judgments. o The examples of expert's knowledge appeared in the BBNs The examples of expert's knowledge (probability values) appeared in the BBNs for assessing the safety of digital system

  19. Providing Radiation Protection Experts in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.; Owen, D.

    2004-01-01

    The EEC Directive on Qualified Experts in Radiation Protection has been implemented in the United Kingdom by the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99). These Regulations require Radiation Employers to appoint suitable Radiation Protection Advisers (RPA) who must be consulted in certain circumstances when starting work with, or using ionising radiations. Radiation Protection Advisers have to have a current certificate of competence and, to gain one of these, must have demonstrated their competence in one of two ways either by achieving a National Vocational Qualification in Radiation Protection Practice or by being Certificated by an Assessing Body. Assessing Bodies have to be recognised by the Health and Safety Executive, who undertake a rigorous assessment process to determine whether the proposed Assessing Body is fit to undertake RPA Assessments. By July 2003, only two such Assessing Bodies had been approved in the UK. These two Assessing Bodies are ? RPA 2000 a company established by the four leading Radiation Protection Professional Societies in the UK for assessing anyone in the UK as Radiation Protection Advisers, And ? BNFL established by BNFL to assess the competence of BNFL's own Radiation Protection Advisers. This paper will describe the standards against which Radiation Protection Advisers are assessed, the manner in which each of these two Assessing Bodies carry out the assessment process and their experience to date. The way in which Radiation Employers carry out the appointment process will also be described. Potential future developments of the Assessment Process and standards will also be discussed. (Author)

  20. Guideline for the proof of expert knowledge of nuclear power station personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The guideline allows the examination of particulars on the state of knowledge and instruction of persons responsible for the erection, management and monitoring of a plant which applicants in accordance with section 7, sub-section (2) No. 1 AtG are required to provide. They apply uniformly to all of the Federal Republic of Germany. They comprise principles, evidence of expert knowledge, rules for the conduct of examinations and instructions for updating knowledge. This guideline supersedes the version of April 4, 1984 (GMBl. A (May 25, 1984) v. 35(12) p. 192-197). (orig./HP) [de

  1. THE BOTS EXPERTS BASED ON THE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE CREATION INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович ТІМОФЄЄВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Now the world web answers the questions "who?", "what?", "where?" and "when?" fast and completely. But not the question "how?", especially "how to settle emergency situation?” (which refers to procedural knowledge usually, private user’s advice from various forums is employed as the response. And this is despite the real boom of bots - programs that mimic human action through the Internet interfaces and of the so-called chatbots, that are the programs to provide answers within individual sites. The differences in knowledge representation forms make it impossible to use existing chatbot creation information technologies for dissemination the procedural knowledge in the bot-experts form via Internet. For the problem solution, the original information technology is offered. The article is addressed to IT-specialists, experts in various areas and to heads of the enterprises to use for creating the Internet consulting business or to solve organizational problems in an existing business.

  2. A knowledge-base verification of NPP expert systems using extended Petri nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Won; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    The verification phase of knowledge base is an important part for developing reliable expert systems, especially in nuclear industry. Although several strategies or tools have been developed to perform potential error checking, they often neglect the reliability of verification methods. Because a Petri net provides a uniform mathematical formalization of knowledge base, it has been employed for knowledge base verification. In this work, we devise and suggest an automated tool, called COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net), for detecting incorrectness, inconsistency, and incompleteness in a knowledge base. The scope of the verification problem is expanded to chained errors, unlike previous studies that assumed error incidence to be limited to rule pairs only. In addition, we consider certainty factor in checking, because most of knowledge bases have certainty factors

  3. Efficient fuzzy Bayesian inference algorithms for incorporating expert knowledge in parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Mohammad Mahdi; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Bayesian inference has traditionally been conceived as the proper framework for the formal incorporation of expert knowledge in parameter estimation of groundwater models. However, conventional Bayesian inference is incapable of taking into account the imprecision essentially embedded in expert provided information. In order to solve this problem, a number of extensions to conventional Bayesian inference have been introduced in recent years. One of these extensions is 'fuzzy Bayesian inference' which is the result of integrating fuzzy techniques into Bayesian statistics. Fuzzy Bayesian inference has a number of desirable features which makes it an attractive approach for incorporating expert knowledge in the parameter estimation process of groundwater models: (1) it is well adapted to the nature of expert provided information, (2) it allows to distinguishably model both uncertainty and imprecision, and (3) it presents a framework for fusing expert provided information regarding the various inputs of the Bayesian inference algorithm. However an important obstacle in employing fuzzy Bayesian inference in groundwater numerical modeling applications is the computational burden, as the required number of numerical model simulations often becomes extremely exhaustive and often computationally infeasible. In this paper, a novel approach of accelerating the fuzzy Bayesian inference algorithm is proposed which is based on using approximate posterior distributions derived from surrogate modeling, as a screening tool in the computations. The proposed approach is first applied to a synthetic test case of seawater intrusion (SWI) in a coastal aquifer. It is shown that for this synthetic test case, the proposed approach decreases the number of required numerical simulations by an order of magnitude. Then the proposed approach is applied to a real-world test case involving three-dimensional numerical modeling of SWI in Kish Island, located in the Persian Gulf. An expert

  4. Experts' views regarding Australian school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    To explore Australian experts' views regarding strengths and gaps in school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems ( N&FS) and factors that influence that knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 highly experienced food-related experts in Australia. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework. Two global themes and several organising themes were identified. The first global theme, 'structural curriculum-based problems', emerged from three organising themes of: inconsistencies in provided food education programs at schools in Australia; insufficient coverage of food-related skills and food systems topics in school curricula; and the lack of trained school teachers. The second global theme, 'insufficient levels of school-leavers knowledge of N&FS ', was generated from four organising themes, which together described Australian school-leavers' poor knowledge of N&FS more broadly and knowledge translation problem for everyday practices. Study findings identified key problems relating to current school-based N&FS education programs in Australia and reported knowledge gaps in relation to N&FS among Australian school-leavers. These findings provide important guidance for N&FS curriculum development, to clearly articulate broadly-based N&FS knowledge acquisition in curriculum policy and education documents for Australian schools. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Experiential knowledge of expert coaches can help identify informational constraints on performance of dynamic interceptive actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Daniel; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Coordination of dynamic interceptive movements is predicated on cyclical relations between an individual's actions and information sources from the performance environment. To identify dynamic informational constraints, which are interwoven with individual and task constraints, coaches' experiential knowledge provides a complementary source to support empirical understanding of performance in sport. In this study, 15 expert coaches from 3 sports (track and field, gymnastics and cricket) participated in a semi-structured interview process to identify potential informational constraints which they perceived to regulate action during run-up performance. Expert coaches' experiential knowledge revealed multiple information sources which may constrain performance adaptations in such locomotor pointing tasks. In addition to the locomotor pointing target, coaches' knowledge highlighted two other key informational constraints: vertical reference points located near the locomotor pointing target and a check mark located prior to the locomotor pointing target. This study highlights opportunities for broadening the understanding of perception and action coupling processes, and the identified information sources warrant further empirical investigation as potential constraints on athletic performance. Integration of experiential knowledge of expert coaches with theoretically driven empirical knowledge represents a promising avenue to drive future applied science research and pedagogical practice.

  6. The Novice-Expert Continuum in Astronomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2012-03-01

    The nature of expertise in astronomy was investigated across a broad spectrum of ages and experience in China and New Zealand. Five hypotheses (capable of quantification and statistical analysis) were used to probe types of expertise identified by previous researchers: (a) domain-specific knowledge-skill in the use of scientific vocabulary and language and recognising relationships between concepts in linguistic and schematic forms; (b) higher-order theory in terms of conceptual structure and enriched scientific knowledge and reasoning; with an expectation of cultural similarity. There were 993 participants in all, age 3-80 years, including 68 junior school pupils; 68 pre-school pupils; 112 middle-school students; 109 high-school students; 79 physics undergraduates; 60 parents; 136 pre-service primary teachers; 131 pre-service secondary teachers; 72 primary teachers; 78 secondary teachers; 50 amateur astronomers and astronomy educators; and 30 astronomers and physicists; with approximately equal numbers of each group in both cultures; and of boys and girls in the case of children. For them, the methodology utilised Piagetian interviews with three media (verbal language, drawing, play-dough modelling), and for adults a questionnaire inviting responses in writing and drawing was used. The data from each group were categorised into ordinal scales and then analysed by means of Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests. The findings supported the hypotheses with evidence of all forms of expertise increasing with experience in both cultures (α level 0.05). The relative gains, overlaps and deficits in expertise across the novice-expert continuum are explored in detail.

  7. Expert knowledge in palliative care on the World Wide Web: palliativedrugs.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In my last Internet-related article, I speculated that social networking would be the coming wave in the effort to share knowledge among experts in various disciplines. At the time I did not know that a palliative care site on the World Wide Web (WWW), palliativedrugs.com, already provided the infrastructure for sharing expert knowledge in the field. The Web site is an excellent traditional formulary but it is primarily devoted to "unlicensed" ("off-label") use of medications in palliative care, something we in the specialty often do with little to support our interventions except shared knowledge and experience. There is nothing fancy about this Web site. In a good way, its format is a throwback to Web sites of the 1990s. In only the loosest sense can one describe it as "multimedia." Yet, it provides the perfect forum for expert knowledge and is a "must see" resource. Its existing content is voluminous and reliable, filtered and reviewed by renowned clinicians and educators in the field. Although its origin and structure were not specifically designed for social or professional networking, the Web site's format makes it a natural way for practitioners around the world to contribute to an ever-growing body of expertise in palliative care.

  8. Knowledge management: an analysis of the tools of expert knowledge capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Larcher, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes the revision of the strategies and tools used to elicit and capture expert knowledge, particularly those suggested by the EPRI and the IAEA. The main objective of this paper consists of examining the effectiveness and scope of the methodologies proposed, in order to apply them and make them suitable according to our institutional context. This article emphasizes the value and usefulness of the interview's methods with the aim of implementing some of them to the activities created and organized by CNEA Nuclear Knowledge Management Group, especially to the ConRRad Project. (author)

  9. Teacher Knowledge for Active-Learning Instruction: Expert-Novice Comparison Reveals Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, A J; Higgins, M; Brickman, P; Andrews, T C

    2018-01-01

    Active-learning strategies can improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduates' abilities to learn fundamental concepts and skills. However, the results instructors achieve vary substantially. One explanation for this is that instructors commonly implement active learning differently than intended. An important factor affecting how instructors implement active learning is knowledge of teaching and learning. We aimed to discover knowledge that is important to effective active learning in large undergraduate courses. We developed a lesson-analysis instrument to elicit teacher knowledge, drawing on the theoretical construct of teacher noticing. We compared the knowledge used by expert ( n = 14) and novice ( n = 29) active-learning instructors as they analyzed lessons. Experts and novices differed in what they noticed, with experts more commonly considering how instructors hold students accountable, topic-specific student difficulties, whether the instructor elicited and responded to student thinking, and opportunities students had to generate their own ideas and work. Experts were also better able to support their lesson analyses with reasoning. This work provides foundational knowledge for the future design of preparation and support for instructors adopting active learning. Improving teacher knowledge will improve the implementation of active learning, which will be necessary to widely realize the potential benefits of active learning in undergraduate STEM. © 2018 A. J. Auerbach et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. A method of knowledge base verification for nuclear power plant expert systems using extended Petri Nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, I. W.; Seong, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The adoption of expert systems mainly as operator supporting systems is becoming increasingly popular as the control algorithms of system become more and more sophisticated and complicated. The verification phase of knowledge base is an important part for developing reliable expert systems, especially in nuclear industry. Although several strategies or tools have been developed to perform potential error checking, they often neglect the reliability of verification methods. Because a Petri net provides a uniform mathematical formalization of knowledge base, it has been employed for knowledge base verification. In this work, we devise and suggest an automated tool, called COKEP(Checker of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net), for detecting incorrectness, inconsistency, and incompleteness in a knowledge base. The scope of the verification problem is expended to chained errors, unlike previous studies that assume error incidence to be limited to rule pairs only. In addition, we consider certainty factor in checking, because most of knowledge bases have certainly factors. 8 refs,. 2 figs,. 4 tabs. (author)

  11. The Case for Creative Abrasion: Experts Speak Out on Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley-Durst, Barbara; Christensen, Hal D.; Degler, Duane; Weidner, Douglas; Feldstein, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Five knowledge management (KM) experts discuss answers to six fundamental issues of KM that address: a definition of knowledge and KM; relationship between business and KM; whether technology has helped the knowledge worker; relationship between learning, performance, knowledge, and community; the promise of knowledge ecology or ecosystem and…

  12. A knowledge creation info-structure to acquire and crystallize the tacit knowledge of health-care experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza; Cheah, Yu-N; Curran, Janet

    2005-06-01

    Tacit knowledge of health-care experts is an important source of experiential know-how, yet due to various operational and technical reasons, such health-care knowledge is not entirely harnessed and put into professional practice. Emerging knowledge-management (KM) solutions suggest strategies to acquire the seemingly intractable and nonarticulated tacit knowledge of health-care experts. This paper presents a KM methodology, together with its computational implementation, to 1) acquire the tacit knowledge possessed by health-care experts; 2) represent the acquired tacit health-care knowledge in a computational formalism--i.e., clinical scenarios--that allows the reuse of stored knowledge to acquire tacit knowledge; and 3) crystallize the acquired tacit knowledge so that it is validated for health-care decision-support and medical education systems.

  13. The integration of expert knowledge in decision support systems for facility location planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of expert systems in DSS has led to a new generation of systems commonly referred to as knowledge-based or intelligent DSS. This paper investigates the use of expert system technology for the development of a knowledge-based DSS for the planning of retail and service facilities. The

  14. A diagnostic expert system for the nuclear power plant b ased on the hybrid knowledge approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    A diagnostic expert system, the hybrid knowledge based plant operation supporting system (HYPOSS), which has been developed to support operators' decisionmaking during the transients of the nuclear power plant, is described. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach, which combines both shallow and deep knowledge to take advantage of the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure. They are structural, functional, behavioral, and heuristic knowledge. The structural and functional knowledge is represented by three fundamental primitives and five types of functions, respectively. The behavioral knowledge is represented using constraints. The inference procedure is based on the human problem-solving behavior modeled in HYPOSS. The event-based operational guidelines are provided to the operator according to the diagnosed results. If the exact anomalies cannot be identified while some of the critical safety functions are challenged, the function-based operational guidelines are provided to the operator. For the validation of HYPOSS, several tests have been performed based on the data produced by a plant simulator. The results of validation studies show good applicability of HYPOSS to the anomaly diagnosis of nuclear power plant

  15. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Khadivar; Shohreh Nasri Nasr Abadi; Elham Fallah

    2014-01-01

    knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical found...

  16. Adherence to best practice guidelines in dyspepsia: a survey comparing dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, B M R; Farid, M; van Oijen, M G H; Laine, L; Howden, C W; Esrailian, E

    2009-04-15

    Although 'best practice' guidelines for dyspepsia management have been disseminated, it remains unclear whether providers adhere to these guidelines. To compare adherence to 'best practice' guidelines among dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers (PCPs). We administered a vignette survey to elicit knowledge and beliefs about dyspepsia including a set of 16 best practices, to three groups: (i) dyspepsia experts; (ii) community gastroenterologists and (iii) PCPs. The expert, community gastroenterologist and PCP groups endorsed 75%, 73% and 57% of best practices respectively. Gastroenterologists were more likely to adhere with guidelines than PCPs (P guideline adherence (P = 0.04). Gastroenterologists are more likely than PCPs to comply with best practices in dyspepsia, although compliance remains incomplete in both groups. PCPs harbour more concerns regarding long-term PPI use and these concerns may affect therapeutic decision making. This suggests that best practices have not been uniformly adopted and persistent guideline-practice disconnects should be addressed.

  17. Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Experts and Novices--What Knowledge Do They Activate When Analyzing Science Lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepf, Matthias; Plöger, Wilfried; Scholl, Daniel; Seifert, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In the current debate on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), the term is used to refer to the context-specific knowledge that teachers activate when reflecting on practice. Against the background of this debate, we conducted an empirical study and sought to answer the question of which knowledge experts and novices activated in assessing a…

  18. Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attitude and behaviour towards breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Malaysia – a mini ... Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. ... on breast cancer and to know the steps that need to be taken to detect it early. ... due to their good knowledge of health issues and their roles in healthcare.

  19. Expert Performance Transfer - Making Knowledge Transfer Count with ExPerT Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.L.; Braudt, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    'Knowledge Transfer' is a high-priority imperative as the nuclear industry faces the combined effects of an aging workforce and economic pressures to do more with less. Knowledge Transfer is only a part of the solution to these challenges, however. The more compelling and immediate need faced by industry is Accomplishment Transfer, or the transference of the applied knowledge necessary to assure optimal performance transfer from experienced, high-performing staff to inexperienced staff. A great deal of industry knowledge and required performance information has been documented in the form of procedures. Often under-appreciated either as knowledge stores or as drivers of human performance, procedures, coupled with tightly-focused and effective training, are arguably the most effective influences on human and plant performance. (author)

  20. Knowledge base expert system control of spatial xenon oscillations in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alten, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operators are required to pay special attention to spatial xenon oscillations during the load-follow operation of pressurized water reactors. They are expected to observe the axial offset of the core, and to estimate the correct time and amount of necessary control action based on heuristic rules given in axial xenon oscillations are knowledge intensive, and heuristic in nature. An expert system, ACES (Axial offset Control using Expert Systems) is developed to implement a heuristic constant axial offset control procedure to aid reactor operators in increasing the plant reliability by reducing the human error component of the failure probability. ACES is written in a production system language, OPS5, based on the forward chaining algorithm. It samples reactor data with a certain time interval in terms of measurable parameters, such as the power, period, and the axial offset of the core. It then processes the core status utilizing a set of equations which are used in a back of the envelope calculations by domain experts. Heuristic rules of ACES identify the control variable to be used among the full and part length control rods and boron concentration, while a knowledge base is used to determine the amount of control. ACES is designed as a set of generic rules to avoid reducing the system into a set of patterns. Instead ACES evaluates the system, determines the necessary corrective actions in terms of reactivity insertion, and provides this reactivity insertion using the control variables. The amount of control action is determined using a knowledge base which consists of the differential rod worth curves, and the boron reactivity worth of a given reactor. Having the reactor dependent parameters in its knowledge base, ACES is applicable to an arbitrary reactor for axial offset control purposes

  1. Distributed expert system architecture using a dedicated knowledge server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, S.A.; Lindgren, B.M.; Touchton, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date look at REALM, the Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor Expert Advisor System, including recent innovations in the system architecture and our approach to Verification and Validation (V and V). The emergency classification domain is reviewed and the problem, solution and benefits are outlined. A REALM system description is then presented, followed by a description of the REALM V and V approach. The paper concludes with a look at how REALM is being generalized to embrace plant sensor interpretation beyond emergency classification (e.g. On-line Tech Spec or thermal performance monitoring) under the name of OASYS, for On-line Advisory System

  2. An Expert System toward Buiding An Earth Science Knowledge Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Lee, T. J.; Bao, Q.; Gatlin, P. N.; Maskey, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this ongoing work, we aim to build foundations of Cognitive Computing for Earth Science research. The goal of our project is to develop an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES). These knowledge graphs can then serve as the foundational components for building cognitive systems in Earth science, enabling researchers to uncover new patterns and hypotheses that are virtually impossible to identify today. In addition, this research focuses on developing mining algorithms needed to exploit these constructed knowledge graphs. As such, these graphs will free knowledge from publications that are generated in a very linear, deterministic manner, and structure knowledge in a way that users can both interact and connect with relevant pieces of information. Our major contributions are two-fold. First, we have developed an end-to-end methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES) using existing corpus of journal papers and reports. One of the key challenges in any machine learning, especially deep learning applications, is the need for robust and large training datasets. We have developed techniques capable of automatically retraining models and incrementally building and updating KG4ES, based on ever evolving training data. We also adopt the evaluation instrument based on common research methodologies used in Earth science research, especially in Atmospheric Science. Second, we have developed an algorithm to infer new knowledge that can exploit the constructed KG4ES. In more detail, we have developed a network prediction algorithm aiming to explore and predict possible new connections in the KG4ES and aid in new knowledge discovery.

  3. The Advantages of Abstract Control Knowledge in Expert System Design. Technical Report #7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    This paper argues that an important design principle for building expert systems is to represent all control knowledge abstractly and separately from the domain knowledge upon which it operates. Abstract control knowledge is defined as the specifications of when and how a program is to carry out its operations, such as pursuing a goal, focusing,…

  4. Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, Natural Language Interfaces, Knowledge Engineering and the Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jim

    This paper begins by examining concepts of artificial intelligence (AI) and discusses various definitions of the concept that have been suggested in the literature. The nesting relationship of expert systems within the broader framework of AI is described, and expert systems are characterized as knowledge-based systems (KBS) which attempt to solve…

  5. Poor need knowledge not only technology to bridge digital divide: experts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Developing countries need to gain knowledge rather than technology to latch onto the booming information society, experts said Monday ahead of a major conference on bridging the digital divide between rich and poor" (1/2 page).

  6. Challenging Obesity: Patient, Provider, and Expert Perspectives on the Roles of Available and Emerging Nonsurgical Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apovian, Caroline M.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Ryan, Donna H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adult obesity is recognized as a chronic disease. According to principles of chronic disease management, healthcare professionals should work collaboratively with patients to determine appropriate therapeutic strategies that address overweight and obesity, specifically considering a patient’s disease status in addition to their individual needs, preferences, and attitudes regarding treatment. A central role and responsibility of healthcare professionals in this process is to inform and educate patients about their treatment options. Although current recommendations for the management of adult obesity provide general guidance regarding safe and proper implementation of lifestyle, pharmacological, and surgical interventions, healthcare professionals need awareness of specific evidence-based information that supports individualized clinical application of these therapies. More specifically, healthcare professionals should be up-to-date on approaches that promote successful lifestyle management and be knowledgeable about newer weight loss pharmacotherapies, so they can offer patients with obesity a wide range of options to personalize their treatment. Accordingly, this educational activity has been developed to provide participants with the latest information on treatment recommendations and therapeutic advances in lifestyle intervention and pharmacotherapy for adult obesity management. Design and Methods This supplement is based on the content presented at a live CME symposium held in conjunction with ObesityWeek 2014. Results This supplement provides an expert summary of current treatment recommendations and recent advances in nonsurgical therapies for the management of adult obesity. Patient and provider perspectives on obesity management are highlighted in embedded video clips available via QR codes, and new evidence will be applied using clinically relevant case studies. Conclusions This supplement provides a topical update of obesity management

  7. Expert system and knowledge acquisition technology in ENEA program on nuclear and conventional energy production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducelli, C.; Federico, A.; Sapia, R.Di.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of some experiences performed in ENEA (Thermal Reactor Department) revelant to the project and development of experts systems to support the operator activities in nuclear and conventional energy production processes, the paper tries to point out the outline of a 'generic' plant operator cognitive structure. For this type of expert systems an implementation strategy and a knowledge elicitation methodology are proposed with the intention of giving a support to the knowledge engineer work

  8. An American knowledge base in England - Alternate implementations of an expert system flight status monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. F.; Graves, A. T.; Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    A joint activity between the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on knowledge-based systems has been agreed. Under the agreement, a flight status monitor knowledge base developed at Ames-Dryden has been implemented using the real-time AI (artificial intelligence) toolkit MUSE, which was developed in the UK. Here, the background to the cooperation is described and the details of the flight status monitor and a prototype MUSE implementation are presented. It is noted that the capabilities of the expert-system flight status monitor to monitor data downlinked from the flight test aircraft and to generate information on the state and health of the system for the test engineers provides increased safety during flight testing of new systems. Furthermore, the expert-system flight status monitor provides the systems engineers with ready access to the large amount of information required to describe a complex aircraft system.

  9. Knowledge at work: learning and transferring expert reasoning through storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Serrano, J.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    There is plenty of evidence in many fields of knowledge that storytelling is a bona fide human activity for problem-solving. We believe that a storytelling model for problem-solving can be constructed to organize this discourse. To that end, we carried out a qualitative study using the Grounded

  10. Knowledge, Experts and Accountability in School Governing Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Helen

    2017-01-01

    School governing bodies in England have considerable powers and responsibilities with regard to the education of pupils. This article explores how power relations operate, within governing bodies, through struggles over which types of knowledge are claimed and valued. The article draws on the analysis of policy and on ethnographic research in the…

  11. Expert knowledge elicitation using computer simulation: the organization of frail elderly case management as an illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiêm, Jean-Christophe; Van Durme, Thérèse; Vandendorpe, Florence; Schmitz, Olivier; Speybroeck, Niko; Cès, Sophie; Macq, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Various elderly case management projects have been implemented in Belgium. This type of long-term health care intervention involves contextual factors and human interactions. These underlying complex mechanisms can be usefully informed with field experts' knowledge, which are hard to make explicit. However, computer simulation has been suggested as one possible method of overcoming the difficulty of articulating such elicited qualitative views. A simulation model of case management was designed using an agent-based methodology, based on the initial qualitative research material. Variables and rules of interaction were formulated into a simple conceptual framework. This model has been implemented and was used as a support for a structured discussion with experts in case management. The rigorous formulation provided by the agent-based methodology clarified the descriptions of the interventions and the problems encountered regarding: the diverse network topologies of health care actors in the project; the adaptation time required by the intervention; the communication between the health care actors; the institutional context; the organization of the care; and the role of the case manager and his or hers personal ability to interpret the informal demands of the frail older person. The simulation model should be seen primarily as a tool for thinking and learning. A number of insights were gained as part of a valuable cognitive process. Computer simulation supporting field experts' elicitation can lead to better-informed decisions in the organization of complex health care interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

  13. Using Specification and Description Language (SDL) for capturing and reusing human experts' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.; Koono, Zenya

    1994-01-01

    Conventional knowledge engineering techniques for acquiring experts' knowledge can not produce quality knowledge due to improper knowledge documentation and informal knowledge acquisition method. We propose a new method for knowledge documentation and acquisition using Specification and Description Language (SDL). SDL is used to describe both the target system and the reasoning process. The main idea is to follow deterministic problem solving behavior of human experts and document it. Then knowledge can be extracted by comparing documents of the successive steps. This knowledge is recorded and reused in similar or novel cases. We present an implementation of this method in a tool for software design. The implemented system consists of a SDL CASE tool and an expert system for applying the design knowledge. This system serves as an experimental platform for the study of human design by simulating the design at the lowest level. However, we have found that by acquiring enough domain knowledge, this system can simulate general problem solving of human experts. (author)

  14. Measuring chess experts' single-use sequence knowledge: an archival study of departure from 'theoretical' openings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chassy

    Full Text Available The respective roles of knowledge and search have received considerable attention in the literature on expertise. However, most of the evidence on knowledge has been indirect--e.g., by inferring the presence of chunks in long-term memory from performance in memory recall tasks. Here we provide direct estimates of the amount of monochrestic (single use and rote knowledge held by chess players of varying skill levels. From a large chess database, we analyzed 76,562 games played in 2008 by individuals ranging from Class B players (average players to Masters to measure the extent to which players deviate from previously known initial sequences of moves ("openings". Substantial differences were found in the number of moves known by players of different skill levels, with more expert players knowing more moves. Combined with assumptions independently made about the branching factor in master games, we estimate that masters have memorized about 100,000 opening moves. Our results support the hypothesis that monochrestic knowledge is essential for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. They provide a direct, quantitative estimate of the number of opening moves that players have to know to reach master level.

  15. Developing Expert System for Tuberculosis Diagnose to Support Knowledge Sharing in the Era of National Health Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidya, L.

    2017-03-01

    National Health Insurance has been implemented since 1st January 2014. A number of new policies have been established including multilevel referral system. The multilevel referral system classified health care center into three levels, it determined that the flow of patient treatment should be started from first level health care center. There are 144 kind of diseases that must be treat in the first level which mainly consists of general physicians. Unfortunately, competence of the physician in the first level may not fulfil the standard competence yet. To improved the physisians knowledge, government has created many events to accelerate knowledge sharing. However, it still needs times and many resources to give significan results. Expert system is kind of software that provide consulting services to non-expert users in accordance with the area of its expertise. It can improved effectivity and efficiency of knowledge sharing and learning. This research was developed a model of TB diagnose expert system which comply with the standard procedure of TB diagnosis and regulation. The proposed expert system has characteristics as follows provide facility to manage multimedia clinical data, supporting the complexity of TB diagnosis (combine rule-based and case-based expert system), interactive interface, good usability, multi-platform, evolutionary.

  16. Communication at an online infertility expert forum: provider responses to patients' emotional and informational cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, J W M; van Oers, A M; Faber, M J; Cohlen, B J; Nelen, W L D M; Kremer, J A M; van Dulmen, A M

    2015-01-01

    Online patient-provider communication has become increasingly popular in fertility care. However, it is not known to what extent patients express cues or concerns and how providers respond. In this study, we investigated cues and responses that occur in online patient-provider communication at an infertility-specific expert forum. We extracted 106 threads from the multidisciplinary expert forum of two Dutch IVF clinics. We performed the following analyses: (1) thematic analysis of patients' questions; and (2) rating patients' emotional and informational cues and subsequent professionals' responses using an adaptation of the validated Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. Frequencies of themes, frequencies of cues and responses, and sequences (what cue is followed by what response) were extracted. Sixty-five infertile patients and 19 providers participated. The most common themes included medication and lifestyle. Patients gave more informational than emotional cues (106 versus 64). Responses to informational cues were mostly adequate (61%). The most common response to emotional cues was empathic acknowledgment (72%). Results indicate that an online expert forum could have a positive effect on patient outcomes, which should guide future research. Offering infertile patients an expert forum to communicate with providers can be a promising supplement to usual care in both providing information and addressing patients' concerns.

  17. Tapping into past design experiences : Knowledge sharing and creation during novice-expert design consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deken, F.; Kleinsmann, M.S.; Aurisicchio, M.; Lauche, K.; Bracewell, R.

    2011-01-01

    Designing is a knowledge-intensive activity. For novice design engineers, an important means of acquiring knowledge is to consult experienced colleagues. We observed novice–expert consultations as part of three engineering projects in a large aerospace company. Seven meetings were analysed in detail

  18. How much expert knowledge is it worth to put in conceptual hydrological models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Manuel; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2017-04-01

    Both modellers and experimentalists agree on using expert knowledge to improve our conceptual hydrological simulations on ungauged basins. However, they use expert knowledge differently for both hydrologically mapping the landscape and parameterising a given hydrological model. Modellers use generally very simplified (e.g. topography-based) mapping approaches and put most of the knowledge for constraining the model by defining parameter and process relational rules. In contrast, experimentalists tend to invest all their detailed and qualitative knowledge about processes to obtain a spatial distribution of areas with different dominant runoff generation processes (DRPs) as realistic as possible, and for defining plausible narrow value ranges for each model parameter. Since, most of the times, the modelling goal is exclusively to simulate runoff at a specific site, even strongly simplified hydrological classifications can lead to satisfying results due to equifinality of hydrological models, overfitting problems and the numerous uncertainty sources affecting runoff simulations. Therefore, to test to which extent expert knowledge can improve simulation results under uncertainty, we applied a typical modellers' modelling framework relying on parameter and process constraints defined based on expert knowledge to several catchments on the Swiss Plateau. To map the spatial distribution of the DRPs, mapping approaches with increasing involvement of expert knowledge were used. Simulation results highlighted the potential added value of using all the expert knowledge available on a catchment. Also, combinations of event types and landscapes, where even a simplified mapping approach can lead to satisfying results, were identified. Finally, the uncertainty originated by the different mapping approaches was compared with the one linked to meteorological input data and catchment initial conditions.

  19. Knowledge base to develop expert system prototype for predicting groundwater pollution from nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta-oun, M.; Daud, M.; Bardaie, M.Z.; Jusop, S.

    1999-01-01

    An expert system for prediction the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution potential was established by using CLIPS (NASA's Jonson Space Centre). The knowledge base could be extracted from FAO reports, ministry of agriculture and rural development Malaysia report, established literature and domain expert for preparing an expert system skeleton. An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia and to identify potential groundwater quality problems. An n-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index produced b using the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution yields a more accurate screening toll for identifying potential pollution problems than by considering vulnerability alone. An expert system can predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and existing environments. (authors)

  20. Expert knowledge and data analysis for detecting advanced persistent threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Juan Ramón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Critical Infrastructures in public administration would be compromised by Advanced Persistent Threats (APT which today constitute one of the most sophisticated ways of stealing information. This paper presents an effective, learning based tool that uses inductive techniques to analyze the information provided by firewall log files in an IT infrastructure, and detect suspicious activity in order to mark it as a potential APT. The experiments have been accomplished mixing real and synthetic data traffic to represent different proportions of normal and anomalous activity.

  1. Diagnostic probability function for acute coronary heart disease garnered from experts' tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Johann; Held, Ulrike; Miettinen, Olli S

    2013-11-01

    Knowing about a diagnostic probability requires general knowledge about the way in which the probability depends on the diagnostic indicators involved in the specification of the case at issue. Diagnostic probability functions (DPFs) are generally unavailable at present. Our objective was to illustrate how diagnostic experts' case-specific tacit knowledge about diagnostic probabilities could be garnered in the form of DPFs. Focusing on diagnosis of acute coronary heart disease (ACHD), we presented doctors with extensive experience in hospitals' emergency departments a set of hypothetical cases specified in terms of an inclusive set of diagnostic indicators. We translated the medians of these experts' case-specific probabilities into a logistic DPF for ACHD. The principal result was the experts' typical diagnostic probability for ACHD as a joint function of the set of diagnostic indicators. A related result of note was the finding that the experts' probabilities in any given case had a surprising degree of variability. Garnering diagnostic experts' case-specific tacit knowledge about diagnostic probabilities in the form of DPFs is feasible to accomplish. Thus, once the methodology of this type of work has been "perfected," practice-guiding diagnostic expert systems can be developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep knowledge expert system for diagnosis of multiple-failure severe transients in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.P.; Nassersharif, B.

    1987-01-01

    TAMUS (Transient Analysis of MUltiple-failure Simulations) is a prototype expert system which is the result of a project investigating and implementing event confidence-levels (used by reactor safety experts in reactor transient analysis) in the form of an expert system. Currently, TAMUS is designed to diagnose reactor transients by analyzing simulated sensor and plant thermal hydraulic information from a system simulation. TAMUS uses a knowledge base of existing emergency nuclear plant operating guidelines and detailed thermal-hydraulic calculating results correlated to confidence-levels. TAMUS can diagnose a number of reactor transients (for example, loss-of-coolant accidents, steam-generator-tube ruptures, loss-of-offsite power, etc.). Future work includes the expansion of the knowledge base and improvement of the deep-knowledge qualitative models

  3. Organizational Justice and the Intent to Share: Knowledge Sharing Practices among Forensic Experts in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational climate and organization culture can be some of the leading factors in hindering knowledge sharing within the organization. It is generally accepted that successful knowledge management practice, including knowledge sharing, comes as a result of a conducive and knowledge sharing friendly environment. Organizations that promote and reward collective work generate a trustful and a more collaborative learning culture. The perception of fairness in an organization has been considered an important indicator of employee behavior, attitude, and motivation. This study investigates organizational justice perception and its impact on knowledge sharing practices among forensic experts in the Turkish National Police. The study findings revealed that senior officers, who are experts in the field, have the strongest organizational justice perception. Meanwhile, noncommissioned officers or technicians bear positive but comparatively weaker feelings about the existence of justice within the organization. The study argues that those who satisfy their career expectations tend to have a higher organizational justice perception.

  4. Integrating Statistical and Expert Knowledge to Develop Phenoregions for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetated ecosystems typically exhibit unique phenological behavior over the course of a year, suggesting that remotely sensed land surface phenology may be useful for characterizing land cover and ecoregions. However, phenology is also strongly influenced by temperature and water stress; insect, fire, and storm disturbances; and climate change over seasonal, interannual, decadal and longer time scales. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a remotely sensed measure of greenness, provides a useful proxy for land surface phenology. We used NDVI for the conterminous United States (CONUS) derived from the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 250 m resolution to develop phenological signatures of emergent ecological regimes called phenoregions. By applying a unsupervised, quantitative data mining technique to NDVI measurements for every eight days over the entire MODIS record, annual maps of phenoregions were developed. This technique produces a prescribed number of prototypical phenological states to which every location belongs in any year. To reduce the impact of short-term disturbances, we derived a single map of the mode of annual phenological states for the CONUS, assigning each map cell to the state with the largest integrated NDVI in cases where multiple states tie for the highest frequency. Since the data mining technique is unsupervised, individual phenoregions are not associated with an ecologically understandable label. To add automated supervision to the process, we applied the method of Mapcurves, developed by Hargrove and Hoffman, to associate individual phenoregions with labeled polygons in expert-derived maps of biomes, land cover, and ecoregions. Utilizing spatial overlays with multiple expert-derived maps, this "label-stealing"' technique exploits the knowledge contained in a collection of maps to identify biome characteristics of our statistically derived phenoregions. Generalized land cover maps were produced by combining

  5. Evolving Expert Knowledge Bases: Applications of Crowdsourcing and Serious Gaming to Advance Knowledge Development for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floryan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel effort to develop ITS technologies that adapt by observing student behavior. In particular, we define an evolving expert knowledge base (EEKB) that structures a domain's information as a set of nodes and the relationships that exist between those nodes. The structure of this model is not the particularly novel…

  6. Rank aggregation of local expert knowledge for conservation planning of the critically endangered saola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Nicholas M; Van Duc, Luong

    2017-06-01

    There has been much recent interest in using local knowledge and expert opinion for conservation planning, particularly for hard-to-detect species. Although it is possible to ask for direct estimation of quantities such as population size, relative abundance is easier to estimate. However, an expert's knowledge is often geographically restricted relative to the area of interest. Combining (or aggregating) experts' assessments of relative abundance is difficult when each expert only knows a part of the area of interest. We used Google's PageRank algorithm to aggregate ranked abundance scores elicited from local experts through a rapid rural-appraisal method. We applied this technique to conservation planning for the saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a poorly known bovid. Near a priority landscape for the species, composed of 3 contiguous protected areas, we asked groups of local people to indicate relative abundances of saola and other species by placing beans on community maps. For each village, we used this information to rank areas within the knowledge area of that village for saola abundance. We used simulations to compare alternative methods to aggregate the rankings from the different villages. The best-performing method was then used to produce a single map of relative abundance across the entire landscape, an area larger than that known to any one village. This map has informed prioritization of surveys and conservation action in the continued absence of direct information about the saola. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Using expert knowledge to incorporate uncertainty in cause-of-death assignments for modeling of cause-specific mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.; Norton, Andrew S.; Storm, Daniel J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Heisy, Dennis M.

    2018-01-01

    Implicit and explicit use of expert knowledge to inform ecological analyses is becoming increasingly common because it often represents the sole source of information in many circumstances. Thus, there is a need to develop statistical methods that explicitly incorporate expert knowledge, and can successfully leverage this information while properly accounting for associated uncertainty during analysis. Studies of cause-specific mortality provide an example of implicit use of expert knowledge when causes-of-death are uncertain and assigned based on the observer's knowledge of the most likely cause. To explicitly incorporate this use of expert knowledge and the associated uncertainty, we developed a statistical model for estimating cause-specific mortality using a data augmentation approach within a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Specifically, for each mortality event, we elicited the observer's belief of cause-of-death by having them specify the probability that the death was due to each potential cause. These probabilities were then used as prior predictive values within our framework. This hierarchical framework permitted a simple and rigorous estimation method that was easily modified to include covariate effects and regularizing terms. Although applied to survival analysis, this method can be extended to any event-time analysis with multiple event types, for which there is uncertainty regarding the true outcome. We conducted simulations to determine how our framework compared to traditional approaches that use expert knowledge implicitly and assume that cause-of-death is specified accurately. Simulation results supported the inclusion of observer uncertainty in cause-of-death assignment in modeling of cause-specific mortality to improve model performance and inference. Finally, we applied the statistical model we developed and a traditional method to cause-specific survival data for white-tailed deer, and compared results. We demonstrate that model selection

  8. Knowledge acquisition and rapid protyping of an expert system: Dealing with real world problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Patrick A.; Doehr, Brett B.

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge engineering and rapid prototyping phases of an expert system that does fault handling for a Solid Amine, Water Desorbed CO2 removal assembly for the Environmental Control and Life Support System for space based platforms are addressed. The knowledge acquisition phase for this project was interesting because it could not follow the textbook examples. As a result of this, a variety of methods were used during the knowledge acquisition task. The use of rapid prototyping and the need for a flexible prototype suggested certain types of knowledge representation. By combining various techniques, a representative subset of faults and a method for handling those faults was achieved. The experiences should prove useful for developing future fault handling expert systems under similar constraints.

  9. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  10. A diagnostic expert system for NPP based on hybrid knowledge approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic expert system, HYPOSS (Hybrid Knowledge Based Plant Operation Supporting System), which has been developed to support operators' decision making during the transients of nuclear power plant. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach which combines shallow and deep knowledge to couple the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure: structural, functional, behavioral and heuristic knowledge. The structural and functional knowledge is represented by three fundamental primitives and five types of functions respectively. The behavioral knowledge is represented using constraints. The inference procedure is based on the human problem solving behavior modeled in HYPOSS. For the validation of HYPOSS, several tests have been performed based on the data produced by a plant simulator. The results of validation studies showed a good applicability of HYPOSS to the anomaly diagnosis of nuclear power plant

  11. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Alonso Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. Method This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA, which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1 Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA, and 2 Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR. In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. Results EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1 Data collection and data preparation; 2 acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB; 3 PKB-guided analysis; 4 support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited; 5 incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6 post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering, applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. Discussion This

  12. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Karina; García-Alonso, Carlos; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2010-09-30

    Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA), which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK) to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1) Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA), and 2) Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR). In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1) Data collection and data preparation; 2) acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK) and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB); 3) PKB-guided analysis; 4) support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited); 5) incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6) post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering), applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. This paper presents EbCA and shows the convenience of

  13. Development of a tool for knowledge base verification of expert system based on Design/CPN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun

    1998-02-01

    Verification is a necessary work in developing a reliable expert system. Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it's specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base. Generally, verification process requires computational support by automated tools. For this reason, this study developed a tool for knowledge base verification based on Design/CPN, which is a tool for editing, modeling, and simulating Colored Petri net. This tool uses Enhanced Colored Petri net as a modeling method. By applying this tool to the knowledge base of nuclear power plant, it is noticed that it can successfully check most of the anomalies that can occur in a knowledge base

  14. Transitioning to a Data Driven Mental Health Practice: Collaborative Expert Sessions for Knowledge and Hypothesis Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Menger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surge in the amount of available data in health care enables a novel, exploratory research approach that revolves around finding new knowledge and unexpected hypotheses from data instead of carrying out well-defined data analysis tasks. We propose a specification of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM, suitable for conducting expert sessions that focus on finding new knowledge and hypotheses in collaboration with local workforce. Our proposed specification that we name CRISP-IDM is evaluated in a case study at the psychiatry department of the University Medical Center Utrecht. Expert interviews were conducted to identify seven research themes in the psychiatry department, which were researched in cooperation with local health care professionals using data visualization as a modeling tool. During 19 expert sessions, two results that were directly implemented and 29 hypotheses for further research were found, of which 24 were not imagined during the initial expert interviews. Our work demonstrates the viability and benefits of involving work floor people in the analyses and the possibility to effectively find new knowledge and hypotheses using our CRISP-IDM method.

  15. Transitioning to a Data Driven Mental Health Practice: Collaborative Expert Sessions for Knowledge and Hypothesis Finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Vincent; Spruit, Marco; Hagoort, Karin; Scheepers, Floor

    2016-01-01

    The surge in the amount of available data in health care enables a novel, exploratory research approach that revolves around finding new knowledge and unexpected hypotheses from data instead of carrying out well-defined data analysis tasks. We propose a specification of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM), suitable for conducting expert sessions that focus on finding new knowledge and hypotheses in collaboration with local workforce. Our proposed specification that we name CRISP-IDM is evaluated in a case study at the psychiatry department of the University Medical Center Utrecht. Expert interviews were conducted to identify seven research themes in the psychiatry department, which were researched in cooperation with local health care professionals using data visualization as a modeling tool. During 19 expert sessions, two results that were directly implemented and 29 hypotheses for further research were found, of which 24 were not imagined during the initial expert interviews. Our work demonstrates the viability and benefits of involving work floor people in the analyses and the possibility to effectively find new knowledge and hypotheses using our CRISP-IDM method.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and opinions of health care providers in Minna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study revealed grossly inadequate knowledge on the operational principles of the scheme, but a positive attitudinal predisposition among health care providers studied. This calls for a conscious publicity drive and intensive educational campaigns. Keywords: knowledge, attitudes, opinions, healthcare ...

  17. Obesity prevention, screening, and treatment: practices of pediatric providers since the 2007 expert committee recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, John Conrad; Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Hametz, Patricia

    2011-05-01

    This study surveyed pediatric primary care providers at a major academic center regarding their attitudes and practices of obesity screening, prevention, and treatment. The authors compared the care providers' reported practices to the 2007 American Medical Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Expert Committee Recommendations to evaluate their adherence to the guidelines and differences based on level of training and specialty. Of 96 providers surveyed, less than half used the currently recommended criteria for identifying children who are overweight (24.7%) and obese (34.4%), with attendings more likely to use the correct criteria than residents (P obesity, the majority felt their counseling was not effective. There was considerable variability in reported practices of lab screening and referral patterns of overweight and obese children. More efforts are needed to standardize providers' approach to overweight and obese children.

  18. [Social representations of illness: Comparison of "expert" knowledge and "naïve" knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoffrion, C; Dupont, P; Tripodi, D; Roland-Lévy, C

    2016-06-01

    The link between social practices and representations is now well known. But while many studies have focused on the social representation of mental illness, in various populations, few studies have focused on the notion of disease/illness by comparing professionals and non-professionals health workers representations. Indeed, the disease is both a reality described, explained and treated by medicine; for those who are affected by a disease, it is an individual experience with psychological, social and cultural impacts. The social representation is determined by the structure of the social groups in which it develops; therefore, it is a form of knowledge socially shaped and shared by the members of a social group. Several theoretical extensions have been elaborated and particularly, the structural approach and the central core theory. These approaches sustain the arguments of a hierarchical organization of a social representation with a central core surrounded by peripheral zones. The central core is common and shared by the majority of the members of a given group, whereas the peripheral zones provide space for the individualization of the social knowledge. The main goal of our study is to highlight the social representations of disease in health professionals (HP) and in non-health professionals (NHP). The group of HP has been differentiated into three subgroups: "medical doctors", "nurses" and "pharmacists", while that of NHP in two subgroups: those submitted to a "long period medical treatment" and those "without treatment". Our aim is to show that there are different social and professional Representations of disease. The professional representations are specific social representations related to professional contexts. We formulate the following assumptions (a) that the social representations of HP and NHP will be articulated around a common central core. Nevertheless, we expect to find specific peripheral elements related to professional status, based on

  19. Expert Knowledge Influences Decision-Making for Couples Receiving Positive Prenatal Chromosomal Microarray Testing Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, M A; Werner-Lin, A; Barg, F K; Bernhardt, B A

    2017-09-01

    To assess how participants receiving abnormal prenatal genetic testing results seek information and understand the implications of results, 27 US female patients and 12 of their male partners receiving positive prenatal microarray testing results completed semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews documented participant experiences with chromosomal microarray testing, understanding of and emotional response to receiving results, factors affecting decision-making about testing and pregnancy termination, and psychosocial needs throughout the testing process. Interview data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. In the absence of certainty about the implications of results, understanding of results is shaped by biomedical expert knowledge (BEK) and cultural expert knowledge (CEK). When there is a dearth of BEK, as in the case of receiving results of uncertain significance, participants rely on CEK, including religious/spiritual beliefs, "gut instinct," embodied knowledge, and social network informants. CEK is a powerful platform to guide understanding of prenatal genetic testing results. The utility of culturally situated expert knowledge during testing uncertainty emphasizes that decision-making occurs within discourses beyond the biomedical domain. These forms of "knowing" may be integrated into clinical consideration of efficacious patient assessment and counseling.

  20. Landscape Capacity for Ecosystem Services Provision Based on Expert Knowledge and Public Perception (Case Study from the Northwest Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezák Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape represents appropriate spatial dimension for a study of ecosystems, especially due to ability to translate scientific knowledge into proper guidance for land use practice and enhancing the inclusion of local stakeholders in decision-making procedures. We tested social preferences method to reach initial and raw overview of the ecosystem services (ES distribution and their values in the study areas. Perception of experts and local residents about capacities of relevant CORINE land cover (CLC types to provide various ES was linked with Geographic Information System databases. We quantified the results on the basis of the mean values for each CLC type and the ES groups and these were interpreted also in spatial context. The expectation about perceptible capacities of forest to provide goods and services was fulfilled by responses of the experts, as was the expected difficulty to assess capacities of transitional woodland shrub or complex cultivation patterns. However, additional land cover types in question are meadows and pastures or discon-tinuous urban fabric. Mostly middle ranking values prevail in responses of local residents and uncertainty in the background is much greater comparing to the experts. On the other hand, rural people may better recognise diversified fow of services due to their everyday close connection to more ES. Large variation in the scores of some valued CLC classes in responses of the local residents and also experts seems resulting from lack of knowledge in the background and differences in viewpoint and appreciation. We understand the gaps in evaluating ES by the experts and resident population as good experience and key challenge for the further steps and fine-tuning of the research methods.

  1. Best Strategies to Improve School-leavers' Knowledge of Nutrition and Food Systems: Views from Experts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The research to date does not present an articulated approach to ensure nutrition and food systems education is systematically implemented within schools. This paper aimed to investigate food experts' views of the best strategies to improve school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems. In this qualitative study, 28 Iranian food and nutrition experts from four major provinces (Tehran, Fars, Isfahan, and Gilan) were selected and agreed to be interviewed. Required data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face, or telephone interviews and were analyzed thematically using NVivo. The experts' suggested strategies to improve Iranian school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems fell into three key themes: Policy, education processes, and supportive environments. Together they formed an overarching theme of a multileveled system approach for transferring knowledge. Development of a scaffolded education program could assist curriculum developers and policy makers to assess and update current nutrition and food systems education programs in schools. Insights gained about education initiatives in one country such as Iran can provide an important impetus to support nutrition and food system education more widely.

  2. New requirements embodied in expert knowledge regulations for industrial radiation protection officers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    Expert knowledge standards and certification requirements of health physics responsible persons or radiation safety officers in industry or in health care are laid down in Germany in administrative regulations. Now the new Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) contains a specific section exclusively devoted to all aspects of expert knowledge in industrial radiation protection, which inter alia demonstrates the special significance of education and further training of radiation protection specialists. It is expected that the forthcoming new X-ray Ordinance (RoeV) will contain a similar amendment. The article explains the implications of the new Radiation Protection Ordinance for the education and further training of industrial radiation protection officers, but does not address specific aspects of nuclear engineering. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Future research in technological enablers for knowledge management: A worldwide expert study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarka, Peter; Caldwell, Nicholas H. M.; Ipsen, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is widely considered as an important part of knowledge management (KM). However, failures of KM in organisational practice have been attributed to an overemphasis of IT in KM. An improved understanding of the role of IT within KM in organisations could help to improve...... key research themes articulated by the KM experts to enhance and develop KM in relation to technological enablers....

  4. Hand hygiene knowledge and perceptions among anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Patrick G; Loftus, Randy W; Dodds, Thomas M; Koff, Matthew D; Reddy, Sundara; Heard, Stephen O; Beach, Michael L; Yeager, Mark P; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2015-04-01

    Health care worker compliance with hand hygiene guidelines is an important measure for health care-associated infection prevention, yet overall compliance across all health care arenas remains low. A correct answer to 4 of 4 structured questions pertaining to indications for hand decontamination (according to types of contact) has been associated with improved health care provider hand hygiene compliance when compared to those health care providers answering incorrectly for 1 or more questions. A better understanding of knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers may lead to hand hygiene improvement strategies. In this study, our primary aims were to characterize and identify predictors for hand hygiene knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers. We modified this previously tested survey instrument to measure anesthesia provider hand hygiene knowledge regarding the 5 moments of hand hygiene across national and multicenter groups. Complete knowledge was defined by correct answers to 5 questions addressing the 5 moments for hand hygiene and received a score of 1. Incomplete knowledge was defined by an incorrect answer to 1 or more of the 5 questions and received a score of 0. We used a multilevel random-effects XTMELOGIT logistic model clustering at the respondent and geographic location for insufficient knowledge and forward/backward stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify predictors for incomplete knowledge. The survey response rates were 55.8% and 18.2% for the multicenter and national survey study groups, respectively. One or more knowledge deficits occurred with 81.6% of survey respondents, with the mean number of correct answers 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 2.78- 2.99). Failure of providers to recognize prior contact with the environment and prior contact with the patient as hand hygiene opportunities contributed to the low mean. Several cognitive factors were associated with a reduced risk of incomplete knowledge including providers responding

  5. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  6. Key principles for a national clinical decision support knowledge sharing framework: synthesis of insights from leading subject matter experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Wright, Adam; Lewis, Janet; Bell, Douglas S; Middleton, Blackford

    2013-01-01

    To identify key principles for establishing a national clinical decision support (CDS) knowledge sharing framework. As part of an initiative by the US Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) to establish a framework for national CDS knowledge sharing, key stakeholders were identified. Stakeholders' viewpoints were obtained through surveys and in-depth interviews, and findings and relevant insights were summarized. Based on these insights, key principles were formulated for establishing a national CDS knowledge sharing framework. Nineteen key stakeholders were recruited, including six executives from electronic health record system vendors, seven executives from knowledge content producers, three executives from healthcare provider organizations, and three additional experts in clinical informatics. Based on these stakeholders' insights, five key principles were identified for effectively sharing CDS knowledge nationally. These principles are (1) prioritize and support the creation and maintenance of a national CDS knowledge sharing framework; (2) facilitate the development of high-value content and tooling, preferably in an open-source manner; (3) accelerate the development or licensing of required, pragmatic standards; (4) acknowledge and address medicolegal liability concerns; and (5) establish a self-sustaining business model. Based on the principles identified, a roadmap for national CDS knowledge sharing was developed through the ONC's Advancing CDS initiative. The study findings may serve as a useful guide for ongoing activities by the ONC and others to establish a national framework for sharing CDS knowledge and improving clinical care.

  7. Adherence to best practice guidelines in dyspepsia: a survey comparing dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, B. M. R.; Farid, M.; van Oijen, M. G. H.; Laine, L.; Howden, C. W.; Esrailian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Although 'best practice' guidelines for dyspepsia management have been disseminated, it remains unclear whether providers adhere to these guidelines. To compare adherence to 'best practice' guidelines among dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers (PCPs). We

  8. Adherence to best practice guidelines in dyspepsia: a survey comparing dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, B.M.; Farid, M.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Laine, L.; Howden, C.W.; Esrailian, E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although 'best practice' guidelines for dyspepsia management have been disseminated, it remains unclear whether providers adhere to these guidelines. AIM: To compare adherence to 'best practice' guidelines among dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers

  9. The expert knowledge as defined by the X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Persons applying within their role responsibility X-rays in medicine or veterinary medicine, or persons with a responsibility as radiation protection officer or according to section 24, sub-sec. (3) Radiation Protection Ordinance have to give proof of the required expert knowledge (section 3, sub-sec. (2), no. 3, section 4, sub-sec. (1) no. 3, section 13, sub-sec. (4), section 23 no.s. 1 and 3 of the X-ray Ordinance). In addition, persons applying X-rays under the supervision and responsibility of a medical specialist or dentist, have to acquire the knowledge in radiation protection as defined by section 23, no. 2 and 4 X-ray Ordinance. As to the application of X-rays in veterinary medicine, the expert knowledge required is defined in section 3, sub-sec. (2) no. 3, section 4, sub-sec. 1 no. 3, section 13, sub-sec. (4), section 29 sub-sec. (1) no. 4 of the X-ray Ordinance. The knowledge to be acquired in radiation protection is given in section 29, sub-sec. (1) no. 3 of the X-ray Ordinance. The radiation protection officer or persons responsible for radiation protection have to give proof of their expert knowledge within the course of the licensing or notification procedure in accordance with sections 3 and 4 of the X-ray Ordinance, or in the course of the procedure for appointment of a radiation protection officier in accordance with section 13, sub-sec. (3) of the X-ray Ordinance. (orig.) [de

  10. Expert and Generalist Local Knowledge about Land-cover Change on South Africa's Wild Coast: Can Local Ecological Knowledge Add Value to Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Chalmers

    2007-06-01

    than the combinations of factors listed by the experts. In some instances, their understanding even appeared to be seriously flawed. In contemporary Xhosa society, ecological knowledge is unevenly spread and held by individuals rather than by groups. Therefore, it is important to work with experts rather than randomly selected individuals in ecological studies that incorporate local knowledge. Expert local knowledge adds value to science by providing detailed insights into the ultimate causes of change, and by contributing a rare historical perspective. Scientists add value to local knowledge through their ability to study and predict obscure processes such as the impact of atmospheric change on vegetation. Scientists must, however, acknowledge that positivist studies that compare local knowledge to science are fraught with ethical and methodological challenges. Certain aspects of local knowledge, particularly in terms of fire, are sacred and do not have the same origins as Western science. Local knowledge and science can complement one another, but we advise against integrating them in a way that co-opts local knowledge for scientific purposes.

  11. An approach to build a knowledge base for reactor accident diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Fujii, M.; Fujiki, K.; Yokobayashi, M.; Kohsaka, A.; Aoyagi, T.; Hirota, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In the development of a rule based expert system, one of the key issues is how to acquire knowledge and to build knowledge base (KB). On building the KB of DISKET, which is an expert system for nuclear reactor accident diagnosis developed in JAERI, several problems have been experienced as follows. To write rules is a time consuming task, and it is difficult to keep the objectivity and consistency of rules as the number of rules increase. Further, certainty factors (CFs) must be often determined according to engineering judgment, i.e., empirically or intuitively. A systematic approach was attempted to handle these difficulties and to build an objective KB efficiently. The approach described in this paper is based on the concept that a prototype KB, colloquially speaking an initial guess, should first be generated in a systematic way and then is to be modified and/or improved by human experts for practical use. Statistical methods, principally Factor Analysis, were used as the systematic way to build a prototype KB for the DISKET using a PWR plant simulator data. The source information is a number of data obtained from the simulation of transients, such as the status of components and annunciator etc., and major process parameters like pressures, temperatures and so on

  12. Retention of knowledge and experience from experts in near-term operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (TNPS) will be put into commercial operation in May, 2007. Right-sizing is on the way to adapt the organization to the new stage of TNPS. TNPS is facing challenges of dilution of expertise by the rightsizing. This condition is aggravated by the incipient training system and a very competitive fighting for attracting technical experts in nuclear area, because the very ambitious projects of nuclear plants which are thriving in China. This can lead to the compromise of the capability to safely and economically operate TNPS. Indubitably, a personnel training plays a very crucial role in knowledge management, especially for countries as China which are weak in professional education system. Key knowledge and skills for safely and reliably operating nuclear power plants can be effectively identified by personnel training system developed in a systematic way and properly implemented. And only by sound and sufficient training can adequate number of replacements be produced. Well-developed IT platform can help the information management in such an era of information and internet. Information should be collected in a systematic way instead of stacking information on an ad hoc basis. But the project database must be established in an well-organized way, and the information should be aroused from sleeping, so that usable data will not be lost and are readily accessible on intranet and available to users. Or else the engineers take great pain to search for data like looking for a needle in a haystack, while useful data are gathering dust somewhere deep in the databank something. Compared to the well-developed industrial countries, there is quite a room in fundamental aspects which are cardinal requisites for effective knowledge management. These factors Contributing to Knowledge Management in Near-Term Operating Plants include not simply training and information management but also almost all other technical and management related to the

  13. DIAMS revisited: Taming the variety of knowledge in fault diagnosis expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziza, M.; Ayache, S.; Brenot, J.-M.; Cayrac, D.; Vo, D.-P.

    1994-01-01

    The DIAMS program, initiated in 1986, led to the development of a prototype expert system, DIAMS-1 dedicated to the Telecom 1 Attitude and Orbit Control System, and to a near-operational system, DIAMS-2, covering a whole satellite (the Telecom 2 platform and its interfaces with the payload), which was installed in the Satellite Control Center in 1993. The refinement of the knowledge representation and reasoning is now being studied, focusing on the introduction of appropriate handling of incompleteness, uncertainty and time, and keeping in mind operational constraints. For the latest generation of the tool, DIAMS-3, a new architecture has been proposed, that enables the cooperative exploitation of various models and knowledge representations. On the same baseline, new solutions enabling higher integration of diagnostic systems in the operational environment and cooperation with other knowledge intensive systems such as data analysis, planning or procedure management tools have been introduced.

  14. A Knowledge-Based Expert System Using MFM Model for Operator Supporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Kun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a knowledge-based expert system using MFM (Multi-level Flow Modeling) is proposed for enhancing the operators' ability to cope with various situations in nuclear power plant. There are many complicated situations, in which regular and suitable operations should be done by operators accordingly. In order to help the operator to assess the situations promptly and accurately, and to regulate their operations according to these situations. it is necessary to develop an expert systems to help the operator for the fault diagnosis, alarm analysis, and operation results estimation for each operation. Many kinds of operator supporting systems focusing on different functions have been developed. Most of them used various methodologies for single diagnosis function or operation permission function. The proposed system integrated functions of fault diagnosis, alarm analysis and operation results estimation by the MFM basic algorithm for the operator supporting

  15. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…

  16. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (22)Challenge to Development of Expert System stored Knowledge of Expert Power Network Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideharu

    Do you remember an expert system? I think there are various impressions about the system. For example, some might say “It reminds me of old days”. On the other hand, some might say “It was really troublesome”. About 25 years ago, from late 1980s to the middle of 1990s, when the Showa era was about to change into the Heisei Era, artificial intelligence boomed. Research and development for an expert system which was equipped with expertise and worked as smart as expert, was advanced in various fields. Our company also picked up the system as the new system which covered weak point of conventional computer technology. We started research and development in 1984, and installed an expert system in a SCADA system, which started operating in March 1990 in the Fukuoka Integrated Control Center. In this essay, as an electric power engineer who involved in development at that time, I introduce the situation and travail story about developing an expert system which support restorative actions from the outage and overload condition of power networks.

  17. Parents of preschoolers: expert media recommendations and ratings knowledge, media-effects beliefs, and monitoring practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B; Brouwer, Jason; Curtiss, Kathleen; McBroom, Evan

    2009-03-01

    Given the increase in screen media targeted at the very young, the purpose of this study was to examine preschooler parents' knowledge about expert recommendations for young children's screen media experience, their knowledge of specific screen media ratings, their beliefs about screen media effects, and actual monitoring practices. Parents of 94 children education, age and gender of child, and parents' perceptions of their child's favorite television show and favorite video or computer game. Eleven multiple-choice questions assessed the respondent's knowledge of expert recommendations for screen media for preschoolers and the meaning of television and video game content ratings. Fourteen questions addressed the typical amount of their preschooler's screen media exposure, parental rules regarding screen media use, and parents' beliefs about appropriate use of screen media for preschoolers. Preschoolers were exposed to an average of approximately 12 hours of screen media in a typical week. Parents believe that media do have either short- or long-term effects on preschoolers. Performance on factual questions was poor (mean score: 2.83 of 11). In particular, only 34% of the parents correctly identified the expert recommendation for children >2 years of age. Parents should continue to be educated about the need for preschoolers to participate in activities that promote language development, socialization, imagination, and physical activity. Although professionals should work to improve the ratings, and ultimately to implement a universal ratings system for all screen media, parents need to be encouraged to improve their understanding of current recommendations for screen media exposure and television and video game ratings.

  18. An Approach for Externalization of Expert Tacit Knowledge Using a Query Management System in an E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Azeez; Khader, Sheik Abdul

    2014-01-01

    E-learning or electronic learning platforms facilitate delivery of the knowledge spectrum to the learning community through information and communication technologies. The transfer of knowledge takes place from experts to learners, and externalization of the knowledge transfer is significant. In the e-learning environment, the learners seek…

  19. The end of the art connoisseur? Experts and knowledge production in the visual arts in the digital age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this digital age, declarations surface on the death of the expert and the democratization of information. Crowd wisdom is seen as the new guide in constructing and evaluating knowledge. In the context of the art world, this tension between the amateurs and the experts becomes

  20. Knowledge based expert system to minimise environmental pollution in Malaysian construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Desa, Mohamad Nor Mohamad [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Construction activities generate enormous amount of erosion and sediments sediments that is the result of soil disturbance during construction activities, thus, will pollute the adjacent water bodies and make it unfeasible for different uses. This paper aimed to develop and create the main features of an expert system prototype (ESCES) for minimising erosion and sedimentation due to stormwater generated from the construction activities by recommending a feasible BMPs. Multi criteria Analysis (MCA) technique has been integrated so as to select the best control measure among many stormwater control alternatives. A questionnaire has been distributed to the relevant experts so as to rank the stormwater control measures to be used in the MCA technique. Using Visual Basic 6, Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) were developed. The knowledge and experience were acquired from various textural sources (i.e. guidelines, manuals, literature, and human expert). Results from this study showed that the Best Management Practices (BMPs) reommended have good suited the site characteristics. As a conclusion from this study, the ESCES can be considered as part of the 'Green Technology Tool' since it helps in protecting the environment and preserve good quality of water adjacent to the construction sites in Malaysia.

  1. Expert advice provided through telemedicine improves healing of chronic wounds: prospective cluster controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Kian; Haugaard, Vibeke B; Dufour, Deirdre N; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-03-01

    Telemedicine is widely considered as an efficient approach to manage the growing problem of chronic wounds. However, to date, there is no convincing evidence to support the clinical efficacy of telemedicine in wound management. In this prospective cluster controlled study, we tested the hypothesis that advice on wound management provided by a team of wound-care specialists through telemedicine would significantly improve the likelihood of wound healing compared with the best available conventional practice. A total of 90 chronic wound patients in home care met all study criteria and were included: 50 in the telemedicine group and 40 in the conventional group. Patients with pressure ulcers, surgical wounds, and cancer wounds were excluded. During the 1-year follow-up, complete wound healing was achieved in 35 patients (70%) in the telemedicine group compared with 18 patients (45%) in the conventional group. After adjusting for important covariates, offering advice on wound management through telemedicine was associated with significantly increased healing compared with the best available conventional practice (telemedicine vs. conventional practice: adjusted hazard ratio 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.17; P=0.017). This study strongly supports the use of telemedicine to connect home-care nurses to a team of wound experts in order to improve the management of chronic wounds.

  2. Monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phramaha Somdet Wongtham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation, monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan, is a qualitative study with three primary aims:To study the background of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand, to study the current state of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand and to outline a set of guidelines for community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected and was composed of nine communities in Northeastern Thailand. Results show that monks have been involved in community development since Buddhism first arrived in North-eastern Thailand and their role is now primarily separated into three areas: Faith, knowledge and practice. The results of this investigation can be considered by local temples, communities, government institutions and individual monks when deciding how to manage and administer community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand.

  3. Land Degradation Monitoring in the Ordos Plateau of China Using an Expert Knowledge and BP-ANN-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojie Yue

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation monitoring is of vital importance to provide scientific information for promoting sustainable land utilization. This paper presents an expert knowledge and BP-ANN-based approach to detect and monitor land degradation in an effort to overcome the deficiencies of image classification and vegetation index-based approaches. The proposed approach consists of three generic steps: (1 extraction of knowledge on the relationship between land degradation degree and predisposing factors, which are NDVI and albedo, from domain experts; (2 establishment of a land degradation detecting model based on the BP-ANN algorithm; and (3 land degradation dynamic analysis. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on the development of land degradation in the Ordos Plateau of China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. The results indicate that the proposed approach is reliable for monitoring land degradation, with an overall accuracy of 91.2%. From 1990–2010, a reverse trend of land degradation is observed in Ordos Plateau. Regions with relatively high land degradation dynamic were mostly located in the northeast of Ordos Plateau. Additionally, most of the regions have transferred from a hot spot of land degradation to a less changed area. It is suggested that land utilization optimization plays a key role for effective land degradation control. However, it should be highlighted that the goals of such strategies should aim at the main negative factors causing land degradation, and the land use type and its quantity must meet the demand of population and be reconciled with natural conditions. Results from this case study suggest that the expert knowledge and BP-ANN-based approach is effective in mapping land degradation.

  4. Expert knowledge as a foundation for the management of secretive species and their habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, C. Ashton; Collazo, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we share lessons learned during the elicitation and application of expert knowledge in the form of a belief network model for the habitat of a waterbird, the King Rail (Rallus elegans). A belief network is a statistical framework used to graphically represent and evaluate hypothesized cause and effect relationships among variables. Our model was a pilot project to explore the value of such a model as a tool to help the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) conserve species that lack sufficient empirical data to guide management decisions. Many factors limit the availability of empirical data that can support landscape-scale conservation planning. Globally, most species simply have not yet been subject to empirical study (Wilson 2000). Even for well-studied species, data are often restricted to specific geographic extents, to particular seasons, or to specific segments of a species’ life history. The USFWS mandates that the agency’s conservation actions (1) be coordinated across regional landscapes, (2) be founded on the best available science (with testable assumptions), and (3) support adaptive management through monitoring and assessment of action outcomes. Given limits on the available data, the concept of “best available science” in the context of conservation planning generally includes a mix of empirical data and expert knowledge (Sullivan et al. 2006).

  5. Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Phenotyping Framework Using Expert Knowledge and Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Rina; Kawazoe, Yoshimasa; Ida, Yusuke; Shinohara, Emiko; Tanaka, Katsuya; Imai, Takeshi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Phenotyping is an automated technique that can be used to distinguish patients based on electronic health records. To improve the quality of medical care and advance type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) research, the demand for T2DM phenotyping has been increasing. Some existing phenotyping algorithms are not sufficiently accurate for screening or identifying clinical research subjects. We propose a practical phenotyping framework using both expert knowledge and a machine learning approach to develop 2 phenotyping algorithms: one is for screening; the other is for identifying research subjects. We employ expert knowledge as rules to exclude obvious control patients and machine learning to increase accuracy for complicated patients. We developed phenotyping algorithms on the basis of our framework and performed binary classification to determine whether a patient has T2DM. To facilitate development of practical phenotyping algorithms, this study introduces new evaluation metrics: area under the precision-sensitivity curve (AUPS) with a high sensitivity and AUPS with a high positive predictive value. The proposed phenotyping algorithms based on our framework show higher performance than baseline algorithms. Our proposed framework can be used to develop 2 types of phenotyping algorithms depending on the tuning approach: one for screening, the other for identifying research subjects. We develop a novel phenotyping framework that can be easily implemented on the basis of proper evaluation metrics, which are in accordance with users' objectives. The phenotyping algorithms based on our framework are useful for extraction of T2DM patients in retrospective studies.

  6. Toward the integration of expert knowledge and instrumental data to control food processes: application to Camembert-type cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Baudrit, C; Corrieu, G

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the cheese ripening process remains a challenge because of its complexity. We still lack the knowledge necessary to understand the interactions that take place at different levels of scale during the process. However, information may be gathered from expert knowledge. Combining this expertise with knowledge extracted from experimental databases may allow a better understanding of the entire ripening process. The aim of this study was to elicit expert knowledge and to check its validity to assess the evolution of organoleptic quality during a dynamic food process: Camembert cheese ripening. Experiments on a pilot scale were carried out at different temperatures and relative humidities to obtain contrasting ripening kinetics. During these experiments, macroscopic evolution was evaluated from an expert's point of view and instrumental measurements were carried out to simultaneously monitor microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical kinetics. A correlation of 76% was established between the microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical data and the sensory phases measured according to expert knowledge, highlighting the validity of the experts' measurements. In the future, it is hoped that this expert knowledge may be integrated into food process models to build better decision-aid systems that will make it possible to preserve organoleptic qualities by linking them to other phenomena at the microscopic level. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design expertise: how knowledge, experience, and skills set expert architects apart from novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Florio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the design process under the cognitive theory proposes an understanding of internal mental processes, based on the processing of information derived from the knowledge, experience, and skills of the architect. Although it is difficult to trace the sources of the architects’ thoughts, the drawings they produce facilitate the identification of the successive approaches used during the design process. Since cognition, or the act of thinking, itself cannot be observed, we can only analyze the results of the thought that guided cognitive actions. The steps of the research conducted by the authors of this article were as follows: 1 three experienced architects and three novices were filmed individually, for 60 minutes, while they carried out a project; 2 these professionals were interviewed for 30 minutes after the end of the project; 3 physical, perceptual, functional, and conceptual cognitive actions were identified by segmenting and codifying the actions performed during the filming; 4 these data were translated into graphs; 5 the differences between novices and experts were identified from the response time in each of the four levels of cognitive actions; and 6 the qualitative analysis of actions and effectiveness were assessed. Experienced architects quickly recovered from their memory-specific knowledge and, based on scant evidence, select, combine, and generate different ideas during the design process. They can do so because the knowledge encoded in typical situations enables them to make faster and better supported decisions. Expertise is the human faculty that allows performance of cognitive operations that involve daily thinking and doing with quality, speed, and vitality. An expert is someone who performs a task significantly better than most other people do. We concluded that expert architects perform projects with greater ease than beginners, not only because they have more knowledge and experience, but

  8. Landscape characterization integrating expert and local spatial knowledge of land and forest resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Käyhkö, Niina; Van Eetvelde, Veerle

    2013-09-01

    In many developing countries, political documentation acknowledges the crucial elements of participation and spatiality for effective land use planning. However, operative approaches to spatial data inclusion and representation in participatory land management are often lacking. In this paper, we apply and develop an integrated landscape characterization approach to enhance spatial knowledge generation about the complex human-nature interactions in landscapes in the context of Zanzibar, Tanzania. We apply an integrated landscape conceptualization as a theoretical framework where the expert and local knowledge can meet in spatial context. The characterization is based on combining multiple data sources in GIS, and involves local communities and their local spatial knowledge since the beginning into the process. Focusing on the expected information needs for community forest management, our characterization integrates physical landscape features and retrospective landscape change data with place-specific community knowledge collected through participatory GIS techniques. The characterization is established in a map form consisting of four themes and their synthesis. The characterization maps are designed to support intuitive interpretation, express the inherently uncertain nature of the data, and accompanied by photographs to enhance communication. Visual interpretation of the characterization mediates information about the character of areas and places in the studied local landscape, depicting the role of forest resources as part of the landscape entity. We conclude that landscape characterization applied in GIS is a highly potential tool for participatory land and resource management, where spatial argumentation, stakeholder communication, and empowerment are critical issues.

  9. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  10. A study on interaction App platform between expert knowledge and community applied on disaster education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruljigaljig, T.; Huang, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    This study development interface for Mobile Application (App) use cloud technology, Web 2.0 and online community of technology to build the Environmental-Geological Disaster Network(EDN). The interaction App platform between expert knowledge and community is developed as a teaching tool, which bases on the open data released by Central Geological Survey. The APP can through Augmented Reality technology to potential hazards position through the camera lens, the real show in real-world environment. The interaction with experts in the community to improve the general public awareness of disaster. Training people to record the occurrence of geological disasters precursor, thereby awakened their to natural disaster consciousness and attention.General users obtain real-time information during travel, mountaineering and teaching process. Using App platform to upload and represent the environmental geological disaster data collected by themselves. It is expected that by public joint the open platform can accumulate environmental geological disaster data effectively, quickly, extensively and correctly. The most important thing of this study is rooting the concept of disaster prevention, reduction, and avoidance through public participation.

  11. Health literacy and chronic disease management: drawing from expert knowledge to set an agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj; Nimmon, Laura; Rootman, Irving; Fitzgerald, Mark J

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the nature and impact of health literacy is a priority in health promotion and chronic disease prevention and treatment. Health literacy comprises the application of a broad set of skills to access, comprehend, evaluate, communicate and act on health information for improved health and well-being. A complex concept, it involves multiple participants and is enacted across a wide variety of contexts. Health literacy's complexity has given rise to challenges achieving a standard definition and developing means to measure all its dimensions. In May 2013, a group of health literacy experts, clinicians and policymakers convened at an Expert Roundtable to review the current state of health literacy research and practice, and make recommendations about refining its definition, expanding its measurement and integrating best practices into chronic disease management. The four-day knowledge exchange concluded that the successful integration of health literacy into policy and practice depends on the development of a more substantial evidence base. A review of the successes and gaps in health literacy research, education and interventions culminated in the identification of key priorities to further the health literacy agenda. The workshop was funded by the UBC Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, Vancouver. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge b...... for the application of expert systems, but also raises issues regarding privacy and legal liability....

  13. Expert Knowledge Representation in Bilingual e-Dictionaries. A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ortego Antón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of new concepts and terms has risen rapidly due to scientific and technological development. Additionally, expert knowledge, which used to be exclusive for experts, also interests middlebrow language users. Compilers of e-dictionaries, aware of this change, are gathering in new editions specialised terms that have become part of our daily lives. In the current globalised world, the need to transfer scientific knowledge to other languages arises, so one of the main tools that translators and, specially, translation trainees employ to look up an unknown term are bilingual dictionaries. Hence, we consider that the study of the treatment given to computing terms in bilingual dictionaries is a field that needs to be reviewed. From an ad hoc corpus composed of texts from the main journals published in the UK and the USA, the most frequent terms belonging to computing are extracted using TermoStat Web 3.0 (Drouin, 2003. Then, we verify how terms are gathered in the dictionary wordlist, if they are labelled or not, which translation equivalents are given and if they are followed by contextual data. In addition, we check the use of the given equivalents in two Spanish reference corpora: Corpus del Español and Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual. The results from the analysis might suggest a need to take into account new proposals in order to implement the data gathered in these reference works as well as inform new procedures in the design and use of these tools from the point of view of translators as main users.

  14. Expert Knowledge Representation in Bilingual e-Dictionaries. A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ortego Antón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2015v35n1p167 In recent decades, the number of new concepts and terms has risen rapidly due to scientific and technological development. Additionally, expert knowledge, which used to be exclusive for experts, also interests middlebrow language users. Compilers of e-dictionaries, aware of this change, are gathering in new editions specialised terms that have become part of our daily lives. In the current globalised world, the need to transfer scientific knowledge to other languages arises, so one of the main tools that translators and, specially, translation trainees employ to look up an unknown term are bilingual dictionaries. Hence, we consider that the study of the treatment given to computing terms in bilingual dictionaries is a field that needs to be reviewed. From an ad hoc corpus composed of texts from the main journals published in the UK and the USA, the most frequent terms belonging to computing are extracted using TermoStat Web 3.0 (Drouin, 2003. Then, we verify how terms are gathered in the dictionary wordlist, if they are labelled or not, which translation equivalents are given and if they are followed by contextual data. In addition, we check the use of the given equivalents in two Spanish reference corpora: Corpus del Español and Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual. The results from the analysis might suggest a need to take into account new proposals in order to implement the data gathered in these reference works as well as inform new procedures in the design and use of these tools from the point of view of translators as main users.

  15. Current state of knowledge and experts' perspective on the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Massimo; Cappato, Riccardo; Andresen, Dietrich; Brachmann, Johannes; Davies, D Wyn; Cleland, John; Filippi, Alessandro; Gronda, Edoardo; Hauer, Richard; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Steinhaus, David

    2009-06-01

    ICD implantation is today a well-recognized therapy to prevent sudden cardiac death. The available implantable devices at present need the use of permanent endocavitary leads which may cause, in some instances, serious troubles to the patients (lead dislodgement, ventricular perforation, lead infections, etc.). A new implantable defibrillator provided by only a subcutaneous lead is at present under evaluation. Its potential indications, usefulness benefits, and problems represent an interesting field of investigation and discussion. This paper describes the conclusions recently reached by a panel of experts, with regard to the potential role of an implantable subcutaneous defibrillator in the prevention of sudden cardiac death.

  16. Ovarian Cancer Knowledge in Women and Providers Following Education with Inside Knowledge Campaign Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary C; Townsend, Julie S; Gelb, Cynthia A; Hager, Polly; Conlon, Amy; Stewart, Sherri L

    2017-06-24

    Because no effective methods for preventing or screening for ovarian cancer exist, symptom recognition is integral to its early detection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts about Gynecologic Cancer campaign was developed to raise awareness and educate women and providers about risk factors, symptoms, recommended screening, and prevention strategies for the five main gynecologic cancers, including ovarian cancer. Inside Knowledge campaign materials were utilized by CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program grantees to educate women and providers about gynecologic cancer from 2014 to 2015. Grantees recruited participants and held educational sessions using Inside Knowledge materials. Questionnaires were given before and after the sessions to assess changes in awareness, confidence, and behavioral intentions around gynecologic cancer information and analyzed in 2016. This analysis focused on an assessment of changes related to ovarian cancer information. Participants' knowledge increased after educational sessions. Among women, there were increases in correctly identifying that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test does not screen for ovarian cancer (89.2%) and that genetic testing is available (77.9%). There was a lower increase in knowledge that HPV is not a cause of ovarian cancer (56.4%). Providers and women reported significant increases in their confidence in their ability to talk to each other about gynecologic cancer post-session. Ovarian cancer awareness, confidence, and related behaviors increased in participants exposed to Inside Knowledge materials. Using these materials to increase knowledge could lead to more empowered patients, better provider-patient communications, and improved care for gynecologic cancers, including ovarian cancer.

  17. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    evaluations of task-surface heights in elderly people’s homes. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 109-119. Kohlbacher, F. (2006). The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. Forum: Qualitative social research sozialforschung (FQS), Open Journal Systems, vol 7, No1. Kozey, J.W. & Das, B. (2004...... accessibility aspects such as either reach, seat height or space requirements • Targeted primarily industrial workstation design and only wheelchair/scooter users • Addressed positions (standing/seated) and sex difference with respect to reach • Was generated in lab-like environments, using methods...... of the validity of housing standards. Therefore, it is reasonable to question what type of knowledge that provides the most valid standards addressing accessibility and explore the consequences of using an alternative approach. The idea was thus to examine the validity of a set of housing standards using a so...

  18. Exploiting Expert Knowledge to Enhance Simulation-based Optimization of Environmental Remediation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslink, C. F.; Matott, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    Designing cost-effective systems to safeguard national water supplies from contaminated sites is often aided by simulation-based optimization - where a flow or transport model is linked with an "off-the-shelf" global optimization search algorithm. However, achieving good performance from these types of optimizers within a reasonable computational budget has proven to be difficult. Therefore, this research seeks to boost optimization efficiency by augmenting search procedures with non-traditional information, such as site-specific knowledge and practitioner rules-of-thumb. An example application involving pump-and-treat optimization is presented in which a series of extraction wells are to be installed to intercept pollutants at a contaminated site in Billings, Montana. Selected heuristic algorithms (e.g. Genetic Algorithm) are interfaced with a rules engine that makes inline adjustments to the well locations of candidate pump-and-treat designs. If necessary, the rules engine modifies a given pump-and-treat design so that: (1) wells are placed within plume boundaries; and (2) well placement is biased toward areas where, if left untreated, the plume is predicted to spread most rapidly. Results suggest that incorporating this kind of expert knowledge can significantly increase the search efficiency of many popular global optimizers.

  19. Emergent authority and expert knowledge: psychiatry and criminal responsibility in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughnan, Arlie; Ward, Tony

    2014-01-01

    In the UK context, the rise of the discipline and practice of forensic psychiatry is intimately connected with the concurrent development of principles and practices relating to criminal responsibility. In this article, we seek to chart the relationship between psychiatry and the principles and practices of criminal responsibility in the UK over the early modern, modern and late modern periods. With a focus on claims about authority and expert knowledge around criminal responsibility, we suggest that these claims have been in a state of perpetual negotiation and that, as a result, claims to authority over and knowledge about criminal non-responsibility on the part of psychiatrists and psychiatry are most accurately understood as emergent and contingent. The apparent formalism of legal discourse has tended to conceal the extent to which legal policy has been preoccupied with maintaining the primacy of lay judgments in criminal processes of evaluation and adjudication. While this policy has been somewhat successful in the context of the trial - particularly the murder trial - it has been undermined by administrative procedures surrounding the trial, including those that substitute treatment for punishment without, or in spite of, a formal determination of criminal responsibility. © 2013.

  20. Providing Knowledge Recommendations: An Approach for Informal Electronic Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Misra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The use of Web 2.0 technologies for knowledge management is invading the corporate sphere. The Web 2.0 is the most adopted knowledge transfer tool within knowledge intensive firms and is starting to be used for mentoring. This paper presents IM-TAG, a Web 2.0 tool, based on semantic technologies, for informal mentoring. The tool offers…

  1. The outcome of the working visits by the experts to the fuel provider enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, Y.; Molchanov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The working visits by the international experts to the fabrication plants of nuclear fuels and the zirconium alloy component facility took part in the framework of the „Zero failure level“ project. The purpose of these working visits was to determine whether there are any cause-effect relationships between the production of nuclear fuel and the fuel failures as well as to identify the trends and reasons for such failures. As an outcome of the analysis of the production processes at the fabrication plants of the nuclear fuel and the zirconium alloys component facility, the system root causes affecting the failures of the nuclear fuel were not identified

  2. Test and Evaluation for Enhanced Security: A Quantitative Method to Incorporate Expert Knowledge into Test Planning Decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Davinia [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blackburn, Mark [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Complex systems are comprised of technical, social, political and environmental factors as well as the programmatic factors of cost, schedule and risk. Testing these systems for enhanced security requires expert knowledge in many different fields. It is important to test these systems to ensure effectiveness, but testing is limited to due cost, schedule, safety, feasibility and a myriad of other reasons. Without an effective decision framework for Test and Evaluation (T&E) planning that can take into consideration technical as well as programmatic factors and leverage expert knowledge, security in complex systems may not be assessed effectively. Therefore, this paper covers the identification of the current T&E planning problem and an approach to include the full variety of factors and leverage expert knowledge in T&E planning through the use of Bayesian Networks (BN).

  3. Best Strategies to Improve School-leavers’ Knowledge of Nutrition and Food Systems: Views from Experts in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background: The research to date does not present an articulated approach to ensure nutrition and food systems education is systematically implemented within schools. This paper aimed to investigate food experts’ views of the best strategies to improve school-leavers’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems. Methods: In this qualitative study, 28 Iranian food and nutrition experts from four major provinces (Tehran, Fars, Isfahan, and Gilan) were selected and agreed to be interviewed. Required data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face, or telephone interviews and were analyzed thematically using NVivo. Results: The experts’ suggested strategies to improve Iranian school-leavers’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems fell into three key themes: Policy, education processes, and supportive environments. Together they formed an overarching theme of a multileveled system approach for transferring knowledge. Conclusions: Development of a scaffolded education program could assist curriculum developers and policy makers to assess and update current nutrition and food systems education programs in schools. Insights gained about education initiatives in one country such as Iran can provide an important impetus to support nutrition and food system education more widely. PMID:27857832

  4. Determination of the ecological connectivity between landscape patches obtained using the knowledge engineer (expert) classification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Serdar; Sonmez, Namik Kemal; Onur, Isin; Coslu, Mesut

    2017-10-01

    Connection of similar landscape patches with ecological corridors supports habitat quality of these patches, increases urban ecological quality, and constitutes an important living and expansion area for wild life. Furthermore, habitat connectivity provided by urban green areas is supporting biodiversity in urban areas. In this study, possible ecological connections between landscape patches, which were achieved by using Expert classification technique and modeled with probabilistic connection index. Firstly, the reflection responses of plants to various bands are used as data in hypotheses. One of the important features of this method is being able to use more than one image at the same time in the formation of the hypothesis. For this reason, before starting the application of the Expert classification, the base images are prepared. In addition to the main image, the hypothesis conditions were also created for each class with the NDVI image which is commonly used in the vegetation researches. Besides, the results of the previously conducted supervised classification were taken into account. We applied this classification method by using the raster imagery with user-defined variables. Hereupon, to provide ecological connections of the tree cover which was achieved from the classification, we used Probabilistic Connection (PC) index. The probabilistic connection model which is used for landscape planning and conservation studies via detecting and prioritization critical areas for ecological connection characterizes the possibility of direct connection between habitats. As a result we obtained over % 90 total accuracy in accuracy assessment analysis. We provided ecological connections with PC index and we created inter-connected green spaces system. Thus, we offered and implicated green infrastructure system model takes place in the agenda of recent years.

  5. Health care providers' knowledge and practice of focused antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... observational checklist were the instruments for data collection. Findings revealed poor knowledge of concept, components, timing of visits on focused antenatal care and non compliance with the guidelines for the practice of focused antenatal care, because of health workers lack of knowledge on focused antenatal care.

  6. Integrating Expert Knowledge with Statistical Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integration landslide susceptibility model by combining expert-based and bivariate statistical analysis (Landslide Susceptibility Index—LSI approaches is presented. Factors related with the occurrence of landslides—such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, land cover, Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA—were analyzed within a GIS environment. This integrated model produced a landslide susceptibility map which categorized the study area according to the probability level of landslide occurrence. The accuracy of the final map was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis depending on an independent (validation dataset of landslide events. The prediction ability was found to be 76% revealing that the integration of statistical analysis with human expertise can provide an acceptable landslide susceptibility assessment at regional scale.

  7. Matrix Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a Knowledge Base for a Real Time Automated Diagnosis Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Stephanie; Iverson, David; Spukovska, Lilly; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis contain a wealth of information that can be used to create the knowledge base required for building automated diagnostic Expert systems. A real time monitoring and diagnosis expert system based on an actual NASA project's matrix failure modes and effects analysis was developed. This Expert system Was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. This system was first used as a case study to monitor the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), a Space Shuttle payload that is used to house and monitor animals in orbit so the effects of space flight and microgravity can be studied. The techniques developed for the RAHF monitoring and diagnosis Expert system are general enough to be used for monitoring and diagnosis of a variety of other systems that undergo a Matrix FMEA. This automated diagnosis system was successfully used on-line and validated on the Space Shuttle flight STS-58, mission SLS-2 in October 1993.

  8. Does secrecy provide ample protection for traditional knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    combined with the economic imperative to acquire exclusive rights over .... through independent development such as reverse engineering. Where ..... commercial activity with their traditional knowledge in the ordinary course of events,.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and acceptability to provider-initiated HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software. Knowledge about PITC services was generally low. Compared to men, women had a more positive attitude towards PITC services, because of its ability to identify and ...

  10. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Knowledge Base Certification activity of the expert systems verification and validation (V ampersand V) guideline development project which is jointly funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V ampersand V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity is concerned with the development and testing of various methods for assuring the quality of knowledge bases. The testing procedure used was that of behavioral experiment, the first known such evaluation of any type of V ampersand V activity. The value of such experimentation is its capability to provide empirical evidence for -- or against -- the effectiveness of plausible methods in helping people find problems in knowledge bases. The three-day experiment included 20 participants from three nuclear utilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical training Center, the University of Maryland, EG ampersand G Idaho, and SAIC. The study used two real nuclear expert systems: a boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures tracking system and a pressurized water reactor safety assessment systems. Ten participants were assigned to each of the expert systems. All participants were trained in and then used a sequence of four different V ampersand V methods selected as being the best and most appropriate for study on the basis of prior evaluation activities. These methods either involved the analysis and tracing of requirements to elements in the knowledge base (requirements grouping and requirements tracing) or else involved direct inspection of the knowledge base for various kinds of errors. Half of the subjects within each system group used the best manual variant of the V ampersand V methods (the control group), while the other half were supported by the results of applying real or simulated automated tools to the knowledge bases

  11. Young Adults' Knowledge and Understanding of Personal Finance in Germany: Interviews with Experts and Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Rüspeler, Ann-Katrin; Rothweiler, Jasmin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the financial education of young adults has gained importance in Germany; however, very few valid test instruments to assess the knowledge and understanding of personal finance are suitable for use in Germany. In this article, we describe results of a survey in which experts in Germany in areas related to personal finance judged…

  12. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  13. The impact of expert knowledge on natural hazard susceptibility assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Road and railway networks are one of the key factors to a country's economic growth. Inadequate infrastructural networks could be detrimental to a society if the transport between locations are hindered or delayed. Logistical hindrances can often be avoided whereas natural hindrances are more difficult to control. One natural hindrance that can have a severe adverse effect on both infrastructure and society is flooding. Intense and heavy rainfall events can trigger other natural hazards such as landslides and debris flow. Disruptions caused by landslides are similar to that of floods and increase the maintenance cost considerably. The effect on society by natural disasters is likely to increase due to a changed climate with increasing precipitation. Therefore, there is a need for risk prevention and mitigation of natural hazards. Determining susceptible areas and incorporating them in the decision process may reduce the infrastructural harm. Spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) is a part of decision analysis, which provides a set of procedures for analysing complex decision problems through a Geographic Information System (GIS). The objective and aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for inundation, landslide and debris flow susceptibility assessments through a SMCA approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. The sensitivity of the SMCA model was tested in relation to each perspective and impact on the resulting susceptibility. A least cost path function was used to compare new alternative road lines with the existing ones. This comparison was undertaken to identify the resulting differences in the susceptibility assessments using expert judgements as well as historic incidences of flooding and landslides in order to discuss the usefulness of the model in road planning.

  14. Integrating declarative knowledge programming styles and tools for building expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbuceanu, M; Trausan-Matu, S; Molnar, B

    1987-01-01

    The XRL system reported in this paper is an integrated knowledge programming environment whose major research theme is the investigation of declarative knowledge programming styles and features and of the way they can be effectively integrated and used to support AI programming. This investigation is carried out in the context of the structured-object representation paradigm which provides the glue keeping XRL components together. The paper describes several declarative programming styles and associated support tools available in XRL. These include an instantiation system supporting a generalized view of the ubiquous frame installation process, a description based programming system providing a novel declarative programming style which embeds a mathematical oriented description language in the structured object environment and a transformational interpreter for using it, a semantics oriented programming framework which offers a specific semantic construct based approach supporting maintenance and evolution and a self description and self generation tool which applies the latter approach to XRL itself. 29 refs., 16 figs.

  15. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  16. Internal audit: the expert in providing comfort to the audit committee. The case of risk management and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    G. SARENS; I. DE BEELDE

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent audit committees feel uncomfortable about risk management and internal control, and focuses on how internal audit can be the expert in providing comfort in these areas, building upon the sociology of professions literature. Four case studies reveal that audit committees need comfort with respect to the control environment. Thanks to their internal position, their familiarity with the company, and their position close to people across the company, interna...

  17. Training Sessions Provide Working Knowledge of National Animal Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included…

  18. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Volume 4, Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    Objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V ampersand V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity is concerned with the development and testing of various methods for assuring the quality of knowledge bases. The testing procedure used was that of behavioral experiment, the first known such evaluation of any of V ampersand V activity; the value lies in the capability to provide empirical evidence for or against the effectiveness of plausible methods in helping people find problems in knowledge bases. The three-day experiment included 20 participants from three nuclear utilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical training Center, University of Maryland, EG ampersand G Idaho, and SAIC. The study used two real nuclear expert systems: a boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures tracking system and a pressurized water reactor safety assessment systems. Ten participants were assigned to each of the expert systems. All participants were trained in and then used a sequence of four different V ampersand V methods selected as being the best and most appropriate. These methods either involved the analysis and tracing of requirements to elements in the knowledge base or direct inspection of the knowledge base for various kinds of errors. Half of the subjects within each system group used the best annual variant of the V ampersand V methods (the control group), while the other half were supported by the results of applying real or simulated automated tools to the knowledge bases (the experimental group). The four groups of participants were similar in nuclear engineering and software experience characteristics. It is concluded that the use of tools in static knowledge base certification results in significant improvement in detecting all types of defects, avoiding false alarms, and completing the effort in less time. The simulated knowledge-checking tool, based on supplemental engineering information about the systems

  19. Analysis, Simulation, and Verification of Knowledge-Based, Rule-Based, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Mike; Rash, James; Erickson, John; Gracanin, Denis; Rouff, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Mathematically sound techniques are used to view a knowledge-based system (KBS) as a set of processes executing in parallel and being enabled in response to specific rules being fired. The set of processes can be manipulated, examined, analyzed, and used in a simulation. The tool that embodies this technology may warn developers of errors in their rules, but may also highlight rules (or sets of rules) in the system that are underspecified (or overspecified) and need to be corrected for the KBS to operate as intended. The rules embodied in a KBS specify the allowed situations, events, and/or results of the system they describe. In that sense, they provide a very abstract specification of a system. The system is implemented through the combination of the system specification together with an appropriate inference engine, independent of the algorithm used in that inference engine. Viewing the rule base as a major component of the specification, and choosing an appropriate specification notation to represent it, reveals how additional power can be derived from an approach to the knowledge-base system that involves analysis, simulation, and verification. This innovative approach requires no special knowledge of the rules, and allows a general approach where standardized analysis, verification, simulation, and model checking techniques can be applied to the KBS.

  20. A knowledge based expert system for propellant system monitoring at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, J. R.; Delaune, C.; Scarl, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Lox Expert System (LES) is the first attempt to build a realtime expert system capable of simulating the thought processes of NASA system engineers, with regard to fluids systems analysis and troubleshooting. An overview of the hardware and software describes the techniques used, and possible applications to other process control systems. LES is now in the advanced development stage, with a full implementation planned for late 1985.

  1. [Social engineers--providers--bioethicists. Human genetics experts in West-Germany and Denmark between 1950 and 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaschke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The author compares the history of human genetics in the Federal Republic of Germany and Denmark from the 1950s to the 1980s. The paper combines a discourse analysis with the exploration of human genetics experts' subject forms along the lines of current considerations within cultural studies. In the 1950s and 1960s, human geneticists acted in close cooperation with other political, judicial and administrative expert groups. They monitored the 'overall genetic development' of the population and cautioned about 'genetic crises'. Laypersons were supposed to submit to 'objectively reasonable' behavioral patterns--to their own as well as society's benefit. In the 1970s, the experts turned into 'providers' of a 'precise, purely medical, diagnostic service'. The patients mainly appeared as 'de-personalized' sources of a common human demand for 'safe eugenic information'. In the 1980s, the demand and supply paradigm manifested psychological and ethical side effects. Human geneticists became aware of the social and historical interrelations of their research and practices. The results of this study contribute to a more complex understanding of the dominant 'individualization narrative' of human genetics history. In this context, the development in Germany and Denmark displays two complementary forms of a transnational discourse.

  2. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  3. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  4. Modeling the Construct of an Expert Evidence-Adaptive Knowledge Base for a Pressure Injury Clinical Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peck Chui Betty Khong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate wound products for the treatment of pressure injuries is paramount in promoting wound healing. However, nurses find it difficult to decide on the most optimal wound product(s due to limited live experiences in managing pressure injuries resulting from successfully implemented pressure injury prevention programs. The challenges of effective decision-making in wound treatments by nurses at the point of care are compounded by the yearly release of wide arrays of newly researched wound products into the consumer market. A clinical decision support system for pressure injury (PI-CDSS was built to facilitate effective decision-making and selection of optimal wound treatments. This paper describes the development of PI-CDSS with an expert knowledge base using an interactive development environment, Blaze Advisor. A conceptual framework using decision-making and decision theory, knowledge representation, and process modelling guided the construct of the PI-CDSS. This expert system has incorporated the practical and relevant decision knowledge of wound experts in assessment and wound treatments in its algorithm. The construct of the PI-CDSS is adaptive, with scalable capabilities for expansion to include other CDSSs and interoperability to interface with other existing clinical and administrative systems. The algorithm was formatively evaluated and tested for usability. The treatment modalities generated after using patient-specific assessment data were found to be consistent with the treatment plan(s proposed by the wound experts. The overall agreement exceeded 90% between the wound experts and the generated treatment modalities for the choice of wound products, instructions, and alerts. The PI-CDSS serves as a just-in-time wound treatment protocol with suggested clinical actions for nurses, based on the best evidence available.

  5. Models, methods and software for distributed knowledge acquisition for the automated construction of integrated expert systems knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejneko, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of existing models, methods and means of acquiring knowledge, a base method of automated knowledge acquisition has been chosen. On the base of this method, a new approach to integrate information acquired from knowledge sources of different typologies has been proposed, and the concept of a distributed knowledge acquisition with the aim of computerized formation of the most complete and consistent models of problem areas has been introduced. An original algorithm for distributed knowledge acquisition from databases, based on the construction of binary decision trees has been developed [ru

  6. Ecosystem services provided by pacific NW Estuaries: State of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal regions in the United States are rapidly developing areas, with increasing urbanization and growing populations. Estuarine and nearshore coastal marine waters provide valuable ecosystem services to resident and transient human communities. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW)...

  7. Integrating Statistical and Expert Knowledge to Develop Phenoregions for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Biondi, F.; Bradford, J. B.; Foster, J. R.; Betancourt, J. L.; Foster, J. R.; Biondi, F.; Bradford, J. B.; Henebry, G. M.; Post, E.; Koenig, W.; Hoffman, F. M.; de Beurs, K.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S. P.; Brooks, B. G.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetated ecosystems exhibit unique phenological behavior over the course of a year, suggesting that remotely sensed land surface phenology may be useful for characterizing land cover and ecoregions. However, phenology is also strongly influenced by temperature and water stress; insect, fire, and weather disturbances; and climate change over seasonal, interannual, decadal and longer time scales. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a remotely sensed measure of greenness, provides a useful proxy for land surface phenology. We used NDVI for the conterminous United States (CONUS) derived from the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) every eight days at 250 m resolution for the period 2000-2015 to develop phenological signatures of emergent ecological regimes called phenoregions. We employed a "Big Data" classification approach on a supercomputer, specifically applying an unsupervised data mining technique, to this large collection of NDVI measurements to develop annual maps of phenoregions. This technique produces a prescribed number of prototypical phenological states to which every location belongs in any year. To reduce the impact of short-term disturbances, we derived a single map of the mode of annual phenological states for the CONUS, assigning each map cell to the state with the largest integrated NDVI in cases where multiple states tie for the highest frequency of occurrence. Since the data mining technique is unsupervised, individual phenoregions are not associated with an ecologically understandable label. To add automated supervision to the process, we applied the method of Mapcurves, developed by Hargrove and Hoffman, to associate individual phenoregions with labeled polygons in expert-derived maps of biomes, land cover, and ecoregions. We will present the phenoregions methodology and resulting maps for the CONUS, describe the "label-stealing" technique for ascribing biome characteristics to phenoregions, and introduce a new polar

  8. Combining machine learning, crowdsourcing and expert knowledge to detect chemical-induced diseases in text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Àlex; Li, Tong Shu; Su, Andrew I; Good, Benjamin M; Furlong, Laura I

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a major concern for both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, text-mining methods for the identification of drug side effects from free text are key for the development of up-to-date knowledge sources on drug adverse reactions. We present a new system for identification of drug side effects from the literature that combines three approaches: machine learning, rule- and knowledge-based approaches. This system has been developed to address the Task 3.B of Biocreative V challenge (BC5) dealing with Chemical-induced Disease (CID) relations. The first two approaches focus on identifying relations at the sentence-level, while the knowledge-based approach is applied both at sentence and abstract levels. The machine learning method is based on the BeFree system using two corpora as training data: the annotated data provided by the CID task organizers and a new CID corpus developed by crowdsourcing. Different combinations of results from the three strategies were selected for each run of the challenge. In the final evaluation setting, the system achieved the highest Recall of the challenge (63%). By performing an error analysis, we identified the main causes of misclassifications and areas for improving of our system, and highlighted the need of consistent gold standard data sets for advancing the state of the art in text mining of drug side effects.Database URL: https://zenodo.org/record/29887?ln¼en#.VsL3yDLWR_V. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and acceptability to provider-initiated HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine ... group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 99 (73 female and 26 male) .... spoke of the right of a sick individual to ask for voluntary counseling and testing. ..... of testing HIV positive: a comparison of stand alone center versus mobile ...

  10. Elicitation of expert knowledge on controlling Salmonella in the pork chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, v.d. M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important risks for food safety, and pork is one of the sources of human salmonellosis. A chain approach is essential to reduce Salmonella in pork products. A survey was carried out among Dutch and Danish experts in the field of Salmonella to evaluate the entire pork

  11. Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbemissi, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’ agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims to understand agricultural knowledge and practices among children orphaned by AIDS, consecutive to widespread interest in and concern about erosion of agricultural knowledge in AIDS-affected communities. Such ...

  12. On the constraints of encapsulated knowledge : Clinical case representations by medical experts and subexperts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Remy MJP; Schmidt, Henk G; Boshuizen, Henny PA

    2002-01-01

    This article is concerned with the role of so-called encapsulated knowledge and biomedical knowledge in the process of diagnosing clinical cases within and outside the medical specialist's domain of expertise. Based on the theory of knowledge encapsulation, we predicted that subexperts (i.e.,

  13. The knowledge, efficacy, and practices instrument for oral health providers: a validity study with dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cyndi W; Moore, Thomas E; Catalanotto, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Valid and reliable instruments to measure and assess cultural competence for oral health care providers are scarce in the literature, and most published scales have been contested due to a lack of item analysis and internal estimates of reliability. The purposes of this study were, first, to develop a standardized instrument to measure dental students' knowledge of diversity, skills in culturally competent patient-centered communication, and use of culture-centered practices in patient care and, second, to provide preliminary validity support for this instrument. The initial instrument used in this study was a thirty-six-item Likert-scale survey entitled the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers (KEPI-OHP). This instrument is an adaption of an initially thirty-three-item version of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Scale-Counselor Edition (MAKSS-CE), a scale that assesses factors related to social justice, cultural differences among clients, and cross-cultural client management. After the authors conducted cognitive and expert interviews, focus groups, pilot testing, and item analysis, their initial instrument was reduced to twenty-eight items. The KEPI-OHP was then distributed to 916 dental students (response rate=48.6 percent) across the United States to measure its reliability and assess its validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the scale's validity. The modification of the survey into a sensible instrument with a relatively clear factor structure using factor analysis resulted in twenty items. A scree test suggested three expressive factors, which were retained for rotation. Bentler's comparative fit and Bentler and Bonnett's non-normed indices were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. A three-factor solution, including efficacy of assessment, knowledge of diversity, and culture-centered practice subscales, comprised of twenty-items was identified. The KEPI-OHP was found to

  14. Transferring knowledge during dyadic interaction: The role of the expert in the learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Edwin Johnatan Avila; De Santis, Dalia; Morasso, Pietro; Zenzeri, Jacopo

    2016-08-01

    Physical interaction between man and machines is increasing the interest of the research as well as the industrial community. It is known that physical coupling between active persons can be beneficial and increase the performance of the dyad compared to an individual. However, the factors that may result in performance benefits are still poorly understood. The aim of this work is to investigate how the different initial skill levels of the interacting partners influence the learning of a stabilization task. Twelve subjects, divided in two groups, trained in couples in a joint stabilization task. In the first group the couples were composed of two naive, while in the second a naive was trained together with an expert. Results show that training with an expert results in the greatest performance in the joint task. However, this benefit is not transferred to the individual when performing the same task bimanually.

  15. Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbemissi, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests
    the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’
    agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to
    mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims

  16. Legal Knowledge as a Tool for Social Change: La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres as an Expert on Colombian Abortion Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina

    2017-06-01

    In May 2006, Colombia's Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman's health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court's ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision's implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa's strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a "pedagogical effect" insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa's choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge.

  17. Hybrid knowledge expert tool for load capacity assessment of railway plate girders with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuŻawa, M.; Bień, J.; Gładysz, M.

    2013-10-01

    Importance of the bridge structures as components of the transportation network is increasing and requires regular development of the management methodology. The main activities are focused on the safety of the users of the transportation network and on the safety of structures, based on monitoring and analysis of the bridge condition changes caused by various types of defects. The paper presents application of the hybrid network technology in the expert tool NOBLA supporting condition assessment of bridge plate girders, taking into account defects of the structures.

  18. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes

  19. Expert Systems: An Introduction -46 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Scientist in the. Knowledge Based. Computer Systems Group at NeST. He is one of the ... Expert systems encode human expertise in limited domains ... answers questions the user has and provides an explanation of its reasoning.

  20. A user perspective on the gap between science and decision-making. Local administrators’ views on expert knowledge in urban planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigt, van Rien; Driessen, P.J.; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    The role of expert knowledge of the environment in decision-making about urban development has been intensively debated. Most contributions to this debate have studied the use of knowledge in the decision-making process from the knowledge providers’ point of view. In this paper, we reverse the

  1. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  2. An Intervention Based on Video Feedback and Questioning to Improve Tactical Knowledge in Expert Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M Perla; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Ureña, Aurelio; Hernández, César; Del Villar, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study applied an intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, to expert female volleyball players to improve their tactical knowledge. The sample consisted of eight female attackers (26 ± 2.6 years old) from the Spanish National Volleyball Team, who were divided into an experimental group (n = 4) and a control group (n = 4). The video feedback and questioning program applied in the study was developed over eight reflective sessions and consisted of three phases: viewing of the selected actions, self-analysis and reflection by the attacker, and joint player-coach analysis. The attackers were videotaped in an actual game and four clips (situations) of each of the attackers were chosen for each reflective session. Two of the clips showed a correct action by the attacker, and two showed an incorrect decision. Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation with a verbal protocol. The members of the experimental group showed adaptations in long-term memory, significantly improving their tactical knowledge. With respect to conceptual content, there was an increase in the total number of conditions verbalized by the players; with respect to conceptual sophistication, there was an increase in the indication of appropriate conditions with two or more details; and finally, with respect to conceptual structure, there was an increase in the use of double or triple conceptual structures. The intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, in addition to on-court training sessions of expert volleyball players, appears to improve the athletes' tactical knowledge. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Transitioning to a Data Driven Mental Health Practice : Collaborative Expert Sessions for Knowledge and Hypothesis Finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, Vincent; Spruit, Marco; Hagoort, Karin; Scheepers, Floor

    2016-01-01

    The surge in the amount of available data in health care enables a novel, exploratory research approach that revolves around finding new knowledge and unexpected hypotheses from data instead of carrying out well-defined data analysis tasks. We propose a specification of the Cross Industry Standard

  4. Talking about money: public participation and expert knowledge in the Euro referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert

    2004-03-01

    This paper uses the proposed UK referendum on the single European currency as a means of investigating the effect of democratizing science on the scrutiny of conflicting expert advice. Although the referendum has not happened yet, and may not happen at all, the campaigners for and against the Euro have none the less been working for several years to ensure that if, and when, it does happen they are in a position to win it. By exploring how campaigners on both sides of the debate understand the concerns of voters, the paper shows how they are working towards a referendum in which the political dimensions of the Euro are actively minimized in order to avoid alienating key 'floating voters'. Instead, the campaign is expected to focus on the economic costs and benefits of the Euro for individuals and households, with only limited discussion of issues relating to sovereignty. Whether or not the campaign groups, particularly those that oppose the Euro, can maintain this line remains to be seen but if there is a full and frank public debate about the economic, social and political stakes, then this will be despite the referendum rather than because of it.

  5. Modelling of the knowledge for monitoring expert systems in nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Liana; Schirru, Roberto; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    1997-01-01

    Safety operation support systems for NPP faced problems of difficult solutions along their development. This work presents possible solution to such problems, and contribute to enhance the reliability and performance of such system using Artificial Intelligence. Knowledge representation is capital in this work since it express the dependence on variables in a rather natural way. therefore, it makes intrinsic the concepts of synchronism and concurrence in real-time approach. Other advantages are easy V and V processes and simplification of the system maintenance procedures. The inference process is carried out through the rules that are generated from knowledge base. These rules are charged following a conflict resolution optimized for time-real approach. The real application used to validate the model efficiency, consists in part of SICA (Integrated System of the Angra-1 Computers). The application results revealed very positive reducing the quantity of the SICA conventional software code programming. As far the system performance. the knowledge structures and the conflict resolution strategy adopted allowed for guarantee not only the time control for inference, but also a response time compatible with that requested for power plant safety support. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs

  6. Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Wulandari, Eliana; Meuwissen, Miranda P. M.; Karmana, Maman H.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers' access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample o...

  7. Hazard perception, risk perception, and the need for decontamination by residents exposed to soil pollution: the role of sustainability and the limits of expert knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frédéric

    2008-04-01

    This case study examines the hazard and risk perception and the need for decontamination according to people exposed to soil pollution. Using an ecological-symbolic approach (ESA), a multidisciplinary model is developed that draws upon psychological and sociological perspectives on risk perception and includes ecological variables by using data from experts' risk assessments. The results show that hazard perception is best predicted by objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, estimated knowledge of experts, and the assessed risks. However, experts' risk assessments induce an increase in hazard perception only when residents know the urgency of decontamination. Risk perception is best predicted by trust in the risk management. Additionally, need for decontamination relates to hazard perception, risk perception, estimated knowledge of experts, and thoughts about sustainability. In contrast to the knowledge deficit model, objective and subjective knowledge did not significantly relate to risk perception and need for decontamination. The results suggest that residents can make a distinction between hazards in terms of the seriousness of contamination on the one hand, and human health risks on the other hand. Moreover, next to the importance of social determinants of environmental risk perception, this study shows that the output of experts' risk assessments-or the objective risks-can create a hazard awareness rather than an alarming risk consciousness, despite residents' distrust of scientific knowledge.

  8. Expert ease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    Expert-ease allows the most inexperienced of computer users to build an expert system in a matter of hours. It is nothing more or less than a computer based problem-solving system. It allows the expert to preserve his or her knowledge in the form of rules, which can be applied to problems put to the system by the non-expert. The crucial piece of software at the heart of Expert-Ease extracts rules from data, and is called the analogue concept learning system. It was developed by Intelligent Terminals Ltd. and supplied to Export Software International to be incorporated into a commercially attractive package for business users. The resulting product runs on the Act Sirius and the IBM PC and compatibles. It is a well conceived and polished product with a popular appeal that should ensure widespread acceptance even at a cost of >1500 plus vat.

  9. Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Eliana; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Karmana, Maman H; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2017-01-01

    Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers' access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample of finance providers and farmers in Java Island, Indonesia. We find that the most important requirements to acquire finance vary among different finance provider types. We also find that farmers generally have little knowledge of the requirements, which are important to each type of finance provider. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase farmer knowledge of the diversity of requirements among the finance provider types.

  10. Evolution of Knowledge Management: From Expert Systems to Innovation 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Open Innovation 2.0 takes full advantage of cross-fertilisation of ideas and drives for experimentation and prototyping in real world, to speed up and increase the potential for innovation. It is a catalytic, positive approach for innovation which helps solving key European challenges by embracing change, not resisting it! We drive the Open Innovation 2.0 paradigm towards recognition and adoption in Europe, in all sectors. The Open Innovation Strategy and Policy Group (OISPG) works on increasing knowledge and ICT intense sectors to respond to highly open and competitive ecosystems needed to create new markets and ICT and knowledge based products and services. There are 5 key elements in the new innovation process: 1. Networking; 2. Collaboration involving partners, competitors, universities, and users; 3. Corporate Entrepreneurship, enhancing corporate venturing, start-ups and spin-offs; 4. Proactive Intellectual Property Management: to create markets for technology; 5. Research and Development (R and D): to achieve competitive advantages in the market

  11. Practical knowledge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Richard

    1991-01-01

    This book provides knowledge engineers with practical methods for initiating, designing, building, managing, and demonstrating successful commercial expert systems. It is a record of what actually works (and does not work) in the construction of expert systems, drawn from the author's decade of experience in building expert systems in all major areas of application for American, European, and Japanese organizations.The book features:* knowledge engineering programming techniques* useful skills for demonstrating expert systems * practical costing and metrics* guidelines for using knowledge repr

  12. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  13. Making sense. What can we learn from experts of tactile knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Groth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an embodied way of making sense through making with the hands. We examine the potential o ftactile experience in the making process and analyse what tactile experiences mean. The study takes place in the context of an era marked by audio-visual dominance.The article presents a case study that observed and interviewed deafblind makers while they worked with clay. The findings reveal that modelling in clay resembles the visualisation process of sketching. As such, it may contribute to thinking through the hands. Language is not a self-evident communication tool for transferring tactile skills. Based on our case study, we propose the use of tactile communication in the process of transferring tactile knowledge through making with another person’s hands.

  14. Eyes on the prize: reflections on the impact of the evolving digital ecology on the librarian as expert intermediary and knowledge coach, 1969-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J Michael

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 Janet Doe Lecture reflects on the continuing value and increasing return on investment of librarian-mediated services in the constantly evolving digital ecology and complex knowledge environment of the health sciences. The interrelationship of knowledge, decision making based on knowledge, technology used to access and retrieve knowledge, and the important linkage roles of expert librarian intermediaries is examined. Professional experiences from 1969 to 2009, occurring during a time of unprecedented changes in the digital ecology of librarianship, are the base on which the evolving role and value of librarians as knowledge coaches and expert intermediaries are examined. Librarian-mediated services linking knowledge and critical decision making in health care have become more valuable than ever as technology continues to reshape an increasingly complex knowledge environment.

  15. Quantifying characteristics of information-technology applications based on expert knowledge for detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A; Huirne, R B; Dijkhuizen, A A

    1998-10-09

    Expert opinions were elicited about the characteristics at the commercial-farm level of on-line information technology (IT) applications that are able to detect oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows. Since actual data of these characteristics are not available, judgmental data provided an alternative means to interpret the implications of research results for commercial farms. Applications included were activity measurement, milk-production measurement, electrical conductivity of quarter milk, automated concentrate feeders and milk-temperature measurement. Sensitivity and specificity of detection of oestrus (OD), clinical-mastitis (CMD) and subclinical-mastitis (SCMD) were ascertained. Conjoint-analysis was used to assess the effect of each application indirectly by decomposing the evaluated overall detection characteristics of a predefined number of IT combinations. The individual experts were consistent in evaluating the alternatives, but there was variation in estimates among experts. Estimations of the main effects of the applications and important first-order interactions were incorporated into the detection models. Implementation of all applications under study resulted in overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% and 90%, 73% and 87%, 58% and 82% for OD, CMD and SCMD, respectively. Further research is necessary that should take into account costs and benefits of the different detection systems based on the current status of farm performance (e.g. OD and mastitis incidence) and farm structure (e.g. farm size, years in operation of the milking parlour and parlour layout). Research to do this is currently in progress.

  16. A first-principles generic methodology for representing the knowledge base of a process diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Briggs, L.L.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for identifying faulty component candidates of process malfunctions through basic physical principles of conservation, functional classification of components and information from the process schematics. The basic principles of macroscopic balance of mass, momentum and energy in thermal hydraulic control volumes are applied in a novel approach to incorporate deep knowledge into the knowledge base. Additional deep knowledge is incorporated through the functional classification of process components according to their influence in disturbing the macroscopic balance equations. Information from the process schematics is applied to identify the faulty component candidates after the type of imbalance in the control volumes is matched against the functional classification of the components. Except for the information from the process schematics, this approach is completely general and independent of the process under consideration. The use of basic first-principles, which are physically correct, and the process-independent architecture of the diagnosis procedure allow for the verification and validation of the system. A prototype process diagnosis expert system is developed and a test problem is presented to identify faulty component candidates in the presence of a single failure in a hypothetical balance of plant of a liquid metal nuclear reactor plant

  17. Status report - expert knowledge of operators in fuel reprocessing plants, enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.; Kramer, J.; Wildberg, D.

    1987-01-01

    The necessary qualifications of the responsible personnel and the knowledge required by personnel otherwise employed in nuclear plants are among the requirements for licensing laid down in paragraph 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act. The formal regulations for nuclear power plants are not directly applicable to plants in the fuel cycle because of the differences in the technical processes and the plant and work organisation. The aim of the project was therefore to establish a possible need for regulations for the nuclear plants with respect to the qualification of the personnel, and to determine a starting point for the definition of the required qualifications. An extensive investigation was carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany into: the formal requirements for training; the plant and personnel organisation structures; the tasks carried out by the responsible and otherwise employed personnel; and the state of training. For this purpose plant owners and managers were interviewed and the literature and plant specific documentation (e.g. plant rules) were reviewed. On the basis of literature research, foreign practices were determined and used to make comparative evaluations. The status report is divided into three separate parts for the reprocessing, the uranium enrichment, and the manufacture of the fuel elements. On the basis of the situation for reprocessing plants (particularly that of the WAK) and fuel element manufacturing plants, the development of a common (not uniform) regulation for all the examined plants in the fuel cycle was recommended. The report gives concrete suggestions for the content of the regulations. (orig.) [de

  18. Added value of experts' knowledge to improve a quantitative microbial exposure assessment model--Application to aseptic-UHT food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Laure; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Magras, Catherine; Albert, Isabelle; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-10-15

    -UHT line: the experts provided the model structure and most of the model parameters values. Mean of SFR was estimated to 10×10(-8) (95% Confidence Interval=[0×10(-8); 350×10(-8)]) and 570×10(-8) (95% CI=[380×10(-8); 820×10(-8)]) for B. cereus and G. stearothermophilus, respectively. These estimations were more accurate (since the confidence interval was provided) than those given by the model with only variability (for which the estimates were 15×10(-8) and 580×10(-8) for B. cereus and G. stearothermophilus, respectively). The updated model outputs were also compared with those obtained when inputs were described by a generic distribution, without specific information related to the case-study. Results showed that using a generic distribution can lead to unrealistic estimations (e.g., 3,181,000 product units contaminated by G. stearothermophilus among 10(8) product units produced) and emphasized the added value of eliciting information from experts from the relevant specialist field knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing management packages for acid sulphate soils based on farmer and expert knowledge : field study in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Tri, Le

    1996-01-01


    Effective interaction of farmers' expertise and expert knowledge has been a special point of attention for this study. The objectives of the study were to describe the process of interaction between farmers and experts in improving the use of acid sulphate soils and to point out difficulties encountered. Actual conditions for four major areas were described including variabilities. Four representative areas: Tan Thanh, Tri Ton, Phung Hiep, and Hong Dan in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam...

  20. Effect of Prior Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge on Compression Performance by Hospital Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Burkhardt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results: Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (µ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001. Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (µ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01. No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion: Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest.

  1. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes of Health-Care Providers toward Sexuality in the Institutionalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home caretakers toward elderly sexuality, looking at certain sociodemographic and institutional factors. The more knowledge providers possessed, the more restrictive their attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Education, religiosity, position, nursing education, time in current…

  3. The Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Knowledge and Behavior to Provide Culturally Competent Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynas, Suzette Marie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…

  4. How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennøy, Aud; Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza

    2016-01-01

    regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning...... achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations......, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call for traffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge...

  5. Knowledge provides alternatives to a life of crime for urban youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-08

    Aug 8, 2016 ... Knowledge provides alternatives to a life of crime for urban youth ... related to public housing, education, and family planning also need reform. ... and civil society leaders in Mexico and Central America together to address ...

  6. Formalizing expert knowledge to compare alternative management plans: sociological perspective to the future management of Baltic salmon stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Karjalainen, Timo P.

    2010-01-01

    Designing and implementing long-term management plans is difficult both because of the complexity of the fisheries system, and the behaviour of humans. We compared four alternative management plans for the Baltic salmon stocks through approaching experts who interpreted and expressed the views of d...... net provides potential for creating a holistic picture of a fishery by combining the data describing fishers’ commitment with biological data regarding fish stock dynamics and with economic data analyzing economically sound fisheries management.......Designing and implementing long-term management plans is difficult both because of the complexity of the fisheries system, and the behaviour of humans. We compared four alternative management plans for the Baltic salmon stocks through approaching experts who interpreted and expressed the views...... of different stakeholder groups on the options. The focus of the study was on stakeholders’ commitment to the alternative management plans. Committing enhances the probability of achieving the ultimate objective of a plan, while if stakeholders do not commit, the effects of the plan may be less predictable...

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Rocky Mountain spotted fever among healthcare providers, Tennessee, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Lancaster, Mary J; Ngo, Tue H; McQuiston, Jennifer; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R

    2013-01-01

    Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ≤ 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF.

  8. Zika virus disease knowledge among the future health-care providers of the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Syed Arman; Mustafa, Farhan; Shouqair, Tasneem; Mohamad, Itaf; Tahsin, Nada

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has become a major public health concern. Although there are no reported cases of ZIKV disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is a potential risk of transmission due to large expatriate population and high influx of international travelers. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of ZIKV disease among the students of a medical and health sciences university in the UAE. Their knowledge of ZIKV disease was assessed using a specially designed, pretested, and validated questionnaire. Of the 500 respondents included in the final analysis, 314 (62.8%) respondents presented with poor knowledge of ZIKV disease. The mean knowledge score of the study population was 10.48 ± 2.48 out of a maximum of 17. Gender, college and year of study, nationality and attendance in lecture/conference/workshop on Zika were significantly associated with the level of knowledge. The males possessed significantly ( P = 0.046) better knowledge as compared to the females. Students of medical college had significantly ( P = 0.005) better knowledge as compared to students of other colleges. The level of knowledge improved significantly ( P = 0.026) as the year of study progressed. There is a need for medical and paramedical students to update their knowledge of ZIKV disease as they are the future health-care providers who will be responsible for creating awareness about such outbreaks and their preventive measures.

  9. Zika virus disease knowledge among the future health-care providers of the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Arman Rabbani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV disease has become a major public health concern. Although there are no reported cases of ZIKV disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, there is a potential risk of transmission due to large expatriate population and high influx of international travelers. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of ZIKV disease among the students of a medical and health sciences university in the UAE. Their knowledge of ZIKV disease was assessed using a specially designed, pretested, and validated questionnaire. Of the 500 respondents included in the final analysis, 314 (62.8% respondents presented with poor knowledge of ZIKV disease. The mean knowledge score of the study population was 10.48 ± 2.48 out of a maximum of 17. Gender, college and year of study, nationality and attendance in lecture/conference/workshop on Zika were significantly associated with the level of knowledge. The males possessed significantly (P = 0.046 better knowledge as compared to the females. Students of medical college had significantly (P = 0.005 better knowledge as compared to students of other colleges. The level of knowledge improved significantly (P = 0.026 as the year of study progressed. There is a need for medical and paramedical students to update their knowledge of ZIKV disease as they are the future health-care providers who will be responsible for creating awareness about such outbreaks and their preventive measures.

  10. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredouille, Corinne; Pouchoulin, Gilles; Ghio, Alain; Revis, Joana; Bonastre, Jean-François; Giovanni, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists). The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices), rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0-3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  11. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Fredouille

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists. The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices, rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0–3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  12. Community Pharmacist-Provided Osteoporosis Screening and Education: Impact on Patient Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Brookhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact pharmacist-provided screening and education had on patient knowledge of osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted at 16 locations of a national supermarket chain pharmacy in the Richmond, Virginia area. Women 30 years and older with no history of osteoporosis were enrolled in the study. Patients self-selected into the study by agreeing to the bone density screening, pharmacist-provided education, and completion of a knowledge survey. Subjects were randomized to complete the osteoporosis-related knowledge survey either before (Group A or after (Group B the screening and education session. The survey was developed after guideline and literature evaluation and was pretested with a group of patients for content and clarity. The survey evaluated knowledge of osteoporosis, risk factors for the disease, appropriate age for testing, and preventive strategies. Groups A and B were compared using t-tests. Results: A total of 110 women were enrolled in the study. The mean (±SD age was 52.5 ± 13.1 years in Group A (n=52 and 52.7 ± 11.5 years in Group B (n=58. Knowledge scores were higher in the group who received pharmacist-provided education prior to completing the survey in each category (knowledge of the disease, risk factors, preventive strategies, and appropriate age for testing and overall (p<0.001. Conclusions: Community pharmacist-provided osteoporosis screening and education increased patient knowledge about osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Community pharmacist involvement with increasing patient knowledge may empower patients to engage in prevention strategies to improve bone mass.   Type: Original Research

  13. Governing by Testing: Circulation, Psychometric Knowledge, Experts and the "Alliance for Progress" in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the activities, members, and effects of an inter-American expert network for the diffusion of psychometric knowledge, specifically of standardized aptitude testing for university admission in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s. Within the framework of educational transfer studies, the role of international,…

  14. Medical Expert Systems Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; There is an increased interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert systems are a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology ...

  15. Research network involving retired experts as a means to keep alive relevant knowledge - The case of IPEN in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, A.C.O.; Imakuma, K.; Reis, J.S.B. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: On one hand, by appraising the drivers that influence energy policies worldwide, one come to the conclusion that the prospects for a revival nuclear power deployment have never been so clearly designed. On the other hand, looking to what has been the situation over the last twenty years, it is evident that, should the revival come to strength in the next five to ten years, one will run into knowledge shortage problems of many kinds. This feeling, which is the tip of an iceberg, has been constantly alerted by almost everyone studying the scenario and these concerns, thanks to the proactive and catalytic role of the IAEA, gave rise to the growing field of nuclear knowledge management - NKM. Despite the repeated recommendations of IAEA, the Brazilian nuclear area as a whole is not making coordinated efforts in this concern. Reasons are many, but probably the root cause resides in the fact that the country does not have a nuclear program or a clear policy concerning the role of nuclear in the Brazilian electricity generation matrix. There are, however, some isolated initiatives in some institutions concerning mapping, diagnostic and preservation of critical nuclear knowledge. This work has studied a social network - SN that has emerged naturally and that is helping to transfer and keep alive the knowledge of retired experts at IPEN. Enabling and driving factors that have strongly contributed to the network formation and its sustainability can be summarized as: 1) The fact that Human resources of IPEN belong to a special career of science and technology for which to have master and doctor degrees represent significant salary increases. 2) The location of IPEN, sited in the campus of the country's leading university, Sao Paulo University - USP and the special institutional arrangement under which it functions as the nuclear technology unit of this university. Researchers of IPEN, with doctor degree and teaching abilities, can become also professors of graduate

  16. A first aid training course for primary health care providers in Nagorno Karabagh: assessing knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael E; Harutyunyan, Tsovinar L; Dorian, Alina H

    2012-12-01

    Conflict in the South Caucasus' Nagorno Karabagh region has damaged health facilities and disrupted the delivery of services and supplies as well as led to depletion of human and fixed capital and weakened the de facto government's ability to provide training for health care providers. In response to documented medical training deficits, the American University of Armenia organized a first aid training course (FATC) for primary health care providers within the scope of the USAID-funded Humanitarian Assistance Project in Nagorno Karabagh. This paper reports the follow-up assessments conducted to inform policy makers regarding FATC knowledge and skill retention and the potential need for periodic refresher training. Follow-up assessments were conducted six months and 18 months following the FATC to assess the retention of knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices. Eighty-four providers participated in the first follow-up and 210 in the second. The assessment tool contained items addressing the use and quality of the first aid skills, trainee's evaluation of the course, and randomly selected test questions to assess knowledge retention. At both follow-up points, the participants' assessment of the course was positive. More than 85% of the trainees self-assessed their skills as "excellent" or "good" and noted that skills were frequently practiced. Scores of approximately 58% on knowledge tests at both the first and second follow-ups indicated no knowledge decay between the first and second survey waves, but substantial decline from the immediate post-test assessment in the classroom. The trainees assessed the FATC as effective, and the skills covered as important and well utilized. Knowledge retention was modest, but stable. Refresher courses are necessary to reverse the decay of technical knowledge and to ensure proper application in the field.

  17. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    help of forestry data, the wind regime data and the topographic features of the mountain area (elevation, slope declivity, slope aspect). The analysis also consider the insolation degree of mountain slopes, that creates favourable conditions for fire propagation between different canopies. These data layers are integrated within a simple GIS analysis in order to intersect the ignition zones with the fire propagation zones in order to obtain the potential areas to be affected by fire. The digital map show three levels of forest fire susceptibility, differenced on the basis of expert knowledge. The map can be validated from the statistical point of view with the polygons of the forest fire affected areas mapped from Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI satellite imagery. The mapping results could be integrated within the forest management strategies and especially within the forest cadastre and development maps (updated every ten years). The result can confirm that the data gap in terms of forest fire events can be filled with expert knowledge. References Chuvieco, E, Aguado, I., Jurdao, S., Pettinari, M., Yebra, M., Salas, J., Hantson, S., de la Riva, J., Ibarra, P., Rodrigues, M., Echeverria, M., Azqueta, D., Roman, M., Bastarrika, A., Martinez, S., Recondo, C., Zapico, E., Martinez-Vega F.J. (2012) Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment, International Journal of Wildland Fire, 2,2, 69-86. Hantson, S., Padilla, M., Corti., D, Chuvieco, E. (2013) Strenghts and weaknesses of MODIS hotspots to characterize Global fire occurence, Remote Sensing of Environment, 131, 1, 152-159. Mihai, B., Savulescu, I.,Sandric, I. (2007) Change detection analysis (1986/2002) for the alpine, subalpine and forest landscape in Iezer Mountains (Southern Carpathians, Romania), Mountain Research and Development, 27, 250-258.

  18. Survey of primary care providers' knowledge of screening for, diagnosing and managing prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Eva; Greer, Raquel C; O'Rourke, Paul; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; McGuire, Maura M; Clark, Jeanne M; Maruthur, Nisa M

    2017-11-01

    Prediabetes affects 86 million US adults, but primary care providers' (PCPs') knowledge, practices, attitudes and beliefs toward prediabetes are unclear. Assess PCPs' (1) knowledge of risk factors that should prompt prediabetes screening, laboratory criteria for diagnosing prediabetes and guidelines for management of prediabetes; (2) management practices around prediabetes; (3) attitudes and beliefs about prediabetes. Self-administered written survey of PCPs. One hundred forty of 155 PCPs (90%) attending an annual provider retreat for academically affiliated multispecialty practices in the mid-Atlantic region. Descriptive analyses of survey questions on knowledge, management, and attitudes and beliefs related to prediabetes. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between provider characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, years since training, specialty and provider type) and knowledge, management, and attitudes and beliefs about prediabetes. Six percent of PCPs correctly identified all of the risk factors that should prompt prediabetes screening. Only 17% of PCPs correctly identified the laboratory parameters for diagnosing prediabetes based on both fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c. Nearly 90% of PCPs reported close follow-up (within 6 months) of patients with prediabetes. Few PCPs (11%) selected referral to a behavioral weight loss program as the recommended initial management approach to prediabetes. PCPs agreed that patient-related factors are important barriers to lifestyle change and metformin use. Provider characteristics were generally not associated with knowledge, management, attitudes and beliefs about prediabetes in multivariate analyses. Addressing gaps in knowledge and the underutilization of behavioral weight loss programs in prediabetes are two essential areas where PCPs could take a lead in curbing the diabetes epidemic.

  19. Health care providers' knowledge of, attitudes toward and provision of emergency contraceptives in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, Olufunke Margaret; Ebuehi, Osaretin A T; Inem, Victor

    2006-06-01

    Emergency contraception can play an important role in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancies in Nigeria. Although it is included in the national family planning guidelines, there is limited awareness of this method among clients. In 2003-2004, a sample of 256 health care providers within Lagos State were surveyed about their knowledge of, attitudes toward and provision of emergency contraceptives, using a 25-item, self-administered questionnaire. Frequencies were calculated for the various measures, and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences. Nine in 10 providers had heard of emergency contraception, but many lacked specific knowledge about the method. Only half of them knew the correct time frame for effective use of emergency contraceptive pills, and three-fourths knew that the pills prevent pregnancy; more than a third incorrectly believed that they may act as an abortifacient. Fewer than a third of respondents who had heard of the pills knew that they are legal in Nigeria. Of those who had heard about emergency contraception, 58% had provided clients with emergency contraceptive pills, yet only 10% of these providers could correctly identify the drug, dose and timing of the first pill in the regimen. Furthermore, fewer than one in 10 of those who knew of emergency contraception said they always provided information to clients, whereas a fourth said they never did so. Nigerian health care providers urgently need education about emergency contraception; training programs should target the types of providers who are less knowledgeable about the method.

  20. A distributed agent architecture for real-time knowledge-based systems: Real-time expert systems project, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    We propose a distributed agent architecture (DAA) that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and artificial intelligence. DAA consists of distributed agents that are classified into two categories: reactive and cognitive. Reactive agents can be implemented directly in Ada to meet hard real-time requirements and be deployed on on-board embedded processors. A traditional real-time computing methodology under consideration is the rate monotonic theory that can guarantee schedulability based on analytical methods. AI techniques under consideration for reactive agents are approximate or anytime reasoning that can be implemented using Bayesian belief networks as in Guardian. Cognitive agents are traditional expert systems that can be implemented in ART-Ada to meet soft real-time requirements. During the initial design of cognitive agents, it is critical to consider the migration path that would allow initial deployment on ground-based workstations with eventual deployment on on-board processors. ART-Ada technology enables this migration while Lisp-based technologies make it difficult if not impossible. In addition to reactive and cognitive agents, a meta-level agent would be needed to coordinate multiple agents and to provide meta-level control.

  1. Oncology healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors regarding LGBT health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Gina; Sanchez, Julian A; Lancaster, Johnathan M; Wilson, Lauren E; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Schabath, Matthew B

    2016-10-01

    There are limited data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) healthcare experiences and interactions with the providers. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of oncology providers regarding LGBT health. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. 108 providers participated in the survey (28% response rate). LGBT cultural competency at the institution. Results from the open comments section identified multiple misconceptions. This study revealed knowledge gaps about LGBT health risks. Cultural competency training may aid oncology providers to understand the need to inquire about patients' gender identity and sexual orientation. Health care providers who incorporate the routine collection of gender identity and sexual orientation (SOGI) in their patient history taking may improve patient care by offering tailored education and referrals. While identifying as LGBT does not in itself increase risk for adverse health outcomes, this population tends to have increased risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge of Critical Care Provider on Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Chiki Sherpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in ventilated patient. Prevention of VAP in critically ill patient is significant concern for health care team in intensive care units (ICUs. Knowledge on prevention of VAP would have a significant impact on patient outcome. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge on prevention of VAP in critical care providers and to find the association between knowledge on prevention of VAP and educational qualification and years of experience in ICUs. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in 5 different ICUs of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, and using descriptive study design. Material and Methods: The study involved a purposive sample of 138 critical care providers. Critical care providers who were willing to participate in the study were included. Tools on demographic proforma and self-administered structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of VAP were developed and content validity was established. The reliability of the tools was established.The data was categorized and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The SPSS 16.0 version was used for the analysis of the study. Result: Majority 89.1% of the participant were 20-29 years, 63% unmarried 51.4% had completed diploma course and majority 81.2% were from nursing discipline. The study revealed that only 55.80% of subjects were having adequate knowledge on prevention of VAP based on median score. There was no significant association between knowledge score and educational qualification (÷²=0, p=0.833, years of experience in ICU (÷²= 2.221, p=0.329.

  3. U.S. healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions concerning Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Mann S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the Doc

  4. Searching for rare diseases in PubMed: a blind comparison of Orphanet expert query and query based on terminological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, N; Schuers, M; Dhombres, F; Merabti, T; Kerdelhué, G; Rollin, L; Darmoni, S J

    2016-08-02

    Despite international initiatives like Orphanet, it remains difficult to find up-to-date information about rare diseases. The aim of this study is to propose an exhaustive set of queries for PubMed based on terminological knowledge and to evaluate it versus the queries based on expertise provided by the most frequently used resource in Europe: Orphanet. Four rare disease terminologies (MeSH, OMIM, HPO and HRDO) were manually mapped to each other permitting the automatic creation of expended terminological queries for rare diseases. For 30 rare diseases, 30 citations retrieved by Orphanet expert query and/or query based on terminological knowledge were assessed for relevance by two independent reviewers unaware of the query's origin. An adjudication procedure was used to resolve any discrepancy. Precision, relative recall and F-measure were all computed. For each Orphanet rare disease (n = 8982), there was a corresponding terminological query, in contrast with only 2284 queries provided by Orphanet. Only 553 citations were evaluated due to queries with 0 or only a few hits. There were no significant differences between the Orpha query and terminological query in terms of precision, respectively 0.61 vs 0.52 (p = 0.13). Nevertheless, terminological queries retrieved more citations more often than Orpha queries (0.57 vs. 0.33; p = 0.01). Interestingly, Orpha queries seemed to retrieve older citations than terminological queries (p < 0.0001). The terminological queries proposed in this study are now currently available for all rare diseases. They may be a useful tool for both precision or recall oriented literature search.

  5. BWR recirculation pump diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, S.C.; Morimoto, C.N.; Torres, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    At General Electric (GE), an on-line expert system to support maintenance decisions for BWR recirculation pumps for nuclear power plants has been developed. This diagnostic expert system is an interactive on-line system that furnishes diagnostic information concerning BWR recirculation pump operational problems. It effectively provides the recirculation pump diagnostic expertise in the plant control room continuously 24 hours a day. The expert system is interfaced to an on-line monitoring system, which uses existing plant sensors to acquire non-safety related data in real time. The expert system correlates and evaluates process data and vibration data by applying expert rules to determine the condition of a BWR recirculation pump system by applying knowledge based rules. Any diagnosis will be automatically displayed, indicating which pump may have a problem, the category of the problem, and the degree of concern expressed by the validity index and color hierarchy. The rules incorporate the expert knowledge from various technical sources such as plant experience, engineering principles, and published reports. These rules are installed in IF-THEN formats and the resulting truth values are also expressed in fuzzy terms and a certainty factor called a validity index. This GE Recirculation Pump Expert System uses industry-standard software, hardware, and network access to provide flexible interfaces with other possible data acquisition systems. Gensym G2 Real-Time Expert System is used for the expert shell and provides the graphical user interface, knowledge base, and inference engine capabilities. (author)

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of travelers' diarrhea management among frontline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Aatif M; Tribble, David R; Sanders, John W; Faix, Dennis J; Shiau, Danny; Armstrong, Adam W; Riddle, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found acute gastrointestinal infections to be among the most likely reason for clinic visits among forward deployed soldiers and are considered a significant contributor to morbidity in this population. This occurs despite the controlled food and water distribution systems under which military populations operate. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that providers often fail to appropriately identify and treat the typical causes of these infections. To adequately address this issue, an assessment of gaps in knowledge, practice, and management of acute diarrhea in deployed troops was conducted. A multiple-choice survey was developed by clinical researchers with expertise in travelers' diarrhea (TD) and provided to a convenience sample of clinical providers with a broad range of training and operational experience. The survey evaluated provider's knowledge of TD along with their ability to identify etiologies of various syndromic categories of acute gastrointestinal infections. Providers were also queried on selection of treatment approaches to a variety of clinical-based scenarios. A total of 117 respondents completed the survey. Most were aware of the standard definition of TD (77%); however, their knowledge about the epidemiology was lower, with less than 24% correctly answering questions on etiology of diarrhea, and 31% believing that a viral pathogen was the primary cause of watery diarrhea during deployment. Evaluation of scenario-based responses showed that 64% of providers chose not to use antibiotics to treat moderate TD. Furthermore, 19% of providers felt that severe inflammatory diarrhea was best treated with hydration only while 25% felt hydration was the therapy of choice for dysentery. Across all provider types, three practitioner characteristics appeared to be related to better scores on responses to the nine management scenarios: having a Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathy degree, greater knowledge of TD epidemiology

  7. Effect of Providing Information on Students' Knowledge and Concerns about Hydraulic Fracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students' knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web.

  8. EFFECT OF PROVIDING INFORMATION ON STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND CONCERNS ABOUT HYDRAULIC FRACKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students’ knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web. PMID:25965194

  9. HYBRID APPROACHES TO THE FORMALISATION OF EXPERT KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING TEMPORAL REGULARITIES IN THE TIME SERIES GROUP OF A SYSTEM MONITORING DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Staricov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The presented research problem concerns data regularities for an unspecified time series based on an approach to the expert formalisation of knowledge integrated into a decision-making mechanism. Method. A context-free grammar, consisting of a modification of universal temporal grammar, is used to describe regularities. Using the rules of the developed grammar, an expert can describe patterns in the group of time series. A multi-dimensional matrix pattern of the behaviour of a group of time series is used in a real-time decision-making regime in the expert system to implements a universal approach to the description of the dynamics of these changes in the expert system. The multidimensional matrix pattern is specifically intended for decision-making in an expert system; the modified temporal grammar is used to identify patterns in the data. Results. It is proposed to use the temporal relations of the series and fix observation values in the time interval as ―From-To‖, ―Before‖, ―After‖, ―Simultaneously‖ and ―Duration‖. A syntactically oriented converter of descriptions is developed. A schema for the creation and application of matrix patterns in expert systems is drawn up. Conclusion. The advantage of the implementation of the proposed hybrid approaches consists in a reduction of the time taken for identifying temporal patterns and an automation of the matrix pattern of the decision-making system based on expert descriptions verified using live data derived from relationships in the monitoring data. 

  10. A Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation (KT) in Pediatric Pain: Focus on Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Hampton, Amy J D; Stinson, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Pain is inadequately managed in pediatric populations across health care settings. Although training programs to improve health care provider knowledge and skills have been developed and evaluated, clinical practices have not always kept pace with advancing knowledge. Consequently, the goal of this review was to systematically examine the pediatric pain literature of knowledge translation (KT) programs targeting health care providers. Systematic searches of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were undertaken. KT initiatives directed toward health care providers and in which the primary focus was on pediatric pain were included. Primary outcomes, intervention characteristics, and risk of bias were examined across studies. Study outcomes were conceptually organized and a narrative synthesis of results was conducted. A total of 15,191 abstracts were screened for inclusion with 98 articles retained on the basis of predetermined criteria. Across studies, KT approaches varied widely in format and focus. Knowledge-level changes and self-reported increases in comfort or confidence in skills/knowledge were consistently achieved. Practice-level changes were achieved in many areas with varying success. Design and reporting issues were identified in the majority of studies. Examination of patient-related outcomes and of the long-term impact of pediatric pain KT programs was limited across studies. KT programs vary in quality and impact. Although several successful programs have been developed, many studies include a high risk of bias due to study quality. Evidence-based KT program implementation and a focus on sustainability of outcomes must be given greater consideration in the field of pediatric pain.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and environment: what primary care providers say about pre-school vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Tootle, Wendy L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Frazier, Marcela G; Crenshaw, Katie; Wall, Terry C

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and environment of primary care providers, and to develop a conceptual framework showing their impact on self-reported pre-school vision screening (PVS) behaviors. Eligible primary care providers were individuals who filed claims with Medicaid agencies in Alabama, South Carolina, or Illinois, for at least eight well child checks for children aged 3 or 4 years during 1 year. Responses were obtained on-line from providers who enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized trial to improve PVS. We calculated a summary score per provider per facet: (1) for behavior and knowledge, each correct answer was assigned a value of +1; and (2) for attitudes and environment, responses indicating support for PVS were assigned a value of +1, and other responses were assigned -1. Responses were available from 53 participants (43 of 49 enrolled pediatricians, 8 of 14 enrolled family physicians, one general physician, and one nurse practitioner). Recognizing that amblyopia often presents without outward signs was positively related to good PVS: [odds ratio (OR) = 3.9; p = 0.06]. Reporting that "preschool VS interrupts patient flow" posed a significant barrier (OR = 0.2; p = 0.05). Providers with high summed scores on attitudes (OR = 6.0; p = 0.03), or knowledge and attitudes (OR = 11.4; p attitudes or environment, and "good" PVS behavior (p = 0.04). PVS is influenced by positive attitudes, especially when combined with knowledge about amblyopia. Interventions to improve PVS should target multiple facets, emphasizing (1) asymptomatic children are at risk for amblyopia, (2) specific evidence-based tests have high testability and sensitivity for amblyopia in pre-school children, and (3) new tests minimize interruptions to patient flow.

  12. Aspects of the role of scientific-technical expert knowledge in administrative court procedures on licensing of large technical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of atomic energy law, the author explains some specific problems associated with the respective roles of experts (or expert bodies) and courts of law. In legal theory, it is comparatively easy to draw the line between the two functions, but in practice this delimination meets with difficulties. Finally, the author proposes to improve the definitions of the respective functions of experts (expert bodies) and courts of law in procedures dealing with permits of large technical facilities as follows: A highly qualified, independent body of experts in a technically representative composition lays down, in a binding way, the main elements of the safety standard of a specific plant or type of plant. The responsible administrative authority, after having examined all other legal conditions, grants the permit for that plant. There are no objections to such a model in the light either of aspects of constitutional law or of legal policy or constitutional policy, not are there any practical reasons against this approach. The only doubtful aspect is the present political feasibility. (orig.) [de

  13. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices among providers in a medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Kinga A; Miracle, Donna J; Rosenman, Marc B

    2009-03-01

    Breastfeeding offers numerous health advantages to children, mothers, and society. From obstetrics to pediatrics, breastfeeding dyads come in contact with a wide range of healthcare providers. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) calls for pediatricians to support breastfeeding enthusiastically and for all children to have a medical home. We studied an inner-city healthcare system with a Dyson Community Pediatrics Training Initiative Model Medical Home clinic, to explore how a breastfeeding/baby-friendly medical home might be built upon this framework. We describe breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices among a full range of providers and healthcare system-level barriers to effective and coordinated breastfeeding services. We conducted eight focus groups using semistructured interviews: (1) pediatricians; (2) obstetricians; (3) pediatric nurses and allied health professionals; (4) obstetric nurses and allied health professionals; (5) 24-hour telephone triage answering service nurses; (6) public health nurses; (7) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) personnel; and (8) lactation consultants and peer counselors. We identified gaps in providers' breastfeeding knowledge, counseling skills, and professional education and training. Providers' cultures and attitudes affect breastfeeding promotion and support. Providers used their own breastfeeding experiences to replace evidence-based knowledge and AAP policy statement recommendations for breastfeeding dyads. There were communication disconnects between provider groups. Providers underestimated their own, and overestimated others', influence on breastfeeding. The system lacked a coordinated breastfeeding mission. This study illuminated key disconnectedness challenges (and, hence, opportunities) for a model medical home in fostering continuous, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally effective, and evidence-based breastfeeding promotion and support.

  14. EFFECT OF PROVIDING INFORMATION ON STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND CONCERNS ABOUT HYDRAULIC FRACKING

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the...

  15. Knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to people with neoplastic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Ferreira Gomes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to patients with neoplastic wound. Method: This is an exploratory research of a qualitative nature, which was attended by 15 students of the Bachelor's Degree in Nursing from the Center of Education and Health of the Federal University of Campina Grande, campus Cuité - PB, in the period from October to November 2015. For data collection, we used a form for an interview. The data were analyzed through the Technique of Thematic Analysis of Minayo. Results: From the analysis of the empirical material emerged the following thematic categories: Category 1 - Defining neoplastic wounds; Category 2 - Knowledge incipient on ‘neoplastic wounds’ for academic and professional practice; Category 3 - Envisioning the theme "neoplastic wound" in the Academy; Category 4 - Knowledge about methods of evaluation of neoplastic wounds and Category 5 - Knowledge of therapeutic modalities of neoplastic wounds. Conclusions: The academics know the evaluative method of a patient with neoplastic wound as integralizadora unit of care process; recognize palliative care as the best therapeutic modality for these customers, especially when they are in completion and indicate the products contraindicated in the treatment of these lesions; however, do not mention the covers and recommended substances for the control of the signs and symptoms of these injuries. In this context, it is believed that the creation of academic projects of extension, with the aim of creating opportunities for integration between theory and practice, is one of the ways to improve the knowledge.   Keywords: Knowledge; Students of Nursing; Skin Neoplasms.

  16. Current Knowledge and Practice of Pediatric Providers in Umbilical Cord Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Amy E; Fonstad, Rachel; Spellman, Stephen; Tullius, Zoe; Chaudhury, Sonali

    2018-02-01

    More than 35 000 umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplants have been performed worldwide, prompting the development of private and public banks to collect and store UCB cells. We hypothesized that pediatricians, who are uniquely poised to discuss UCB banking (UCBB) during prenatal or sibling visits, rarely do so. Through distribution of a 26-question electronic survey to general and subspecialty pediatric providers, we assessed baseline knowledge and conversations about UCBB. A total of 473 providers completed the survey; only 22% of physicians ever discussed UCBB with expectant parents. The majority responded that autologous UCB transplants were indicated in malignant (73%) and nonmalignant (61%) conditions; however, these are rare indications. Providers practicing >10 years were more likely to address UCBB ( P ≤ .001), whereas younger and female general pediatric providers were significantly less likely ( P < .001). Overall, pediatric providers rarely speak to families about UCBB, and we believe that they can be better informed to its current clinical utility.

  17. Medical Providers' Oral Health Knowledgeability, Attitudes, and Practice Behaviors: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Neel; Schroeder, Dixie; Kilsdonk, Joseph; Chyou, Po-Huang; Glurich, Ingrid; Penniman, Eric; Acharya, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of current knowledgeability, attitudes, and practice behaviors of medical providers from a large health care system toward oral health was undertaken as a pilot effort to better understand and integrate oral health into the overall health care delivery. Invitations to complete a 28-question survey, designed in a web-based platform (SurveyMonkey(®)), were emailed to 1407 medical multispecialty physicians, residents, and nurses within the health system. The questionnaire included sections on provider demographics, oral health knowledgeability and attitudes, and current practice conducting oral health screenings. A 14% (n = 199/1407) response rate was achieved for survey completion. There were 16% who reported good coverage of oral/dental health topics in their medical training curriculum. Competency level was practice, while >80% answered knowledge-based questions correctly. Frequency rates for dental referral by the medical providers were 32% 'frequently' and 68% 'infrequently.' Perceptions of optimal frequency for conducting oral health assessment in their professional practices ranged from 69% indicating 'frequently' to 25% indicating 'infrequently.' Overall, positive attitudes were observed toward incorporation of oral health examination into medical practice. The study identified lack of oral health treatment and infrequent referral by medical providers to dental providers. Results support likelihood for acceptance of care models that incorporate a medical/dental team-based approach complemented by oral health training for medical providers to enhance holistic health care delivery. Limitations of this pilot study include potential selection bias and lack of generalizability beyond our institution; further studies are planned in additional settings statewide to validate findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Capturing information needs of care providers to support knowledge sharing and distributed decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M; Zach, L; An, Y; Dalrymple, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on work carried out to elicit information needs at a trans-disciplinary, nurse-managed health care clinic that serves a medically disadvantaged urban population. The trans-disciplinary model provides a "one-stop shop" for patients who can receive a wide range of services beyond traditional primary care. However, this model of health care presents knowledge sharing challenges because little is known about how data collected from the non-traditional services can be integrated into the traditional electronic medical record (EMR) and shared with other care providers. There is also little known about how health information technology (HIT) can be used to support the workflow in such a practice. The objective of this case study was to identify the information needs of care providers in order to inform the design of HIT to support knowledge sharing and distributed decision making. A participatory design approach is presented as a successful technique to specify requirements for HIT applications that can support a trans-disciplinary model of care. Using this design approach, the researchers identified the information needs of care providers working at the clinic and suggested HIT improvements to integrate non-traditional information into the EMR. These modifications allow knowledge sharing among care providers and support better health decisions. We have identified information needs of care providers as they are relevant to the design of health information systems. As new technology is designed and integrated into various workflows it is clear that understanding information needs is crucial to acceptance of that technology.

  19. [Utilization of tacit knowledge by maternal healthcare providers: a systematic mapping of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Espinosa, Emmanuel; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline; García Bello, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The search for efficient answers to strengthen maternal health care has included various sources of evidence for decision making. In this article, we present a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on the use of tacit knowledge in relation to maternal healthcare. A systematic mapping was conducted of scientific articles published in Spanish and English between 1971 and 2014 following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Of 793 articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria; 60% were from high-income countries and 66.7% were focused on health professionals. We identified a predominance of qualitative methodologies (62%). Four categories regarding the use of tacit knowledge were generated: proposals to improve the organization of the maternal care system (30%) and to improve the care provided to women during the continuum of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (26.7%), determination of health workers' perception and skill levels (26.7%) and the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge in clinical decision making (16.7%). This mapping shows that tacit knowledge is an emerging, innovative and versatile research approach used primarily in high-income countries and that includes interesting possibilities for its use as evidence to improve maternal healthcare, particularly in middle- and low-income countries, where it needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The effectiveness of ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses for the retention of ALS knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henrik; Strunk, Guido; Neuhold, Stephanie; Kiblböck, Daniel; Trimmel, Helmut; Baubin, Michael; Domanovits, Hans; Maurer, Claudia; Greif, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Out-of-hospital emergency physicians in Austria need mandatory emergency physician training, followed by biennial refresher courses. Currently, both standardized ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses and conventional refresher courses are offered. This study aimed to compare the retention of ALS-knowledge of out-of-hospital emergency physicians depending on whether they had or had not participated in an ERC-ALS provider course since 2005. Participants (n=807) from 19 refresher courses for out-of-hospital emergency physicians answered eight multiple-choice questions (MCQ) about ALS based on the 2005 ERC guidelines. The pass score was 75% correct answers. A multivariate logistic regression analyzed differences in passing scores between those who had previously participated in an ERC-ALS provider course and those who had not. Age, gender, regularity of working as an out-of-hospital emergency physician and the self-reported number of real resuscitation efforts within the last 6months were entered as control variables. Out-of-hospital emergency physicians who had previously attended an ERC-ALS provider course had a significantly higher chance of passing the MCQ test (OR=1.60, p=0.015). Younger age (OR=0.95, pERC-ALS provider course since 2005 had a higher retention of ALS knowledge compared to non-ERC-ALS course participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expert systems in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud-Salis, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The first expert systems prototypes intended for advising physicians on diagnosis or therapy selection have been designed more than ten years ago. However, a few of them are already in use in clinical practice after years of research and development efforts. The capabilities of these systems to reason symbolically and to mimic the hypothetico-deductive processes used by physicians distinguishes them from conventional computer programs. Their power comes from their knowledge-base which embeds a large quantity of high-level, specialized knowledge captured from medical experts. Common methods for knowledge representation include production rules and frames. These methods also provide a mean for organizing and structuring the knowledge according to hierarchical or causal links. The best expert-systems perform at the level of the experts. They are easy to learn and use, and can communicate with the user in pseudo-natural language. Moreover they are able to explain their line of reasoning. These capabilities make them potentially useful, usable and acceptable by physicians. However if the problems related to difficulties and costs in building expert-systems are on the way to be solved within the next few years, forensic and ethical issues should have to be addressed before one can envisage their routine use in clinical practice [fr

  2. Health care provider knowledge and routine management of pre-eclampsia in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sana; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Salam, Rehana; Vidler, Marianne; Sawchuck, Diane; von Dadelszen, Peter; Zaidi, Shujat; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2016-09-30

    Maternal mortality ratio is 276 per 100,000 live births in Pakistan. Eclampsia is responsible for one in every ten maternal deaths despite the fact that management of this disease is inexpensive and has been available for decades. Many studies have shown that health care providers in low and middle-income countries have limited training to manage patients with eclampsia. Hence, we aimed to explore the knowledge of different cadres of health care providers regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and current management practices. We conducted a mixed method study in the districts of Hyderabad and Matiari in Sindh province, Pakistan. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community health care providers, which included Lady Health Workers and their supervisors; traditional birth attendants and facility care providers. In total seven focus groups and 26 interviews were conducted. NVivo 10 was used for analysis and emerging themes and sub-themes were drawn. All participants were providing care for pregnant women for more than a decade except one traditional birth attendant and two doctors. The most common cause of pre-eclampsia mentioned by community health care providers was stress of daily life: the burden of care giving, physical workload, short birth spacing and financial constraints. All health care provider groups except traditional birth attendants correctly identified the signs, symptoms, and complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and were referring such women to tertiary health facilities. Only doctors were aware that magnesium sulphate is recommended for eclampsia management and prevention; however, they expressed fears regarding its use at first and secondary level health facilities. This study found several gaps in knowledge regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia among health care providers in Sindh. Findings suggest that lesser knowledge regarding management of pre

  3. Effects of Provided Trainings Regarding Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation on the Knowledge Level of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonay Göktaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Having experienced members in the team for obtaining successful outcomes in non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV is important. The aim of our study is to determine the effectiveness of training on nurse’s level of knowledge about NIMV Methods: This study was done with 70 nurses who were working at an university hospital. The data collection tools that were used were form for individual characteristics and knowledge test questions form consisting of multiple-choice for NIMV. Firstly, Pre-tests have been collected in the survey. Secondly, courses regarding NIMV indications, contraindications and patients management topics were given verbally by researchers. Finally, final tests were performed and data were collected. Analyzing for data were used frequency, percentage, wilcoxon and dependent samples Mc Nemar tests. Results: Mean age were 33.2±7.3, 87.1% were female, 68.6% had bachelor degrees. Of 47.1% were working in intensive care. 54.3% often provide care to NIMV applied patients. 94.7% mentioned that they don’t have any knowledge of NIMV applications. The differences between the pre-post training scores were higher statistically (p<0.001. It was determined that knowledge levels of nurses about NIMV indications and contraindications after training increased statistically significantly. (p<0.05. Conclusion: In our research it was understood that nurses’ knowledge has increased significantly after the training for non-invasive applications. By means of these trainings that will develop the affective, cognitive and psychomotor skills of nurses, it is expected to reveal the results of the extensive research and successful outcomes for NIMV applications will increase.

  4. Primary Care Providers' Knowledge and Practices of Diabetes Management During Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mujtaba; Adams, Alexandra; Hossain, Md Anwar; Sutin, David; Han, Benjamin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    There are an estimated 3.5 million Muslims in North America. During the holy month of Ramadan, healthy adult Muslims are to fast from predawn to after sunset. While there are exemptions for older and sick adults, many adults with diabetes fast during Ramadan. However, there are risks associated with fasting and specific management considerations for patients with diabetes. We evaluated provider practices and knowledge regarding the management of patients with diabetes who fast during Ramadan. A 15-question quality improvement survey based on a literature review and the American Diabetes Association guidelines was developed and offered to providers at the outpatient primary care and geriatric clinics at an inner-city hospital in New York City. Forty-five providers completed the survey. Most respondents did not ask their Muslim patients with diabetes if they were fasting during the previous Ramadan. Knowledge of fasting practices during Ramadan was variable, and most felt uncomfortable managing patients with diabetes during Ramadan. There is room for improvement in educating providers about specific cultural and medical issues regarding fasting for patients with diabetes during Ramadan. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  6. Current knowledge attitudes, and practices of healthcare providers about leprosy in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is associated with serious morbidity and is a disease of public health concern because of the case load and the social stigma attached to the disease. Aim: To understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, leprosy amongst healthcare providers in Assam, India. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted during March to June 2007 in different health institutions of the Kamrup district of Assam. Results: Among the program managers interviewed, only half were organizing training sessions, and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Among the program managers who were involved with leprosy elimination, only half were organizing training session and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Medical officers consistently demonstrated higher knowledge about leprosy, followed by health supervisors and multipurpose workers (MPWs, including nursing staff. Regarding training status with regard to leprosy, 90% of medical officers, 80% of health supervisors and around 87% of MPWs (83% of male MPWs and 89% of female MPWs had attended training programs on leprosy. Regarding WHO MDT, 80% of health supervisors, 84.8% of male MPWs and 86.2% of female MPWs had an idea of MDT and treatment duration of various categories of patients. Conclusions: These observations suggest that there appear to be adequate knowledge and positive behavior among healthcare providers with regard to leprosy in this part of India. However, there is still a need to organize training programs at regular intervals to train new recruits, as well as reinforce and update the knowledge of those already trained.

  7. Curriculum providing cognitive knowledge and problem-solving skills for anesthesia systems-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-12-01

    Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private sector immunization service providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, José E; Gaonkar, Narayan; Doshi, Vikas; Patni, Anas; Vyas, Shailee; Mazumdar, Vihang; Kosambiya, J K; Gupta, Satish; Watkins, Margaret

    2018-01-02

    India is responsible for 30% of the annual global cohort of unvaccinated children worldwide. Private practitioners provide an estimated 21% of vaccinations in urban centers of India, and are important partners in achieving high vaccination coverage. We used an in-person questionnaire and on-site observation to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private immunization service providers regarding delivery of immunization services in the urban settings of Surat and Baroda, in Gujarat, India. We constructed a comprehensive sampling frame of all private physician providers of immunization services in Surat and Baroda cities, by consulting vaccine distributors, local branches of physician associations, and published lists of private medical practitioners. All providers were contacted and asked to participate in the study if they provided immunization services. Data were collected using an in-person structured questionnaire and directly observing practices; one provider in each practice setting was interviewed. The response rate was 82% (121/147) in Surat, and 91% (137/151) in Baroda. Of 258 participants 195 (76%) were pediatricians, and 63 (24%) were general practitioners. Practices that were potential missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) included not strictly following vaccination schedules if there were concerns about ability to pay (45% of practitioners), and not administering more than two injections in the same visit (60%). Only 22% of respondents used a vaccination register to record vaccine doses, and 31% reported vaccine doses administered to the government. Of 237 randomly selected vaccine vials, 18% had expired vaccine vial monitors. Quality of immunization services in Gujarat can be strengthened by providing training and support to private immunization service providers to reduce MOVs and improve quality and safety; other more context specific strategies that should be evaluated may involve giving feedback to providers on quality of services

  9. Exploring Ayurvedic Knowledge on Food and Health for Providing Innovative Solutions to Contemporary Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payyappallimana, Unnikrishnan; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine that originated over three millennia ago in the South Asian region, offers extensive insights about food and health based on certain unique conceptual as well as theoretical positions. Health is defined as a state of equilibrium with one’s self (svasthya) but which is inextricably linked to the environment. Ayurvedic principles, such as the tridosa (three humors) theory, provide the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm that can be applied in day-to-day practice. Classical Ayurveda texts cover an array of themes on food ranging from diversity of natural sources, their properties in relation to seasons and places and to their specific function both in physiological and pathological states. The epistemic perspective on health and nutrition in Ayurveda is very different from that of biomedicine and modern nutrition. However, contemporary knowledge is reinventing and advancing several of these concepts in an era of systems biology, personalized medicine, and the broader context of a more holistic transition in sciences in general. Trans-disciplinary research could be important not only for pushing the boundaries of food and health sciences but also for providing practical solutions for contemporary health conditions. This article briefly reviews the parallels in Ayurveda and biomedicine and draws attention to the need for a deeper engagement with traditional knowledge systems, such as Ayurveda. It points out that recreation of the methodologies that enabled the holistic view point about health in Ayurveda may unravel some of the complex connections with Nature. PMID:27066472

  10. Knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) treatment planning versus planning by experts: validation of a KBRT algorithm for prostate cancer treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwankwo, Obioma; Mekdash, Hana; Sihono, Dwi Seno Kuncoro; Wenz, Frederik; Glatting, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) treatment planning algorithm was recently developed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how plans that are generated with the objective KBRT approach compare to those that rely on the judgment of the experienced planner. Thirty volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were randomly selected from a database of prostate plans that were generated by experienced planners (expert plans). The anatomical data (CT scan and delineation of organs) of these patients and the KBRT algorithm were given to a novice with no prior treatment planning experience. The inexperienced planner used the knowledge-based algorithm to predict the dose that the OARs receive based on their proximity to the treated volume. The population-based OAR constraints were changed to the predicted doses. A KBRT plan was subsequently generated. The KBRT and expert plans were compared for the achieved target coverage and OAR sparing. The target coverages were compared using the Uniformity Index (UI), while 5 dose-volume points (D 10 , D 30, D 50 , D 70 and D 90 ) were used to compare the OARs (bladder and rectum) doses. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was used to check for significant differences (p < 0.05) between both datasets. The KBRT and expert plans achieved mean UI values of 1.10 ± 0.03 and 1.10 ± 0.04, respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed no statistically significant difference between both results. The D 90 , D 70, D 50 , D 30 and D 10 values of the two planning strategies, and the Wilcoxon test results suggests that the KBRT plans achieved a statistically significant lower bladder dose (at D 30 ), while the expert plans achieved a statistically significant lower rectal dose (at D 10 and D 30 ). The results of this study show that the KBRT treatment planning approach is a promising method to objectively incorporate patient anatomical variations in radiotherapy treatment planning

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of US practitioners who provide pre-travel advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelman, Laura; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Chen, Lin H; Quinn, Emily; Yanni, Emad; Wilson, Mary E; Benoit, Christine; Karchmer, Adolf W; Ooi, Winnie W; Jentes, Emily S; Hamer, Davidson H

    2014-01-01

    As international travel increases, many health care professionals are being asked to provide pre-travel advice. We designed an anonymous web-based survey to assess the extent to which primary care providers (PCPs) provide travel medicine advice and how their understanding and delivery of itinerary-specific advice and management compare with that of travel medicine specialists. We surveyed randomly selected US PCPs registered in the Pri-Med Institute (now pmiCME) database and US travel medicine specialists from the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM), American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) yellow fever (YF) vaccine provider mailing lists. SAS software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) was used for all analyses. Of 14,932 e-mails sent to valid e-mail addresses, 902 yielded complete or partially completed surveys (6.0% response rate). Eighty percent of respondents personally provided pre-travel advice (95% of travel medicine specialists versus 73% of PCPs). About two thirds of PCPs (68%) providing pre-travel consultations saw travelers per year whereas 30% of travel medicine specialists saw travelers per year. More travel medicine specialists (59%) than PCPs (18%) saw >500 travelers per year. Familiarity with travel-specific vaccines (YF, Japanese encephalitis) and provision of written educational materials increased as volume of travelers increased. Familiarity with antimalarial side effects and malaria resistance patterns, and knowledge scores based on brief pre-travel scenarios were higher in travel medicine specialists, ASTMH or ISTM certificate holders, and respondents who saw more pre-travel patients. Many PCP survey participants provided pre-travel advice, but most saw few travelers. Volume of travelers and holding an ASTMH or ISTM certificate had the greatest influence on knowledge of travel medicine and provision of appropriate advice and recommendations. Creating easily

  12. Knowledge and Preferences of Primary Care Providers in Delivering Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Callie; Allen, Deborah H; Tenhover, Jennifer; Zullig, Leah L; Ragsdale, John; Fischer, Jonathan E; Pollak, Kathryn I; Koontz, Bridget F

    2017-07-14

    Long-term care for head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors is complex and requires coordination among multiple providers. Clinical practice guidelines highlight the role of primary care providers (PCPs) in screening for secondary cancer/recurrence, assessment of late/long-term side effects, and referrals for appropriate specialty management of toxicity. However, these responsibilities may be difficult to meet within the scope of primary care practice. We conducted this study to explore preferences, comfort, and knowledge of PCPs in the care of HNC survivors. We piloted a 40-item web-based survey developed with oncologist and PCP input targeted for family medicine and internal medicine providers. Responses were collected within a single university health system over 2 months. PCPs (n = 28; RR = 11.3%) were interested in learning about health promotion after cancer treatment (89%) and generally agree that their current practice patterns address healthy lifestyle behaviors (82%). However, only 32% of PCPs felt confident they could manage late/long-term side effects of chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Only 29% felt confident they could provide appropriate cancer screening. Looking at shared care responsibilities with oncology providers, PCPs perceived being responsible for 30% of care in the first year after treatment and 81% of care after 5 years. Seventy-one percent of PCPs agreed that oncologists provided them necessary information, yet 32% of PCPs found it difficult to coordinate with cancer providers. While these PCPs perceive increased care responsibility for long-term survivors, most are uncomfortable screening for recurrence and managing late/long-term side effects. Education and mutual coordination between PCPs and oncology providers may improve survivor care.

  13. Expert systems: an alternative paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, M.; Alty, J.

    1984-01-01

    There has recently been a significant effort by the AI community to interest industry in the potential of expert systems. However, this has resulted in far fewer substantial applications projects than might be expected. This article argues that this is because human experts are rarely required to perform the role that computer-based experts are programmed to adopt. Instead of being called in to answer well-defined problems, they are more often asked to assist other experts to extend and refine their understanding of a problem area at the junction of their two domains of knowledge. This more properly involves educational rather than problem-solving skills. An alternative approach to expert system design is proposed based upon guided discovery learning. The user is provided with a supportive environment for a particular class of problem, the system predominantly acting as an adviser rather than directing the interaction. The environment includes a database of domain knowledge, a set of procedures for its application to a concrete problem, and an intelligent machine-based adviser to judge the user's effectiveness and advise on strategy. The procedures focus upon the use of user generated explanations both to promote the application of domain knowledge and to expose understanding difficulties. Simple database PROLOG is being used as the subject material for the prototype system which is known as MINDPAD. 30 references.

  14. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  15. Knowledge, attitude & practice on human papillomavirus vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, P Cheena; Chawla, Anil; Chaudhary, Seema

    2016-11-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem and a leading cause of death among women in India. Of all the associated risk factors, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections being the principal aetiologic agent, two HPV vaccines are in use for the control of cervical cancer. The present study was undertaken to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on HPV vaccination among the healthcare providers in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 590 healthcare professionals from 232 hospitals and 80 PHCs of nine districts of Delhi-NCR (National Capital Region). A total of 590 (526 female, 64 male) healthcare providers were surveyed. Only 47 per cent of respondents recommended young women to get vaccinated against HPV. Majority of respondents (81%) were found to be aware about the existence of vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. District-wise, highest (88.3%) awareness about the existence of vaccines against HPV was reported from Gautam Budh Nagar and lowest (64%) in Faridabad. Although 86 per cent of gynaecologists were aware about the names of HPV vaccines available in the market, only 27 per cent of paramedical staff had this knowledge. There was a significant difference between the respondents from government and private sectors regarding their awareness about HPV vaccines. Lack of awareness about the principal cause, risk factors and symptoms for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was significantly (P< 0.05) reported in the respondents from paramedical staff category. The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.

  16. Knowledge and affective traits of physiotherapy students to provide care for patients living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Y. Adetoyeje

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This  study  aimed  to  assess  Nigerian physiotherapy students’ knowledge and their affective traits in caring for patients living with AIDS (PWA.Methods: Nigerian students (N=104 in four training programs were surveyed using a 43-item questionnaire that elicited information on the  students’  demographics  characteristics,  knowledge  levels  on AIDS transmission, universal precaution and pathophysiology, their feeling  of  preparedness,  comfort,  ethical  disposition  for  PWA  and their  willingness  to  evaluate  and  provide  care  to  PWA  in  different clinical scenarios.Results: Overall  the  students  showed  unsatisfactory  know ledge  of universal  precaution  and  AIDS  pathophysiology  and  did  not  feel comfortable or prepared to care for PWA. The students did not also show  satisfactory  ethical  disposition  and  may  be  unwilling  to  care for PWA. The students’ knowledge levels on AIDS transmission and willingness were influenced by religious affiliation while feeling of comfort and ethical disposition were influenced by gender and knowing someone living with AIDS. They were more unwilling to provide whirlpool wound care procedures and chest physiotherapy compared to providing gait training, therapeutic exercise and activities of daily living training for PWA.Conclusion: The study identified the need to improve the curriculum on AIDS and recommends clinical clerkship and a methodical and sequential exposure of students to cases during clinical rotations.

  17. Herpes labialis and Nigerian dental health care providers: knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and refusal to treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Umoh, Agnes O

    2015-09-15

    The few existing studies on herpes labialis among health care workers have been predominantly among non-dental health care workers. The purpose of this study was to determine Nigerian dental health care providers' knowledge of, attitudes toward, preventive behaviors for, and refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. This cross-sectional study was conducted among final-year dental students at the University of Benin, dental house officers, and residents at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Data collection was via a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. Of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 110 were completed and returned, giving a 91.7% retrieval rate. However, 15 of the returned questionnaires were discarded because they were improperly completed, leaving a total of 95 questionnaires for final analysis in this study. The majority of participants were over 28 years old (54.7%), male (67.4%), unmarried (66.3%), and postgraduate dental health care providers (51.6%). Less than half (43.2%) of participants demonstrated adequate overall knowledge of herpes labialis. About one-tenth (10.5%) and more than three-quarters (87.4%) of participants reported a positive attitude and performance of adequate preventive behaviors, respectively. A total of 16.8% of participants reported a high tendency to refuse treatment to patients with herpes labialis. Although not statistically significant, young, unmarried, male undergraduate participants reported a greater likelihood to refuse treatment to herpes labialis patients. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between attitude and refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. However, marital status and the attitude of participants toward these patients emerged as the determinants for refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. Data from this study revealed a high level of

  18. Interprofessional Oral Health Education Improves Knowledge, Confidence, and Practice for Pediatric Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon Cooper

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in the United States. Dental caries affects the health of 60–90% of school-aged children worldwide. The prevalence of untreated early childhood dental caries is 19% for children 2–5 years of age in the U.S. Some factors that contribute to the progression of dental caries include socioeconomic status, access to dental care, and lack of anticipatory guidance. The prevalence of dental caries remains highest for children from specific ethnic or racial groups, especially those living in underserved areas where there may be limited access to a dentist. Although researchers have acknowledged the various links between oral health and overall systemic health, oral health care is not usually a component of pediatric primary health care. To address this public health crisis and oral health disparity in children, new collaborative efforts among health professionals is critical for dental disease prevention and optimal oral health. This evaluation study focused on a 10-week interprofessional practice and education (IPE course on children’s oral health involving dental, osteopathic medical, and nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco. This study’s objective was to evaluate changes in knowledge, confidence, attitude, and clinical practice in children’s oral health of the students completed the course. Thirty-one students participated in the IPE and completed demographic questionnaires and four questionnaires before and after the IPE course: (1 course content knowledge, (2 confidence, (3 attitudes, and (4 clinical practice. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the overall knowledge of children’s oral health topics, confidence in their ability to provide oral health services, and clinical practice. There was no statistically significant difference in attitude, but there was an upward trend toward positivity. To conclude, this IPE

  19. Telehealth Applications to Enhance CKD Knowledge and Awareness Among Patients and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Delphine S; Boulware, L Ebony

    2017-01-01

    CKD affects 13% of the US adult population, causes excess mortality, and is associated with significant sociodemographic disparities. Optimal CKD management slows progression of disease and reduces cardiovascular-related outcomes. Resources for patients and primary care providers, major stakeholders in preventive CKD care, are critically needed to enhance understanding of the disease and to optimize CKD health, particularly because of the asymptomatic nature of kidney disease. Telehealth is defined as the use of electronic communication and telecommunications technology to support long-distance clinical health care, patient and professional health-related education, and public health and health administration. It provides new opportunities to enhance awareness and understanding among these important stakeholders. This review will examine the role of telehealth within existing educational theories, identify telehealth applications that can enhance CKD knowledge and behavior change among patients and primary care providers, and examine the advantages and disadvantages of telehealth vs usual modalities for education. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Forum provides a wealth of knowledge and opportunities for CoPEH ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Dr Nuwayhid foresees joint research and capacity development collaboration with both CoPES-AOC (Central and West Africa) and CoPEH-TLAC (Toxics in Latin ... The wide exposure to experts has given ecohealth practitioners in MENA the tools needed to build better scientific, ethical and methodological ...

  1. Contraception Initiation in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study on Providers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Iyanna; Haddad, Lisa B; Lathrop, Eva; Hankin, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended; these pregnancies are associated with adverse outcomes. Many reproductive-age females seek care in the emergency department (ED), are at risk of pregnancy, and are amenable to contraceptive services in this setting. Through a pilot study, we sought to assess ED providers' current practices; attitudes; and knowledge of emergency contraception (EC) and nonemergency contraception (non-EC), as well as barriers with respect to contraception initiation. ED physicians and associate providers in Georgia were e-mailed a link to an anonymous Internet questionnaire using state professional databases and contacts. The questionnaire included Likert scales with multiple-choice questions to assess study objectives. Descriptive statistics were generated as well as univariate analyses using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. A total of 1232 providers were e-mailed, with 119 questionnaires completed. Participants were predominantly physicians (80%), men (59%), and individuals younger than 45 years (59%). Common practices were referrals (96%), EC prescriptions (77%), and non-EC prescriptions (40%). Common barriers were perceived as low likelihood for follow-up (63%), risk of complications (58%), and adverse effects (51%). More than 70% of participants correctly identified the highly effective contraceptive methods, 3% identified the correct maximum EC initiation time, and 42% correctly recognized pregnancy as a higher risk than hormonal contraception use for pulmonary embolism. Most ED providers in this pilot study referred patients for contraception; however, there was no universal contraceptive counseling and management. Many ED providers in this study had an incorrect understanding of the efficacy, risks, and eligibility associated with contraceptive methods. This lack of understanding may affect patient access and be a barrier to patient care.

  2. Do Gains in Secondary Teachers’ Content Knowledge Provide an ASSET to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Travis

    2015-01-01

    During the Summer of 2013, a group of East Texas middle and high school science teachers attended the first year of the Astronomy Summer School of East Texas (ASSET), a two-week NASA funded workshop. This workshop focused on providing area teachers with a rigorous two-week experience loaded with interactive content lessons combined with hands-on activities, all relating to the universal laws of astronomy as well as solar system concepts.The effectiveness of this workshop was gauged in part through a series of content surveys given to each participating educator at the beginning and end of the workshop. Similar content surveys were also administered to each teacher's students as pre/post-content surveys in an effort to determine the extent to which teacher gains were transferred into student gains, as well as to judge the effectiveness of the teachers' lessons in conveying these concepts to the students.Overall, students performed best on concepts where teachers exhibited the highest gains in their learning and focused most of their emphasis. A question-by-question analysis, though, suggests that a broad analysis paints an incomplete picture of student learning. We will present an item analysis of student gains by topic along with a comparison of content coverage and teacher gains. Looking beyond these numbers will present results that demonstrate that giving secondary teachers professional development opportunities to increase content knowledge, and tools to present such knowledge to their students, can improve student learning and performance, but is dependent on teacher confidence and level of coverage.This project is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), which is part of the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), Grant Number NNX12AH11G.

  3. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a ''team'' of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product

  4. Computer Based Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, James D.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    Claims knowledge-based expert computer systems can meet needs of rural schools for affordable expert advice and support and will play an important role in the future of rural education. Describes potential applications in prediction, interpretation, diagnosis, remediation, planning, monitoring, and instruction. (NEC)

  5. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume I, transportation engineers and expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...

  6. Defining the requisite knowledge for providers of in-service professional development for K--12 teachers of science: Refining the construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Deborah L.

    Purpose. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to refine, using a Delphi study process, the four categories of the theoretical model of the comprehensive knowledge base required by providers of professional development for K-12 teachers of science generated from a review of the literature. Methodology. This grounded theory study used data collected through a modified Delphi technique and interviews to refine and validate the literature-based knowledge base required by providers of professional development for K-12 teachers of science. Twenty-three participants, experts in the fields of science education, how people learn, instructional and assessment strategies, and learning contexts, responded to the study's questions. Findings. By "densifying" the four categories of the knowledge base, this study determined the causal conditions (the science subject matter knowledge), the intervening conditions (how people learn), the strategies (the effective instructional and assessment strategies), and the context (the context and culture of formal learning environments) surrounding the science professional development process. Eight sections were added to the literature-based knowledge base; the final model comprised of forty-nine sections. The average length of the operational definitions increased nearly threefold and the number of citations per operational definition increased more than twofold. Conclusions. A four-category comprehensive model that can serve as the foundation for the knowledge base required by science professional developers now exists. Subject matter knowledge includes science concepts, inquiry, the nature of science, and scientific habits of mind; how people learn includes the principles of learning, active learning, andragogy, variations in learners, neuroscience and cognitive science, and change theory; effective instructional and assessment strategies include constructivist learning and inquiry-based teaching, differentiation of instruction

  7. Providing oral care in haematological oncology patients: nurses' knowledge and skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, Carin M. J.; Mank, Arno; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Donnelly, J. Peter; van Achterberg, Theo

    2008-01-01

    In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care

  8. Providing oral care in haematological oncology patients: nurses' knowledge and skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, C.M.J.; Mank, A.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Achterberg, T. van

    2008-01-01

    In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care

  9. Integration of an OWL-DL knowledge base with an EHR prototype and providing customized information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xia; Kay, Stephen; Marley, Tom; Hardiker, Nicholas R

    2014-09-01

    When clinicians use electronic health record (EHR) systems, their ability to obtain general knowledge is often an important contribution to their ability to make more informed decisions. In this paper we describe a method by which an external, formal representation of clinical and molecular genetic knowledge can be integrated into an EHR such that customized knowledge can be delivered to clinicians in a context-appropriate manner.Web Ontology Language-Description Logic (OWL-DL) is a formal knowledge representation language that is widely used for creating, organizing and managing biomedical knowledge through the use of explicit definitions, consistent structure and a computer-processable format, particularly in biomedical fields. In this paper we describe: 1) integration of an OWL-DL knowledge base with a standards-based EHR prototype, 2) presentation of customized information from the knowledge base via the EHR interface, and 3) lessons learned via the process. The integration was achieved through a combination of manual and automatic methods. Our method has advantages for scaling up to and maintaining knowledge bases of any size, with the goal of assisting clinicians and other EHR users in making better informed health care decisions.

  10. Knowledge and Use of Intervention Practices by Community-Based Early Intervention Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…

  11. Knowledge of and attitudes toward clinical depression among health providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Santiago; Shah, Nirsarg; Vithalani, Suril; Shah, Sandip; Squires, James; Appasani, Raghu; Katz, Craig L

    2014-01-01

    Clinical depression is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality but it is oftentimes overlooked and undertreated. The negative perception and lack of understanding of this condition prevents millions of people from seeking appropriate and on-time medical help, leading to distress and increased burden for affected people and their families. The implementation of public education campaigns and training of non-psychiatric health professionals on mental health and clinical depression has been neglected in several countries, including India, which is the second most populous country in the world with a population of more than 1.2 billion people, almost one-fifth of the world's population. This study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes toward the diagnosis and treatment of clinical depression in nonpsychiatric health care providers in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted over a 4-week period In Gujarat, India among resident physicians and community health workers about their knowledge and views on clinical depression. We found considerable stigma and misinformation about depression especially among health care workers in India. Most of the community health workers had a great deal of difficulty when defining clinical depression, and a large majority said that they never heard about depression or its definition and although the overwhelming majority of respondents did not believe that clinical depression results from a punishment from God (82% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this belief) or evil spirits (77.5%), a much smaller proportion disagreed with the assertions that depression was either solely due to difficult circumstances (38.2%) or that sufferers only had themselves to blame (47.2%). Meanwhile, only 32.6% disagreed with the position that clinical depression is a sign of weakness and 39.4% disagreed with the statement that suicide was a sign of weakness. Our findings underscore the considerable public health

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among US Air Force Health Care Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Hakre, Shilpa; Blaylock, Jason M; Dawson, Peter; Beckett, Charmagne; Garges, Eric C; Michael, Nelson L; Danaher, Patrick J; Scott, Paul T; Okulicz, Jason F

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Providers are central to effective implementation of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Primary care providers (PCP) and infectious disease physicians (ID) in the US Air Force (USAF) participated in a cross-sectional survey regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward HIV PrEP. Characteristics associated with PrEP knowledge were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among 403 (40% of 1015 providers) participants, 9% (PCP 383, ID 20) ever prescribed PrEP. In univar...

  13. Expert systems to assist plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Mori, Nobuyuki; Wada, Norio

    1985-01-01

    Large-scale real-time process control systems, such as those for electric power dispatching, large thermal and nuclear power stations, steel mill plants and manufacturing automation systems, need expert systems to assist operator's decision. The expert systems newly developed to fulfill the requirement are founded on OKBS (object oriented knowledge based system). OKBS provides various object types: fuzzy logic type, production rule type, frame type, state transition type, abstract data type and input/output transformation type. (author)

  14. Influence of Native Language Vocabulary and Topic Knowledge on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning in Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Foresee Drumhiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Denny Vocabulary Test, a Medical Spanish vocabulary test, and an English Medical Terminology Test (an indicator of topic knowledge were administered. The Medical Spanish Vocabulary Test was readministered at posttest. Individually, both English medical terminology knowledge and English vocabulary size were significant predictors of medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition, but English medical terminology knowledge explained most of the variance in medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of expert memory organization on the ability to learn new labels in a second language. A curricular shift toward content-centered vocabulary in language for specific purpose courses may be advantageous for some groups of foreign language learners.

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Category B ACIP Recommendations among Primary Care Providers for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Allison; Allison, Mandy A; MacNeil, Jessica R; O'Leary, Sean T; Crane, Lori A; Beaty, Brenda L; Hurley, Laura P; Brtnikova, Michaela; Lindley, Megan C; Liang, Jennifer L; Albert, Alison P; Smith, Jean C

    2018-04-17

    In 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) made a category B recommendation for use of serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines, meaning individual clinical decision-making should guide recommendations. This was the first use of a category B recommendation pertaining to a large population and the first such recommendation for adolescents. As part of a survey regarding MenB vaccine, our objectives were to assess among pediatricians (Peds) and family physicians (FPs) nationally: 1) knowledge of the meaning of category A versus B recommendations and insurance coverage implications; and 2) attitudes about category A and B recommendations. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of Peds and FPs by e-mail and mail from 10-12/2016. The response rate was 72% (660/916). Although >80% correctly identified the definition of a category A recommendation, only 24% were correct about the definition for category B. Fifty-five percent didn't know that private insurance would pay for vaccines recommended as category B, and 51% didn't know that category B-recommended vaccines would be covered by the Vaccines for Children program. Fifty-nine percent found it difficult to explain category B recommendations to patients; 22% thought ACIP should not make category B recommendations; and 39% were in favor of category B recommendations because they provide leeway in decision-making. For category B recommendations to be useful in guiding practice, primary care clinicians will need to have a better understanding of their meaning, their implications for insurance payment and guidance on how to discuss them with parents and patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A Cross-Country Exploration: Dietetic Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions to Provide Services to the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee

    2009-01-01

    This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…

  17. Methodology toward second generation expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    So-called First Generation Expert Systems were aimed at capturing the expert's know-how. Though providing remarkable achievements, this first wave did not give the expected outcome. A new generation is getting out from the laboratories. Instead of remaining at a shallow level of knowledge - that is the unmotivated reasoning processes expressed by an expert when he is forced to tell them - one attempts to re-build this level of knowledge from the first principles which constitute the basis of an expert's knowledge. These systems are called deep knowledge-based, or second generation expert systems. Discussion in the three first parts rests on two examples: A first generation and a half system for process control in nuclear powers plants, than the system EXTRA for alarm processing in nuclear plants, wherein fonctional knowledge is explicitely represented. We show how deep knowledge can be implemented, and the advantages that can be expected from this methodology. Qualitative Physics is discussed in the next part. Future research developments as well as potential payoffs are mentioned [fr

  18. Cancer and the LGBTQ Population: Quantitative and Qualitative Results from an Oncology Providers' Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamargo, Christina L; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Sanchez, Julian A; Schabath, Matthew B

    2017-10-07

    Despite growing social acceptance, the LGBTQ population continues to face barriers to healthcare including fear of stigmatization by healthcare providers, and providers' lack of knowledge about LGBTQ-specific health issues. This analysis focuses on the assessment of quantitative and qualitative responses from a subset of providers who identified as specialists that treat one or more of the seven cancers that may be disproportionate in LGBTQ patients. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. Oncology providers specializing in seven cancer types had poor knowledge of LGBTQ-specific health needs, with fewer than half of the surveyed providers (49.5%) correctly answering knowledge questions. Most providers had overall positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with 91.7% agreeing they would be comfortable treating this population, and would support education and/or training on LGBTQ-related cancer health issues. Results suggest that despite generally positive attitudes toward the LGBTQ population, oncology providers who treat cancer types most prevalent among the population, lack knowledge of their unique health issues. Knowledge and practice behaviors may improve with enhanced education and training on this population's specific needs.

  19. Knowledge and perceptions on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and nurses who provide prenatal in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jayra Adrianna da Silva; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection that affects almost a third of the world population. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, although having important manifestation in children- infected by placental transmission. The prenatal is an important moment, requiring actions in women's care during pregnancy, in order to prevent diseases that could compromise the mother and the child's life. This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach aimed to understand the perception of nurses and pregnant women about toxoplasmosis during primary - prenatal care. The study was conducted in five selected primary health care units, in the municipality of São Luis - MA. The sample consisted of 15 nurses working in nursing consultation and 15 pregnant women attended in prenatal care. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire and an interview guide covering issues related to knowledge and conduct on toxoplasmosis were used. For analysis, the content analysis technique was used. The answers were transcribed, organized and grouped thematically, where the following categories emerged: knowledge about examination requests; knowledge about toxoplasmosis; guidance during prenatal consultation; knowledge of nurses about the avidity test; procedures and guidelines on reagent cases. Pregnant women showed unawareness about toxoplasmosis and its effects. Nurses, although having basic knowledge about the subject, showed little applicability regarding pregnant women's guidance. The nurse plays an important role in educational activities regarding pregnant women, contributing to the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women were shown to have some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, although they said they did not have assurance about prevention.

  20. High-quality patents for emerging science and technology through external actors: Community scientific experts and knowledge societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico; Rodriguez, V.F.; Bonaccorsi, A.; Borras, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores one type of administrative mechanism to achieve high-quality patents: Article 115 of the European Patent Convention, which permits the inclusion of third parties to provide input to the prior art search and to communicate relevant information to the examiner in charge. Our

  1. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C; Moynihan, Paula

    2016-08-03

    Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local resources. The intervention

  2. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. Objective The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Methods Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. Results The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local

  3. Persons with Drug Addiction as Knowledge Providers: Their Contribution to Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Levit, Shabtay

    2012-01-01

    Social work students' stereotypical perceptions of excluded populations could be decisive in the way they treat those who are excluded. In an attempt to change such perceptions and enhance knowledge about how to work with an excluded population, a dialogue-in-class model was implemented between students of social work in Israel and persons with…

  4. How live online communication can facilitate collaborative learning by providing a space for shared knowledge construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    of Southern Denmark, the didactic model applied and best practice cases. Dialogue with the session participants will be promoted: • Before the presentation by posing questions that investigate the knowledge and experience of the participants on the use web conference systems in teaching and on live, online...

  5. Diabetes knowledge of nurses providing community care for diabetes patients in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Barbara; Arroll, Bruce; Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy; Scragg, Robert

    2014-10-01

    To quantify and compare knowledge of diabetes including risk factors for diabetes-related complications among the three main groups of primary health care nurses. In a cross-sectional survey of practice, district and specialist nurses (n=1091) in Auckland, New Zealand, 31% were randomly sampled to complete a self-administered questionnaire and telephone interview, designed to ascertain nurses' knowledge of diabetes and best practice, in 2006-2008. All 287 nurses (response rate 86%) completed the telephone interview and 284 the self-administered questionnaire. Major risk factors identified by nurses were excess body weight for type 2 diabetes (96%) and elevated plasma glucose levels or glycosylated haemoglobin (86%) for diabetes-related complications. In contrast, major cardiovascular risk factors were less well identified, particularly smoking, although by more specialist nurses (43%) than practice (14%) and district (12%) nurses (p=0.0005). Cardiovascular complications, particularly stroke, were less well known than microvascular complications, and by significantly fewer practice (13%) and district (8%) nurses than specialist nurses (36%, p=0.002). In general, nurses had better knowledge of overweight as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated plasma glucose levels as a risk factor for diabetes-related complications compared with knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  7. Enhancing Transparency in Multidisciplinary Expert Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukki, Kristiina; Pulkkinen, Urho

    2003-01-01

    understanding the models help in the integration of the knowledge produced by different disciplines and in the reconciliation of the requirements of different parties. They also improve the interaction between the domain experts and the experts of safety assessment. Better awareness of the knowledge-related dependencies enhance the unity of the experts' safety conceptions and contributes to more unified communicating practices in the organization. On the basis of its holistic and integrating character, the safety assessment seems to provide a common perspective to the modelling of the work processes. Using it as a tool for understanding the significance of the safety-critical aspects of work will probably make it more accessible for the domain experts. The safety assessment aims at results, which are expected to be transdisciplinary by nature. It can be assumed, that the common conceptualization and modelling with the help of it facilitate the development from multidisciplinarity to true transdisciplinarity in the expert work

  8. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  9. Counselor Expert System | Debretsion | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An expert system plays an important role on alleviating primarily shortage of experts in a specific area of interest. With the help of an expert system, personnel with little expertise can solve problems that require expert knowledge. In this paper all major aspects of an expert system development have been presented.

  10. Enhancing Pediatric Trainees' and Students' Knowledge in Providing Care to Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Stanley R; Deutsch, Madeline B; Rosenthal, Stephen M; Buckelew, Sara M

    2017-04-01

    To enhance pediatric trainees' and students' knowledge of the psychosocial and medical issues facing transgender youth through a comprehensive curriculum. During the 2015-2016 academic year, we administered a transgender youth curriculum to fourth-year medical students, pediatric interns, psychiatry interns, and nurse practitioner students on their 1-month adolescent and young adult medicine rotation. The curriculum included six interactive, online modules and an observational experience in a multidisciplinary pediatric gender clinic. The online modules had a primary care focus with topics of general transgender terminology, taking a gender history, taking a psychosocial history, performing a sensitive physical examination, and formulating an assessment, psychosocial plan, and medical plan. At the completion of the curriculum, learners completed an evaluation that assessed change in perceived awareness and knowledge of transgender-related issues and learner satisfaction with the curriculum. Twenty learners participated in the curriculum with 100% completing the curriculum evaluations, 100% reporting completing all six online modules, and 90% attending the gender clinic. Learners demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all pre-post knowledge/awareness measures. On a Likert scale where 5 indicated very satisfied, learners' mean rating of the quality of the curriculum was 4.5 ± .7; quality of the modules was 4.4 ± .7; and satisfaction with the observational experience was 4.5 ± .8. A comprehensive curriculum comprised interactive online modules and an observational experience in a pediatric gender clinic was effective at improving pediatric learners' perceived knowledge of the medical and psychosocial issues facing transgender youth. Learners also highly valued the curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Remote Sensing Image Analysis Without Expert Knowledge - A Web-Based Classification Tool On Top of Taverna Workflow Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selsam, Peter; Schwartze, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Providing software solutions via internet has been known for quite some time and is now an increasing trend marketed as "software as a service". A lot of business units accept the new methods and streamlined IT strategies by offering web-based infrastructures for external software usage - but geospatial applications featuring very specialized services or functionalities on demand are still rare. Originally applied in desktop environments, the ILMSimage tool for remote sensing image analysis and classification was modified in its communicating structures and enabled for running on a high-power server and benefiting from Tavema software. On top, a GIS-like and web-based user interface guides the user through the different steps in ILMSimage. ILMSimage combines object oriented image segmentation with pattern recognition features. Basic image elements form a construction set to model for large image objects with diverse and complex appearance. There is no need for the user to set up detailed object definitions. Training is done by delineating one or more typical examples (templates) of the desired object using a simple vector polygon. The template can be large and does not need to be homogeneous. The template is completely independent from the segmentation. The object definition is done completely by the software.

  12. Translating knowledge into practice: An exploratory study of dementia-specific training for community-based service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Grace; Hocking, Clare; McPherson, Kathryn

    2017-08-01

    Objective To develop, deliver, and evaluate dementia-specific training designed to inform service delivery by enhancing the knowledge of community-based service providers. Methods This exploratory qualitative study used an interdisciplinary, interuniversity team approach to develop and deliver dementia-specific training. Participants included management, care staff, and clients from three organizations funded to provide services in the community. Data on the acceptability, applicability, and perceived outcomes of the training were gathered through focus group discussions and individual interviews. Transcripts were analyzed to generate open codes which were clustered into themes and sub-themes addressing the content, delivery, and value of the training. Findings Staff valued up-to-date knowledge and "real stories" grounded in practice. Clients welcomed the strengths-based approach. Contractual obligations impact on the application of knowledge in practice. Implications The capacity to implement new knowledge may be limited by the legislative policies which frame service provision, to the detriment of service users.

  13. Knowledge, attitude, willingness and readiness of primary health care providers to provide oral health services to children in Niagara, Ontario: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sonica; Figueiredo, Rafael; Dupuis, Sandy; Skellet, Rachel; Wincott, Tara; Dyer, Carolyn; Feller, Andrea; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Most children are exposed to medical, but not dental, care at an early age, making primary health care providers an important player in the reduction of tooth decay. The goal of this research was to understand the feasibility of using primary health care providers in promoting oral health by assessing their knowledge, attitude, willingness and readiness in this regard. Using the Dillman method, a mail-in cross-sectional survey was conducted among all family physicians and pediatricians in the Niagara region of Ontario who have primary contact with children. A descriptive analysis was performed. Close to 70% (181/265) of providers responded. More than 90% know that untreated tooth decay could affect the general health of a child. More than 80% examine the oral cavity for more than 50% of their child patients. However, more than 50% are not aware that white spots or lines on the tooth surface are the first signs of tooth decay. Lack of clinical time was the top reason for not performing oral disease prevention measures. Overall, survey responses show a positive attitude and willingness to engage in the oral health of children. To capitalize on this, there is a need to identify mechanisms of providing preventive oral health care services by primary health care providers; including improving their knowledge of oral health and addressing other potential barriers.

  14. Handbook of VLSI chip design and expert systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, A F

    1993-01-01

    Handbook of VLSI Chip Design and Expert Systems provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of expert systems, which provides a knowledge-based approach to problem solving. This book discusses the use of expert systems in every possible subtask of VLSI chip design as well as in the interrelations between the subtasks.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of design automation, which can be identified as Computer-Aided Design of Circuits and Systems (CADCAS). This text then presents the progress in artificial intelligence, with emphasis on expert systems.

  15. Oncology care provider perspectives on exercise promotion in people with cancer: an examination of knowledge, practices, barriers, and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Michelle; Bainbridge, Daryl; Tomasone, Jennifer; Cheifetz, Oren; Juergens, Rosalyn A; Sussman, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Despite the reported benefits of physical activity in alleviating the impact of cancer and its treatments, oncology care providers (OCPs) are not routinely discussing exercise with their patients, suggesting a knowledge to action gap. We sought to determine OCP's knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to exercise discussion. A survey was administered to OCPs at the cancer center in Hamilton, Ontario. Questions comprised of demographics, knowledge and beliefs regarding exercise guidelines, and barriers and facilitators to exercise discussion. Analysis of survey responses was descriptive. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to examine select associations. There were 120 respondents (61% response rate) representing a diversity of professions. Approximately, 80% of OCPs were not aware of any exercise guidelines in cancer and self-reported poor knowledge on when, how, and which patients to refer to exercise programs. OCPs who reported meeting Canada's Physical Activity guidelines were significantly more likely to identify correct guidelines (p = 0.023) and to report good knowledge on how to provide exercise counseling (p = 0.014). Across OCP groups, barriers to exercise discussion included poor knowledge, lack of time, and safety concerns. Most felt that educational sessions and having an exercise specialist on the clinical team would be beneficial. OCPs have low knowledge regarding exercise counseling, but believe that discussing exercise is a multidisciplinary task and expressed a desire for further training. Interventions will require a multi-pronged approach including education for OCPs and guidance on assessment for exercise safety.

  16. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  17. Model of critical diagnostic reasoning: achieving expert clinician performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjai, Prashant Kumar; Tiwari, Ruby

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic reasoning refers to the analytical processes used to determine patient health problems. While the education curriculum and health care system focus on training nurse clinicians to accurately recognize and rescue clinical situations, assessments of non-expert nurses have yielded less than satisfactory data on diagnostic competency. The contrast between the expert and non-expert nurse clinician raises the important question of how differences in thinking may contribute to a large divergence in accurate diagnostic reasoning. This article recognizes superior organization of one's knowledge base, using prototypes, and quick retrieval of pertinent information, using similarity recognition as two reasons for the expert's superior diagnostic performance. A model of critical diagnostic reasoning, using prototypes and similarity recognition, is proposed and elucidated using case studies. This model serves as a starting point toward bridging the gap between clinical data and accurate problem identification, verification, and management while providing a structure for a knowledge exchange between expert and non-expert clinicians.

  18. Diabetes mellitus treatment-Related medical knowledge among health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahla, Leena; Vasudev, Rahul; Chitturi, Chandrika; Rodriguez, Cindy; Paul, Namrata

    To compare the knowledge of physicians, residents and medical students in diagnosis, use of insulin and oral medication in management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) working in different healthcare specialties. A cross sectional survey of faculty, residents and medical students of different subspecialties in a single center was conducted. Questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was used. These questions were designed to assess knowledge about diagnosis, nomenclature of different insulin/oral medications and management of DM. There were 4 answers to every question with only one correct answer based on ADA guidelines and most recent literature. The overall percentage correctly answered questions was ∼74% for IM faculty, 64% for EM faculty, 71% for IM residents, 60% for FM residents, 56% for EM residents and 59% for students. Questions based on knowledge of insulin nomenclature and characteristics were answered correctly 74% of the time by IM faculty, 62% by EM faculty, 66% by IM residents, 69% by FM residents, 45% by EM residents and 49% by medical students. Questions on the use of insulin and inpatient DM management were answered correctly 66% for IM faculty, 54% for EM faculty, 66% for IM residents, 46% for FM residents, 55% for EM Residents, and 44% medical students. Questions based on oral medications and DM diagnosis were answered correctly by 81% for IM faculty, 73% for EM faculty, 78% for IM Resident, 76% FM Resident, 64% for EM residents and 79% for students. This study demonstrates the need for focused educational initiatives required in all subspecialties involved in management of diabetes mellitus for safe and efficient management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  20. Ontology-Based Empirical Knowledge Verification for Professional Virtual Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Jen

    2011-01-01

    A professional virtual community provides an interactive platform for enterprise experts to create and share their empirical knowledge cooperatively, and the platform contains a tremendous amount of hidden empirical knowledge that knowledge experts have preserved in the discussion process. Therefore, enterprise knowledge management highly…

  1. Expert Group on Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations. Progress Report of the Project on Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) Across Generations - March 2012-March 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Various NEA member countries are currently developing and constructing deep geological disposal projects for high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste and spent fuel. These take decades to develop and implement, and the facilities are to operate passively and safely for millennia. Although different countries are in various stages of development with regard to their programmes for final radioactive waste management (RWM), for all countries with nuclear waste the question arises which relevant records, knowledge and memory should be preserved, why, how, by whom, and for how long? Consideration of this question has led to the launching of the OECD NEA Project on the 'Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations' by the RWMC in March 2011. A Collective Statement and a Vision Document have been prepared and released with RWMC approval. A project web-site has been created http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/rkm/. The project counts representatives from 16 organisations in 12 countries, plus the IAEA, and the support of the European Commission. Most organizations provide a financial or in-kind contribution to running of the project. Within the RK and M Project, 2012-2013 was designated for improving our understanding and reaching out to outside experts. Multi-disciplinary studies have been encouraged from the start, since preparing the project in 20101. Six surveys have been completed, the analysis of the bibliography is being conducted, a glossary of key terms has been produced and is being refined, a catalogue of regulatory requirements is being produced, and two workshops have been held. A methodology for creating the 'Menu Driven Document' has been identified, a Project meeting will be held in April 2013 and a further workshop is planned for September 2013. The project was presented to the UNESCO Conference of the Preservation of Digital Memory, which gave rise to new areas of research and collaboration, e.g., with the CoData task group on

  2. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  3. Evolution of traditional university business school into market-oriented knowledge provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Jurše

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available By accession to the European Union (EU transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE entered a dynamic period of comprehensive change in their national societal context. Part of that changing context is the Bologna Process, by which higher education will be increasingly integrated into a unified European cross-border higher education area. Proposed harmonization of higher education structures is viewed as one of the key pillars in transforming Europe into a knowledge-driven society with more competitive businesses and higher education. In the process of dynamic transition of CEE countries university business schools are also confronted with a variety of external challenges, particularly with increased competitive pressure evolving from a globalization of knowledge production and business education which affect their future prosperity in the emerging European Higher Education Area. In the article we critically evaluate key strategic developments in a broader business education context from a perspective of their implications for the university business schools in transition countries in their effort to accomplish a proper strategic adjustment to changes in society. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of relevant institutional context, we present the conceptual framework for a strategic alignment of business schools with a changing European higher education reality.

  4. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in Medicine and Their Ability to Prediction as Therapy Planning Systems by CADIAG-2 Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Madadpour Inallou; Zeinab Ajurlou; Bahman Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Expert Systems in Medicine is a collection, storage, retrieval, communication and processing of medical data for the purposes of interpretation, inference, decision-support, research and so other purposes in medicine. Expert System is an interactive computer-based decision tool that uses both facts and heuristics to solve difficult decision problems based on knowledge acquired from an expert. Expert systems provide expert advice and guidance in a wide variety of activities, from computer diag...

  5. Interpretation of the margin of exposure for genotoxic carcinogens - elicitation of expert knowledge about the form of the dose response curve at human relevant exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Flari, Villie; Gosling, John Paul; Hart, Andy; Craig, Peter; Rushton, Lesley; Idahosa-Taylor, Ehi

    2013-07-01

    The general approach to risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens has been to advise reduction of exposure to "as low as reasonably achievable/practicable" (ALARA/P). However, whilst this remains the preferred risk management option, it does not provide guidance on the urgency or extent of risk management actions necessary. To address this, the "Margin of Exposure" (MOE) approach has been proposed. The MOE is the ratio between the point of departure for carcinogenesis and estimated human exposure. However, interpretation of the MOE requires implicit or explicit consideration of the shape of the dose-response curve at human relevant exposures. In a structured elicitation exercise, we captured expert opinion on available scientific evidence for low dose-response relationships for genotoxic carcinogens. This allowed assessment of: available evidence for the nature of dose-response relationships at human relevant exposures; the generality of judgments about such dose-response relationships; uncertainties affecting judgments on the nature of such dose-response relationships; and whether this last should differ for different classes of genotoxic carcinogens. Elicitation results reflected the variability in experts' views on the form of the dose-response curve for low dose exposure and major sources of uncertainty affecting the assumption of a linear relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experts on public trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen......-than-successful defense in the citizen perspective. Further, consensus conferences are viewed alternatively as "expert dissent conferences," serving to disclose a multiplicity of expert commitments. From this perspective, some challenges for democratizing expertise through future exercises in public participation...

  7. Expert knowledge mechatronics; Fachkunde Mechatronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartenschlager, J.; Hebel, H.; Klatt, T.; Laemmlin. G.; Scheib, A.; Kinz, U.; Steinmueller, A.; Ignatowitz, E.; Kluge, M.; Hahn, M.; Eichler, W.; Spielvogel, O.; Winter, U.

    2004-07-01

    The book directs to pupils of vocational schools. The main topics are: fundamentals on data processing; technical communication; test engineering; quality management; materials engineering; mechanical systems; production of mechanical systems; fundamentals on electrical engineering; electric machines and devices; control systems; remote systems in automation engineering; mechatronic systems and their installation, commissioning and maintenance. (GL)

  8. Expert systems intelligent tutoring systems and the power industry: A future scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, C.P.; Bullemer, P.T.; Cochran, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    One use to which fielded expert systems have been put is the training of less experienced personnel. However, since expert systems are not developed for the purpose of training, their knowledge contains gaps, particularly in the areas of explanation and reasoning-essential components of expertise. The incidental learning that results from interacting with an expert system produces a memorization of the expert system's procedures without an understanding of the logic behind those procedures. Although learning without comprehension can provide adequate task performance, it affords inadequate transfer or generalization of knowledge, producing task-specific learning. In other words, the expert system user performs the task like an expert, but has not really become an expert. To become an expert, specialized training is required. This training could be provided by professional educators, or, in the future, by artificial intelligence programs, called intelligent tutoring systems, specifically designed for training

  9. Knowledge Base Editor (SharpKBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The SharpKBE software provides a graphical user interface environment for domain experts to build and manage knowledge base systems. Knowledge bases can be exported/translated to various target languages automatically, including customizable target languages.

  10. Fire Effects, Education, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    Predicting the effects of fires in the year 2000 and beyond will be enhanced by the use of expert systems. Although our predictions may have broad confidence limits, expert systems should help us to improve the predictions and to focus on the areas where improved knowledge is most needed. The knowledge of experts can be incorporated into previously existing knowledge...

  11. Ecosystem services provided by Pacific NW estuaries: State of knowledge - March 3, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal regions in the United States are rapidly developing areas, with increasing urbanization and growing populations. Estuarine and nearshore coastal marine waters provide valuable ecosystem services to resident and transient human communities. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) ...

  12. Knowledge, attitude & practice on human papillomavirus vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Cheena Chawla

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Clinical Practices for Patients With Dementia Among Mental Health Providers in China: City and Town Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Zhaorui; Xu, Ling; Huang, Yueqin; Chi, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Mental health providers are the major resource families rely on when experiencing the effects of dementia. However, mental health resources and manpower are inadequate and unevenly distributed between cities and towns in China. This study was conducted to examine similarities and differences in knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practices concerning dementia and working with family caregivers from mental health providers' perspectives in city versus town settings. Data were collected during focus group discussions with 40 mental health providers in the Xicheng (city) and Daxing (town) districts in Beijing, China in 2011. Regional disparities between providers' knowledge of early diagnosis of dementia and related counseling skills were identified. Regional similarities included training needs, dementia-related stigma, and low awareness of dementia among family caregivers. Culturally sensitive education specific to dementia for mental health providers and a specialized dementia care model for people with dementia and their family caregivers are urgently needed. Implications for geriatric practitioners and educators are discussed.

  14. Providers' knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of e-pills in government dispensaries of South district in delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. A descriptive epidemiological study. Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P pills.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue infection among public sector healthcare providers in Machala, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Handel, Andrew S.; Ayala, Efra?n Beltr?n; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Fessler, Abigail G.; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Espinoza, Roberto Xavier Robalino; Ryan, Sadie J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging infection throughout the tropics and subtropics with extensive public health burden. Adequate training of healthcare providers is crucial to reducing infection incidence through patient education and collaboration with public health authorities. We examined how public sector healthcare providers in a dengue-endemic region of Ecuador view and manage dengue infections, with a focus on the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) Dengue Guidelines. Metho...

  16. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  17. Private providers' knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions related to long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods: a case study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaz, Jorge; Banke, Kathryn; Rahaim, Stephen; Chowdhury, Wahiduzzaman; Williams, Julie

    2016-11-01

    In Bangladesh, use of long-acting and permanent methods of contraception (LAPMs) remains stagnant. Providers' limited knowledge and biases may be a factor. We assessed private providers' knowledge, misconceptions and general attitudes towards LAPM in two urban areas. The ultimate goal is to shape programs and interventions to overcome these obstacles and improve full method choice in Bangladesh. Trained data collectors interviewed a convenience sample of 235 female doctors (obstetricians-gynecologists and general practitioners) and 150 female nurses from 194 commercial (for-profit) health care facilities in Chittagong City Corporation and Dhaka district. Data were collected on the nature of the practice, training received, knowledge about modern contraceptives and attitudes towards LAPM [including intrauterine device (IUDs), implants, female and male sterilization]. All providers, and especially doctors, lacked adequate knowledge regarding side effects for all LAPMs, particularly female and male sterilization. Providers had misconceptions about the effectiveness and convenience of LAPMs compared to short-acting contraceptive methods. Implants and IUDs were generally perceived more negatively than other methods. The majority of providers believed that husbands favor short-acting methods rather than LAPMs and that women should not use a method that their husbands do not approve of. Our findings document knowledge and attitudinal barriers among private for-profit providers in urban areas affecting their provision of accurate information about LAPM choices. Practitioners should be offered the necessary tools to provide women full access to all modern methods, especially LAPMs, in order to contribute to decreasing unmet need and improving full method choice in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preserving experience through expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, J.B.; Weidman, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems technology, one of the branches in the field of computerized artificial intelligence, has existed for >30 yr but only recently has been made available on commercially standard hardware and software platforms. An expert system can be defined as any method of encoding knowledge by representing that knowledge as a collection of facts or objects. Decisions are made by the expert program by obtaining data about the problem or situation and correlating encoded facts (knowledge) to the data until a conclusion can be reached. Such conclusions can be relayed to the end user as expert advice. Realizing the potential of this technology, General Electric (GE) Nuclear Energy (GENE) has initiated a development program in expert systems applications; this technology offers the potential for packaging, distributing, and preserving nuclear experience in a software form. The paper discusses application fields, effective applications, and knowledge acquisition and knowledge verification

  19. Uncertainty as Knowledge: Constraints on Policy Choices Provided by Analysis of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Risbey, J.; Smithson, M.; Newell, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty forms an integral part of climate science, and it is often cited in connection with arguments against mitigative action. We argue that an analysis of uncertainty must consider existing knowledge as well as uncertainty, and the two must be evaluated with respect to the outcomes and risks associated with possible policy options. Although risk judgments are inherently subjective, an analysis of the role of uncertainty within the climate system yields two constraints that are robust to a broad range of assumptions. Those constraints are that (a) greater uncertainty about the climate system is necessarily associated with greater expected damages from warming, and (b) greater uncertainty translates into a greater risk of the failure of mitigation efforts. These ordinal constraints are unaffected by subjective or cultural risk-perception factors, they are independent of the discount rate, and they are independent of the magnitude of the estimate for climate sensitivity. The constraints mean that any appeal to uncertainty must imply a stronger, rather than weaker, need to cut greenhouse gas emissions than in the absence of uncertainty.

  20. Pediatric providers and radiology examinations. Knowledge and comfort levels regarding ionizing radiation and potential complications of imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin; Maxfield, Charles M. [Duke University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Parente, Victoria M. [Duke University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Pediatric providers should understand the basic risks of the diagnostic imaging tests they order and comfortably discuss those risks with parents. Appreciating providers' level of understanding is important to guide discussions and enhance relationships between radiologists and pediatric referrers. To assess pediatric provider knowledge of diagnostic imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation and to understand provider concerns about risks of imaging. A 6-question survey was sent via email to 390 pediatric providers (faculty, trainees and midlevel providers) from a single academic institution. A knowledge-based question asked providers to identify which radiology modalities use ionizing radiation. Subjective questions asked providers about discussions with parents, consultations with radiologists, and complications of imaging studies. One hundred sixty-nine pediatric providers (43.3% response rate) completed the survey. Greater than 90% of responding providers correctly identified computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and radiography as modalities that use ionizing radiation, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as modalities that do not. Fewer (66.9% correct, P<0.001) knew that nuclear medicine utilizes ionizing radiation. A majority of providers (82.2%) believed that discussions with radiologists regarding ionizing radiation were helpful, but 39.6% said they rarely had time to do so. Providers were more concerned with complications of sedation and cost than they were with radiation-induced cancer, renal failure or anaphylaxis. Providers at our academic referral center have a high level of basic knowledge regarding modalities that use ionizing radiation, but they are less aware of ionizing radiation use in nuclear medicine studies. They find discussions with radiologists helpful and are concerned about complications of sedation and cost. (orig.)

  1. Pediatric providers and radiology examinations: knowledge and comfort levels regarding ionizing radiation and potential complications of imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin; Parente, Victoria M; Maxfield, Charles M

    2017-12-01

    Pediatric providers should understand the basic risks of the diagnostic imaging tests they order and comfortably discuss those risks with parents. Appreciating providers' level of understanding is important to guide discussions and enhance relationships between radiologists and pediatric referrers. To assess pediatric provider knowledge of diagnostic imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation and to understand provider concerns about risks of imaging. A 6-question survey was sent via email to 390 pediatric providers (faculty, trainees and midlevel providers) from a single academic institution. A knowledge-based question asked providers to identify which radiology modalities use ionizing radiation. Subjective questions asked providers about discussions with parents, consultations with radiologists, and complications of imaging studies. One hundred sixty-nine pediatric providers (43.3% response rate) completed the survey. Greater than 90% of responding providers correctly identified computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and radiography as modalities that use ionizing radiation, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as modalities that do not. Fewer (66.9% correct, Pionizing radiation. A majority of providers (82.2%) believed that discussions with radiologists regarding ionizing radiation were helpful, but 39.6% said they rarely had time to do so. Providers were more concerned with complications of sedation and cost than they were with radiation-induced cancer, renal failure or anaphylaxis. Providers at our academic referral center have a high level of basic knowledge regarding modalities that use ionizing radiation, but they are less aware of ionizing radiation use in nuclear medicine studies. They find discussions with radiologists helpful and are concerned about complications of sedation and cost.

  2. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES AMONGST HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS & CARE TAKERS REGARDING MANAGEMENT OF CHILDHOOD DIARRHOEA IN DEMONSTRATION DISTRICTS OF GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupani Mihir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Diarrhoea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Therapy (DAZT project was started in 6 demonstration districtsof Gujarat in 2011. Rationale: In addition to poor feeding/hygiene practices of caretakers, inappropriate prescription from providers and inadequate use of Zinc-ORS are challenges in diarrhoea management. Objectives:To understand prescription practices for childhood diarrhoea, assess knowledge about zinc therapy among health care providers & caretakers in the government/private sectors &assess knowledge about additional information to be provided to caretakersamong health care providers& its practice among care takers. Materials & Methods:Information was collected onstructured questionnaires by interviews of 127care providers&43 care takersin 6 districts.In addition, case records were reviewed for 228 prescriptions – all from government sector. Data collected was entered and analyzedusing Excel. Results:Based on records/interviews, government functionaries dispensed ORS in 97%& zinc in 90% cases of diarrhoea while, private providers prescribed itin 79% &71% respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed in 24% & 59%, anti-amoebic in 20.2% &64.7% in public& private sectors respectively.Knowledge of dosage and duration of zinc therapy was better among public sector providers than private sector ones. Amongst caretakers, 74.4% gave correct dose of zinc to their children but was given for 14 days in 67.4% of cases; common reasons for non-compliance were“improved condition”&“no need to continue”. Foradditional information, such as advice on continued feeding, giving more than usual fluid,hand washing& when to return back to health facility, the responses were better for government providers than private ones. Knowledge about this additional information was also poor amongst care takers. Conclusions:For all the parameters studied, responses were better amongst government providers than those from private sector. Demand

  3. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity. PMID:24891832

  4. Producing More Actionable Science Isn't the Problem; It's Providing Decision-Makers with Access to Right Actionable Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Policy-makers today have almost infinite climate-relevant scientific and other information available to them. The problem for climate change decision-making isn't missing science or inadequate knowledge of climate risks; the problem is that the "right" climate change actionable knowledge isn't getting to the right decision-maker, or is getting there too early or too late to effectively influence her decision-making. Actionable knowledge is not one-size-fit-all, and for a given decision-maker might involve scientific, economic, or risk-based information. Simply producing more and more information as we are today is not the solution, and actually makes it harder for individual decision-makers to access "their" actionable knowledge. The Climatographers began building the Climate Web five years ago to test the hypothesis that a knowledge management system could help navigate the gap between infinite information and individual actionable knowledge. Today the Climate Web's more than 1,500 index terms allow instant access to almost any climate change topic. It is a curated public-access knowledgebase of more than 1,000 books, 2,000 videos, 15,000 reports and articles, 25,000 news stories, and 3,000 websites. But it is also much more, linking together tens of thousands of individually extracted ideas and graphics, and providing Deep Dives into more than 100 key topics from changing probability distributions of extreme events to climate communications best practices to cognitive dissonance in climate change decision-making. The public-access Climate Web is uniquely able to support cross-silo learning, collaboration, and actionable knowledge dissemination. The presentation will use the Climate Web to demonstrate why knowledge management should be seen as a critical component of science and policy-making collaborations.

  5. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle

  6. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y. [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  7. Childhood obesity: knowledge, attitudes, and practices of European pediatric care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Artur; Matusik, Pawel; Revert, Krista; Nyankovskyy, Sergey; Socha, Piotr; Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Grzegorczyk, Joanna; Caroli, Margherita; Hassink, Sandra; Telega, Grzegorz; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-07-01

    To determine and compare attitudes, skills, and practices in childhood obesity management in 4 European countries with different obesity prevalence, health care systems, and economic situations. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to primary health care providers from France, Italy, Poland, and Ukraine. The questionnaire was returned by 1119 participants with a response rate of 32.4%. The study revealed that most of the primary health care providers were convinced of their critical role in obesity management but did not feel sufficiently competent to perform effectively. The adherence to recommended practices such as routine weight and height measurements, BMI calculation, and plotting growth parameters on recommended growth charts was poor. Most primary health care providers recognized the need for continuing professional education in obesity management, stressing the importance of appropriate dietary counseling. The study underlines insufficient implementation of national guidelines for management of obesity regardless of the country and its health system. It also makes clear that the critical problem is not elaboration of guidelines but rather creating support systems for implementation of the medical standards among the primary care practitioners.

  8. MAREANO: The national seafloor mapping programme of Norway - providing new knowledge for making informed management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsnes, T.; Bjarnadóttir, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    MAREANO (Marine AREA database for NOrwegian waters) is a state funded programme that has been mapping the seabed in Norwegian waters since 2005. Core datasets include detailed bathymetric data, video transect data and physical samples of the seabed. Integrated knowledge of the geology, habitats and the environmental status of the seabed is gained from the combined datasets and all results are presented on www.mareano.no. The results from MAREANO serve as a baseline of scientific information for decision-makers and which is actively used by ocean management agencies. Since 2005 the programme has grown and matured a great deal. Funding has increased twentyfold (now about 13 mill. USD), and the size of seabed mapped is now tenfold (about 22000 km2 annually). With this expansion the programme has evolved a more complex structure, regulating its activities more strictly and adhering to long-term plans. During this time the number of products has also increased, and so has the need for reviewing and improving methods. In 2015 MAREANO prepared a comprehensive report which documented and evaluated current methods and reviewed sampling/mapping standards based on management needs. Whilst the methods adopted by MAREANO to date have largely proved effective, several recent advances in technology within the various fields of seabed mapping offer great potential for improvements. Since 2014 MAREANO has been testing out some of this new technology such as acquisition of seabed data with improved resolution and autonomy in data collection, using AUVs equipped with synthetic aperture sonar and ROVs with underwater hyperspectral-sensors. Recently, MAREANO scientists have also been exploring new, more automated methods for data interpretation, classification and modelling. Preliminary results are promising and these new methods are expected to help to streamline the map production workflow in the future, thereby reducing production costs, while making even better maps that are both

  9. Effect of a drug allergy educational program and antibiotic prescribing guideline on inpatient clinical providers' antibiotic prescribing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Shenoy, Erica S; Hurwitz, Shelley; Varughese, Christy A; Hooper, David C; Banerji, Aleena

    2014-01-01

    Inpatient providers have varying levels of knowledge in managing patients with drug and/or penicillin (PCN) allergy. Our objectives were (1) to survey inpatient providers to ascertain their baseline drug allergy knowledge and preparedness in caring for patients with PCN allergy, and (2) to assess the impact of an educational program paired with the implementation of a hospital-based clinical guideline. We electronically surveyed 521 inpatient providers at a tertiary care medical center at baseline and again 6 weeks after an educational initiative paired with clinical guideline implementation. The guideline informed providers on drug allergy history taking and antibiotic prescribing for inpatients with PCN or cephalosporin allergy. Of 323 unique responders, 42% (95% CI, 37-48%) reported no prior education in drug allergy. When considering those who responded to both surveys (n = 213), we observed a significant increase in knowledge about PCN skin testing (35% vs 54%; P allergy over time (54% vs 80%; P allergy was severe significantly improved (77% vs 92%; P = .03). Other areas, including understanding absolute contraindications to receiving a drug again and PCN cross-reactivity with other antimicrobials, did not improve significantly. Inpatient providers have drug allergy knowledge deficits but are interested in tools to help them care for inpatients with drug allergies. Our educational initiative and hospital guideline implementation were associated with increased PCN allergy knowledge in several crucial areas. To improve care of inpatients with drug allergy, more research is needed to evaluate hospital policies and sustainable educational tools. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Health Care Workers Providing Services Across Different Socio-economic Regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiang-Li; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiu-Ling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jing-Yi; Chu, Cordia

    2016-01-01

    China carries a heavy burden of cervical cancer (CC) and substantial disparities exist across regions within the country. In order to reduce regional disparities in CC, the government of China launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Critical to the success of the program are the health care workers who play a pivotal role in preventing and managing CC by encouraging and motivating women to use screening services and by providing identification and treatment services. This study aimed to assess cervical cancer knowledge among these health care workers at the county level in maternal and child health (MCH) hospitals across different socio-economic regions of China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were sent to all health care workers (a total of 66) providing cervical cancer screening services in 6 county level MCH hospitals in Liaoning, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces, representing eastern, central and western regions of China; 64 (97.0%, 64/66) of the workers responded. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to compare the knowledge rate and scores in subgroups. The knowledge level of the respondents was generally low. The overall combined knowledge rate was 46.9%. The knowledge rates for risk factors, prevention, clinical symptoms, screening and diagnostic tests and understanding of positive results were 31.3%, 37.5%, 18.1%, 56.3% and 84.4%, respectively. Statistically significant differences in scores or rates of CC knowledge were seen across the different regions. The total and sectional scores in the less developed regions were statistically significantly lower than in the other regions. The majority of the health care workers who provide CC screening service in NCCSPRA at county level MCH hospitals do not have adequately equipped with knowledge about CC. Given the importance of knowledge to the program's success in reducing CC burden in rural women in China, efforts are

  11. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansana Visanou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.

  12. Expert system in PNC, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Ono, Kiyoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The computer code system which can evaluate the mass balance and cycle cost in nuclear fuel cycle has been developing a PNC using an artificial intelligence technique. This system is composed of the expert system, data base and analysis codes. The expert system is the most important one in the system and the content of the expert system is explained in this paper. The expert system has the three functions. The first is the function of understanding the meaning of user's questions by natural language, the second is the function of selecting the best way to solve the problem given by the user using the knowledge which is already installed in the system, and the last is the function of answering the questions. The knowledge of the experts installed in the expert system is represented by the frame-type rules. Therefore, the knowledge will be simply added to the system, and consequently the system will be easily extended. (author)

  13. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    formal rules of evidence apply) to help it understand the issues of a case and ... statements on medical expert witness by professional representative bodies in .... determining the size of the financial settlement that may have to be made to the.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES AMONG A COHORT OF MULTIETHNIC HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaqeb, Dhekra; Hamamy, Hanan; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice related to consanguinity among multiethnic health care providers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Using a cross-sectional study design, a validated, self-administered close-ended questionnaire was randomly distributed to health care providers in different health institutions in the country between 1st August 2012 and 31st July 2013. A total of 1235 health care providers completed the study questionnaire. Of the 892 married participants (72.23% of total), 11.43% were married to a first cousin, and were predominantly Arabs, younger than 40 years and male. Only 17.80% of the patients seen by the health care providers requested consanguinity related counselling. A knowledge barrier was expressed by 27.49% of the participants, and 85.67% indicated their willingness to have more training in basic genetic counselling. A language barrier was expressed as a limiting factor to counselling for consanguinity among non-Arabs. The health care providers had a major dearth of knowledge that was reflected in their attitude and practice towards consanguinity counselling. This finding indicates the need for more undergraduate and postgraduate medical and nursing education and training in the counselling of consanguineous couples. It is recommended that consanguinity counselling is included in the current premarital screening and counselling programmes in the Kingdom.

  15. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  16. United States family planning providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Carlson, Kimberly; Weber, Shannon; Witt, Jacki; Kelly, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines HIV prevention as a core family planning service. The HIV community identified family planning visits as key encounters for women to access preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. No studies explore US family planning providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards PrEP. We conducted a national survey of clinicians to understand barriers and facilitators to PrEP implementation in family planning. Family planning providers recruited via website postings, national meetings, and email completed an anonymous survey in 2015. Descriptive statistics were performed. Among 604 respondents, 495 were eligible for analysis and 342 were potential PrEP prescribers (physicians, nurse practitioners, midwives or physicians assistants). Among potential prescribers, 38% correctly defined PrEP [95% confidence interval (CI): 32.5-42.8], 37% correctly stated the efficacy of PrEP (95% CI: 32.0-42.4), and 36% chose the correct HIV test after a recent exposure (95% CI: 30.6-40.8). Characteristics of those who answered knowledge questions correctly included age less than 35 years, practicing in the Northeast or West, routinely offering HIV testing, providing rectal sexually transmitted infection screening or having seen any PrEP guidelines. Even among providers in the Northeast and West, the proportion of respondents answering questions correctly was less than 50%. Thirty-six percent of respondents had seen any PrEP guidelines. Providers identified lack of training as the main barrier to PrEP implementation; 87% wanted PrEP education. To offer comprehensive HIV prevention services, family planning providers urgently need training on PrEP and HIV testing. US family planning providers have limited knowledge about HIV PrEP and HIV testing, and report lack of provider training as the main barrier to PrEP provision. Provider education is needed to ensure that family planning clients access comprehensive HIV prevention methods

  17. Nurses' knowledge and skills in providing mental health care to people living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorwe-Sungani, G

    2013-09-01

    Nurses are the majority of health-care professionals who frequently come in contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, most health workers such as nurses lack competence and confidence in dealing with the mental health problems (MHPs) of their clients in Malawi. The study aimed at exploring nurses' levels of knowledge and skills in providing mental health care to PLWHA. The study used a descriptive quantitative survey design. Ethical approval and permission were granted by relevant authorities to conduct the study. A convenient sample of 109 nurses was used. They gave written consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics namely: means, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse data. The findings suggest that nurses who care for PLWHA lack knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs of these people. Many participants (53.2%, n = 58) lacked knowledge and skills to care for PLWHA who have MHPs. Nurses are potentially essential human resource for dealing with MHPs of PLWHA in Malawi. Unfortunately, some nurses lack the necessary knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs. Nurses must be equipped with adequate knowledge and skills so that they are able to deal with MHPs of PLWHA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Expert system aids transport regulation users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshire, R.D.; Straw, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    During late 1984 the IAEA Regulations were identified as an area of application for an expert system adviser which could offer many advantages. Over the following year some simple tests were carried out to examine its feasibility, but TRANAID did not get underway until 1986 when British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Corporate Management services were engaged on the product. By this time a greater choice of suitable software, in the form of expert system shells, had become available. After a number of trial systems the shell Leonardo was finally adopted for the final system. In order for TRANAID to emulate the expert it was necessary to spend time extracting and documenting the expert knowledge. This was a matter of investigating how the regulations are used and was achieved by a series of meetings including opportunity for the computer specialists to interview the regulations experts. There are several benefits in having an expert system advisor in this area. It is useful to both experienced and inexperienced users of regulations. For those who are learning to use the regulations it is an excellent training aid. For those who know the regulations but use them infrequently it can save time and provide a valuable reassurance. The adviser has enabled the expert user's know how to be captured and to be made widely available to those with less experience. (author)

  19. Awareness, knowledge and attitudes related to HPV infection and vaccine among non-obstetrician-gynecologist healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naki, M Murat; Celik, Hasniye; Api, Oluş; Toprak, Sadık; Ozerden, Erdem; Unal, Orhan

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the awareness, knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers related to HPV infection and vaccine. A total of 311 healthcare providers working in specialties other than obstetrics and gynecology at the Dr. Lutfi Kırdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital as physicians (n=142) or non-physician healthcare providers (n=169) were included in the present study. A questionnaire developed by researchers based on literature and including items concerning socio-demographic features, awareness of HPV infection and vaccine, attitudes related to HPV vaccine and regular gynecological controls and knowledge about HPV infection was applied to participants via a face to face interview method. Each correct answer was scored as one to decide the level of knowledge and awareness. The frequency of parenthood was lower and the ratio of males was higher in the physician group compared to the non-physician group. Awareness of virus mediated cancer (p=0.01), human papilloma virus (p=0.0001), cervical cancer, HPV vaccine, and types of HPV vaccine was significantly higher in the physician group. While consent levels for vaccine administration for themselves were similar for physician and non-physician subjects, the frequency of subjects favoring vaccine administration for their offspring was significantly higher among physicians (plevel of knowledge in the physicians was significantly higher when compared to the non-physician staff (p<0.001). Physicians were more competent regarding the relation of HPV infection to cervical cancer and more aware of the presence and types of HPV vaccines which may lead to a higher degree of willingness for vaccination when compared with non-physician healthcare providers.

  20. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    Full Text Available Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control. Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93; large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001; the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22; negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684. Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05. Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior.US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.

  1. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001); the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22); negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684). Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05). Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.

  2. Expert system characteristics and potential applications in safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The general growth of expert, knowledge-based (KB) or rule based systems will significantly increase in the next three to five years. Improvements in computer hardware (speed, reduced size, power) and software (rule based, data based, user interfaces) in recent years are providing the foundations for the growth of expert systems. A byproduct of this growth will undoubtedly be the application of expert systems to various safeguards problems. Characteristics of these expert systems will involve 1) multiple rules governing an outcome, 2) confidence factors on individual variables and rule sets, 3) priority, cost, and risk based rule sets, and 4) the reasoning behind the advice or decision given by the expert system. This paper presents characteristics, structures, and examples of simple rule based systems. Potential application areas for these expert systems may include training, operations, management, designs, evaluations, and specific hardware operation

  3. The eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers: Knowledge Manage-ment across the Sourcing Life-cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksonen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Laaksonen, Pekka The eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers: Knowledge Manage-ment across the Sourcing Life-cycle Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, 2011, 42 s. Tietojärjestelmätiede, kandidaatintutkielma Ohjaaja(t): Käkölä, Timo Tässä kandidaatintutkielmassa selvitettiin sitä, miten the eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers-mallin käytännöt (practices) ovat liittyneet tietä-myksenhallinnan neljään prosessiin: tiedon luominen, varastointi/noutaminen, jakamine...

  4. A new Expert Finding model based on Term Correlation Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Pornour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the enormous volume of unstructured information available on the Web and inside organization, finding an answer to the knowledge need in a short time is difficult. For this reason, beside Search Engines which don’t consider users individual characteristics, Recommender systems were created which use user’s previous activities and other individual characteristics to help users find needed knowledge. Recommender systems usage is increasing every day. Expert finder systems also by introducing expert people instead of recommending information to users have provided this facility for users to ask their questions form experts. Having relation with experts not only causes information transition, but also with transferring experiences and inception causes knowledge transition. In this paper we used university professors academic resume as expert people profile and then proposed a new expert finding model that recommends experts to users query. We used Term Correlation Matrix, Vector Space Model and PageRank algorithm and proposed a new hybrid model which outperforms conventional methods. This model can be used in internet environment, organizations and universities that experts have resume dataset.

  5. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  6. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  7. Evaluation of knowledge, practices, and possible barriers among healthcare providers regarding medical waste management in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Hirosawa, Tomoya; Abdul Hai, Md Shaheen Bin; Siddique, Md Ruhul Furkan; Sakamoto, Junichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2014-12-09

    Improper handling of medical wastes, which is common in Bangladesh, could adversely affect the hospital environment and community at large, and poses a serious threat to public health. We aimed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding medical waste management (MWM) among healthcare providers (HCPs) and to identify possible barriers related to it. A cross-sectional study was carried out during June to September, 2012 including 1 tertiary, 3 secondary, and 3 primary level hospitals in Dhaka division, Bangladesh through 2-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected from 625 HCPs, including 245 medical doctors, 220 nurses, 44 technologists, and 116 cleaning staff who were directly involved in MWM using a self-administered (researcher-administered for cleaning staff), semi-structured questionnaire. Nearly one-third of medical doctors and nurses and two-thirds of technologists and cleaning staff had inadequate knowledge, and about half of medical doctors (44.0%) and cleaning staff (56.0%) had poor practices. HCPs without prior training on MWM were more likely to have poor practices compared to those who had training. Lack of personal protective equipment, equipment for final disposal, MWM-related staff, proper policy/guideline, and lack of incinerator were identified as the top 5 barriers. Strengthening and expansion of ongoing educational programs/training is necessary to improve knowledge and practices regarding MWM. The government should take necessary steps and provide financial support to eliminate the possible barriers related to proper MWM.

  8. Distributed expert systems for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    A network of distributed expert systems is the heart of a prototype supervisory control architecture developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an advanced multimodular reactor. Eight expert systems encode knowledge on signal acquisition, diagnostics, safeguards, and control strategies in a hybrid rule-based, multiprocessing and object-oriented distributed computing environment. An interactive simulation of a power block consisting of three reactors and one turbine provides a realistic, testbed for performance analysis of the integrated control system in real-time. Implementation details and representative reactor transients are discussed

  9. Knowledge and practice related to gestational diabetes among primary health care providers in Morocco: Potential for a defragmentation of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Bettina; Assarag, Bouchra; Essolbi, Amina; Barkat, Amina; Delamou, Alexandre; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and practices of general practitioners, nurses and midwives working at primary health care facilities in Morocco regarding screening and management of gestational diabetes (GDM). Structured interviews with 100 doctors, midwives and nurses at 44 randomly selected public health care centers were conducted in Marrakech and Al Haouz. All data were descriptively analyzed. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the institutional review boards in Belgium and Morocco. Public primary health care providers have a basic understanding of gestational diabetes but screening and management practices are not uniform. Although 56.8% of the doctors had some pre-service training on gestational diabetes, most nurses and midwives lack such training. After diagnosing GDM, 88.5% of providers refer patients to specialists, only 11.5% treat them as outpatients. Updating knowledge and skills of providers through both pre- and in-service-training needs to be supported by uniform national standards enabling first line health care workers to manage women with GDM and thus increase access and provide a continuity in care. Findings of this study will be used to pilot a model of GDM screening and initial management through the primary level of care. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Example-based learning: comparing the effects of additionally providing three different integrative learning activities on physiotherapy intervention knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Hudon, Anne; Montpetit-Tourangeau, Katherine; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; van Gog, Tamara

    2015-03-07

    Example-based learning using worked examples can foster clinical reasoning. Worked examples are instructional tools that learners can use to study the steps needed to solve a problem. Studying worked examples paired with completion examples promotes acquisition of problem-solving skills more than studying worked examples alone. Completion examples are worked examples in which some of the solution steps remain unsolved for learners to complete. Providing learners engaged in example-based learning with self-explanation prompts has been shown to foster increased meaningful learning compared to providing no self-explanation prompts. Concept mapping and concept map study are other instructional activities known to promote meaningful learning. This study compares the effects of self-explaining, completing a concept map and studying a concept map on conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills among novice learners engaged in example-based learning. Ninety-one physiotherapy students were randomized into three conditions. They performed a pre-test and a post-test to evaluate their gains in conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills (transfer performance) in intervention selection. They studied three pairs of worked/completion examples in a digital learning environment. Worked examples consisted of a written reasoning process for selecting an optimal physiotherapy intervention for a patient. The completion examples were partially worked out, with the last few problem-solving steps left blank for students to complete. The students then had to engage in additional self-explanation, concept map completion or model concept map study in order to synthesize and deepen their knowledge of the key concepts and problem-solving steps. Pre-test performance did not differ among conditions. Post-test conceptual knowledge was higher (P example and completion example strategies to foster intervention selection.

  11. Designing an 'expert knowledge' based approach for the quantification of historical floods - the case study of the Kinzig catchment in Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösmeier, Annette; Glaser, Rüdiger; Stahl, Kerstin; Himmelsbach, Iso; Schönbein, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    . Furthermore, within a suitable time period, flood classes and other quantifiable indicators of flood intensity (number of damaged locations mentioned in historical sources, general availability of reports associated with a specific event) were combined with available peak discharges measurements. We argue that this information can be considered as 'expert knowledge' and used it to develop a fuzzy rule based model for deriving peak discharge estimates of pre-instrumental events that can finally be introduced into a flood frequency analysis.

  12. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  13. Military Healthcare Providers' Knowledge and Comfort Regarding the Medical Care of Active Duty Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerucha, Caitlyn M; Runser, Lloyd A; Ee, Juliana S; Hersey, Elizabeth G

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed military healthcare providers' knowledge, clinical practice, and comfort in caring for active duty (AD) lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) patients. Primary care providers at Fort Bragg, North Carolina were surveyed anonymously. The response rate was 28% (n = 40). Almost two-thirds of the respondents felt comfortable discussing sexual health with AD patients, but only 5% inquired about same-sex sexual activity. Slightly less than one-third reported prior training in LGB healthcare topics and nearly four-fifths desired clear guidance from the Department of Defense regarding the process for screening and documentation of AD same-sex sexual activity. The findings highlight providers' need and desire for training in LGB patient care.

  14. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  15. Introducing Managers to Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Paul N.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a short course to expose managers to expert systems, consisting of (1) introductory lecture; (2) supervised computer tutorial; (3) lecture and discussion about knowledge structuring and modeling; and (4) small group work on a case study using computers. (SK)

  16. Use of expert systems in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    One dominant aspect of improvement in safe nuclear power plant operation is the very high speed in the development and introduction of computer technologies. This development commenced recently when advanced control technology was incorporated into the nuclear industry. This led to an increasing implementation of information displays, annunciator windows and other devices inside the control room, eventually overburdening the control room operator with detailed information. Expert systems are a further step in this direction being designed to apply large knowledge bases to solve practical problems. These ''intelligent'' systems have to incorporate enough knowledge to reach expert levels of importance and represent a very advanced man-machine interface. The aims of the Technical Committee were addressed by the three Working Groups and summarized in Sections 2, 3 and 4 of this report. Section 2 summarizes the results and discussions on the current capabilities of expert systems and identifies features for the future development and use of Expert Systems in Nuclear Power Plants. Section 3 provides an overview of the discussions and investigations into the current status of Expert Systems in NPPs. This section develops a method for assessing the overall benefit of different applications and recommends a broad strategy for priority developments of Expert Systems in NPPs. Section 4 assesses the overall use of PSA type studies in Expert Systems in NPPs and identifies specific features to be adopted in the design of these systems in future applications. The conclusions of the three Working Groups are presented in Section 5. The 15 papers presented at the meeting formed the Annex of this document. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs, tabs and pictures

  17. An investigation into the use of ''expert systems'' for system-wide diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.W.; Carroll, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper has explained how expert systems function and how they might be used to provide a FASTBUS system-wide diagnostic program. The authors propose that the system be used to diagnose the FASTBUS system at FERMILAB's CDF experiment. There are many important areas which have not been addressed in great detail in this paper (such as the roles of the knowledge engineer and the expert during the knowledge acquisition phase), but the central idea of the embodiment of an expert skill in a computer is clear. Development of a system-wide diagnostic program requires building knowledge from all our system experts, into the system. To expand the expert system beyond its network diagnostic ability, to include finding faulty modules would be worthwhile. Having an ''intelligent'' assistant who is on shift 24 hours each day would relieve the ''real'' experts from laborious, time-consuming and sometimes repetitive tasks undertaken during the debugging process. The system could also provide a testbed for evaluation and comparison when considering future expert-system applications such as ''run-control'' and ''data analysis''. In the context of a system-wide diagnostic program, an ''expert system'' is not intended to replace human experts but simply to help them. It is envisaged that there will always be important interaction between the human expert and the ''expert system''. The incremental development of the ''expert system'' should ensure that it is useful in the short term (by debugging to the S.I./segment level for example), and even more useful in the medium to longer term as it acquires more and more knowledge and the ability to debug to the module level. Expert systems exist and are working successfully in many problem domains. See the bibliography for examples of ''expert systems'' built in the high energy physics environment

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy G Dévieux

    Full Text Available Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti.A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year.The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%, nurses (49.0%, and other health care professionals (20.0%. Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15-5.71 times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing "the best age to perform MMC" as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%.Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health providers in Haiti, studies

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and acceptability to provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling: patients' perspectives in Moshi and Rombo Districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongi, Rachel; Mahande, Michael; Njau, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine testing in a clinical setting as part of a standard programme of medical services. PITC is initiated in order to avoid missed opportunities for people to get tested for HIV. While advocated as a strategy, there is dearth of information on patients' views on PITC in a number of districts in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and acceptability to PITC services among patients attending health care facilities in rural and urban settings in Kilimanjaro region A total of 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 99 (73 female and 26 male) patients enrolled into out-patient clinics in 8 (2 hospitals and 6 primary care centers) health facilities in Moshi Urban and Rombo districts in northern Tanzania. The study explored on knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of PITC, perceived benefits and barriers of PITC, and ethical issues related to PITC. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software. Knowledge about PITC services was generally low. Compared to men, women had a more positive attitude towards PITC services, because of its ability to identify and treat undiagnosed HIV cases. HIV stigma was regarded as a major barrier to patients' uptake of PITC. Institutional factors such as lack of supplies and human resources were identified as barriers to successful provision of PITC. In conclusion, the findings highlight both opportunities and potential barriers in the successful uptake of PITC, and underscore the importance of informed consent, counseling and confidentiality and the need for specific strategies on advocacy for the service.

  20. Diagnostic work-up of neurological syndromes in a rural African setting: knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mpanya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a "diviner" do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. CONCLUSION: Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach.

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Epidemiology and Management of Travelers' Diarrhea: A Survey of Front-Line Providers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, John W

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between medical knowledge and clinical practice, a survey on travelers' diarrhea was administered to military health care providers attending a professional development...

  2. PSG-EXPERT. An expert system for the diagnosis of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred, A; Filipe, J; Partinen, M; Paiva, T

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes PSG-EXPERT, an expert system in the domain of sleep disorders exploring polysomnographic data. The developed software tool is addressed from two points of view: (1)--as an integrated environment for the development of diagnosis-oriented expert systems; (2)--as an auxiliary diagnosis tool in the particular domain of sleep disorders. Developed over a Windows platform, this software tool extends one of the most popular shells--CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) with the following features: backward chaining engine; graph-based explanation facilities; knowledge editor including a fuzzy fact editor and a rules editor, with facts-rules integrity checking; belief revision mechanism; built-in case generator and validation module. It therefore provides graphical support for knowledge acquisition, edition, explanation and validation. From an application domain point of view, PSG-Expert is an auxiliary diagnosis system for sleep disorders based on polysomnographic data, that aims at assisting the medical expert in his diagnosis task by providing automatic analysis of polysomnographic data, summarising the results of this analysis in terms of a report of major findings and possible diagnosis consistent with the polysomnographic data. Sleep disorders classification follows the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Major features of the system include: browsing on patients data records; structured navigation on Sleep Disorders descriptions according to ASDA definitions; internet links to related pages; diagnosis consistent with polysomnographic data; graphical user-interface including graph-based explanatory facilities; uncertainty modelling and belief revision; production of reports; connection to remote databases.

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PENSION FUNDS WITH FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERDAR KORUKOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial rating and ranking firms often use linguistic instead of numerical values. When input data are mostly qualitative and are based on subjective knowledge of experts, the Fuzzy Set Theory provides a solid mathematical model to represent and handle these data. The aim of this study is developing a fuzzy expert model to evaluate the performance of the pension funds by using their risk and return values. The method is used for evaluating the performance of the randomly selected of twenty seven Turkish pension funds. The obtained results proved that the fuzzy expert system is appropriate and consistent for performance evaluation.

  4. The contribution of research on expertise to understanding of expert thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaić Zora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expertise is determined based on the high level of mastery of knowledge and skills in different areas of human activities (science, art, sports and other less formal domains. This paper explores the contribution of empirical research on expertise to understanding of the nature of expert thinking. For that purpose we have compiled an overview and performed an analysis of the findings of relevant research on expertise based on different approaches and paradigms. We have included the studies that researched experts singled out based on their exceptional performances in different domains (absolute expertise and the studies based on comparing experts with novices (relative expertise. We have analyzed the studies using different paradigms: psychometric and cognitive paradigms, as well as the new offshoot, the paradigm based on viewing giftedness as developing expertise. Research results provide empirically grounded findings on the characteristics of expert thinking and consistently point to the fact that knowledge is the core of expertise. The characteristics of expert knowledge are operationalized via the quantity and organization of knowledge and the mastery of deep contents and knowledge systems, which enables the recognition of rules, models and information sets, as well as the use of knowledge in further studying, detecting and solving different problems. It can be concluded that research findings on expertise are one of the foundations in the conceptualization of expert thinking. They significantly contribute to obtaining an insight into the way in which knowledge shapes thought and into understanding the mechanisms of demonstrating knowledge in the mental processes of experts.

  5. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  6. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  7. Knowledge and Practices Relating to Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Health Care Providers in Selected Regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elikana Lekei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. Methodology: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91. The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%. The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Half of all respondents (50% reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experience in the health sector compared with those with <4 years of work experience (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5. Most of the respondents had high knowledge of exposure routes, reporting awareness of oral (98.5%, inhalational (93.9%, and dermal (77% routes. The study revealed low awareness of pesticide classification by chemical groups (29% or World Health Organization hazard (0% and weak knowledge on pesticide label instructions (55%. Organophosphates accounted for 35% of the pesticide products reported by respondents as being responsible for poisoning. Some treatment options were incorrectly reported as first aid options, and some reported first aid options were wrong or inappropriate. Conclusions: The study revealed that HCPs in northern Tanzania lack adequate skills to diagnose and manage APP. For effective surveillance of APP, there is a need to include training on hazards, classification, diagnosis, and health effects in the training programmes for all HCPs in Tanzania.

  8. 20 CFR 405.10 - Medical and Vocational Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical and Vocational Expert System. 405.10... Vocational Expert System. (a) General. The Medical and Vocational Expert System is comprised of the Medical... Vocational Expert System. (3) Experts who provide evidence at your request. Experts whom you ask to provide...

  9. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  10. Providing English foreign language teachers with content knowledge to facilitate decoding and spelling acquisition: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-04-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent to which these teachers retained orthographic-related content knowledge four months after participating in a semester course on the topic. In addition, the study examined the relationship between participants' acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and EFL spelling. Both groups of teachers that studied in the course improved on overall orthographic-related content knowledge, both immediately following the course and longitudinally. Preservice and inservice participants showed similar levels of orthographic knowledge prior to course participation and both showed significant improvements compared to controls following course participation. Participants also retained knowledge four months after course completion. Overall, the inservice teachers scored higher on orthographic-related knowledge, possibly as a result of the immediate application of their newly acquired knowledge. An unexpected finding was a lack of interaction between acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and pseudo word spelling scores. Possible methodological limitations, such as number of participants as well as the length and scope of the course, may explain this outcome. This paper also discusses practical implications of this study for EFL decoding and spelling instruction.

  11. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  12. Measuring the Effectiveness of Gamesourcing Expert Oil Painting Annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Traub (Myriam); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); J. He (Jiyin); L. Hardman (Lynda); M. de Rijke (Maarten); T Kentner; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); F.M.G. de Jong (Franciska); C. Zhai (ChengXiang ); K. Hofmann (Katja); K. Radinsky

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractTasks that require users to have expert knowledge are diffi- cult to crowdsource. They are mostly too complex to be carried out by non-experts and the available experts in the crowd are difficult to target. Adapting an expert task into a non-expert user task, thereby enabling the

  13. NESSUS/EXPERT - An expert system for probabilistic structural analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, H.; Palmer, K.; Fink, P.

    1988-01-01

    An expert system (NESSUS/EXPERT) is presented which provides assistance in using probabilistic structural analysis methods. NESSUS/EXPERT is an interactive menu-driven expert system that provides information to assist in the use of the probabilistic finite element code NESSUS/FEM and the fast probability integrator. NESSUS/EXPERT was developed with a combination of FORTRAN and CLIPS, a C language expert system tool, to exploit the strengths of each language.

  14. A study of diagnostics expert system for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Y.; Banerji, Anil; Kotaiah, S.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge based techniques are proving to be useful in a number of problem domains which typically requires human expertise. Expert systems employing knowledge based techniques are a recent product of artificial intelligence. Methods developed in the artificial intelligence area can be applied with success for certain classes of problems in accelerator. Accelerators are complex devices with thousands of components. The number of possible faults or problems that can appear is enormous. A diagnostics expert system can provide great help in finding and diagnosing problems in Indus-II accelerator sub-systems. (author)

  15. Requirements to obtain the recognition of radiological protection experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguelles, R.; Villarroel, R.; Senderos, V.; Campos, R.; Pinos, M.; Ponjuan, G.; Franco, P.; Rueda, D.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to summarize the general requirements related to education, training and skill of the individual to obtain the recognition of radiological protection experts on ionizing radiation (experts on radiological protection- RP). There has been established two levels according to the grade of responsibility: Qualified expert provided with a diploma given by de Nuclear Safety Council. Technician expert on radiological protection whose certification is made by the Qualified expert that supervise their work. To obtain the diploma of qualified expert is required an official degree, a title of Architecture, Engineering or equivalent in case of no national degrees; specific training on radiological protection (300 hours) and the knowledge on safety and radiological protection of the facilities to be supervised. Three years of experience on radiological protection must be proved. To get the recognition of technician expert on radiological protection is required Formacion Profesional de Grado Superior or equivalent and specific training on safety and radiological protection. Knowledge on basis and principles of radiological protection are required. According to the type of the facilities to be supervised there are two models: A model: to deal with facilities included in RD 1836/1999 (nuclear and radioactive facilities). B model: to deal with medical X rays facilities approved under RD 1891/1991 three months of experience on the selected model must be proved. (Author)

  16. Evolution of Hereditary Breast Cancer Genetic Services: Are Changes Reflected in the Knowledge and Clinical Practices of Florida Providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah; Scherr, Courtney; Camperlengo, Lucia; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Pal, Tuya

    2016-10-01

    We describe practitioner knowledge and practices related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in an evolving landscape of genetic testing. A survey was mailed in late 2013 to Florida providers who order HBOC testing. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize participants' responses. Of 101 respondents, 66% indicated either no genetics education or education through a commercial laboratory. Although 79% of respondents were aware of the Supreme Court ruling resulting in the loss of Myriad Genetics' BRCA gene patent, only 19% had ordered testing from a different laboratory. With regard to pretest counseling, 78% of respondents indicated they usually discuss 11 of 14 nationally recommended elements for informed consent. Pretest discussion times varied from 3 to 120 min, with approximately half spending 40% of respondents included (1) possibility of a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) and (2) issues related to life/disability insurance. With regard to genetic testing for HBOC, 88% would test an unaffected sister of a breast cancer patient identified with a BRCA VUS. Results highlight the need to identify whether variability in hereditary cancer service delivery impacts patient outcomes. Findings also reveal opportunities to facilitate ongoing outreach and education.

  17. Clean delivery practices in rural northern Ghana: a qualitative study of community and provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyer Cheryl A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of

  18. Group Training of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Knowledge Competencies to Community-Based Service Providers for Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; St. Amand, CarrieAnne; MaGee, Christine; Sperry, James M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a training program to teach applied behavior analysis (ABA) knowledge competencies to paraprofessional staff (N = 47) at a habilitation services agency for adults with developmental disabilities. Before and following training, staff completed assessment of knowledge tests for three content areas: basic learning principles,…

  19. Partners for development: Expert assistant in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews the expert assignments received by Malaysia under the TC programme over the 1980-95 time period. It provides data about the type of assignments and expert services, the institutions receiving the experts, and duration of the assignment. Also reviewed is the process of requesting and implementing an expert assignment in Malaysia, as well as the country's related objectives and plans

  20. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  1. Intelligent programs-expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, V X

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, computer scientists have developed what are called expert systems. These programs have three fundamental components: a knowledge base, which changes with experience; an inference engine which enables the program to make decisions; and an interface that allows the program to communicate with the person using the system. Expert systems have been developed successfully in areas such as medical diagnosis, geology, and computer maintenance. This paper describes the evolution and basic principles of expert systems and give some examples of their use.

  2. An Expert System for Designing Fire Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Reinhardt

    1987-01-01

    Managers use prescribed fire to accomplish a variety of resource objectives. The knowledge needed to design successful prescriptions is both quantitative and qualitative. Some of it is available through publications and computer programs, but much of the knowledge of expert practitioners has never been collected or published. An expert system being developed at the,...

  3. Photolithography diagnostic expert systems: a systematic approach to problem solving in a wafer fabrication facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherwax Scott, Caroline; Tsareff, Christopher R.

    1990-06-01

    One of the main goals of process engineering in the semiconductor industry is to improve wafer fabrication productivity and throughput. Engineers must work continuously toward this goal in addition to performing sustaining and development tasks. To accomplish these objectives, managers must make efficient use of engineering resources. One of the tools being used to improve efficiency is the diagnostic expert system. Expert systems are knowledge based computer programs designed to lead the user through the analysis and solution of a problem. Several photolithography diagnostic expert systems have been implemented at the Hughes Technology Center to provide a systematic approach to process problem solving. This systematic approach was achieved by documenting cause and effect analyses for a wide variety of processing problems. This knowledge was organized in the form of IF-THEN rules, a common structure for knowledge representation in expert system technology. These rules form the knowledge base of the expert system which is stored in the computer. The systems also include the problem solving methodology used by the expert when addressing a problem in his area of expertise. Operators now use the expert systems to solve many process problems without engineering assistance. The systems also facilitate the collection of appropriate data to assist engineering in solving unanticipated problems. Currently, several expert systems have been implemented to cover all aspects of the photolithography process. The systems, which have been in use for over a year, include wafer surface preparation (HMDS), photoresist coat and softbake, align and expose on a wafer stepper, and develop inspection. These systems are part of a plan to implement an expert system diagnostic environment throughout the wafer fabrication facility. In this paper, the systems' construction is described, including knowledge acquisition, rule construction, knowledge refinement, testing, and evaluation. The roles

  4. Expert Systems: An Overview for Teacher-Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…

  5. The structure of surface texture knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wang; Scott, Paul J; Jiang Xiangqian

    2005-01-01

    This research aims to create an intelligent knowledge-based system for engineering and bio-medical engineering surface texture, which will provide expert knowledge of surface texture to link surface function, specification of micro- and nano-geometry through manufacture, and verification. The intelligent knowledge base should be capable of incorporating knowledge from multiple sources (standards, books, experts, etc), adding new knowledge from these sources and still remain a coherent reliable system. A new data model based on category theory will be adopted to construct this system

  6. Current Hitachi knowledge engineering systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, S; Maeda, A; Masuishi, T [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    In order to bring the knowledge engineering technology up to the practical phase, Hitachi has provided several knowledge engineering system products, including expert system building tools, knowledge acquisition tools, and many kinds of stand-alone and build-in expert systems in both the business and process control fields. In this review article, an overview of Hitachi{prime}s recent knowledge systems is described, which includes a trend analysis on recent market recognition. In addition, to introduce the Hitachi{prime}s current activities, a new product, a user interface building tool, and a new method of tuning fuzzy membership functions using a neuro-computing algorithm are also described. Furthermore, it is pointed out that not only practical tools and methodologies, but also a practical development team, including a planning section, a cooperating expert, a user section, and experienced knowledge engineers, is needed to achieve practical expert systems. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Interactions of experts and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    1986-01-01

    When a radiation emergency occurs media people will respond. The people in the press are the conduit to the public; they provide information. When there is a major tragedy, people instantly turn to the press. However, reporters are not experts in the field of radiation and they are going to bring a great diversity of backgrounds, technical understanding, perception, and their own fears to any story involving a radiation release. Therefore, when any organization has to deal with the media, an informational structure staffed by knowledgeable people is needed in advance to provide timely and accurate information

  8. Knowledge and perceptions of the intrauterine device among family planning providers in Nepal: a cross-sectional analysis by cadre and sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nirali M; Murphy, Caitlin; Paudel, Mahesh; Sharma, Sriju

    2015-01-28

    Nepal has high unmet need for family planning and low use of intrauterine devices (IUDs). While clients' attitudes toward the IUD are known in a variety of contexts, little is known about providers' knowledge and perceptions of the IUD in developing countries. Nepal's liberal IUD service provision policies allow the opportunity to explore provider knowledge and perceptions across cadres and sectors. This research contributes to an understanding of providers' IUD perceptions in low-resource environments, and increases evidence for IUD task-sharing and private sector involvement. A questionnaire was administered to 345 nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) affiliated with the private Mahila Swastha Sewa (MSS) franchise, public sector, or private non-franchise sector. All providers had been trained in TCu 380A IUD insertion and removal. The questionnaire captured providers' IUD experience, knowledge, and perceived barriers to recommendation. Descriptive, multivariate linear, and multinomial logistic regression was conducted, comparing providers between cadre and sector. On average, providers answered 21.5 of 35 questions correctly, for a score of 61.4%. Providers scored the lowest on IUD medical eligibility, answering 5.9 of 14 questions correctly. Over 50% of providers were able to name the four side effects most frequently associated with the IUD; however, one-third of all providers found at least one of these side effects unacceptable. Adjusted results show that cadre does not significantly impact provider's IUD knowledge scores or side effect perceptions. Public sector affiliation was associated with higher knowledge scores regarding personal characteristic eligibility and more negative perceptions of two normal IUD side effects. IUD knowledge is significantly associated with provider's recent training and employment at multiple facilities, and side effect perceptions are significantly associated with client volume, range of family planning methods, and

  9. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  10. ALICE Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, C; Carena, F

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period

  11. Modelling of the knowledge for monitoring expert systems in nuclear power plant safety; Modelagem do conhecimento para sistemas inteligentes de monitoracao em seguranca de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Liana; Schirru, Roberto; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1997-12-01

    Safety operation support systems for NPP faced problems of difficult solutions along their development. This work presents possible solution to such problems, and contribute to enhance the reliability and performance of such system using Artificial Intelligence. Knowledge representation is capital in this work since it express the dependence on variables in a rather natural way. therefore, it makes intrinsic the concepts of synchronism and concurrence in real-time approach. Other advantages are easy V and V processes and simplification of the system maintenance procedures. The inference process is carried out through the rules that are generated from knowledge base. These rules are charged following a conflict resolution optimized for time-real approach. The real application used to validate the model efficiency, consists in part of SICA (Integrated System of the Angra-1 Computers). The application results revealed very positive reducing the quantity of the SICA conventional software code programming. As far the system performance. the knowledge structures and the conflict resolution strategy adopted allowed for guarantee not only the time control for inference, but also a response time compatible with that requested for power plant safety support. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Development of a rule-based diagnostic platform on an object-oriented expert system shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multilevel Flow Model represents system knowledge as a domain map in expert system. • Rule-based fault diagnostic expert system can identify root cause via a causal chain. • Rule-based fault diagnostic expert system can be used for fault simulation training. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and implementation of a real-time rule-based diagnostic platform. The knowledge is acquired from domain experts and textbooks and the design of the fault diagnosis expert system was performed in the following ways: (i) establishing of corresponding classes and instances to build the domain map, (ii) creating of generic fault models based on events, and (iii) building of diagnostic reasoning based on rules. Knowledge representation is a complicated issue of expert systems. One highlight of this paper is that the Multilevel Flow Model has been used to represent the knowledge, which composes the domain map within the expert system as well as providing a concise description of the system. The developed platform is illustrated using the pressure safety system of a pressurized water reactor as an example of the simulation test bed; the platform is developed using the commercial and industrially validated software G2. The emulation test was conducted and it has been proven that the fault diagnosis expert system can identify the faults correctly and in a timely way; this system can be used as a simulation-based training tool to assist operators to make better decisions.

  13. Medical students' perceptions regarding the importance of nutritional knowledge and their confidence in providing competent nutrition practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlstein, R; McCoombe, S; Shaw, C; Nowson, C

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire. Most preclinical students agreed that medical graduates should understand nutritional issues in managing cardiovascular disease (99%), type 2 diabetes (93%), coeliac disease (95%), and renal impairment (97%). However, students were limited in their confidence to demonstrate this knowledge (range of confidence: 26%-41%) for individual medical conditions. This improved for students in the clinical context of years 3 and 4, although it was still not optimal (range 26%-81%). Few year 3 and 4 students reported confidence in knowledge related to medicolegal issues, respiratory disease, nutritional guidelines and nutrition assessment (all 80%) reported confidence in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and coeliac disease and >60% indicated they would refer onto nutrition professionals. This cohort of postgraduate medical students recognize the importance of nutrition in disease. The number of students reporting increased confidence in nutritional management of a few select diseases where dietary management is one of the cornerstones of treatment (e.g. type 2 diabetes) rises throughout the course. However, students reported lower levels of knowledge in diseases where diet is secondary to other treatments and preventative strategies (e.g. respiratory disease). Filling the gap by integrating the nutritional management into the range of common chronic diseases during training

  14. In the public interest: assessing expert and stakeholder influence in public deliberation about biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Samantha; Burgess, Michael M

    2010-07-01

    Providing technical and experiential information without overwhelming participants' perspectives presents a major challenge to public involvement in policy decisions. This article reports the design and analysis of a case study on incorporating expert and stakeholder knowledge without including them as deliberators, while supporting deliberative participants' ability to introduce and critically assess different perspectives. Analysis of audio-recorded deliberations illustrates how expert and stakeholder knowledge was cited, criticized and incorporated into deliberations. In conclusion, separating experts and stakeholders from deliberations may be an important prima facie principle when the goal is to enhance citizen representation on technical issues and related policy.

  15. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots enhance a safety and operations in nuclear plants. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligence, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  16. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots will enhance safety and operations in nuclear plants. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligent, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  17. Bullous Impetigo Rapid Diagnostic and Therapeutic Quiz: A Model for Assessing Basic Dermatology Knowledge of Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Daren J; Grossberg, Anna L; Cohen, Bernard A

    2016-11-01

    Bullous impetigo (BI) is a common dermatologic condition, particularly in children, yet confusion regarding its diagnosis and treatment persists. This study measured pediatricians' ability to diagnose and appropriately treat BI and explored factors that might influence pediatricians' accuracy in managing BI. We administered an expert-validated survey to 64 pediatrics house staff and faculty at three Johns Hopkins Medicine facilities. The survey requested demographic information, diagnoses for five "unknown" cases, and preferred treatments for localized and widespread BI. Overall, BI was diagnosed correctly 31.9% of the time. There was little difference between house staff and faculty performance, although faculty 50 years of age and older demonstrated better diagnostic acumen. Regarding treatment of localized BI, 92% of faculty members and 84.6% of house staff listed mupirocin as first- or second-line treatment. The second most common medication listed for localized BI was bacitracin. Regarding treatment of widespread BI, faculty listed cephalexin or clindamycin as first- or second-line treatment 56.0% of the time and house staff listed one of these two medications 51.3% of the time. Results for faculty 50 years of age and older were comparable. Improved pediatrician proficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of BI is needed for safe, cost-effective management. Physician age and experience appear to have a limited effect on the accuracy of BI diagnosis and management. Future educational efforts must be directed at trainees and their instructors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. SIDES - Segment Interconnect Diagnostic Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.W.; Forster, R.; Gustafsson, L.; Ho, N.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. The SI is probably the most important module in any FASTBUS data acquisition network since it's failure to function can cause whole segments of the network to be inaccessible and sometimes inoperable. This paper describes SIDES, an intelligent program designed to diagnose SI's both in situ as they operate in a data acquisition network, and in the laboratory in an acceptance/repair environment. The paper discusses important issues such as knowledge acquisition; extracting knowledge from human experts and other knowledge sources. SIDES can benefit high energy physics experiments, where SI problems can be diagnosed and solved more quickly. Equipment pool technicians can also benefit from SIDES, first by decreasing the number of SI's erroneously turned in for repair, and secondly as SIDES acts as an intelligent assistant to the technician in the diagnosis and repair process

  19. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  20. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, “Quality of work” and “Total productivity”, had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it

  1. REXS : A financial risk diagnostic expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Richter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Artificial intelligence techniques are rapidly emerging as important contributors to more effective management. One of the greatest growth areas probably lies in the use of Expert System methodology for supporting managerial decision processes.
    Existing Decision Support Systems often attempt to apply analytical techniques in combination with traditional data access and retrieval functions. One of the problems usually encountered while developing such decision support systems is the need to transform an unstructured problem environment into a structured analytical model. Using an expert system approach to strategic decision making in such unstructured problem environments may provide significant advantages.
    The financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS concentrates on Financial Risk Analysis. Based on a Forecasting Model the system will, with the support of several expert system knowledge bases, attempt to evaluate the financial risk of a business and provide guidelines for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnieke gebaseer op Kunsmatige Intelligensie toon tans die belofte om belangrike bydraes te maak tot meerBestaande Besluitsteunstelsels poog dikwels om analitiese tegnieke en lradisionele datatoegang- en onttrekkingsfunksies te kombineer. Een van die probleme wat gewoonlik ondervind word gedurende die ontwikkeling van '0 besluitsteunstelsel bestaan uit die behoefte om 'n ongestruktueerde probleemomgewing te transformeer na 'n gestruktueerde analitiese model. 'n Ekspertstelselbenadering lot strategiese besluitneming in 'n ongeSlruktureerde probleemomgewing mag betekenisvolle voordele inhou.
    Die "financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS" konsentreer op fmansiele risiko-analise. Uitgaande vanaf 'n Vooruitskattingsmode~ en deur gebruik te maak van verskeie ekspertstelselkennisbasisse, poog die stelsel om die fmansiele risiko van 'n onderneming te evalueer en riglyne vir moontlike verbetering

  2. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  3. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  4. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perre, M.

    1991-01-01

    TNO Physics and Electronics laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Limburg and the Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, worked on a technology project named 'QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems' [FEL90]. QUEST was carried out under commision of the Dutch Ministry of Defence. A strong

  5. The role of the expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, P.

    1998-01-01

    The expert's role in the involvement in decisions on nuclear risks is discussed. The responsibility of scientists in ethics and in several sociological problems is highlighted. The mandates, the positivist reaction, way to knowledge, the scientist as a subject studying an object, and application in the domain of radioprotection are the main issues of the somewhat philosophical essay. (R.P.)

  6. Impact of an online medical internet site on knowledge and practice of health care providers: a mixed methods study of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Janice J; Noonan, Vanessa K; Townson, Andrea F; Higgins, Caroline E; Rogers, Jess; Wolfe, Dalton L

    2014-12-23

    It is not known whether ongoing access to a broad-based Internet knowledge resource can influence the practice of health care providers. We undertook a study to evaluate the impact of a Web-based knowledge resource on increasing access to evidence and facilitating best practice of health care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence (SCIRE) project on access to information for health care providers and researchers and (2) how SCIRE influenced health care providers' management of clients. A 4-part mixed methods evaluation was undertaken: (1) monitoring website traffic and utilization using Google Analytics, (2) online survey of users who accessed the SCIRE website, (3) online survey of targeted end-users, that is, rehabilitation health care providers known to work with spinal cord injury (SCI) clients, as well as researchers, and (4) focus groups with health care providers who had previously accessed SCIRE. The online format allowed the content for a relatively specialized field to have far reach (eg, 26 countries and over 6500 users per month). The website survey and targeted end-user survey confirmed that health care providers, as well as researchers perceived that the website increased their access to SCI evidence. Access to SCIRE not only improved knowledge of SCI evidence but helped inform changes to the health providers' clinical practice and improved their confidence in treating SCI clients. The SCIRE information directly influenced the health providers' clinical decision making, in terms of choice of intervention, equipment needs, or assessment tool. A Web-based knowledge resource may be a relatively inexpensive method to increase access to evidence-based information, increase knowledge of the evidence, inform changes to the health providers' practice, and influence their clinical decision making.

  7. An abnormal event advisory expert system prototype for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators must respond correctly during abnormal conditions in the presence of dynamic and potentially overwhelming volumes of information. For this reason, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of nuclear plant operator aids using artificial intelligence techniques. The objective of such systems is to diagnose abnormal conditions within the plant, possibly predict consequences, and advise the operators of corrective actions in a timely manner. The objective of the work is the development of a prototype expert system to diagnose abnormal events at a nuclear power plant and advise plant operators of the event and applicable procedures in an on-line mode. The major difference between this effort and previous work is the use of plant operating procedures as a knowledge source and as an integral part of the advice provided by the expert system. The acceptance by utilities of expert systems as operator aids requires that such systems be compatible with the regulatory environment and provide economic benefits. For this reason, commercially viable operator aid systems developed in the near future must complement existing plant procedures rather than reach beyond them in a revolutionary manner. A knowledge source is the resource providing facts and relationships that are coded into the expert system program. In this case, the primary source of knowledge is a set of selected abnormal operating procedures for a modern Westinghouse pressurized water reactor

  8. An evidence synthesis of the international knowledge base for new care models to inform and mobilise knowledge for multispecialty community providers (MCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alison; Mulla, Abeda; Booth, Andrew; Aldridge, Shiona; Stevens, Sharon; Battye, Fraser; Spilsbury, Peter

    2016-10-01

    NHS England's Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and deliver services closer to home through integrated models. This synthesis focuses on a multispecialty community provider (MCP) model. This new model of care seeks to overcome the limitations in current models of care, often based around single condition-focused pathways, in contrast to patient-focused delivery (Royal College of General Practitioners, The 2022 GP: compendium of evidence, 2012) which offers greater continuity of care in recognition of complex needs and multimorbidity. The synthesis, an innovative combination of best fit framework synthesis and realist synthesis, will develop a "blueprint" which articulates how and why MCP models work, to inform design of future iterations of the MCP model. A systematic search will be conducted to identify research and practice-derived evidence to achieve a balance that captures the historical legacy of MCP models but focuses on contemporary evidence. Sources will include bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, HMIC and Cochrane Library; and grey literature sources. The Best Fit synthesis methodology will be combined with a synthesis following realist principles which are particularly suited to exploring what works, when, for whom and in what circumstances. The aim of this synthesis is to provide decision makers in health and social care with a practical evidence base relating to the multispecialty community provider (MCP) model of care. PROSPERO CRD42016039552 .

  9. Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Prescribing Among Washington State Medical Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian R; McMahan, Vanessa M; Naismith, Kelly; Stockton, Jonathan B; Delaney, Lori A; Stekler, Joanne D

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to assess HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and prescribing practices among Washington State medical providers from diverse professional disciplines and practice types. In May 2016, we administered an anonymous online survey to licensed medical practitioners who provide primary, longitudinal, walk-in, emergency, obstetric, gynecologic, sexually transmitted infection (STI), or family planning care. Of 735 eligible providers, 64.8% had heard of PrEP. Younger providers and providers with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree were more likely to be aware of PrEP compared to older providers (p=0.0001) and providers of other training backgrounds (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner [ARNP], Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine [DO], or Physician Assistant [PA]) (p=0.04). Among providers aware of PrEP, most frequent reported concerns about prescribing were adherence (46.0%) and costs (42.9%). Providers felt very (20.1%) or somewhat (33.8%) comfortable discussing PrEP overall, but very (26.8%) or somewhat (44.7%) uncomfortable discussing cost and insurance issues. The 124 PrEP prescribers reported a median of 2 (range 1-175, total 1,142) patients prescribed PrEP. Prior authorizations and insurance denials had prevented prescriptions for 28.7% and 12.1% of prescribers, respectively. Interventions to improve PrEP access should include education to inform medical providers about PrEP, with particular attention to provider types less likely to be aware. Continued efforts to eliminate cost and insurance barriers and educate providers regarding financial resources would help improve PrEP access.

  10. The Shrinkage Model And Expert System Of Plastic Lens Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rong-Seng

    1988-06-01

    Shrinkage causes both the appearance & dimension defects of the injected plastic lens. We have built up a model of state equations with the help of finite element analysis program to estimate the volume change (shrinkage and swelling) under the combinations of injection variables such as pressure and temperature etc., then the personal computer expert system has been build up to make that knowledge conveniently available to the user in the model design, process planning, process operation and some other work. The domain knowledge is represented by a R-graph (Relationship-graph) model which states the relationships of variables & equations. This model could be compare with other models in the expert system. If the user has better model to solve the shrinkage problem, the program will evaluate it automatically and a learning file will be trigger by the expert system to teach the user to update their knowledge base and modify the old model by this better model. The Rubin's model and Gilmore's model have been input to the expert system. The conflict has been solved both from the user and the deeper knowledge base. A cube prism and the convex lens examples have been shown in this paper. This program is written by MULISP language in IBM PC-AT. The natural language provides English Explaination of know why and know how and the automatic English translation for the equation rules and the production rules.

  11. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Communication Behavior of Oncology Health-care Providers (HCPs) regarding Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Patient Health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Walters, Chasity B; Staley, Jessica M; Alexander, Koshy; Parker, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of culturally competent care toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients depends on how health-care providers (HCPs) communicate with them; however, research about knowledge, attitude, and behavior of HCPs toward LGBT patients is scant. The objectives of our study were to describe oncology HCPs' knowledge and examine if beliefs about LGB and transgender patients mediate the effects of LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with LGB and transgender patients, respectively. A total of 1253 HCPs (187 physicians, 153 advance practice professionals (APPs), 828 nurses, and 41 others) at a Comprehensive Cancer Center completed an online survey that included the following measures: LGBT health-care knowledge, beliefs, communication behaviors, willingness to treat LGBT patients, encouraging LGBT disclosure, and perceived importance of LGBT sensitivity training. Only 50 participants (5%) correctly answered all 7 knowledge items, and about half the respondents answered 3 (out of 7) items correctly. Favorable beliefs about LGBT health care mediated the effect of higher LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with transgender patients, controlling for effects of type of profession, religious orientation, gender identity, sexual orientation, and having LGBT friends/family. The results of this study demonstrated an overall lack of medical knowledge and the need for more education about LGBT health care among oncology HCPs.

  12. Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Oliveros, Maria Guadalupe; Bisogni, Carole A; Frongillo, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of expert judgement in NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, N.R.; Wheeler, T.A.; Breeding, R.J.; Hora, S.; Meyer, M.A.; Kenney, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The explicit expert judgment process used in NUREG-1150, 'Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Plants', is discussed in this paper. The main steps of the process are described, including selection of issues and experts, elicitation training, presentation of issues to the experts, preparation of issue analyses by the experts, discussion of issue analyses and elicitation, and recomposition and aggregation of results. To demonstrate the application of the expert judgment process to NUREG-1150, two issues are summarized: one from the accident frequency analysis, and one from the accident progression analysis. Recommendations and insights are provided to improve the use of explicit expert judgment in complex technical issues. (orig.)

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and other factors associated with assessment of tobacco smoking among pregnant Aboriginal women by health care providers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; D'Este, Catherine A; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2012-03-07

    As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with providing smoking cessation advice. This paper aimed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers caring for pregnant Australian Aboriginal women with regard to smoking risks and cessation; and to identify factors associated with self-reported assessment of smoking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 127 staff providing antenatal care to Aboriginal women from two jurisdictions: the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Measures included respondents' estimate of the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women; optimal and actual assessment of smoking status; knowledge of risks associated with antenatal smoking; knowledge of smoking cessation; attitudes to providing cessation advice to pregnant women; and perceived barriers and motivators for cessation for pregnant women. The median provider estimate of the smoking prevalence was 69% (95%CI: 60,70). The majority of respondents considered assessment of smoking status to be integral to antenatal care and a professional responsibility. Most (79%) indicated that they assess smoking status in 100% of clients. Knowledge of risks was generally good, but knowledge of cessation was poor. Factors independently associated with assessing smoking status among all women were: employer service type (p = 0.025); cessation knowledge score (p = 0.011); and disagreeing with the statement that giving advice is not worth it given the low level of success (p = 0.011). Addressing knowledge of smoking risks and cessation counselling is a priority

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and other factors associated with assessment of tobacco smoking among pregnant Aboriginal women by health care providers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with providing smoking cessation advice. Methods This paper aimed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers caring for pregnant Australian Aboriginal women with regard to smoking risks and cessation; and to identify factors associated with self-reported assessment of smoking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 127 staff providing antenatal care to Aboriginal women from two jurisdictions: the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Measures included respondents' estimate of the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women; optimal and actual assessment of smoking status; knowledge of risks associated with antenatal smoking; knowledge of smoking cessation; attitudes to providing cessation advice to pregnant women; and perceived barriers and motivators for cessation for pregnant women. Results The median provider estimate of the smoking prevalence was 69% (95%CI: 60,70. The majority of respondents considered assessment of smoking status to be integral to antenatal care and a professional responsibility. Most (79% indicated that they assess smoking status in 100% of clients. Knowledge of risks was generally good, but knowledge of cessation was poor. Factors independently associated with assessing smoking status among all women were: employer service type (p = 0.025; cessation knowledge score (p = 0.011; and disagreeing with the statement that giving advice is not worth it given the low level of success (p = 0.011. Conclusions Addressing

  16. Expert Systems: A Challenge for the Reading Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    The expert systems are designed to imitate the reasoning of a human expert in a content area field. Designed to be advisors, these software systems combine the content area knowledge and decision-making ability of an expert with the user's understanding and knowledge of particular circumstances. The reading diagnosis system, the RD2P System…

  17. Expert systems and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute have initiated a broad-based exploration of means to evaluate the potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This exploratory effort will assess the use of expert systems to augment the diagnostic and decision-making capabilities of personnel with the goal of enhancing productivity, reliability, and performance. The initial research effort is the development and documentation of guidelines for verifying and validating (V and V) expert systems. An initial application of expert systems in the nuclear industry is to aid operations and maintenance personnel in decision-making tasks. The scope of the decision aiding covers all types of cognitive behavior consisting of skill, rule, and knowledge-based behavior. For example, procedure trackers were designed and tested to support rule-based behavior. Further, these systems automate many of the tedious, error-prone human monitoring tasks, thereby reducing the potential for human error. The paper version of the procedure contains the knowledge base and the rules and thus serves as the basis of the design verification of the procedure tracker. Person-in-the-loop tests serve as the basis for the validation of a procedure tracker. When conducting validation tests, it is important to ascertain that the human retains the locus of control in the use of the expert system

  18. Tinkering with Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina

    Think tanks, or policy institutes, are becoming significant ‘sites of normativity’ on the global political scene. While their primary concern often is to provide knowledge, based on which decision makers can make informed choices, they also play a part in setting organizational agendas...... and priorities, and in mobilizing for political action. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in think tanks in Washington DC, the paper engages with the modes representation used by policy experts as they strive to get traction and establish credibility for their ideas. The work of policy experts can be understood...

  19. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack

  20. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack intellectual

  1. Experts in science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...

  2. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  3. Expert software for accident identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobnikar, M.; Nemec, T.; Muehleisen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  4. Knowledge and Skills of Healthcare Providers in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia before and after Competency-Based Training in Emergency Obstetric and Early Newborn Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Charles A; Kerr, Robert; Madaj, Barbara; Mdegela, Mselenge; Kana, Terry; Jones, Susan; Lambert, Jaki; Dickinson, Fiona; White, Sarah; van den Broek, Nynke

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare provider training in Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmOC&NC) is a component of 65% of intervention programs aimed at reducing maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of this. We evaluated knowledge and skills among 5,939 healthcare providers before and after 3-5 days 'skills and drills' training in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmOC&NC) conducted in 7 sub-Saharan Africa countries (Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zimbabwe) and 2 Asian countries (Bangladesh, Pakistan). Standardised assessments using multiple choice questions and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) were used to measure change in knowledge and skills and the Improvement Ratio (IR) by cadre and by country. Linear regression was performed to identify variables associated with pre-training score and IR. 99.7% of healthcare providers improved their overall score with a median (IQR) increase of 10.0% (5.0% - 15.0%) for knowledge and 28.8% (23.1% - 35.1%) for skill. There were significant improvements in knowledge and skills for each cadre of healthcare provider and for each country (phealthcare providers working in maternity wards in both sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Additional support and training is needed for use of the partograph as a tool to monitor progress in labour. Further research is needed to assess if this is translated into improved service delivery.

  5. Obstetric care providers' knowledge, practice and associated factors towards active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenaw, Zelalem; Yohannes, Zemenu; Amano, Abdela

    2017-09-07

    Active management of third stage of labor played a great role to prevent child birth related hemorrhage. However, maternal morbidity and mortality related to hemorrhage is high due to lack of knowledge and skill of obstetric care providers 'on active management of third stage of labor. Our study was aimed to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors of obstetric care providers (Midwives, Nurses and Health officers) on active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. An institution based cross sectional study design was conducted from December 1-30 /2015 among midwives, nurses and health officers. Simple random sampling technique was used to get the total of 528 participants. Data entry was done using EPI Info 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software package for analysis. The presence of association between independent and dependent variables was assessed using odds ratio with 97% confidence interval by applying logistic regression model. Of the 528 obstetric care providers 37.7% and 32.8% were knowledgeable and skilled to manage third stage of labor respectively. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that pre/in service training, being midwife and graduation year were found to be the major predictors of proper active management of third stage of labor. The knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers towards active management of third stage of labor can be improved with appropriate interventions like in-service trainings. This study also clearly showed that the level of knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers to wards active management of third stage of labor needs immediate attention of Universities and health science colleges better to revise their obstetrics course contents, health institutions and zonal health bureau should arrange trainings for their obstetrics care providers to enhance skill.

  6. Impact of primary care provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer clinical trials: implications for referral, education and advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Margo; D'Agostino, Thomas A; Blakeney, Natasha; Weiss, Elisa S; Binz-Scharf, Maria C; Golant, Mitch; Bylund, Carma L

    2015-03-01

    Primary Care Providers (PCPs) can be instrumental in helping to prepare patients for referral to cancer treatment. It has been suggested that PCPs can have an important impact on priming patients about the possibility of receiving care within a cancer treatment clinical trial (CCT). However, little is understood about how to effectively engage primary care providers in educating patients about trials. Data were collected as part of two qualitative research projects about primary care providers' role in referral to treatment and to CCTs. Participants were 27 PCPs who agreed to take part in qualitative face-to-face or telephone interviews and serve predominantly underserved, minority populations. Interviews identified a number of factors influencing referral to oncologists, including patients' insurance coverage, location and proximity to treatment facilities, and the strength of ongoing relationships with and/or previous experience with a specialist. PCPs overwhelmingly expressed disinterest in discussing any treatment options, including CCTs. Misconceptions about quality of care received through trials were also common, presenting a deterrent to discussion. PCPs need targeted, evidence-based educational interventions to appropriately address their concerns about cancer clinical trials, enhance provider communication skills, and alter patient referral behavior. Steps must also be taken to strengthen communication between oncologists and referring PCPs.

  7. Use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in expert systems to advise nuclear plant operators and managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been modified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) 3 of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  9. The effect of interprofessional education on interprofessional performance and diabetes care knowledge of health care teams at the level one of health service providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoo Yamani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It seems that inter-professional education can improve the quality of health care to some extent through influencing knowledge and collaborative performance of health care teams. It also can make the health-related messages provided to the covered population more consistent in addition to enhancing self-confidence of the personnel.

  10. Health knowledge, attitudes and practices of family planning service providers and clients in Akwapim North District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuahene, Margaret Duah; Afari, Esther Oku; Adjuik, Martin; Obed, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Family planning services help save lives by reducing women's exposure to risks of child birth and abortion. While family planning services provide measures to prevent unintended pregnancies and time the formation of families, the acceptability and coverage is still very low worldwide. Some of the reasons for this include poor quality of service, unavailability of range of methods, fear of opposition from partners, side effects and health concerns among others.About 40 % of the world's 215,000 annual deaths in childbirth occur in the Sub-Saharan region. In Ghana, urban-rural fertility differences range from two to three children. The acceptability and coverage of family planning are still low and in the study area in particular. We sought to examine factors that contribute to low acceptability and coverage of family planning services in a sub-urban community with a design of quantitative cross-sectional. Ethical approval was given by the Ghana Health Service. Midwives and community health nurses who provide family planning services were interviewed. Exit-interview was also conducted with women receiving a variety of outpatient services. Most of the women in this study (48.7 %) were in the 25-34 age range and were either married (42.8 %) or cohabiting (40.5 %). Majority of these women (67.7 %) have middle/Junior high level of formal education with a modal parity of two. Sixty eight (68) clients were identified as current family planning users. About 6.0 % and 4.5 % were dissatisfied about auditory and visual privacy during counselling respectively. This was confirmed by providers who attributed it to inappropriate facility layout. Most of the clients (79.1 %) were not given educational materials although 88.8 % were talked to about family planning and this could be due to unavailability of these hand-outs.Though clients show satisfaction of services received, providers did not follow standard protocols with as much as 73.7 % faced with challenges in

  11. Equipping providers with principles, knowledge and skills to successfully integrate behaviour change counselling into practice: a primary healthcare framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallis, M; Lee-Baggley, D; Sampalli, T; Ryer, A; Ryan-Carson, S; Kumanan, K; Edwards, L

    2018-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare providers and healthcare systems to support productive interactions with patients that promote sustained health behaviour change in order to improve patient and population health outcomes. Behaviour change theories and interventions have been developed and evaluated in experimental contexts; however, most healthcare providers have little training, and therefore low confidence in, behaviour change counselling. Particularly important is how to integrate theory and method to support healthcare providers to engage in behaviour change counselling competently. In this article, we describe a general training model developed from theory, evidence, experience and stakeholder engagement. This model will set the stage for future evaluation research on training needed to achieve competency, sustainability of competency, as well as effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of training in supporting behaviour change. A framework to support competency based training in behaviour change counselling is described in this article. This framework is designed to be integrative, sustainable, scalable and capable of being evaluated in follow-up studies. Effective training in behaviour change counselling is critical to meet the current and future healthcare needs of patients living with, or at risk of, chronic diseases. Increasing competency in establishing change-based relationships, assessing and promoting readiness to change, implementing behaviour modification and addressing psychosocial issues will be value added to the healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expert systems development: some problems, motives and issues in an exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi Sagheb-Tehrani.

    1993-10-01

    Even though expert systems (ES) have been in use since the early eighties, there is a remarkable lack of a strong theoretical base for handling expert systems development problems. There is a requirement in the ES field for theories or explanatory models to formulate propositions, to conduct research and interpret findings in a coherent way. This work presents an exploratory investigation designed to identify some problems, motives and issues associated with developing expert systems. Totally, twenty-five expert systems were developed by various organizations which participated in the study. The study attempts to provide evidence that either supports or refutes the anecdotes, gossips and speculations currently being spread through the academic journals dealing with the expert systems development in organizations. This study provides evidence that knowledge acquisition is indeed the bottleneck of expert systems development. It also points out that most expert systems are still in the prototype stage, and that current expert systems are mostly used for aiding the decision making of less skilled domain personnel and to a lesser extent for advice to experts. The rationale behind these uses seems to be the search by organizations for better decision making in the hope of improving competitiveness. A conceptual model of expert systems development is introduced based upon theoretical studies and the findings of this study from which some hypotheses are drawn. The main objective of the model is to contribute to a larger theoretical framework. Another aim is to create a broader theoretical framework for expert systems development in order to implement such systems more successfully. The results of the study confirm that the linkages of various concepts involved in the expert systems development process are very important for the design of a successful expert system project

  13. Knowledge, Beliefs and Practices Regarding Antiretroviral Medications for HIV Prevention: Results from a Survey of Healthcare Providers in New England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Krakower

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infection before immunologic decline (early ART and pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP can prevent HIV transmission, but routine adoption of these practices by clinicians has been limited.Between September and December 2013, healthcare practitioners affiliated with a regional AIDS Education and Training Center in New England were invited to complete online surveys assessing knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding early ART and PrEP. Multivariable models were utilized to determine characteristics associated with prescribing intentions and practices.Surveys were completed by 184 practitioners. Respondent median age was 44 years, 58% were female, and 82% were white. Among ART-prescribing clinicians (61% of the entire sample, 64% were aware that HIV treatment guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommended early ART, and 69% indicated they would prescribe ART to all HIV-infected patients irrespective of immunologic status. However, 77% of ART-prescribing clinicians would defer ART for patients not ready to initiate treatment. Three-fourths of all respondents were aware of guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending PrEP provision, 19% had prescribed PrEP, and 58% of clinicians who had not prescribed PrEP anticipated future prescribing. Practitioners expressed theoretical concerns and perceived practical barriers to prescribing early ART and PrEP. Clinicians with higher percentages of HIV-infected patients (aOR 1.16 per 10% increase in proportion of patients with HIV-infection, 95% CI 1.01-1.34 and infectious diseases specialists (versus primary care physicians; aOR 3.32, 95% CI 0.98-11.2 were more likely to report intentions to prescribe early ART. Higher percentage of HIV-infected patients was also associated with having prescribed PrEP (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.34, whereas female gender (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10-0.71 was associated with having not

  14. Impact of educational outreach intervention on enhancing health care providers' knowledge about statin therapy prescribing in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaem, Mohamed Hassan; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Azarisman, Shah M

    2018-03-06

    Previous research reported underutilization of statin therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Improving health care providers' awareness and understanding of the benefits and risks of statin treatment could be of assistance in optimizing the statin prescribing process. This study aimed to assess health care providers' knowledge related to statin therapy and the impact of educational outreach intervention based on the perceived knowledge. This was a cross-sectional study based on educational outreach intervention targeting physicians and pharmacists in 1 major tertiary hospital in the state of Pahang, Malaysia. Participants responded to a 12-item, validated questionnaire both prior to and after the outreach educational program. Two sessions were conducted separately for 2 cohorts of pharmacists and physicians. The knowledge scores prior to and after the educational intervention were calculated and compared using a paired-samples t-test. The response rate to both pre-and post-educational outreach questionnaires was 91% (40/44). Prior to the intervention, around 84% (n37) of the participants decided to initiate statin therapy for both pre-assessment clinical case scenarios; however, only 27% (n12) could state the clinical benefits of statin therapy. Forty-five percent (n20) could state the drug to drug interactions, and 52.3% (n23) could identify the statin therapy that can be given at any time day/evening. The educational outreach program increased participants' knowledge scores of 1.450 (95% CI, 0.918 to 1.982) point, P health care providers' knowledge and beliefs about statin therapy. This type of intervention is considered effective for short-term knowledge enhancement. Further research is needed to test the long-term efficacy of such intervention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Steven J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs. Methods This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140, Laos (136, Senegal (100 and Tanzania (121. Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. Results The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497 across Ghana (107/140, Laos (136/136, Senegal (51/100 and Tanzania (78/121. Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13% or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%. Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1 training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73; and 2 ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70. Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1 reading scientific journals from their own country (OR

  16. Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Lavis, John N; Ndossi, Godwin D; Osei, Eric J A; Sidibe, Mintou Fall; Boupha, Boungnong

    2011-12-13

    Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140), Laos (136), Senegal (100) and Tanzania (121). Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497) across Ghana (107/140), Laos (136/136), Senegal (51/100) and Tanzania (78/121). Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13%) or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%). Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1) training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73); and 2) ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70). Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1) reading scientific journals from their own country (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10-2.54); 2) working

  17. Succession planning for technical experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue; Cain, Ronald A.; Dewji, Shaheen A.; Agreda, Carla L.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. The methodology can be adapted for application within regulatory authorities and research and development organizations, and can be directly applied by international engagement partners of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The resultant product will be of direct benefit to two types of NNSA missions: (1) domestic human capital development programs tasked to provide focused technical expertise to succeed an aging nuclear operations workforce, and (2) international safeguards programs charged with maintaining operational safeguards for developing/existing nuclear power program in nations where minimal available resources must be used effectively. This report considers succession planning and the critical skills necessary to meet an institution’s goals and mission. Closely tied to succession planning are knowledge management and mentorship. In considering succession planning, critical skill sets are identified and are greatly dependent on the subject matter expert in question. This report also provides examples of critical skills that are job specific.

  18. Succession planning for technical experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cain, Ronald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dewji, Shaheen A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Agreda, Carla L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes a methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. The methodology can be adapted for application within regulatory authorities and research and development organizations, and can be directly applied by international engagement partners of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The resultant product will be of direct benefit to two types of NNSA missions: (1) domestic human capital development programs tasked to provide focused technical expertise to succeed an aging nuclear operations workforce, and (2) international safeguards programs charged with maintaining operational safeguards for developing/existing nuclear power program in nations where minimal available resources must be used effectively. This report considers succession planning and the critical skills necessary to meet an institution’s goals and mission. Closely tied to succession planning are knowledge management and mentorship. In considering succession planning, critical skill sets are identified and are greatly dependent on the subject matter expert in question. This report also provides examples of critical skills that are job specific.

  19. The plant expert system (PLEXSYS) development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.; Patterson, L.; Jeffery, M.; Delashmutt, L.

    1989-06-01

    The PLEXSYS software engineering tool provides an environment with which utility engineers can build and use expert systems for power plant applications. PLEXSYS provides the engineer with access to many powerful Artificial Intelligence methodologies, while retaining an engineering frame of reference and minimizing the need for a formal background in computer science. The principle concept is that the description and understanding of power plant systems centers on graphical forms such as piping and instrumentation diagrams and electrical line diagrams, which define a graphics-based model of plant knowledge that is common to many applications. PLEXSYS provides a model editor that allows the user to construct and modify models of hydraulic, electrical, and information systems in terms of elementary components and their interconnections. Analysis of the resulting schematic models is provided by several functions that perform network analysis, schematic browsing, mathematical modeling and customization of the user interface. 41 figs., 1 tab

  20. Expert elicitation and the problem of detecting undeclared activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Sylvester, Kori Budlong; Stanbro, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Measures applicable to the detection of undeclared activities are not well established, and their effectiveness is uncertain. To detect clandestine paths, the IAEA is still developing processes and procedures. As the Agency gains experience with new measures and with integrated safeguards, dealing with such problems may become more experience-based and perhaps more closely parallel the process with current safeguards where detection probabilities for the measures to be utilized on declared paths are well characterized. Whether or not this point will be reached for undeclared and mixed paths, the only tool that appears suitable at present for the purpose of generating a reasonable detection probability that can over time be tested against reality and, if necessary, adjusted is formal expert judgment, or expert elicitation. Formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. To provide a 'proof of principle' of this methodology for presentation to the Agency, experts in nuclear technology, nonproliferation, safeguards and open source information, as well as in formal expert elicitation processes, engaged in three illustrative expert elicitations on assessing information analysis as a means to detect undeclared activities. These elicitations were successful. This paper will discuss the process of and issues raised by the elicitations.

  1. Hepatitis A Virus: Essential Knowledge and a Novel Identify-Isolate-Inform Tool for Frontline Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV causes a highly contagious illness that can lead to serious morbidity and occasional mortality. Although the overall incidence of HAV has been declining since the introduction of the HAV vaccine, there have been an increasing number of outbreaks within the United States and elsewhere between 2016 and 2017. These outbreaks have had far-reaching consequences, with a large number of patients requiring hospitalization and several deaths. Accordingly, HAV is proving to present a renewed public health challenge. Through use of the “Identify-Isolate-Inform” tool as adapted for HAV, emergency physicians can become more familiar with the identification and management of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED with exposure, infection, or risk of contracting disease. While it can be asymptomatic, HAV typically presents with a prodrome of fever, nausea/vomiting, and abdominal pain followed by jaundice. Healthcare providers should maintain strict standard precautions for all patients suspected of having HAV infection as well as contact precautions in special cases. Hand hygiene with soap and warm water should be emphasized, and affected patients should be counseled to avoid food preparation and close contact with vulnerable populations. Additionally, ED providers should offer post-exposure prophylaxis to exposed contacts and encourage vaccination as well as other preventive measures for at-risk individuals. ED personnel should inform local public health departments of any suspected case.

  2. Expert judgment for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Sun Ho; Lee, Byong Whi

    2000-01-01

    Public perception on nuclear energy is much influenced by subjective impressions mostly formed through sensational and dramatic news of mass media or anti-nuclear groups. However, nuclear experts, those who have more relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy, may have reasonable opinion based on scientific facts or inferences. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during the process of nuclear energy policy formulation. For the purpose of eliciting experts' opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. Using the survey system, experts' views on nuclear energy were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public's. Based on the survey results, the paper suggests some recommendations about the future direction of the public information program in Korea

  3. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  4. An on-line diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1987-01-01

    As experience with on-line information systems, experts systems and artificial intelligence tools grows, the authors retreat from the first euphoria that AI could help them solve the problem they were unable to solve with conventional programming. The major effort of the development time goes into building the knowledge-base. There is no such thing as a generic knowledge-base for nuclear power plants as there is, for example, for the diagnosis of a Boeing 747 aircraft. AI-methods, tools and hardware are still in a state which does not optimally lend itself to real-time application. The ability of developing prototype systems to investigate variants otherwise too costly to justify is one advantage that the authors gladly accept. Last, but no least the tools provide a flexible and adaptable user interface (desktop window systems) etc. The development of such tools in a project would be prohibitive and room for experimentation would be limited

  5. Impact of education and network for avian influenza H5N1 in human: knowledge, clinical practice, and motivation on medical providers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Toshie; Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kudo, Koichiro; Vu, Thi Tuong Van; Takasaki, Jin; Nguyen, Dang Tuan; Dao, Xuan Co; Dang, Hung Minh; Izumi, Shinyu; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Ngo, Quy Chau; Tran, Thuy Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge, clinical practice, and professional motivation of medical providers relating to H5N1 infection have an important influence on care for H5N1 patients who require early diagnosis and early medical intervention. Novel educational programs including training and workshops for medical providers relating to H5N1 infection in Vietnam were originally created and implemented in 18 provincial hospitals in northern Vietnam between 2008 and 2010. A self-administered, structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 8 provincial hospitals where both educational training and workshops were previously provided. A total of 326 medical providers, including physicians, nurses, and laboratory technicians who attended or did not attend original programs were enrolled in the survey. Knowledge, clinical attitudes and practice (KAP), including motivation surrounding caring for H5N1 patients, were evaluated. The study indicated a high level of knowledge and motivation in all professional groups, with especially high levels in laboratory technicians. Conferences and educational programs were evaluated to be the main scientific information resources for physicians, along with information from colleagues. The chest radiographs and the initiation of antiviral treatment in the absence of RT-PCR result were identified as gaps in education. Factors possibly influencing professional motivation for caring for H5N1 patients included healthcare profession, the hospital where the respondents worked, age group, attendance at original educational programs and at educational programs which were conducted by international health-related organizations. Educational programs provide high knowledge and motivation for medical providers in Vietnam caring for H5N1 patients. Additional educational programs related to chest radiographs and an initiation of treatment in the absence of RT-PCR are needed. Networking is also necessary for sharing updated scientific information and practical experiences

  6. Substance Use Among Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Reasons for Use, Knowledge of Risks, and Provider Messaging/Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, Elizabeth; Wisk, Lauren E; Ziemnik, Rosemary; Huang, Qian; Salimian, Parissa; Weitzman, Elissa R; Levy, Sharon

    Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for alcohol and marijuana use. This study's objective is to describe adolescents' ADHD-specific reasons for marijuana use, knowledge of ADHD-specific alcohol risks, and reported subspecialty provider messaging/education regarding alcohol use among adolescents with ADHD. Youths with ADHD aged 12 to 18 years completed a survey about alcohol and marijuana use, ADHD-specific reasons for marijuana use, knowledge of ADHD-specific alcohol risks, and reported provider messaging/education regarding alcohol use. We assessed knowledge toward substance use using descriptive statistics. We used χ and t tests to determine whether knowledge or provider messaging/education differed by sociodemographic characteristics. Of the 96 participants, 61.5% were male, average age was 15.7 years; 31.3% reported past-year alcohol use and 20.8% reported past-year marijuana use. The majority (65.2%) said "no/don't know" to both "Can alcohol make ADHD symptoms worse?" and "Can alcohol interfere or get in the way of the medications you take?" Older participants were more likely to correctly answer the medication question "yes." Despite most (74%) participants reporting that their provider asked about alcohol use, few youth reported that their providers gave specific messages/education that alcohol could make ADHD symptoms worse (9.4%) or interfere with ADHD medications (14.6%); older participants and past-year alcohol users were more likely to have received these alcohol-specific messages. Many youth with ADHD are unaware of the risks of alcohol use in relation to ADHD and providers are not consistently discussing these risks in the context of clinical ADHD care.

  7. Expert database system for quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anne J.; Li, Zhi-Cheng

    1993-09-01

    There are more competitors today. Markets are not homogeneous they are fragmented into increasingly focused niches requiring greater flexibility in the product mix shorter manufacturing production runs and above allhigher quality. In this paper the author identified a real-time expert system as a way to improve plantwide quality management. The quality control expert database system (QCEDS) by integrating knowledge of experts in operations quality management and computer systems use all information relevant to quality managementfacts as well as rulesto determine if a product meets quality standards. Keywords: expert system quality control data base

  8. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  9. Group of scientific experts third technical test (GSETT-III) experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlman, O.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the established verification system is to provide confidence through adequate monitoring, deter clandestine activities and counteract 'false arms'. The task og the Group of Scientific Experts was to design and test the seismic verification system including designing og the international system, sharing knowledge from national programs, encouraging establishment of new monitoring facilities, development of data analysis procedures, conducting large scale testing and training of experts

  10. Shadowing emergency medicine residents by medical education specialists to provide feedback on non-medical knowledge-based ACGME sub-competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterbrook, Anna L; Spear Ellinwood, Karen C; Pritchard, T Gail; Bertels, Karen; Johnson, Ariel C; Min, Alice; Stoneking, Lisa R

    2018-01-01

    Non-medical knowledge-based sub-competencies (multitasking, professionalism, accountability, patient-centered communication, and team management) are challenging for a supervising emergency medicine (EM) physician to evaluate in real-time on shift while also managing a busy emergency department (ED). This study examines residents' perceptions of having a medical education specialist shadow and evaluate their nonmedical knowledge skills. Medical education specialists shadowed postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 EM residents during an ED shift once per academic year. In an attempt to increase meaningful feedback to the residents, these specialists evaluated resident performance in selected non-medical knowledge-based Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sub-competencies and provided residents with direct, real-time feedback, followed by a written evaluation sent via email. Evaluations provided specific references to examples of behaviors observed during the shift and connected these back to ACGME competencies and milestones. Twelve residents participated in this shadow experience (six post graduate year 1 and six postgraduate year 2). Two residents emailed the medical education specialists ahead of the scheduled shadow shift requesting specific feedback. When queried, five residents voluntarily requested their feedback to be included in their formal biannual review. Residents received milestone scores and narrative feedback on the non-medical knowledge-based ACGME sub-competencies and indicated the shadow experience and subsequent feedback were valuable. Medical education specialists who observe residents over the course of an entire shift and evaluate non-medical knowledge-based skills are perceived by EM residents to provide meaningful feedback and add valuable information for the biannual review process.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  12. Hybrid expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.; Ikonomopoulos, A.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that couples rule-based expert systems using fuzzy logic, to pre-trained artificial neutral networks (ANN) for the purpose of transient identification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In order to provide timely concise, and task-specific information about the may aspects of the transient and to determine the state of the system based on the interpretation of potentially noisy data a model-referenced approach is utilized. In it, the expert system performs the basic interpretation and processing of the model data, and pre-trained ANNs provide the model. having access to a set of neural networks that typify general categories of transients, the rule based system is able to perform identification functions. Membership functions - condensing information about a transient in a form convenient for a rule-based identification system characterizing a transient - are the output of neural computations. This allows the identification function to be performed with a speed comparable to or faster than that of the temporal evolution of the system. Simulator data form major secondary system pipe rupture is used to demonstrate the methodology. The results indicate excellent noise-tolerance for ANN's and suggest a new method for transient identification within the framework of Fuzzy Logic

  13. Expert system for estimating LWR plutonium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    An Artificial Intelligence-Expert System called APES (Analysis of Proliferation by Expert System) has been developed and tested to permit a non proliferation expert to evaluate the capability and capacity of a specified LWR reactor and PUREX reprocessing system for producing and separating plutonium even when system information may be limited and uncertain. APES employs an expert system coded in LISP and based upon an HP-RL (Hewlett Packard-Representational Language) Expert System Shell. The user I/O interface communicates with a blackboard and the knowledge base which contains the quantitative models required to describe the reactor, selected fission product production and radioactive decay processes, Purex reprocessing and ancillary knowledge

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FUZZY REASONING AND ITS TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SARPE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge management systems based on artificial reasoning (KMAR tries to provide computers the capabilities of performing various intelligent tasks for which their human users resort to their knowledge and collective intelligence. There is a need for incorporating aspects of time and imprecision into knowledge management systems, considering appropriate semantic foundations. The aim of this paper is to present the FRTES, a real-time fuzzy expert system, embedded in a knowledge management system. Our expert system is a special possibilistic expert system, developed in order to focus on fuzzy knowledge.

  15. Mind the gap: knowledge and practice of providers treating uncomplicated malaria at public and mission health facilities, pharmacies and drug stores in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon since 2004 and Nigeria since 2005, though many febrile patients receive less effective antimalarials. Patients often rely on providers to select treatment, and interventions are needed to improve providers' practice and encourage them to adhere to clinical guidelines. Providers' adherence to malaria treatment guidelines was examined using data collected in Cameroon and Nigeria at public and mission facilities, pharmacies and drug stores. Providers' choice of antimalarial was investigated separately for each country. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether providers were more likely to choose ACT if they knew it was the first-line antimalarial. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing data that arose when linking exit survey responses to details of the provider responsible for selecting treatment. There was a gap between providers' knowledge and their practice in both countries, as providers' decision to supply ACT was not significantly associated with knowledge of the first-line antimalarial. Providers were, however, more likely to supply ACT if it was the type of antimalarial they prefer. Other factors were country-specific, and indicated providers can be influenced by what they perceived their patients prefer or could afford, as well as information about their symptoms, previous treatment, the type of outlet and availability of ACT. Public health interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria should strive to change what providers prefer, rather than focus on what they know. Interventions to improve adherence to malaria treatment guidelines should emphasize that ACT is the recommended antimalarial, and it should be used for all patients with uncomplicated malaria. Interventions should also be tailored to the local setting, as there were differences between the two countries in providers' choice of antimalarial

  16. Realization of economic evaluation expert system for uranium mine project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifeng

    1993-01-01

    By studying the EVALUATOR, economic evaluation expert system of uranium mine project, the theoretical fundamentals of expert system, principle of inference mechanism, implementation of knowledge base, realization of explanation mechanism, acquisition of domain knowledge and representation of knowledge were described, especially the subjective Bayes approach for inexact reasoning problem used in EVALUATOR was discussed in detail

  17. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  18. Expert auditors’ services classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Wisniewska

    2013-01-01

    The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...

  19. Delegating Decisions to Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Suen, Wing

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of delegation with self-interested and privately informed experts. A team of experts with extreme but opposite biases is acceptable to a wide range of decision makers with diverse preferences, but the value of expertise from such a team is low. A decision maker wants to appoint experts who are less partisan than he is in order…

  20. Expert Systems in Government Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is solving more and more real world problems, but penetration into the complexities of government administration has been minimal. The author suggests that combining expert system technology with conventional procedural computer systems can lead to substantial efficiencies. Business rules can be removed from business-oriented computer systems and stored in a separate but integrated knowledge base, where maintenance will be centralized. Fourteen specific practical appli...

  1. Evolution of a research prototype expert system for endemic populations of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale L. Bartos; Kent B. Downing

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge acquisition program was written to aid in obtaining knowledge from the experts concerning endemic populations of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forest. An application expert system is then automatically generated by the knowledge acquisition program that contains the codified base of expert knowledge. Data can then be entered into the expert system...

  2. System control module diagnostic Expert Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Luis M.; Hansen, Roger F.

    1990-01-01

    The Orbiter EXperiments (OEX) Program was established by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to accomplish the precise data collection necessary to support a complete and accurate assessment of Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter performance during all phases of a mission. During a mission, data generated by the various experiments are conveyed to the OEX System Control Module (SCM) which arranges for and monitors storage of the data on the OEX tape recorder. The SCM Diagnostic Expert Assistant (DEA) is an expert system which provides on demand advice to technicians performing repairs of a malfunctioning SCM. The DEA is a self-contained, data-driven knowledge-based system written in the 'C' Language Production System (CLIPS) for a portable micro-computer of the IBM PC/XT class. The DEA reasons about SCM hardware faults at multiple levels; the most detailed layer of encoded knowledge of the SCM is a representation of individual components and layouts of the custom-designed component boards.

  3. Expert status and performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Burgman

    Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

  4. A randomized trial comparing two intraosseous access devices in intrahospital healthcare providers with a focus on retention of knowledge, skill, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, H J G M; Gerritse, B M; Gans, R; van der Meer, N J M

    2014-10-01

    Intraosseous access is recommended in vitally compromised patients if an intravenous access cannot be easily obtained. Intraosseous infusion can be initiated by various healthcare providers. Currently, there are two mechanical intraosseous devices approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in adults and children. A comparison is made in this study of the theoretical and practical performance by anesthesiologists and registered nurses of anesthesia (RNAs) in the use of the battery-powered device (device A) versus the spring-loaded needle device (device B). This study entailed a 12-month follow-up of knowledge, skill retention, and self-efficacy measured by standardized testing. A prospective randomized trial was performed, initially comparing 15 anesthesiologists and 15 RNAs, both on using the two types of intraosseous devices. A structured lecture and skill station was given with the educational aids provided by the respective manufacturers. Individual knowledge and practical skills were tested at 0, 3, and 12 months after the initial course. There was no statistical significant difference in the retention of theoretical knowledge between RNAs and anesthesiologists on all testing occasions. However, the self-efficacy of the anesthesiologists is significantly higher (p intraosseous access has been disproven, as anesthesiologists were as successful as RNAs. However, the low self-efficacy of RNAs in the use of intraosseous devices could diminish the chance of them actually using one.

  5. Modeling external constraints: Applying expert systems to nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.E.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in nuclear plants have received much attention over the past decade. Specific applications that have been addressed include development of models and knowledge-bases, plant maintenance, operations, procedural guidance, risk assessment, and design tools. This paper examines the issue of external constraints, with a focus on the use of Al and expert systems as design tools. It also provides several suggested methods for addressing these constraints within the Al framework. These methods include a State Matrix scheme, a layered structure for the knowledge base, and application of the dynamic parameter concept

  6. Rational consensus under uncertainty: Expert judgment in the EC-USNRC uncertainty study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, R.; Kraan, B.; Goossens, L.

    1999-01-01

    ? Simply choosing a maximally feasible pool of experts and combining their views by some method of equal representation might achieve a form of political consensus among the experts involved, but will not achieve rational consensus. If expert viewpoints are related to the institutions at which the experts are employed, then numerical representation of viewpoints in the pool may be, and/or may be perceived to be influenced by the size of the interests funding the institutes. We collect a number of conclusions regarding the use of structured expert judgment. 1 . Experts' subjective uncertainties may be used to advance rational consensus in the face of large uncertainties, in so far as the necessary conditions for rational consensus are satisfied. 2. Empirical control of experts' subjective uncertainties is possible. 3. Experts' performance as subjective probability assessors is not uniform, there are significant differences in performance. 4. Experts as a group may show poor performance. 5. A structured combination of expert judgment may show satisfactory performance, even though the experts individually perform poorly. 6. The performance based combination generally outperforms the equal weight combination. 7. The combination of experts' subjective probabilities, according to the schemes discussed here, generally has wider 90% central confidence intervals than the experts individually; particularly in the case of the equal weight combination. We note that poor performance as a subjective probability assessor does not indicate a lack of substantive expert knowledge. Rather, it indicates unfamiliarity with quantifying subjective uncertainty in terms of subjective probability distributions. Experts were provided with training in subjective probability assessment, but of course their formal training does not (yet) prepare them for such tasks

  7. What happens after development? Getting an expert system tested and deployed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, S.A.; Touchton, R.A.; Rausch, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge based computer systems are an innovative form of programming which incorporate the logic of an expert(s) or knowledge in a given domain into tasks performed by a computer. Knowledge based systems are based on symbolic processing rather than numeric processing which forms the foundation for most computer software. This type of programming processes knowledge using logical inference whereas more conventional software processes data procedurally or mathematically. While the concept of knowledge-based systems and expert systems has been considered for several decades, it is not until recently that these systems have appeared in common applications. With the entry of low cost, high speed, large memory desk top computers into business, knowledge based systems have become economical for utility use. Verification and validation (V ampersand V) of computer systems is used to provide a quality software system through independent technical review and evaluation. This process assures that the final software system delivered to the users is problem free, serves the intended functions, performs satisfactorily and fulfills its function in a manner which considers the human element. New methods and industry guidelines for V ampersand V of knowledge based systems are needed. This is particularly true in the nuclear power industry where the costs of development and down side risks are high. This paper discusses the approach developed and applied to the V ampersand V of an on-line expert system being implemented at Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.'s (Con Edison) Indian Point 2 nuclear power station. 2 figs

  8. The physician expert witness and the U.S. Supreme court--an epidemiologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Martin L

    2002-01-01

    It is a fact of life that the physician is occasionally called upon to provide Expert Witness evidence. This is clearly distinct from evidence of a participatory nature where the physician is a party to the act by virtue of the doctor-patient relationship. The purpose of this presentation is to alert the physician to new criteria, imposed by the court, for acceptance of Expert Testimony. Prior to March 23, 1999, expert witness testimony fell into three categories, Scientific, technical, and other specialized knowledge. Scientific knowledge included the conclusions that could be subjected to analysis of a statistical nature, or could be validated by methodology such as epidemiologic criteria. Technical knowledge was based on factors such as mechanical or stress analysis utilized in engineering. Other "specialized knowledge" could be based on experiential data and information not necessarily subject to epidemiologic or other scientific analysis. Therefore, the physician presented his reasoning often based on years of professional practice and publication in journals of clinical practice. On March 23rd 1999, the Supreme Court of the United States changed the criteria for all categories stating that there is "no relevant distinction between 'scientific' knowledge' and 'technical' or 'other specialized knowledge' in Federal Rule of Evidence 702. This momentous decision [Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael, (97-1709), 131 F.3d 1433) reversed.] referred back to a previous case [Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 509 US. 579,589], which established four criteria based on methods of analysis for t he courts, and was now extended for all expert evidence. Thus the area of expert witness evidence was changed by this momentous act placing the judge as arbiter of all expert evidence, including that of the physician. This paper will offer a brief review and an analysis of the significance of this for the professional involved in the legal system as an expert witness.

  9. Expert finder systems – design and use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Weidel, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The survey aimed at investigating how companies deal with the challenge of sharing of employees’ expert knowledge. We wanted to find out which tools are being used to register, communicate and search employees as a knowledge resource. Specifically, we wanted to know how service organizations use ...

  10. Expert system shell to reason on large amounts of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Gionanni

    1994-01-01

    The current data base management systems (DBMS's) do not provide a sophisticated environment to develop rule based expert systems applications. Some of the new DBMS's come with some sort of rule mechanism; these are active and deductive database systems. However, both of these are not featured enough to support full implementation based on rules. On the other hand, current expert system shells do not provide any link with external databases. That is, all the data are kept in the system working memory. Such working memory is maintained in main memory. For some applications the reduced size of the available working memory could represent a constraint for the development. Typically these are applications which require reasoning on huge amounts of data. All these data do not fit into the computer main memory. Moreover, in some cases these data can be already available in some database systems and continuously updated while the expert system is running. This paper proposes an architecture which employs knowledge discovering techniques to reduce the amount of data to be stored in the main memory; in this architecture a standard DBMS is coupled with a rule-based language. The data are stored into the DBMS. An interface between the two systems is responsible for inducing knowledge from the set of relations. Such induced knowledge is then transferred to the rule-based language working memory.

  11. Shadowing emergency medicine residents by medical education specialists to provide feedback on non-medical knowledge-based ACGME sub-competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waterbrook AL

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Waterbrook,1 Karen C Spear Ellinwood,2 T Gail Pritchard,3 Karen Bertels,1 Ariel C Johnson,4 Alice Min,1 Lisa R Stoneking1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 4College of Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA Objective: Non-medical knowledge-based sub-competencies (multitasking, professionalism, accountability, patient-centered communication, and team management are challenging for a supervising emergency medicine (EM physician to evaluate in real-time on shift while also managing a busy emergency department (ED. This study examines residents’ perceptions of having a medical education specialist shadow and evaluate their nonmedical knowledge skills.Methods: Medical education specialists shadowed postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 EM residents during an ED shift once per academic year. In an attempt to increase meaningful feedback to the residents, these specialists evaluated resident performance in selected non-medical knowledge-based Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME sub-competencies and provided residents with direct, real-time feedback, followed by a written evaluation sent via email. Evaluations provided specific references to examples of behaviors observed during the shift and connected these back to ACGME competencies and milestones.Results: Twelve residents participated in this shadow experience (six post graduate year 1 and six postgraduate year 2. Two residents emailed the medical education specialists ahead of the scheduled shadow shift requesting specific feedback. When queried, five residents voluntarily requested their feedback to be included in their formal biannual review. Residents received

  12. Provider knowledge of treatment policy and dosing regimen with artemether-lumefantrine and quinine in malaria-endemic areas of western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watsierah Carren A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers’ knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers’ knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. Methods A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription, was collected. Results Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100% in public and majority (98.4% in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039 and severe malaria (P P = 0.002 in children and adults

  13. An Analysis of the Working Memories of Expert Sport Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullick, Bryan; Schempp, Paul; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Jung, Jin Hong; Vickers, Brad; Schuknecht, Greg

    2006-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of expert teachers appears to be an excellent memory (Berliner, 1986; Tan, 1997). Possessing an excellent memory aids experts in building a substantial knowledge base relative to teaching and learning. Despite its importance, the memory skills of expert teachers have yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of…

  14. Expert system for web based collaborative CAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liang; Lin, Zusheng

    2006-11-01

    An expert system for web based collaborative CAE was developed based on knowledge engineering, relational database and commercial FEA (Finite element analysis) software. The architecture of the system was illustrated. In this system, the experts' experiences, theories and typical examples and other related knowledge, which will be used in the stage of pre-process in FEA, were categorized into analysis process and object knowledge. Then, the integrated knowledge model based on object-oriented method and rule based method was described. The integrated reasoning process based on CBR (case based reasoning) and rule based reasoning was presented. Finally, the analysis process of this expert system in web based CAE application was illustrated, and an analysis example of a machine tool's column was illustrated to prove the validity of the system.

  15. Expert systems for superalloy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

  16. COMPETENCE APPROACH TO TRAINING OF EXPERTS IN RADIATION HYGIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Baltrukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of attitude to labor in the society, in professional communities and among people is necessary for further development of society and national economy. This goal may be achieved if the system of professional training is modified: switched to competence approach which should include training of experts, including those in radiation hygiene, with a set of general cultural and professional competences. The system of future experts training should be based on traditions of domestic and international education; it should use modern forms of active and interactive education (computer simulations, business games and role-playing, analysis of concrete situations, portfolio, psychological and other trainings, remote education, etc. It should consider actuality of knowledge and skills and develop independence and responsibility that will enable the young expert to be competitive at the modern labor market and to meet employers’ expectations. Under the new federal educational standard on radiation hygiene accepted in 2014 at present primary specialization in radiation hygiene takes place in internship. At training of experts the new standard provides great use of on-the-job training, independent work, scientific and practical work. Employers should play an important role in training of experts.

  17. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  18. The effect of interprofessional education on interprofessional performance and diabetes care knowledge of health care teams at the level one of health service providing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Nikoo; Asgarimoqadam, Marzieh; Haghani, Fariba; Alavijeh, Abbas Qari

    2014-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyle have led to prevalence of non-communicable diseases including diabetes whose treatment and care requires effective teamwork. This study was conducted to examine the effect of inter-professional education on performance and diabetes care knowledge of health care teams. This quasi-experimental study was performed as an inter-professional education on 6 healthcare teams (34 people) based on Kolb's Learning Cycle and consisted of a set of training activities to improve individual, group, and inter-professional capabilities of members of the health care team. The pre- and post-tests included Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and a knowledge assessment tool performed before the workshop and 3 months later. Mean scores for knowledge of health care team before intervention and 3 months later were 7.06 ± 1.04 and 7.97 ± 0.97 out of 10, respectively, that showed a significant difference (P teams. It also can make the health-related messages provided to the covered population more consistent in addition to enhancing self-confidence of the personnel.

  19. The synthesis map is a multidimensional educational tool that provides insight into students' mental models and promotes students' synthetic knowledge generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ryan A; Brame, Cynthia J

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping was developed as a method of displaying and organizing hierarchical knowledge structures. Using the new, multidimensional presentation software Prezi, we have developed a new teaching technique designed to engage higher-level skills in the cognitive domain. This tool, synthesis mapping, is a natural evolution of concept mapping, which utilizes embedding to layer information within concepts. Prezi's zooming user interface lets the author of the presentation use both depth as well as distance to show connections between data, ideas, and concepts. Students in the class Biology of Cancer created synthesis maps to illustrate their knowledge of tumorigenesis. Students used multiple organizational schemes to build their maps. We present an analysis of student work, placing special emphasis on organization within student maps and how the organization of knowledge structures in student maps can reveal strengths and weaknesses in student understanding or instruction. We also provide a discussion of best practices for instructors who would like to implement synthesis mapping in their classrooms. © 2015 R. A. Ortega and C. J. Brame et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. The Synthesis Map Is a Multidimensional Educational Tool That Provides Insight into Students’ Mental Models and Promotes Students’ Synthetic Knowledge Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ryan A.; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping was developed as a method of displaying and organizing hierarchical knowledge structures. Using the new, multidimensional presentation software Prezi, we have developed a new teaching technique designed to engage higher-level skills in the cognitive domain. This tool, synthesis mapping, is a natural evolution of concept mapping, which utilizes embedding to layer information within concepts. Prezi’s zooming user interface lets the author of the presentation use both depth as well as distance to show connections between data, ideas, and concepts. Students in the class Biology of Cancer created synthesis maps to illustrate their knowledge of tumorigenesis. Students used multiple organizational schemes to build their maps. We present an analysis of student work, placing special emphasis on organization within student maps and how the organization of knowledge structures in student maps can reveal strengths and weaknesses in student understanding or instruction. We also provide a discussion of best practices for instructors who would like to implement synthesis mapping in their classrooms. PMID:25917385

  1. MO-DE-BRA-05: EUTEMPE-RX: Combining E-Learning and Face-To-Face Training to Build Expert Knowledge, Skills and Competences for Medical Physicists in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosmans, H; Van Peteghem, N; Creten, S; Mackenzie, A; Vano, E; Borowski, M; Christofides, S; Caruana, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In 2013, the EURATOM authorities of the European Commission decided to support the Horizon2020 project submission ‘EUTEMPE-RX’ that aimed for a new set of course modules to train medical physicists in diagnostic and interventional radiology to expert level with small group deep learning. Each module would consist of 2 phases: an e-learning and a face-to-face phase, each phase requiring typically 40h of participant time. Methods: The European Federation (EFOMP) and 13 European partners, all of them selected for their excellent scientific and/or educational skills, led the 12 course modules. A quality manual ensured the quality of course content and organization. Educational workshops familiarized the teachers with e-learning techniques and methods for assessment. Content was set in accordance with the EC document RP174 that lists learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skills and competences (KSCs) for different specialties and levels of medical physics. Surveys for stake holder satisfaction were prepared. Results: Today the course modules are being realized. The modules cover most of the KSCs in RP174 document. Teachers have challenged the participants with unique tasks: case studies in medical physics leadership, Monte Carlo simulation of a complete x-ray imaging chain, development of a task specific QA protocol, compilation of optimization plans, simulation tasks with anthropomorphic breast models, etc. Participants undertook practical sessions in modern hospitals and visited a synchrotron facility, a calibration lab, screening organizations, etc. Feedback form quality surveys was very positive and constructive. A sustainability plan has been worked out. Conclusion: The modules have enabled the participants to develop their KSCs and cope with challenges in medical physics. The sustainability plan will be implemented to continue the unique combined e-learning and face to face training at high level training in diagnostic and interventional radiology

  2. MO-DE-BRA-05: EUTEMPE-RX: Combining E-Learning and Face-To-Face Training to Build Expert Knowledge, Skills and Competences for Medical Physicists in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, H [University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van Peteghem, N; Creten, S [KU Leuven, Leuven, Vlaams Brabant (Belgium); Mackenzie, A [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Vano, E [San Carlos University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Borowski, M [Klinikum Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Christofides, S [Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus); Caruana, C [University of Malta, Msida (Malta)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In 2013, the EURATOM authorities of the European Commission decided to support the Horizon2020 project submission ‘EUTEMPE-RX’ that aimed for a new set of course modules to train medical physicists in diagnostic and interventional radiology to expert level with small group deep learning. Each module would consist of 2 phases: an e-learning and a face-to-face phase, each phase requiring typically 40h of participant time. Methods: The European Federation (EFOMP) and 13 European partners, all of them selected for their excellent scientific and/or educational skills, led the 12 course modules. A quality manual ensured the quality of course content and organization. Educational workshops familiarized the teachers with e-learning techniques and methods for assessment. Content was set in accordance with the EC document RP174 that lists learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skills and competences (KSCs) for different specialties and levels of medical physics. Surveys for stake holder satisfaction were prepared. Results: Today the course modules are being realized. The modules cover most of the KSCs in RP174 document. Teachers have challenged the participants with unique tasks: case studies in medical physics leadership, Monte Carlo simulation of a complete x-ray imaging chain, development of a task specific QA protocol, compilation of optimization plans, simulation tasks with anthropomorphic breast models, etc. Participants undertook practical sessions in modern hospitals and visited a synchrotron facility, a calibration lab, screening organizations, etc. Feedback form quality surveys was very positive and constructive. A sustainability plan has been worked out. Conclusion: The modules have enabled the participants to develop their KSCs and cope with challenges in medical physics. The sustainability plan will be implemented to continue the unique combined e-learning and face to face training at high level training in diagnostic and interventional radiology

  3. Expert System for the LHC CMS Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapsevicius, Valdas, E-mail: valdas.rapsevicius@cern.ch [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Vilnius University, Didlaukio g. 47-325, LT-08303 Vilnius (Lithuania); Juska, Evaldas, E-mail: evaldas.juska@cern.ch [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Modern High Energy Physics experiments are of high demand for a generic and consolidated solution to integrate and process high frequency data streams by applying experts' knowledge and inventory configurations. In this paper we present the Expert System application that was built for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) aiming to support the detector operations and to provide integrated monitoring. The main building blocks are the integration platform, rule-based complex event processing engine, ontology-based knowledge base, persistent storage and user interfaces for results and control.

  4. An Expert System for Diagnosing Eye Diseases using Forward Chaining Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaiseche, C. P. C.; Kaparang, D. R.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2018-02-01

    Expert System is a system that seeks to adopt human knowledge to the computer, so that the computer can solve problems which are usually done by experts. The purpose of medical expert system is to support the diagnosis process of physicians. It considers facts and symptoms to provide diagnosis. This implies that a medical expert system uses knowledge about diseases and facts about the patients to suggest diagnosis. The aim of this research is to design an expert system application for diagnosing eye diseases using forward chaining method and to figure out user acceptance to this application through usability testing. Eye is selected because it is one of the five senses which is very sensitive and important. The scope of the work is extended to 16 types of eye diseases with 41 symptoms of the disease, arranged in 16 rules. The computer programming language employed was the PHP programming language and MySQL as the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The results obtained showed that the expert system was able to successfully diagnose eye diseases corresponding to the selected symptoms entered as query and the system evaluation through usability testing showed the expert system for diagnosis eye diseases had very good rate of usability, which includes learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction so that the system can be received in the operational environment.

  5. A qualitative study on knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of mothers and health care providers toward pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjaningrum, Agnes Tri; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Goujon, Nicolas; Koeck, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-01

    Due to the high burden of pneumonia in Indonesia, the inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into Indonesia's National Immunization Program (NIP) is recommended by World Health Organization. Prior to the introduction of new vaccines, it is imperative to assess the perceptions of the public and medical community about the disease and the vaccine. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of mothers and health care providers (HCPs) toward PCV in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Fifty-five respondents (26 mothers and 29 HCPs) were interviewed at public and private health care facilities in Bandung using semi-structured interviews in May-June 2011. Data were analyzed manually according to pre-defined themes. Although most mothers had low knowledge about PCV, did not perceive themselves as susceptible to the disease, perceived that cost was the main barrier to PCV access, and obtained little information on PCV, they considered pneumonia as a severe disease and a priority health problem, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and were likely to adopt it. Similarly, knowledge about PCV among most HCPs was limited. Despite perceiving cost as the main barrier, most HCPs perceived benefits of the vaccine, susceptibility and severity of the disease, regarded pneumonia as a priority health problem, and were likely to suggest the new vaccination. Despite the poor knowledge of mothers and HCPs about PCV, they are aware of the high burden of pneumonia and the need for a vaccine in the NIP. Perceived severity and benefits among mothers, and, additionally, perceived susceptibility among HCPs were manifested in the willingness to accept PCV. The findings would contribute to better understanding the factors, which could support decision-making about vaccine introduction, and be utilized for developing suitable messages for mothers and HCPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basden, A

    1983-11-01

    This article seeks to bring together a number of issues relevant to the application of expert systems by discussing their advantages and limitations, their roles and benefits, and the influence that real-life applications might have on the design of expert systems software. Part of the expert systems strategy of one major chemical company is outlined. Because it was in constructing one particular expert system that many of these issues became important this system is described briefly at the start of the paper and used to illustrate much of the later discussion. It is of the plausible-inference type and has application in the field of materials engineering. 22 references.

  7. Being an expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.; Musseau, O.; Bruna, G.; Sperandio, M.; Roulleaux-Dugage, M.; Andrieux, S.; Metteau, L.

    2014-01-01

    This series of short articles are dedicated to the role of the expert in the enterprise. There is an important difference between a scientific counsellor and an expert, the expert, recognized by his peers, can speak publicly in his field of expertise but has a duty of transparency while the job of a scientific counsellor requires confidentiality. The making and the use of an expert in an enterprise requires a dedicated organization. The organization of the expertise in 5 enterprises in nuclear industry are considered: CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission), IRSN (Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety), AREVA, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) and EDF (Electricity of France)

  8. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content......-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling...

  9. Expert system application education project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  10. A fuzzy expert system based on relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, L.O.; Kandel, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuzzy Expert System (FESS) is an expert system which makes use of the theory of fuzzy relations to perform inference. Relations are very general and can be used for any application, which only requires different types of relations be implemented and used. The incorporation of fuzzy reasoning techniques enables the expert system to deal with imprecision in a well-founded manner. The knowledge is represented in relational frames. FESS may operate in either a forward chaining or backward chaining manner. It uses primarily implication and factual relations. A unique methodology for combination of evidence has been developed. It makes uses of a blackboard for communication between the various knowledge sources which may operate in parallel. The expert system has been designed in such a manner that it may be used for diverse applications

  11. Expert systems as decision tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using expert systems as an aid in regulatory compliance functions has been investigated. A literature review was carried out to identify applications of expert systems to regulatory affairs. A bibliography of the small literature on such applications was prepared. A prototype system, ARIES, was developed to demonstrate the use of an expert system as an aid to a Project Officer in assuring compliance with licence requirements. The system runs on a personal computer with a graphical interface. Extensive use is made of hypertext to link interrelated rules and requirements as well as to provide an explanation facility. Based on the performance of ARIES the development of a field version is recommended

  12. "The Adopted Children of ART": expert clients and role tensions in ART provision in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyakuwa, Margaret; Hardon, Anita; Goldstein, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the greater involvement of people living with HIV (GIPA) principle in Ugandan AIDS care is described by focusing on the engagement of expert clients in two rural health centers during a time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. We contrast how the expert clients help overburdened nurses to manage the well-attended ART programs in the public and in the nongovernmental organization clinic. They are unpaid, but acquire preferential status in the ART program because of their knowledge of AIDS medicines (and its adverse effects) and because of the compassionate care that they provide. Despite the assistance provided, nurses in the public facility felt threatened in their professional status by these expert clients, who were seen to overstep the boundaries of their role. We pay particular attention to the double burden for HIV-positive nurses, who fear stigma, and (unlike the expert patients) keep their HIV status secret.

  13. An expert system for diagnosing environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolincik, Mark; Lauriente, Michael; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1992-01-01

    A new rule-based, machine independent analytical tool was designed for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies using an expert system. Expert systems provide an effective method for saving knowledge, allow computers to sift through large amounts of data pinpointing significant parts, and most importantly, use heuristics in addition to algorithms, which allow approximate reasoning and inference and the ability to attack problems not rigidly defined. The knowledge base