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Sample records for providing essential nutrients

  1. Accumulative capabilities of essential nutrient elements in organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... E-mail: Mashelap@ul.ac.za. The content of essential nutrient elements in a given organ depends on the organ's accumulative capabilities. (ACs) and the interactions of the nutrient elements in that organ (Salisbury and Ross, 1992). Information on the. ACs of organs is important since in addition to providing.

  2. Essential Nutrients, Feed Classification and Nutrient Content of Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John Burton, 1960-; Seay, William W.; Baker, Scott M., 1968-

    2005-01-01

    The cow-calf herd's primary source of nutrition is forages, but forages are variable in nutrient content. By knowing the nutrient content of their base forages, producers can then identify the deficient nutrients that need to be supplemented.

  3. Accumulative capabilities of essential nutrient elements in organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monsonia burkeana is widely used as herbal tea in South Africa. However, the accumulative capabilities (ACs) of its organs for essential nutrient elements are not documented. A study was conducted to determine the ACs for nutrient elements in fruit, leaf, stem and root of M. burkeana. Ten plants per plot, with three ...

  4. Moving toward a precise nutrition: preferential loading of seeds with essential nutrients over non-essential toxic elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mather A. Khan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants and seeds are the main source of essential nutrients for humans and livestock. Many advances have recently been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants take up and accumulate micronutrients such as iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Some of these mechanisms however, also facilitate the accumulation of non-essential toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As. In humans, Cd and As intake has been associated with multiple disorders including kidney failure, diabetes, cancer and mental health issues. Recent studies have shown that some transporters can discriminate between essential metals and non-essential elements. Furthermore, sequestration of non-essential elements in roots has been described in several plant species as a key process limiting the translocation of non-essential elements to aboveground edible tissues, including seeds. Increasing the concentration of bioavailable micronutrients (biofortification in grains while lowering the accumulation of non-essential elements will likely require the concerted action of several transporters. This review discusses the most recent advances on mineral nutrition that could be used to preferentially enrich seeds with micronutrients and also illustrates how precision breeding and transport engineering could be used to enhance the nutritional value of crops by re-routing essential and non-essential elements to separate sink tissues (roots and seeds.

  5. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Anita J.; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K.; Boys, Christopher J.; Hoecker, Heather L.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, doubleblind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5 – 4.9 years at enrollmen...

  6. Recovery of essential nutrients from municipal solid waste - Impact of waste management infrastructure and governance aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabaleta, Imanol; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Every year 120-140. million tonnes of bio-waste are generated in Europe, most of which is landfilled, incinerated or stabilized and used as covering material in landfill operation. None of these practices enables the recovery of essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), which

  7. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fankun Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296 and non-ADHD (n = 296 aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006. Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014. Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003. In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  8. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Seferovic, Maxim D; Holland, William; Mcknight, Robert A; Summers, Scott A; Branch, D Ware; Lane, Robert H; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2015-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P adulthood (p160: 613 vs. 510 g; P 30% elevated, P 5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P supplementation along the one-carbon pathway abrogates adult morbidity and associated epigenomic modifications of IGF-1 in a rodent model of multigenerational MetS. © FASEB.

  9. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Hussain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa, Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium, and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods: Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc. were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results: The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II, α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions: J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  10. The effect of anethole containing essentials oils on nutrients digestibility of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Zeman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant additives and their functional components can selectively influence the intestinal microorganism growth in positive or negative direction. If the growth promotion relates with positive microorganisms and growth elimination is connected with pathogens the results is nutrients utilization improvement, stimulation of immunologic system or positive influence of intermedial metabolism. Anethole is one of these important plant metabolites. There are described following positive effects of anethole in human medicine: vasorelaxant, antithrombotic, releasing of heart function, fytoestrogenic (it mean improving of milk secretion, menstruation, promotion of menses, birth improvement, men’s hormonal changes improving, sexual libido improving, antioxidative, antifungal, improvement of derma permeability, antihelmintic, insecticidal, yeast elimination, antibacterial, antipyretic.In our work the effect of anise and fennel essential oils on nutrients utilization in pig experiment was evaluated. The trial was organized in accredited experimental stable Žabčice of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno. The high level efficiency of experimental animals is mentioned through general parameters (average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion. The results of nutrients utilization rate show slightly higher digestibility of nutrients in treatment with anise oil, this improvement is not higher then 1.0 %. We can see also improvement of nitrogen retention in body mass on level of 5.6 % (anise treatment compared with control group. There is low variability between experimental animals (except nitrogen retention coefficient but we can not see any statistical significance. On base of these results we can say the used phytogenic additives do not affect negatively the nutrient utilization in used concentration (0.1 % of essential oil in feed mixture and are fully eligible for animal nutrition. These results are also supported by few

  11. Biochar can be used to recapture essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improve soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Sarkhot, D. V.; Berhe, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the potential for biochar use to recapture excess nutrients from dairy wastewater has been a focus of a growing number of studies. It is suggested that biochar produced from locally available waste biomass can be important in reducing release of excess nutrient elements from agricultural runoff, improving soil productivity, and long-term carbon (C) sequestration. Here we present a review of a new approach that is showing promise for the use of biochar for nutrient capture. Using batch sorption experiments, it has been shown that biochar can adsorb up to 20 to 43% of ammonium and 19-65% of the phosphate in flushed dairy manure in 24 h. These results suggest a potential of biochar for recovering essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improving soil fertility if the enriched biochar is returned to soil. Based on the sorption capacity of 2.86 and 0.23 mg ammonium and phosphate, respectively, per gram of biochar and 10-50% utilization of available excess biomass, in the state of California (US) alone, 11 440 to 57 200 t of ammonium-N and 920-4600 t of phosphate can be captured from dairy waste each year while at the same time disposing up to 8-40 million tons of waste biomass.

  12. Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy: Essentials for Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Nicole Franzen; Tillett, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis and toxoplasmosis are foodborne illnesses that can have long-term consequences when contracted during pregnancy. Listeriosis is implicated in stillbirth, preterm labor, newborn sepsis, and meningitis, among other complications. Toxoplasmosis is associated with blindness, cognitive delays, seizures, and hearing loss, among other significant disabilities. Healthcare providers who understand the fundamentals of Listeria and Toxoplasma infection will have the tools to identify symptoms and high-risk behaviors, educate women to make safer decisions, and provide anticipatory guidance if a pregnant woman would become infected with either of these foodborne illnesses.

  13. Food additives, essential nutrients and neurodevelopmental behavioural disorders in children: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Clark, Brenda

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, changing lifestyles in Canadian homes has led to demand for foods with long shelf lives that are cosmetically appealing, palatable, easy to prepare and to consume. Food additives, especially preservatives and artificial colours as well as suboptimal intake of essential nutrients, have been linked to hyperactive behaviours and poor attention in a subgroup of children. Although other risk factors (ie, genetic, etc) for these conditions have received more attention in the scientific literature, the authors believe that there is enough evidence to consider dietary influences as a modifiable risk factor. This would involve raising awareness among clinicians and, subsequently, reviewing food regulatory processes to better protect children in Canada - similar to the regulations recently undertaken by the British Food Standards Agency. Conflicts of interest due to food and medication industry support for organizations advocating for children would need to be resolved by open communication between government regulatory agencies, academia and industry. Canadian parents and children need to be advised to limit unnecessary food additives and consume a diet rich in essential nutrients while more complete relationships are being explored further.

  14. Sialic acid is an essential nutrient for brain development and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of infant brains places an exceptionally high demand on the supply of nutrients from the diet, particularly for preterm infants. Sialic acid (Sia) is an essential component of brain gangliosides and the polysialic acid (polySia) chains that modify neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM). Sia levels are high in human breast milk, predominately as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). In contrast, infant formulas contain a low level of Sia consisting of both Neu5Ac and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is implicated in some human inflammatory diseases. Brain gangliosides and polysialylated NCAM play crucial roles in cell-to-cell interactions, neuronal outgrowth, modifying synaptic connectivity, and memory formation. In piglets, a diet rich in Sia increases the level of brain Sia and the expression of two learning-related genes and enhances learning and memory. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence showing the importance of dietary Sia as an essential nutrient for brain development and cognition.

  15. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vegetable cost metrics show that potatoes and beans provide most nutrients per penny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    Full Text Available Vegetables are important sources of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals in the diets of children. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National School Lunch Program has new requirements for weekly servings of vegetable subgroups as well as beans and peas. This study estimated the cost impact of meeting the USDA requirements using 2008 national prices for 98 vegetables, fresh, frozen, and canned. Food costs were calculated per 100 grams, per 100 calories, and per edible cup. Rank 6 score, a nutrient density measure was based on six nutrients: dietary fiber; potassium; magnesium; and vitamins A, C, and K. Individual nutrient costs were measured as the monetary cost of 10% daily value of each nutrient per cup equivalent. ANOVAs with post hoc tests showed that beans and starchy vegetables, including white potatoes, were cheaper per 100 calories than were dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables. Fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables had similar nutrient profiles and provided comparable nutritional value. However, less than half (n = 46 of the 98 vegetables listed by the USDA were were consumed >5 times by children and adolescents in the 2003-4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. For the more frequently consumed vegetables, potatoes and beans were the lowest-cost sources of potassium and fiber. These new metrics of affordable nutrition can help food service and health professionals identify those vegetable subgroups in the school lunch that provide the best nutritional value per penny.

  17. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Holden, Joanne M; Harris, Ellen

    2013-02-01

    The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, policy, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892 and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these functions. There are 4 major food and nutrient databases released by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. These include the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The users of the databases are diverse and include federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments, among others. Many of these users have partnered with BHNRC to leverage funds and/or scientific expertise to work toward common goals. The use of the databases has increased tremendously in the past few years, especially the breadth of uses. These new uses of the data are bound to increase with the increased availability of technology and public health emphasis on diet-related measures such as sodium and energy reduction. Hence, continued improvement of the databases is important, so that they can better address these challenges and provide reliable and accurate data.

  18. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Sialic Acid as an Essential Nutrient for Brain Development and Cognition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The early stages of neurodevelopment in infants are crucial for establishing neural structures and synaptic connections that influence brain biochemistry well into adulthood. This postnatal period of rapid neural growth is of critical importance for cell migration, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and axon fasciculation. These processes thus place an unusually high demand on the intracellular pool of nutrients and biochemical precursors. Sialic acid (Sia), a family of 9-carbon sugar acids, occurs in large amounts in human milk oligosaccharides and is an essential component of brain gangliosides and sialylated glycoproteins, particularly as precursors for the synthesis of the polysialic acid (polySia) glycan that post-translationally modify the cell membrane-associated neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM). Human milk is noteworthy in containing exceptionally high levels of Sia-glycoconjugates. The predominate form of Sia in human milk is N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). Infant formula, however, contains low levels of Sia consisting of both Neu5Ac and N-glycolyneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Current studies implicate Neu5Gc in several human inflammatory diseases. Polysialylated NCAM and neural gangliosides both play critical roles in mediating cell-to-cell interactions important for neuronal outgrowth, synaptic connectivity, and memory formation. A diet rich in Sia also increases the level of Sia in the brains of postnatal piglets, the expression level of 2 learning-related genes, and enhances learning and memory. PMID:22585926

  19. Molecular mechanism underlying sialic acid as an essential nutrient for brain development and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing

    2012-05-01

    The early stages of neurodevelopment in infants are crucial for establishing neural structures and synaptic connections that influence brain biochemistry well into adulthood. This postnatal period of rapid neural growth is of critical importance for cell migration, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and axon fasciculation. These processes thus place an unusually high demand on the intracellular pool of nutrients and biochemical precursors. Sialic acid (Sia), a family of 9-carbon sugar acids, occurs in large amounts in human milk oligosaccharides and is an essential component of brain gangliosides and sialylated glycoproteins, particularly as precursors for the synthesis of the polysialic acid (polySia) glycan that post-translationally modify the cell membrane-associated neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM). Human milk is noteworthy in containing exceptionally high levels of Sia-glycoconjugates. The predominate form of Sia in human milk is N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). Infant formula, however, contains low levels of Sia consisting of both Neu5Ac and N-glycolyneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Current studies implicate Neu5Gc in several human inflammatory diseases. Polysialylated NCAM and neural gangliosides both play critical roles in mediating cell-to-cell interactions important for neuronal outgrowth, synaptic connectivity, and memory formation. A diet rich in Sia also increases the level of Sia in the brains of postnatal piglets, the expression level of 2 learning-related genes, and enhances learning and memory.

  20. Effect of Biofertilizers on Macro and Micro Nutrients Uptake and Essential Oil Content in Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    OpenAIRE

    S Rahimzadeh; Sohrabi, Y.; Gh.R Heidari; A.R Eivazi; S.M.T Hoseini

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigation the effect of different fertilization treatments on nutrient and essential oil contents in dragonhead drug (Dracocephalum moldavica L.), an experiment was conducted in the station of agricultural research in Urmia on 2008. Treatments (nitroxin, barvar phosphate biofertilizer, biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer, barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, nitroxin+ biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, chemical fertilizer, c...

  1. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  2. Determination of the essential nutrient requirements of wine-related bacteria from the genera Oenococcus and Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrade, Nicolas; Mira de Orduña, Ramón

    2009-07-31

    Wine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine production. Wine LAB have fastidious nutrient requirements but their auxotrophies remain little studied. The ability of specific wine nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of wine LAB, and thus support MLF, remains unclear. This work investigated the essential growth requirements of four strains of wine LAB from the genera Oenococcus and Lactobacillus using the single omission technique with a suitable chemically defined medium. For the determination of auxotrophies, at least 3 (and up to 15) subcultures in deficient media were made, and intra- and extracellular nutrient carry over was reduced by small inoculation rates and washing cells 3 times between transfers. This careful methodology revealed more auxotrophies than those described for wine LAB in the literature. The essential bacterial nutrient requirements were found to be strain specific. 10 compounds were essential for all wine LAB tested, the carbon and phosphate source, manganese, as well as several amino acids (proline, arginine and the branched amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine) and vitamins (nicotinic acid and pantothenic acids). Nucleotides were not essential for any of the bacteria studied. The two Oenococcus oeni strains revealed a larger number of auxotrophies (18 and 21) and had a higher degree of nutritional similarity (86%) defined as percentage of common requirements per maximum total requirements. The two Lactobacillus strains only had 11 and 14 auxotrophies and the similarity was 79%, but both were auxotroph for riboflavin, which was not needed by the O. oeni strains. Data on the common requirements may be used to further study the ability of wines or commercial nutrients to support MLF and to consider the microbiological stability of finished wines. The results indicate that absence of riboflavin in oenological nutrient preparations may allow to create a specific advantage for

  3. Catchment structure that supports organic matter providing a natural control on rising river nutrient concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutter, Marc; Ibiyemi, Adekunle; Wang, Chen

    2017-04-01

    The connectivity of sources of pollution in catchments has been well studied and brings concepts such as pollution hotspots and critical source areas. However, consideration of the placement of other structures combating rising pollution impacts has been less considered. One such area that is receiving developing focus is the layout of riparian management and buffer strips. However, there are wider aspects of connectivity and landscape structure that can bring benefits to delivery and in-stream processing of pollution. These include wetlands, forests and the distribution of soils of differing connectivity of organic matter varying in bioavailability. Organic matter is a great modulator of catchment processes from controlling the potential of land use (e.g. constraints of soil organic matter and wetness on agricultural use), to the amount and form of nutrients leached from soils, to controls of dissolved organic matter on in-stream biology that responds to nutrient concentrations. As the fundamental control of ecosystem energy available for many heterotrophic processes it mediates uptake, recycling and speciation of N, P at many stages of the catchment from soils to waters; as such DOM can be considered as a nature-based solution exerting a background level of control on inorganic nutrients. This poster explores the role of different structural aspects of catchments that provide beneficial organic matter inputs to rivers. At the fine scale the lability of riparian soil and leaf litter DOC are considered. At a riparian management scale the local changes in buffer strip soil C and DOC relative to field soils are considered. At the largest scale spatial data are explored for riparian structure, forests, wetlands and soils differing in delivery and forms of C across major Scottish rivers and used as co-variates to explain differences in in-stream processing of nutrients.

  4. The effect of vegetarian diet on selected essential nutrients in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Joanna; Klemarczyk, Witold

    2011-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are considered to promote health and reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. It is also known that restriction or exclusion of animal foods may result in low intake of essential nutrients. The aim of the presented study was to assess the intake and serum status of vitamin B12, folate, vitamins A, E and D, as well as concentrations of homocysteine, total antioxidant status and iron balance in Polish vegetarian children. The study included 50 children, aged 5-11 who had been referred to the Institute of Mother and Child for dietary consultation. From those, 32 were vegetarians (aged 6.5±4.2 years) and 18 omnivores (aged 7.9±2.7 years). Dietary constituents were analyzed using the nutritional programme Dietetyk2®. Folate and vitamin B12 were determined with a chemiluminescence immunoassay, total homocysteine with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay and TAS (total antioxidant status) by colorimetric method. Vitamin A and E in serum were determined by the high-pressure liquid chromatography method (HPLC) and vitamin D by immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). Concentrations of iron, ferritin, transferrin and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) in serum were determined by commercially available kits. In vegetarian children daily intake of vitamin B12 (1.6 ěg) was in the recommended range, that of folate (195 ěg) and vitamin A (1245 ěg) higher, but vitamin E slightly lower (6.6 ěg) and three-fold lower vitamin D (1.1 ěg) than references allowance. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 (548 pg/ml), folate (12.8 ng/ml), vitamin A (1.2 ěmol/L), vitamin E (15.6 ěmol/l) were within physiological range, but that of vitamin D (13.7 ěg/L) was only half of the lowest limit of the reference value. In vegetarian children in comparison to omnivorous similar levels of homocysteine (6.13 ěmol/L vs 5.45 ěmol/L) and vitamin A (1,17 ěmol/L vs 1.32 ěmol/L) were observed. Lower (pchildren. High consumption of vitamin A and low vitamin E only slightly affected

  5. Recovery of essential nutrients from municipal solid waste – Impact of waste management infrastructure and governance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaleta, Imanol, E-mail: imanol.zabaleta@eawag.ch [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Rodic, Ljiljana, E-mail: ljiljana.rodic@gmail.com [Wageningen University, Education and Competence Studies, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    Every year 120–140 million tonnes of bio-waste are generated in Europe, most of which is landfilled, incinerated or stabilized and used as covering material in landfill operation. None of these practices enables the recovery of essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), which are in great demand for agricultural production. Recovery of these nutrients is a matter of international concern considering the non-renewable nature of P sources and the energy intensive production process required for the synthesis of N fertilizers. The objective of this research is to understand the relation between the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system, both its the physical components and governance aspects, and the recovery of nutrients in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) as a benchmark for European medium-size cities. The analysis shows that the existing physical infrastructure and facilities for bio-waste have high potential for nutrient recovery, 49% for N and 83% for P contained in bio-waste. However, governance aspects of the MSWM system such as legislation and user inclusivity play an important role and decrease the actual nutrient recovery to 3.4% and 7.4% for N and P respectively.

  6. Recovery of essential nutrients from municipal solid waste--Impact of waste management infrastructure and governance aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Imanol; Rodic, Ljiljana

    2015-10-01

    Every year 120-140 million tonnes of bio-waste are generated in Europe, most of which is landfilled, incinerated or stabilized and used as covering material in landfill operation. None of these practices enables the recovery of essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), which are in great demand for agricultural production. Recovery of these nutrients is a matter of international concern considering the non-renewable nature of P sources and the energy intensive production process required for the synthesis of N fertilizers. The objective of this research is to understand the relation between the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system, both its the physical components and governance aspects, and the recovery of nutrients in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) as a benchmark for European medium-size cities. The analysis shows that the existing physical infrastructure and facilities for bio-waste have high potential for nutrient recovery, 49% for N and 83% for P contained in bio-waste. However, governance aspects of the MSWM system such as legislation and user inclusivity play an important role and decrease the actual nutrient recovery to 3.4% and 7.4% for N and P respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microscale spatial analysis provides evidence for adhesive monopolization of dietary nutrients by specific intestinal bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nagara

    Full Text Available Each species of intestinal bacteria requires a nutritional source to maintain its population in the intestine. Dietary factors are considered to be major nutrients; however, evidence directly explaining the in situ utilization of dietary factors is limited. Microscale bacterial distribution would provide clues to understand bacterial lifestyle and nutrient utilization. However, the detailed bacterial localization around dietary factors in the intestine remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we explored microscale habitats in the murine intestine by using histology and fluorescent in situ hybridization, focusing on dietary factors. This approach successfully revealed several types of bacterial colonization. In particular, bifidobacterial colonization and adhesion on granular starch was frequently and commonly observed in the jejunum and distal colon. To identify the bacterial composition of areas around starch granules and areas without starch, laser microdissection and next-generation sequencing-based 16S rRNA microbial profiling was performed. It was found that Bifidobacteriaceae were significantly enriched by 4.7 fold in peri-starch areas compared to ex-starch areas. This family solely consisted of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. In contrast, there was no significant enrichment among the other major families. This murine intestinal B. pseudolongum had starch-degrading activity, confirmed by isolation from the mouse feces and in vitro analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrate the significance of starch granules as a major habitat and potential nutritional niche for murine intestinal B. pseudolongum. Moreover, our results suggest that colonizing bifidobacteria effectively utilize starch from the closest location and maintain the location. This may be a bacterial strategy to monopolize solid dietary nutrients. We believe that our analytical approach could possibly be applied to other nutritional factors, and can be a powerful tool to investigate

  8. Beyond nutrients: food-derived microRNAs provide cross-kingdom regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengxi; Sang, Xiaolin; Hong, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    Food turns out to be not only the nutrient supplier for our body but also a carrier of regulatory information. Interestingly, a recent study made the discovery that some plant/food-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) accumulate in the serum of humans or plant-feeding animals, and regulate mammalian gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. The authors provided striking evidence that miRNAs could function as active signaling molecules to transport information across distinct species or even kingdoms. Although the mechanism of how miRNAs are shuttled between different organisms is still not well characterized, initial results point to the involvement of microvesicles and specific RNA-transporter-like proteins. These findings raise both speculation about the potential impact that plants may have on animal physiology at the molecular level, and an appealing possibility that food-derived miRNAs may offer us another means to deliver necessary nutrients or therapeutics to our bodies. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Biochar can be used to capture essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improve soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Sarkhot, D. V.; Berhe, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the potential for biochar use to recapture excess nutrients from dairy wastewater has been a focus of a growing number of studies. It is suggested that biochar produced from locally available excess biomass can be important in reducing release of excess nutrient elements from agricultural runoff, improving soil productivity, and long-term carbon (C) sequestration. Here we present a review of a new approach that is showing promise for the use of biochar for nutrient capture. Using batch sorption experiments, it has been shown that biochar can adsorb up to 20-43% of ammonium and 19-65% of the phosphate in flushed dairy manure in 24 h. These results suggest a potential of biochar for recovering essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improving soil fertility if the enriched biochar is returned to soil. Based on the sorption capacity of 2.86 and 0.23 mg ammonium and phosphate, respectively, per gram of biochar and 10-50% utilization of available excess biomass, in the state of California (US) alone, 11 440 to 57 200 tonnes of ammonium-N and 920-4600 tonnes of phosphate can be captured from dairy waste each year while at the same time disposing up to 8-40 million tons of excess biomass.

  10. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K; Genuis, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes.

  11. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (Pethnic groups. Milk and dairy products in the Berber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (PEthnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  12. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control participants received no supplements, others were provided with milk-containing LNS, soy-containing LNS or corn-soy blend (CSB) for 12 months. Outcomes were the age at which they achieved key milestone: motor (walking with assistance, standing and walking alone, running), social (drinking from a cup and eating by themselves) and language (saying single comprehensible words and waving goodbye). The mean age at which the subjects walked with assistance was 42.5, 42.3, 42.7 and 43.2 weeks in the control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively (p = 0.748). There were also no significant differences in the mean age at standing alone (45.0, 44.9, 45.1 and 46.3 weeks), walking alone (54.6, 55.1, 55.3, 56.5 weeks), running (64.6, 63.7, 64.8, 65.9 weeks) or any other social or language milestones (each p > 0.10). The findings do not support a hypothesis that providing tested formulations and doses of micronutrient-fortified LNS or CSB would have an impact on when young children in rural Malawi achieved selected developmental milestones. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. How much nutrients could biochar-related positive priming effect provide to crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiven, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    From a carbon mass balance perspective, positive priming effect is usually seen as a counter balancing effect of the global change mitigation potential of biochar. However, the decomposition of the native organic matter due to the inputs of another source of carbon can be also seen as a possible source of nutrients for the crop on the short scale. The direction of priming effect reported in several recent publications, i.e. positive during the first months / years, and then negative on the longer term, indicate that this nutrient mining may be an aspect to look at when it comes to crop yield improvement effect due to biochar. In this presentation, I will review the existing knowledge about this nutrient priming effect and try to quantify it importance.

  14. Effect of Biofertilizers on Macro and Micro Nutrients Uptake and Essential Oil Content in Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimzadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigation the effect of different fertilization treatments on nutrient and essential oil contents in dragonhead drug (Dracocephalum moldavica L., an experiment was conducted in the station of agricultural research in Urmia on 2008. Treatments (nitroxin, barvar phosphate biofertilizer, biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer, barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, nitroxin+ biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, chemical fertilizer, control were arranged based on randomized complete block design with 4 replications. Results indicated that uptake of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Copper, Manganese and essential oil content were affected by studied treatments significantly but uptake of zinc by plant was not affected. Means comparison showed the highest values of Nitrogen (3.55%, Potassium (3.47% and Iron (4.56 ppm in Nitroxin treatment, Phosphorus (0.26% and Copper (0.33 ppm in barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur treatment, Manganese (0.48 ppm in chemical origin of nitrogen+phosphorus+ potassium treatment and essential oil content (0.48% in nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur treatment

  15. Defining the essential anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Lewis, E A; Fryer, R; Hepper, A E; Mahoney, Peter F; Clasper, Jon C

    2016-08-01

    Body armour is a type of equipment worn by military personnel that aims to prevent or reduce the damage caused by ballistic projectiles to structures within the thorax and abdomen. Such injuries remain the leading cause of potentially survivable deaths on the modern battlefield. Recent developments in computer modelling in conjunction with a programme to procure the next generation of UK military body armour has provided the impetus to re-evaluate the optimal anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify those anatomical structures within the thorax and abdomen that if damaged were highly likely to result in death or significant long-term morbidity. These structures were superimposed upon two designs of ceramic plate used within representative body armour systems using a computerised representation of human anatomy. Those structures requiring essential medical coverage by a plate were demonstrated to be the heart, great vessels, liver and spleen. For the 50th centile male anthropometric model used in this study, the front and rear plates from the Enhanced Combat Body Armour system only provide limited coverage, but do fulfil their original requirement. The plates from the current Mark 4a OSPREY system cover all of the structures identified in this study as requiring coverage except for the abdominal sections of the aorta and inferior vena cava. Further work on sizing of plates is recommended due to its potential to optimise essential medical coverage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Morrongiello, John; Young, Jock W; Farley, Jessica H; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Nichols, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT) of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 fatty acids (EFA) measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chla), and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes) were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems.

  17. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R Pethybridge

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 fatty acids (EFA measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a (Chla, and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems.

  18. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  19. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.

  20. "Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films" Techniques Provide Representative Time-Weighted Average Measurements of Inorganic Nutrients in Dynamic Freshwater Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianyin; Bennett, William W; Welsh, David T; Li, Tianling; Teasdale, Peter R

    2016-12-20

    Nutrient concentrations in freshwater are highly variable over time, with changes driven by weather events, anthropogenic sources, modifications to catchment hydrology or habitats, and internal biogeochemical processes. Measuring infrequently collected grab samples is unlikely to adequately represent nutrient concentrations in such dynamic systems. In contrast, in situ passive sampling techniques, such as the "diffusive gradients in thin films" (DGT) technique, provide time-weighted average analyte concentrations over the entire deployment time. A pair of recently developed DGT techniques for nitrate (A520E-DGT) and ammonium (PrCH-DGT), as well as the Metsorb-DGT technique for phosphate, were used to monitor inorganic nutrients in different freshwater systems (i.e., streams and wetlands) with a range of environmental values and that were affected by different catchment types. Measurements of grab samples collected frequently (1-2 times daily, 8-10 a.m. and 2-4 p.m.) showed that concentrations of NH4-N and NO3-N changed dramatically in most of the studied freshwater systems over short time scales, while there were only relatively small fluctuations in PO4-P. The DGT measurements were highly representative in comparison with the average nutrient concentrations obtained from daily grab samples over short-term (24 h) and long-term (72 h) deployments. The ratios of DGT-labile concentrations to the average concentrations from grab samples were between 1.00 and 1.12 over the studied deployment periods. The results of this study confirmed that DGT measurements provided a reliable and robust method for monitoring NH4-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P in a diverse range of dynamic freshwater systems.

  1. The distribution of macronutrients, anti-nutrients and essential elements in nettles, Laportea peduncularis susp. peduncularis (River nettle) and Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-01-01

    Laportea peduncularis and Urtica dioica, which are popularly known as "Nettles" belong to the plant family Urticaceae and are consumed as green vegetables or used for their medicinal benefit in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooking on the macronutrient, anti-nutrient and elemental composition of L. peduncularis and U. dioica leaves. The results showed a decrease in the crude fat, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C content with cooking, but an increase in the vitamin E content. The anti-nutrient content (cyanides, phytates and saponins) increased slightly with cooking, while the oxalate content has decreased. The concentration of essential elements in cooked L. peduncularis leaves were found to be in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co. Both raw and cooked leaves of nettles were found to be rich sources of macronutrients and essential elements and may be used as alternatives to commercially available nutrient supplements. Statistical analyses (principal component analysis and correlations) indicated that certain elements taken up by these plants were from common sources. Both positive and negative relationships between nutrients, anti-nutrients and elements were observed in the plant leaves.

  2. 14 CFR 204.4 - Carriers proposing to provide essential air service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., if applicable, in the subject market(s). (5) A list of the markets the carrier serves and the number... each type of aircraft is currently flown per day. (7) An estimate of the impact the proposed essential... costs and revenues are allocated. (4) A traffic forecast including a load factor analysis on all...

  3. Dairy Products as Essential Contributors of (Micro-) Nutrients in Reference Food Patterns: An Outline for Elderly People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van W.A.; Steijns, J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    he nutrient richness of dairy products is widely recognized, but mainly low fat or skimmed versions are generally advocated given the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat. The question arises how to appraise this nutrient richness relative to the contribution of the saturated fraction of

  4. Physiological indexese macro- and micronutrients in plant tissue and essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution with variation in N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species of the family Lamiaceae, known as mint or peppermint, and its leaves and branches produce essential oil rich in menthol. This study aimed to evaluate physiological indexes, macro- and micronutrients inthe shootsand essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution number 2 of Hoagland and Arnon (1950 with different N, P, K and Mg levels. Shoot length, dry mass of the different organs, total dry mass, leaf area, essential oil yield and composition, and macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S and micronutrient (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn contents in the shoot were evaluated. Plants treated with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had a tendency towards longer shoot, greaterroot and leaf blade dry masses, higher essential oil yield, higher menthol levels and lower menthone levels. The results showed that Mentha can be grown in nutrient solution by reducing 65% N, 50% P, 25% K and 100% Mg. This solution had better development compared to the other tested treatments. Therefore,we recommendMentha piperita L. to be grown with such nutrient levels.

  5. Metabolic changes and nutrient repletion in lambs provided with electrolyte solutions before and after feed and water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, N A

    1996-02-01

    Providing feeder calves and lambs with electrolyte solutions before and(or) after a transport period could potentially reduce tissue shrink and speed repletion of nutrients and weight that are lost during transport. This trial was conducted to determine metabolic changes and nutrient repletion in lambs provided with electrolyte solutions before and after feed and water deprivation. Solutions were 1) deionized water, 2) ES1 (g/10 L: NaCl, 2.0; K carbonate, 2.8; Mg sulfate.7H2O, 2.0; equal mixture of amino acids [Lys, Thr, Phe, His, Trp, Met, Leu, Ile, and Val], .45; and phosphoric acid to pH 7.0), 3) ES2 (twice the concentrations as in ES1), and ES3 (g/10 L: NaCl 2.0; K carbonate, 8.0; Mg sulfate.7H2O, 4.0; amino acid mixture from ES1, .45; and phosphoric acid to pH 7.0). Eight Suffolk x Hampshire crossbred lambs (average BW 35 +/- 2 kg) were used in an 8 x 8 Latin square design with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial. Main treatments consisted of two deprivation electrolyte solutions (deionized water or ES1) and four realimentation electrolyte solutions (deionized water, ES1, ES2, and ES3). Lambs were limit-fed (600 g/d, as-fed basis) before and after a 3-d feed and water deprivation phase. Lambs provided the ES1 solution during the pre-deprivation phase had greater (P electrolytes in the solution was doubled (i.e., ES2 solution), Na, K, and Mg retentions were increased (P electrolytes in the electrolyte solution may need to be increased to improve nutrient balance.

  6. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Susan; Fraser, Jackie; Wilkinson, Lori; Steckham, Katherine; Oliphant, Heather; Fletcher, Heather; Tzianetas, Roula; Arcand, JoAnne

    2015-11-11

    Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9-1.1 g/kg/day). Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality.

  7. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Trang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and Canada’s Food Guide (CFG recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9–1.1 g/kg/day. Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality.

  8. De novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provides First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Meena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavour, fragrance, cosmetic and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step towards understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases (TPS, pyrophosphatases (PPase, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, aldo-keto reductases (AKR, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD, alcohol acetyltransferases (AAT and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified enzymes in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats (SSRs were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  9. A transforming ras gene can provide an essential function ordinarily supplied by an endogenous ras gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papageorge, A G; Willumsen, B M; Johnsen, M

    1986-01-01

    several transformation-competent mutant v-rasH genes whose protein products in transformed NIH 3T3 cells are not immunoprecipitated by this monoclonal antibody. These mutant proteins are, however, precipitated by a different anti-ras antibody. Each of these mutants lacks Met-72 of v-rasH. In contrast...... to the result for cells transformed by wild-type v-rasH, Y13-259 microinjection of NIH 3T3 cells transformed by these mutant ras genes did not prevent the cells from entering the S phase. These results imply that a transformation-competent ras gene can supply a normal essential function for NIH 3T3 cells. When...... the proteins encoded by the mutant ras genes were overproduced in Escherichia coli, several mutant proteins that lacked Met-72 failed to bind Y13-259 in a Western blot. However, a ras protein from a mutant lacking amino antibody, but a ras protein from a mutant lacking amino acids 72 to 84 did not...

  10. Long-Acting Reversible Contraception: An Essential Guide for Pediatric Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suzanne; Barlow, Erin

    2017-04-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods are 20% more effective than traditional contraceptives and are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology as first-line contraception for adolescent girls. Large studies show that LARC use reduces unintended pregnancies, increases user satisfaction, and prolongs duration of use. This article prepares the primary care provider (PCP) with knowledge on safety, efficacy, eligibility, confidentiality, anticipatory guidance, how to find a LARC provider, and guidance on common side effects so the PCP can confidently counsel adolescent patients on LARC methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, essentiality and requirements: why and how to provide supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids comprize from 50-60% of the structural matter of the brain and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA is the most  important omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain phospholipids comprizing 25% of the total fatty acids of the grey matter. The majority of the DHA present in the human brain is incorporated during the brain growth spurt which starts at week 26 of gestation and imposes a high demand for the fatty acid until about 2 years of age. DHA is required during brain development when neuronal and glial differentiation and migration, and active myelination and synaptogenesis take place. The fatty acid must be incorporated into the brain lipids as preformed DHA because less than 5% of its precursor (alpha linolenic acid, LNA is converted to DHA. The human foetus has a limited ability to synthesize DHA from LNA, and therefore it must be largely supplied from maternal sources. Maternal DHA available for foetal nutrition can be provided from three main sources: adipose tissue, which is the main reservoir for the fatty acid; through biosynthesis from the precursor LNA, which occurs mainly in the liver; and as preformed DHA from dietary sources. In the postnatal period DHA is provided by the mother to the newborn through milk secretion. Western nutrition provides low LNA and DHA and Expert Nutrition Committees suggest that mothers should receive DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. At present DHA supplementation can be provided from different sources: as purified free DHA, as an ethyl ester derivative, extracted from single-cell algae oils, from egg yolk phospholipids, or in the form of sn-2 DHA monoacylglycerol. In this review we revise and discuss the evidence of DHA requirements for the newborn, the need for maternal supplementation during pregnancy and nursing, and the alternatives at present for providing DHA supplementation.Los lípidos comprenden entre el 50-60% de la estructura del cerebro, y el

  12. Energy density, nutrient adequacy, and cost per serving can provide insight into food choices in the lower Mississippi delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare differences across food groups for food cost, energy and nutrient profiles of 100 items from a cross-sectional survey of 225 stores in a representative sample of 18 counties across the [Blinded for Review]. Energy, nutrient, and cost profiles for food items were calculated using Naturally Nu...

  13. The Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Essential Oil Yield of German Chamomile under Drought Stress (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi Jeshni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. is mainly cultivated for essential oil. Nowadays, it is a highly favored and much-used medicinal plant in reqular and traditional medicine. Water deficit is one of the most important limiting factors on crops production in arid and semi-arid regions (Sharafi et al. 2002. Drought stress limits the growth of plants by reducing water content of tissues and causes some metabolic and physiological changes. On the other hand, the availability of nutrients in the soil is affected by drought stress. Thus, nutritional management of plants under drought stress conditions is one of the most important factors in crop production. A better understanding of the role of nutrients in plant resistance to drought is associated with improvement of fertilizer management in arid and semi-arid areas. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of phosphorus and zinc fertilizers on nutrient content and essential oil yield of German chamomile under drought stress. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research farm of University of Zabol in 2013. Drought stress consisted of three levels 75% (control, 50% (mild stress and 25% of field capacity (severe stress as main plots, and factorial combinations of three triple superphosphate fertilizer (CaH4P2O8 levels (0, 150, and 300 kg ha-1 and two zinc sulphate fertilizer (ZnSO4H2O levels (0 and 30 kg ha-1 as sub plots (the fertilizers were applied before planting time. The seeds were sown at 20 cm apart in rows 40 cm wide, on first half of March 2013. Drought stress levels were determined by the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR. The success of chamomile cultivation as a commercial venture lies in how efficiently and effectively one can collect the flowers at the right stage during the peak flowering season extending over a period of 3–6 weeks. So, flowers were

  14. Building Trust and Relationships Between Patients and Providers: An Essential Complement to Health Literacy in HIV Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Rose, Carol; Cuca, Yvette P; Webel, Allison R; Solís Báez, Solymar S; Holzemer, William L; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Reid, Paula; Johnson, Mallory O; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Reyes, Darcel; Nokes, Kathleen; Nicholas, Patrice K; Matshediso, Ellah; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Sabone, Motshedisi B; Ntsayagae, Esther I; Shaibu, Sheila; Corless, Inge B; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important for access to and quality of HIV care. While most models of health literacy acknowledge the importance of the patient-provider relationship to disease management, a more nuanced understanding of this relationship is needed. Thematic analysis from 28 focus groups with HIV-experienced patients (n = 135) and providers (n = 71) identified a long-term and trusting relationship as an essential part of HIV treatment over the continuum of HIV care. We found that trust and relationship building over time were important for patients with HIV as well as for their providers. An expanded definition of health literacy that includes gaining a patient's trust and engaging in a process of health education and information sharing over time could improve HIV care. Expanding clinical perspectives to include trust and the importance of the patient-provider relationship to a shared understanding of health literacy may improve patient experiences and engagement in care. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Time-Dependent Material Data Essential for the Durability Analysis of Composite Flywheels Provided by Compressive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    Successful spaceflight operations require onboard power management systems that reliably achieve mission objectives for a minimal launch weight. Because of their high specific energies and potential for reduced maintenance and logistics, composite flywheels are an attractive alternative to electrochemical batteries. The Rotor Durability Team, which comprises members from the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) and the NASA Glenn Research Center, completed a program of elevated temperature testing at Glenn' s Life Prediction Branch's Fatigue Laboratory. The experiments provided unique design data essential to the safety and durability of flywheel energy storage systems for the International Space Station and other manned spaceflight applications. Analysis of the experimental data (ref. 1) demonstrated that the compressive stress relaxation of composite flywheel rotor material is significantly greater than the commonly available tensile stress relaxation data. Durability analysis of compression preloaded flywheel rotors is required for accurate safe-life predictions for use in the International Space Station.

  16. Does the diet of the Balearic population, a Mediterranean type diet, still provide adequate antioxidant nutrient intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Josep A; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Romaguera, Dora; Pons, Antoni

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the intake of antioxidant nutrients, as important components of the diet of the Balearic population, a typical Mediterranean type diet, as well as socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors that could be associated to their consumption. Cross sectional survey: dietary information (replicated 24-h recall) and socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected from a representative sample of the Balearic Islands population (n = 1200, 498 males and 702 females) aged 16-65 years (response rate 77.22%). A Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score (DAQS) was computed considering the risk of inadequate intakes (Balearic diet among certain groups of the Balearic Islands population, and this trend may be responsible for the observed low intake of antioxidant nutrients.

  17. [Magnesium for nutrient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mieko

    2012-08-01

    Magnesium is essential nutrient. Here is magnesium for nutrient. Magnesium has a large number of biological or biochemical functions. It's distribution, absorption, deficiency, excess disorder, requirement, supply sources, and especially status and issue of magnesium intake in Japanese are reviewed.

  18. Chromium (VI) induced phytotoxicity and oxidative stress in pea (Pisum sativum L.): biochemical changes and translocation of essential nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Singh, N K; Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D

    2009-05-01

    Due to widespread industrial use, chromium (Cr) is considered a hazardous environmental pollutant. It is known to inhibit plant growth and development. The present study provides the evidence of the phytotoxicity of this metal on the pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Azad) plants. The plants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were grown in refined sand under different concentrations i.e. 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM of Cr (VI) in order to study the effect on growth and yield, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content, non-reducing sugar and protein with activity of certain enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, starch phosphorylase and ribonuclease. The analysis of the results showed that photosynthetic pigments (68.68%), relative water contents (62.77%), non-reducing sugar (66.66%) and protein (81.57%) were decrease along with reduction in plant height (52.69%) and leaf area (50.81%) of the pea plants. However, in response to various concentration of Cr exposed plants showed significant induction of reducing and total sugars with enzymes like catalase, starch phosphorylase and ribonuclease. The translocation of Cr in various part of pea plant have been found in order of root> stem> leaves>seeds which ranged between 34.8 to 217.3 mg g(-1) d.wt. (dry weight) in roots, 6.5 to 173.13 mg g(-1) d.wt. in shoot, 4.2 to 74.43 mg g(-1) d.wt. in leaves and 0.94 to 8.64 mg g(-1) d.wt. in seeds, that is also reflected by the transfer factor of Cr from refined sand to tested species.

  19. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  20. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  1. Effects of a blend of essential oils and an enzyme combination on nutrient digestibility, ileum histology and expression of inflammatory mediators in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X R; Awati, A; Agazzi, A; Vitari, F; Ferrari, A; Bento, H; Crestani, M; Domeneghini, C; Bontempo, V

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of an improved gut environment of post-weaning piglets when administered a blend of essential oils (EO; thymol and cinnamaldehyde) and an enzyme combination (xylanase and β-glucanase (XB)) either alone or in combination. To assess the effect of dietary treatments, faecal nutrient digestibility and microbial counts, as well as ileum histology and gene expression of inflammatory mediators were evaluated. One hundred and ninety-two weaned piglets were allocated into four experimental treatments, and fed the basal diet (CTRL) either without or with EO, XB or their combination (EO+XB) for a 42-day period. The experiment concerning digestibility was designed with two periods (period I: days 15 to 21; period II: days 29 to 35) and the faeces were collected on days 20, 21, 34 and 35. On day 42, six piglets from each treatment were slaughtered. It was found that EO, XB and EO+XB supplementation did not affect (P>0.05) the growth performance of the piglets from days 0 to 42. Moreover, no dietary effect on faecal score was observed. Faecal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, ash, dietary fibre, lipid, CP and NDF were increased from period I to period II (P0.05) of EO, XB or their combination on the faecal digestibility was observed at both periods. Compared with the CTRL diet, dietary XB reduced the faecal Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli counts but increased the Lactobacillus to Coliforms ratio on day 42 (P=0.02, 0.03 and 0.03, respectively), and all the additives supplementations decreased the counts of faecal Coliforms on day 42 (Ppiglets treated with EO+XB compared with the EO group (P=0.02). In conclusion, the administration of EO, XB or their combination was effective in improving ileum histology, and EO+XB supplementation might benefit the modulation of the expression of ileum inflammatory cytokines in piglets.

  2. Studies on the effects of essential-oil-based feed additives on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and selected bacterial groups in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, K; Vahjen, W; Simon, O

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 2 different phytogenic products on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and composition of the intestinal microbiota. The 2 phytogenic products contained different essential oil mixtures (EOM) characterized by either menthol (Mentha arvensis; EOM-M) or cinnamon aldehyde (Cinnamomum aromaticum; EOM-C) as main constituents. Three treatments consisted of control diet without EOM addition and diets supplemented with EOM-M or EOM-C. Reproducibility of the effects was examined in 4 trials with a total of 300 male castrated and female piglets weaned at 25 d of age. The number of pens per treatment in trials I through III were 7, 9, and 9, respectively, for research station conditions, and 10 in trial IV for simulated farm conditions. In research station conditions, the experimental unit consisted of flat deck pens with 2 piglets per pen, whereas it consisted of floor pens with straw bedding with 5 piglets per pen in farm conditions. The feed additives had no effect on feed intake or BW gain. Improvements (P digestibility of CP and of most AA. The effect of EOM-C on these response criteria was intermediate between control and EOM-M. Real-time PCR analysis of the gastrointestinal contents for 7 bacterial groups (Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum cluster, Escherichia spp., and Escherichia coli toxin estII) indicated no effect of treatments on the gastrointestinal microbiota. It was concluded that EOM-M consistently improved feed efficiency in weaned piglets, and it was associated with improved ileal protein and AA digestibility. In general, however, the effectiveness of EOM as feed additives differs considerably depending on the constituents. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of essential oils, yeast culture and malate on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Baluchi lambs fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekkhahi, M; Tahmasbi, A M; Naserian, A A; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Kleen, J L; Parand, A A

    2015-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of essential oils (MEO), yeast culture (YC) and malate on performance, nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of lambs fed high-concentrate growing diets. For this purpose, twenty Baluchi lambs (17.3 ± 0.5 kg body weight and 3 months old) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with five lambs per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows: (i) control: basal diet without any additive, (ii) basal diet plus 400 mg/day MEO (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde), (iii) basal diet with 4 g/day YC and (iv) basal diet plus 4 g/day malate. No differences between the dietary treatments were observed in dry matter intake, average daily gain or feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05). Compared with control and malate treatment, lambs fed MEO and YC had an improved crude protein digestibility (p  0.05) cell wall digestibility compared to the other treatments. No differences were observed between treatments with respect to nitrogen balance or ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations (p > 0.05). No differences were observed between treatments with respect to ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of acetate, butyrate and valerate. Molar proportion of propionate was higher (p feeding the MEO and YC diets (p feed additive for manipulation of rumen fermentation in lambs fed with high-concentrate diets than MEO and malate, because YC enhanced crude protein and cell wall digestibility, ruminal molar proportion of propionate and plasma glucose concentration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  5. Dietary analysis of randomly selected meals from the Child Hunger and Education Program School Nutrition Program in Saskatchewan, Canada, suggests that nutrient target levels are being provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, Laura A R; Henry, Carol J; Ramdath, Dan; Whiting, Susan J

    2011-03-01

    In Canada, school meals are regarded as important for social, educational, and nutritional reasons and have been provided for several years because of concerns about the health and welfare of children, especially those from low-income households. They are generally offered as local community organization and individual schools, are not regulated by law, and have no set national nutrition standards. The Canadian scientific literature lacks quantitative information on the nutritional adequacy of school meals. Better and more evaluation of such programs would encourage and guide administrators to assess other local programs in a similar fashion. Here, we describe the dietary assessment process of 1 school meal program in Canada and the nutritional adequacy of the meals. Throughout 10 years (1997-2007), the contents of 159 lunches and 90 breakfasts were collected mainly from elementary schools participating in the Child Hunger and Education Program Good Food, Inc's school nutrition program initiative in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. We collected, weighed, and analyzed food samples from meals served to children at participating schools. We then compared their nutrient content against standards based on the Dietary Recommended Intakes for children aged 4 to 8 and 9 to 13 years using one third of the recommendations as the standard for lunches and one fourth for breakfasts. Overall, both meals had a good nutrient profile and met the standards for most analyzed macronutrients and micronutrients throughout the years. Although energy was persistently low, vitamin and mineral contents were often above the standards, reflecting a tendency to offer nutrient-dense foods in lieu of energy-dense foods. The rigorous methodology described in this manuscript can be followed to assess other small local programs. Furthermore, the dietary assessment presented can encourage not only the implementation of school meal programs in other locations but also the assessment of already

  6. Cold-water corals and large hydrozoans provide essential fish habitat for Lappanella fasciata and Benthocometes robustus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, José Nuno; Carmo, Vanda; Catarino, Diana; Jakobsen, Joachim; Alvarez, Helena; Aguilar, Ricardo; Hart, Justin; Giacomello, Eva; Menezes, Gui; Stefanni, Sergio; Colaço, Ana; Morato, Telmo; Santos, Ricardo S.; Tempera, Fernando; Porteiro, Filipe

    2017-11-01

    Many fish species are well-known obligatory inhabitants of shallow-water tropical coral reefs but such associations are difficult to study in deep-water environments. We address the association between two deep-sea fish with low mobility and large sessile invertebrates using a compilation of 20 years of unpublished in situ observations. Data were collected on Northeast Atlantic (NEA) island slopes and seamounts, from the Azores to the Canary Islands, comprising 127 new records of the circalittoral Labridae Lappanella fasciata and 15 of the upper bathyal Ophiididae Benthocometes robustus. Observations by divers, remote operated vehicles (ROV SP, Luso, Victor, Falcon Seaeye), towed vehicles (Greenpeace) and manned submersibles (LULA, Nautile) validated the species association to cold water corals (CWC) and large hydrozoans. L. fasciata occurred from lower infralittoral (41 m) throughout the circalittoral, down to the upper bathyal at 398 m depth. Smaller fishes (invertebrates (> 10 cm) occurring at biological information and dietary information reinforcing the trophic linkage between the CWC habitat and this predator. Gathered evidence renders CWC and hydroid gardens as Essential Fish Habitats for both species, being therefore sensitive to environmental and anthropogenic impacts on these Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. The Mediterranean distribution of L. fasciata is extended to NEA seamounts and island slopes and the amphi-Atlantic distribution of B. robustus is bridged with molecular data support. Both species are expected to occur throughout the Macaronesia and Mediterranean island slopes and shallow seamounts on habitats with large sessile invertebrates.

  7. A Vote for School Lunches: School Lunches Provide Superior Nutrient Quality than Lunches Obtained from Other Sources in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A. Vernarelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is an ongoing public health program. As such, a major public health research objective is to identify potential targets for intervention; one such area is school lunches (SL. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP serves over 31 million children each day; the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES is uniquely positioned to allow researchers to assess diet quality in federal nutrition assistance programs. The objective of the study was to investigate whether lunches provided by schools provide different nutritional value than lunches obtained elsewhere. In a nationally representative sample of 2190 children, consumption of a school-provided lunch (SL was associated with greater nutritional quality compared to lunches obtained elsewhere across both age and income categories. Children who were eligible for no-cost school lunch, but did not participate in the NSLP consumed approximately 60% more energy, 58% more total fat, 60% more saturated fat, 50% more solid fat, 61% more sodium, double the amount of added sugars and less than half the amount of fruit than NSLP participants (all p < 0.001. The results of this study suggest that though widely criticized, school lunches provide superior nutrient quality than lunches obtained from other sources, particularly for low-income children.

  8. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Providing Approximately the Recommended Daily Intake of Vitamin A Do Not Increase Breast Milk Retinol Concentrations among Ghanaian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevor, Moses K; Haskell, Marjorie J; Lartey, Anna; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Zeilani, Mamane; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a global public health problem. Daily supplementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) has potential for increasing milk vitamin A concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine whether daily supplementation with approximately the recommended daily intake of vitamin A in an LNS or a multiple-micronutrient supplement (MMN) during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum has an effect on breast milk retinol concentration at 6 mo postpartum. Women ≤20 wk pregnant (n = 1320) were randomly assigned to receive either the MMN providing 18 micronutrients, including 800 μg retinol equivalents of vitamin A, or the LNS with the same nutrients as the MMN group, plus 4 minerals and macronutrients, until 6 mo postpartum; a control group received iron and folic acid during pregnancy and a placebo (calcium tablet) during the first 6 mo postpartum. Breast milk samples collected at 6 mo postpartum were analyzed for retinol and fat concentrations by HPLC and creamatocrit, respectively, in a subsample of 756 women. The breast milk retinol concentration was (mean ± SD) 56.3 ± 2.1 nmol/g fat, with no significant differences between groups [iron and folic acid (n = 243): 59.1 ± 2.8; MMN (n = 260): 55.4 ± 2.5; LNS (n = 253): 54.7 ± 2.5 nmol/g fat; P = 0.45], regardless of whether the woman had or had not received a high-dose vitamin A supplement (200,000 IU) soon after childbirth. Around 17% of participants had low milk retinol (≤28 nmol/g fat). We estimated that 41% of infants were potentially receiving vitamin A at amounts above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (600 μg retinol activity equivalents/d), with no group differences in percentages with low or high milk retinol concentration. Daily consumption of approximately the recommended intake of vitamin A did not increase breast milk retinol concentrations in this sample of Ghanaian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00970866. © 2016 American

  9. Growth and body composition of human milk-fed premature infants provided with extra energy and nutrients early after hospital discharge: 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimone, Ashley; Rovet, Joanne; Ward, Wendy; Jefferies, Ann; Campbell, Douglas M; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Feldman, Mark; Vaughan, Jennifer; Westall, Carol; Whyte, Hilary; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2009-10-01

    Human milk (HM) is the optimal source of nutrition for premature infants; however, it is unclear whether HM alone is sufficient to meet their elevated nutritional requirements early after hospital discharge. We previously reported that premature infants (750-1800 g birth weight) fed HM containing extra nutrients for 12 weeks after discharge had dietary intakes closer to recommended levels and grew more rapidly than those fed HM alone. The objectives of the present article are to examine the impact of this intervention on bone mineralization, body composition, and HM use up to 1 year. Data are also presented on general developmental level at 18-month corrected age (CA). At discharge, predominantly HM-fed infants were randomized to receive for 12 weeks either approximately half of their feedings containing a multinutrient fortifier (intervention, n=19) or all of their feedings as HM alone (control, n=20). Intervention infants remained longer (Pbody bone mineral content (P=0.02) until 12-month CA compared with controls. Intervention infants born less than or equal to 1250 g continued to have a larger mean head circumference throughout the first year of life (Pmilk feeding (mL.kg(-1).day(-1)) differed between groups at 6- (P=0.035), but not 12-month CA. No statistically significant differences were found between groups in the mental, motor, or behavior rating scale scores of the Bayley II at 18-month CA. Adding a multinutrient fortifier to HM provided to predominantly HM-fed premature infants early after discharge results in sustained differences in weight, length, and whole-body bone mineral content, and in smaller babies, head circumference for the first year of life.

  10. Best Practices in Relational Skills Training for Medical Trainees and Providers: An Essential Element of Addressing Adverse Childhood Experiences and Promoting Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Eran; DeLisser, Horace M

    Medical providers' ability to form strong therapeutic alliances with patients is an essential clinical skill that is associated with a higher quality of care and improved provider well-being. However, comparatively few medical providers exhibit adequate relational skills, which serve to convey respect, communicate caring, and build trust between the medical provider and the patient. A growing number of medical training programs and continuing medical education programs have begun to incorporate relational skills training, but the results have been highly variable in terms of training methods and effect. To support administrators who are considering the implementation (or improvement) of relational skills training in their organization, we provide a set of best practices for relational skills training, in the basis of a review of the literature and on our experience as clinical educators, and show the application of these best practices through a case study. We conclude with a discussion of challenges for implementing a high-quality relational skills training program, policy-level solutions for these challenges, and recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impacts of coal fly ash on plant growth and accumulation of essential nutrients and trace elements by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown in a loessial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Dong, Zhigang; Peng, Qi; Wang, Xia; Fan, Chenbin; Zhang, Xingchang

    2017-07-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a problematic solid waste all over the world. One distinct beneficial reuse of CFA is its utilization in land application as a soil amendment. A pot experiment was carried out to assess the feasibility of using CFA to improve plant growth and increase the supply of plant-essential elements and selenium (Se) of a loessial soil for agricultural purpose. Plants of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were grown in a loessial soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20% and 40%) of CFA for two years and subjected to four successive cuttings. Dry mass of shoots and roots, concentrations of plant-essential elements and Se in plants were measured. Shoot dry mass and root dry mass were always significantly increased by 5%, 10% and 20% CFA treatments, and by 40% CFA treatment in all harvests except the first one. The CFA had a higher supply of exchangeable phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and Se than the loessial soil. Shoot P, calcium (Ca), Mg, Mo, boron (B), and Se concentrations were generally markedly increased, but shoot potassium (K), Cu, and Zn concentrations were generally reduced. The CFA can be a promising source of some essential elements and Se for plants grown in the loessial soil, and an application rate of not higher than 5% should be safe for agricultural purpose without causing plant toxicity symptoms in the studied loessial soil and similar soils. Field trials will be carried out to confirm the results of the pot experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joseph; Turkish, Aaron

    2002-11-01

    Recognition that specific nutrients can be beneficial when consumed in amounts above the accepted daily requirements has provided a major impetus for the critical examination of dietary approaches with single or multiple nutrient supplements chosen to modulate the inflammatory response, enhance immune function, or improve the blood-gut barrier. Patients suffering the effects of hypercatabolism caused by surgery, cancer, or extensive burns are prime candidates for immunonutrition, as the intervention has come to be known, as are immunosuppressed patients with the human immunodeficiency virus or other overwhelming infections. This review focuses on key nutrients used in clinical trials for which a body of information on the mode of action and metabolic pathways is available. The topics covered include the amino acids, glutamine and arginine; omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexanoic acid; vitamin A; and zinc. Lastly, we address the area of pre- and probiotics and how "friendly" microorganisms are being incorporated into therapeutic regimens aimed at sustaining health. The use of immunonutrition requires judicious consideration of the potential undesirable effects of certain additives in clinical settings where enhanced immune responsiveness can translate into tissue damage and altered mucosal defenses.

  13. The Effect of Storage on the Nutrient Composition ofSome Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    freezer subjected the food stuffs to chilling injury and nutrient loss. @JASEM. The essential nutrients of food are ... cocoyam and which are crops provide man with energy that enables him carry out his daily activities ... Percentage crude protein: The results got are shown in table 1.There was an overall increase in the crude.

  14. Saving mothers and newborns in communities: strengthening community midwives to provide high quality essential newborn and maternal care in Baluchistan, Pakistan in a financially sustainable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Cutherell, Andrea; Bhatti, Afshan

    2014-04-06

    To address it's persistently high maternal mortality rate of 276/100,000 live births, the government of Pakistan created a new cadre of community based midwives (CMW). One expectation is that CMWs will improve access to maternal health services for underserved women. Recent research shows the CMWs have largely failed to establish midwifery practices, because CMW's lack of skills, both clinical and entrepreneurial and funds necessary to develop their practice infrastructure and logistics. Communities also lack trust in their competence to conduct safe births. To address these issues, the Saving Mothers and Newborn (SMNC) intervention will implement three key elements to support the CMWs to establish their private practices: (1) upgrade CMW clinical skills (2) provide business-skills training and small loans (3) generate demand for CMW services using cellular phone SMS technology and existing women's support groups. This 3-year project aims to investigate whether CMWs enrolled in this initiative are providing the essential maternal and newborn health care to women and children living in districts of Quetta, and Gwadar in a financially self-sustaining manner. Specifically the research will use quasi-experimental impact assessment to document whether the SMNC initiative is having an impact on CMW services uptake, financial analysis to assess if the initiative enabled CMWs to develop financially self-sustainable practices and observation methods to assess the quality of care the CMWs are providing. A key element of the SMNC initiative - the provision of business skills training and loans to establish private practices - is an innovative initiative in Pakistan and little is known about its effectiveness. This research will provide emperic evidence of the effectiveness of the intervention as well as contribute to the body of evidence around potential solutions to improve sustainable coverage of high impact Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health interventions in vulnerable

  15. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented.

  16. Astronomy essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Brass, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'

  17. Topology essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Topology includes an overview of elementary set theory, relations and functions, ordinals and cardinals, topological spaces, continuous functions, metric spaces and normed spaces, co

  18. Autophagy provides nutrients for nonassimilating fungal structures and is necessary for plant colonization but not for infection in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Lone; Droce, Aida; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2012-01-01

    The role of autophagy in necrotrophic fungal physiology and infection biology is poorly understood. We have studied autophagy in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum in relation to development of nonassimilating structures and infection. We identified an ATG8 homolog F. graminearum...... starvation is severely inhibited in the Delta Fgatg8 strain demonstrating autophagy-dependent lipid utilization, lipophagy, in fungi. Radial growth rate of the Delta Fgatg8 strain is reduced compared with the wild type and the mutant does not grow over inert plastic surfaces in contrast to the wild type...... a pivotal role for supplying nutrients to nonassimilating structures necessary for growth and is important for plant colonization. This also indicates that autophagy is a central mechanism for fungal adaptation to nonoptimal C/N ratios....

  19. Effects of a specific blend of essential oils on apparent nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and rumen microbial populations in sheep fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khateri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO, containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. Methods Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control, 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites. Animals were fed with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Results Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration, molar proportion of individual VFA, acetate: propionate ratio and methane production were not affected with MEO. Relative to the control, Small peptides plus amino acid nitrogen and large peptides nitrogen concentration in rumen fluid were not affected with MEO supplementation; while, rumen fluid ammonia nitrogen concentration at 0 and 6 h after morning feeding in sheep fed with 1.6 mL/d of MEO was lower (p<0.05 compared to the control and 0.8 mL/d of MEO. At 0 h after morning feeding, ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher (p<0.05 in sheep fed 0.8 mL/d of MEO relative to 1.6 mL/d and control diet. Ruminal protozoa and hyper ammonia producing (HAP bacteria counts were not affected by addition of MEO in the diet. Relative to the control, no changes were observed in the red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentration. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude proten, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by MEO supplementation. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that supplementation of MEO may have limited effects on apparent

  20. Plant Leachate Nutrient Recovery with Biological, Thermal, and Photocatalytic Pretreatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Les

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for long term space travel: provide essential resources - oxygen, water, food; Water-soaked plants expel soluble nutrients in a leachate solution - toxins and wastes are also expelled and inhibit growth; biological, thermal, photocatalytic coupled with an acid digestion treatment will hopefully maximize recovery and remove wastes

  1. Swift essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Whether you are a seasoned Objective-C developer or new to the Xcode platform, Swift Essentials will provide you with all you need to know to get started with the language. Prior experience with iOS development is not necessary, but will be helpful to get the most out of the book.

  2. Nutrient acquisition by mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederweis, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The growth and nutritional requirements of mycobacteria have been intensively studied since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis more than a century ago. However, the identity of many transporters for essential nutrients of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria is still unknown despite a wealth of genomic data and the availability of sophisticated genetic tools. Recently, considerable progress has been made in recognizing that two lipid permeability barriers have to be overcome in order for a nutrient molecule to reach the cytoplasm of mycobacteria. Uptake processes are discussed by comparing M. tuberculosis with Mycobacterium smegmatis. For example, M. tuberculosis has only five recognizable carbohydrate transporters in the inner membrane, while M. smegmatis has 28 such transporters at its disposal. The specificities of inner-membrane transporters for sulfate, phosphate and some amino acids have been determined. Outer-membrane channel proteins in both organisms are thought to contribute to nutrient uptake. In particular, the Msp porins have been shown to be required for uptake of carbohydrates, amino acids and phosphate by M. smegmatis. The set of porins also appears to be different for M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis. These differences likely reflect the lifestyles of these mycobacteria and the availability of nutrients in their natural habitats: the soil and the human body. The comprehensive identification and the biochemical and structural characterization of the nutrient transporters of M. tuberculosis will not only promote our understanding of the physiology of this important human pathogen, but might also be exploited to improve tuberculosis chemotherapy.

  3. NPKS uptake, sensing, and signaling and miRNAs in plant nutrient stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-05-01

    Sessile nature of higher plants consequently makes it highly adaptable for nutrient absorption and acquisition from soil. Plants require 17 essential elements for their growth and development which include 14 minerals (macronutrients: N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S; micronutrients: Cl, Fe, B, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mo) and 3 non-mineral (C, H, O) elements. The roots of higher plants must acquire these macronutrients and micronutrients from rhizosphere and further allocate to other plant parts for completing their life cycle. Plants evolved an intricate series of signaling and sensing cascades to maintain nutrient homeostasis and to cope with nutrient stress/availability. The specific receptors for nutrients in root, root system architecture, and internal signaling pathways help to develop plasticity in response to the nutrient starvation. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) are essential for various metabolic processes, and their deficiency negatively effects the plant growth and yield. Genes coding for transporters and receptors for nutrients as well as some small non-coding RNAs have been implicated in nutrient uptake and signaling. This review summarizes the N, P, K, and S uptake, sensing and signaling events in nutrient stress condition especially in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and involvement of microRNAs in nutrient deficiency. This article also provides a framework of uptake, sensing, signaling and to highlight the microRNA as an emerging major players in nutrient stress condition. Nutrient-plant-miRNA cross talk may help plant to cope up nutrient stress, and understanding their precise mechanism(s) will be necessary to develop high yielding smart crop with low nutrient input.

  4. Provider perspectives on essential functions for care management in the collaborative treatment of hypertension: the P.A.R.T.N.E.R. framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tanvir; Allen, Allyssa; Halbert, Jennifer; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Boonyasai, Romsai Tony; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Care management has become a widespread strategy for improving chronic illness care. However, primary care provider (PCP) participation in programs has been poor. Because the success of care management relies on provider engagement, understanding provider perspectives is necessary. Our goal was to identify care management functions most valuable to PCPs in hypertension treatment. Six focus groups were conducted to discuss current challenges in hypertension care and identify specific functions of care management that would improve care. The study included 39 PCPs (participation rate: 83 %) representing six clinics, two of which care for large African American populations and four that are in underserved locations, in the greater Baltimore metropolitan area. This was a qualitative analysis of focus groups, using grounded theory and iterative coding. Providers desired achieving blood pressure control more rapidly. Collaborating with care managers who obtain ongoing patient data would allow treatment plans to be tailored to the changing life conditions of patients. The P.A.R.T.N.E.R. framework summarizes the care management functions that providers reported were necessary for effective collaboration: Partner with patients, providers, and the community; Arrange follow-up care; Resolve barriers to adherence; Track treatment response and progress; Navigate the health care system with patients; Educate patients & Engage patients in self-management; Relay information between patients and/or provider(s). The P.A.R.T.N.E.R. framework is the first to offer a checklist of care management functions that may promote successful collaboration with PCPs. Future research should examine the validity of this framework in various settings and for diverse patient populations affected by chronic diseases.

  5. Identification of Metabolites from LC-EC Profiling: GC-MS and Re-Fractionation Provide Essential Information Orthogonal to LCMS/microNMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathungu, Rose M.; Bird, Susan S.; Sheldon, Diane P.; Kautz, Roger; Vouros, Paul; Matson, Wayne R.; Kristal, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    HPLC-coulometric electrode-array detection (LC-EC) is a sensitive, quantitative and robust metabolomics profiling tool that complements the commonly used MS and NMR-based approaches. However, LC-EC provides little structural information. We recently demonstrated a workflow for the structural characterization of metabolites detected by LC-EC profiling, combined with LC-ESI-MS and microNMR. This methodology is now extended to include: (i) GC-EI-MS analysis to fill structural gaps left by LC-ESI-MS and NMR, and (ii) secondary fractionation of LC-collected fractions containing multiple co-eluting analytes. GC-EI-MS spectra have more informative fragment ions that are reproducible for database searches. Secondary fractionation provides enhanced metabolite characterization by reducing spectral overlap in NMR and ion-suppression in LC-ESI-MS. The need for these additional methods in the analysis of the broad chemical classes and concentration ranges found in plasma is illustrated with discussion of four specific examples, including: (i) characterization of compounds for which one or more of the detectors is insensitive (e.g., positional isomers in LC-MS, the direct detection of carboxylic groups and sulfonic groups in 1H NMR, or non-volatile species in GC-MS).; (ii) detection of labile compounds, (iii) resolution of closely eluting and/or co-eluting compounds and, (iv) the capability to harness structural similarities common in many biologically-related, LC-EC detectable compounds. PMID:24657819

  6. Key Nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  7. Treatment of Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES TREATMENT OF ESSENTIAL TREMOR This fact sheet is provided to help you understand which therapies help treat essential tremor. Neurologists from the American Academy of Neurology are ...

  8. Identification of metabolites from liquid chromatography-coulometric array detection profiling: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and refractionation provide essential information orthogonal to LC-MS/microNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathungu, Rose M; Bird, Susan S; Sheldon, Diane P; Kautz, Roger; Vouros, Paul; Matson, Wayne R; Kristal, Bruce S

    2014-06-01

    Liquid chromatography-coulometric array detection (LC-EC) is a sensitive, quantitative, and robust metabolomics profiling tool that complements the commonly used mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based approaches. However, LC-EC provides little structural information. We recently demonstrated a workflow for the structural characterization of metabolites detected by LC-EC profiling combined with LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and microNMR. This methodology is now extended to include (i) gas chromatography (GC)-electron ionization (EI)-MS analysis to fill structural gaps left by LC-ESI-MS and NMR and (ii) secondary fractionation of LC-collected fractions containing multiple coeluting analytes. GC-EI-MS spectra have more informative fragment ions that are reproducible for database searches. Secondary fractionation provides enhanced metabolite characterization by reducing spectral overlap in NMR and ion suppression in LC-ESI-MS. The need for these additional methods in the analysis of the broad chemical classes and concentration ranges found in plasma is illustrated with discussion of four specific examples: (i) characterization of compounds for which one or more of the detectors is insensitive (e.g., positional isomers in LC-MS, the direct detection of carboxylic groups and sulfonic groups in (1)H NMR, or nonvolatile species in GC-MS), (ii) detection of labile compounds, (iii) resolution of closely eluting and/or coeluting compounds, and (iv) the capability to harness structural similarities common in many biologically related, LC-EC-detectable compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Nutrient Balance Concept: A New Quality Metric for Composite Meals and Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B Fern

    Full Text Available Combinations of foods that provide suitable levels of nutrients and energy are required for optimum health. Currently, however, it is difficult to define numerically what are 'suitable levels'.To develop new metrics based on energy considerations-the Nutrient Balance Concept (NBC-for assessing overall nutrition quality when combining foods and meals.The NBC was developed using the USDA Food Composition Database (Release 27 and illustrated with their MyPlate 7-day sample menus for a 2000 calorie food pattern. The NBC concept is centered on three specific metrics for a given food, meal or diet-a Qualifying Index (QI, a Disqualifying Index (DI and a Nutrient Balance (NB. The QI and DI were determined, respectively, from the content of 27 essential nutrients and 6 nutrients associated with negative health outcomes. The third metric, the Nutrient Balance (NB, was derived from the Qualifying Index (QI and provided key information on the relative content of qualifying nutrients in the food. Because the Qualifying and Disqualifying Indices (QI and DI were standardized to energy content, both become constants for a given food/meal/diet and a particular consumer age group, making it possible to develop algorithms for predicting nutrition quality when combining different foods.Combining different foods into composite meals and daily diets led to improved nutrition quality as seen by QI values closer to unity (indicating nutrient density was better equilibrated with energy density, DI values below 1.0 (denoting an acceptable level of consumption of disqualifying nutrients and increased NB values (signifying complementarity of foods and better provision of qualifying nutrients.The Nutrient Balance Concept (NBC represents a new approach to nutrient profiling and the first step in the progression from the nutrient evaluation of individual foods to that of multiple foods in the context of meals and total diets.

  10. The Valine Anticodon and Valylatability of Peanut Clump Virus RNAs Are Not Essential but Provide a Modest Competitive Advantage in Plants†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dunoyer, Patrice; Hemmer, Odile; Fritsch, Christiane; Dreher, Theo W.

    2000-01-01

    The role of valine aminoacylation of the two genomic RNAs of Peanut clump virus (PCV) was studied by comparing the amplification in vivo of RNAs with GAC, GΔC, or CCA anticodons in the tRNA-like structure (TLS) present at the 3′ end of each viral RNA. The PCV RNA1 TLS of isolate PCV2 possesses a GAC anticodon and is capable of highly efficient valylation, whereas the RNA2 TLS has a GΔC anticodon that does not support valylation. The presence in RNA1 of GΔC or CCA anticodons that conferred nonvalylatability resulted in about 2- to 4-fold and a 14- to 24-fold reduction, respectively, in RNA accumulations in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts inoculated with the RNA1 variants together with wild-type RNA2(GΔC). No differences in RNA levels were observed among protoplasts inoculated with the three variant RNA2s in the presence of wild-type RNA1(GAC). All combinations of valylatable and nonvalylatable RNAs 1 and 2 were similarly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and viral RNAs accumulated to similar levels; all input TLS sequences were present unchanged in apical leaves. In direct competition experiments in N. benthamiana plants, however, both RNA1 and RNA2 with GAC valylatable anticodons outcompeted the nonvalylatable variants. We conclude that valylation provides a small but significant replicational advantage to both PCV RNAs. Sequence analysis of the TLS from RNA2 of a second PCV isolate, PO2A, revealed the presence of an intact GAC valine anticodon, suggesting that the differential valylation of the genomic RNAs of isolate PCV2 is not a general characteristic of PCV. PMID:10954573

  11. The valine anticodon and valylatability of Peanut clump virus RNAs are not essential but provide a modest competitive advantage in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, D; Dunoyer, P; Hemmer, O; Fritsch, C; Dreher, T W

    2000-09-01

    The role of valine aminoacylation of the two genomic RNAs of Peanut clump virus (PCV) was studied by comparing the amplification in vivo of RNAs with GAC, GDeltaC, or CCA anticodons in the tRNA-like structure (TLS) present at the 3' end of each viral RNA. The PCV RNA1 TLS of isolate PCV2 possesses a GAC anticodon and is capable of highly efficient valylation, whereas the RNA2 TLS has a GDeltaC anticodon that does not support valylation. The presence in RNA1 of GDeltaC or CCA anticodons that conferred nonvalylatability resulted in about 2- to 4-fold and a 14- to 24-fold reduction, respectively, in RNA accumulations in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts inoculated with the RNA1 variants together with wild-type RNA2(GDeltaC). No differences in RNA levels were observed among protoplasts inoculated with the three variant RNA2s in the presence of wild-type RNA1(GAC). All combinations of valylatable and nonvalylatable RNAs 1 and 2 were similarly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and viral RNAs accumulated to similar levels; all input TLS sequences were present unchanged in apical leaves. In direct competition experiments in N. benthamiana plants, however, both RNA1 and RNA2 with GAC valylatable anticodons outcompeted the nonvalylatable variants. We conclude that valylation provides a small but significant replicational advantage to both PCV RNAs. Sequence analysis of the TLS from RNA2 of a second PCV isolate, PO2A, revealed the presence of an intact GAC valine anticodon, suggesting that the differential valylation of the genomic RNAs of isolate PCV2 is not a general characteristic of PCV.

  12. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  13. Influence of Diet Balanced with Essential Amino Acids / Keto Acid Analogs and High-Nutrient Blend on the Progression of Renal Failure in Patients in the Pre-Dialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease Caused by Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Aleksandrova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a low protein diet (LPD balanced with essential amino acids (EAA / keto acid analogs (KAA and protein “SUPRO-XT 219D” in the composition of the high-energy nutrient blend (HENB for slow down of renal failure in patients in the pre-dialysis stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD induced by systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD.Material and Methods: In this study, 46 patients (35 with systemic lupus erythematosus and 15 with various forms of systemic vasculitis with CKD in stages 3-4 were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (18 patients: 10 with CKD stage 3 and 8 with CKD stage 4 was given LPD (0.6 g protein per kg of body weight per day comprising 0.3 g of vegetable protein and 0.3 g of animal protein balanced with EAA/KAA (Diet #1; Group 2 (18 patients: 9 with CKD stage 3 and 9 with CKD stage 4 was given the same LPD, but with an increased vegetable protein content (purified soy protein SUPRO-XT 219D up to 0.4 g/kg/day in the composition of HENB (Diet #2; Group 3, comparison group, (10 patients: 7 with CKD stage 3 and 3 with CKD stage 4 was given a free diet (Diet #3 based on the patient’s personal preferences. Both options of LPD were offered to all the patients of Groups 1 and 2 regardless of their baseline nutritional status (NS. The duration of the observation was 24-48 months. The NS was evaluated based on the bioelectrical impedance analysis. The protein and calorie intake was calculated from the 3-day food diary.Results: Among the 46 patients with CKD stages 3-4, NS impairment was detected in almost half the patients (45.7%. Both forms of LPD were well tolerated. The correction of the nutritive impairment was achieved in patients with baseline impaired NS; the remaining patients of Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated the safety of NS against LPD. At the same time, among Group 3 patients, during the progression of renal disorders, the NS rate was observed to increase by 1.5 times (from 40% to 60

  14. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  15. Nutrient reference values for bioactives: new approaches needed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Erdman Jr., John W.; Hathcock, John

    2013-01-01

    Nutrients can be classified as either "essential" or "non-essential," the latter are also termed bioactive substances. Whereas the absence of essential nutrients from the diet results in overt deficiency often times with moderate to severe physiological decrements, the absence of bioactive substa...

  16. Essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremor - essential; Familial tremor; Tremor - familial; Benign essential tremor; Shaking - essential tremor ... ET is the most common type of tremor. Everyone has some tremor, but the movements are often so small that they can't be seen. ET affects both men and women. ...

  17. The Genome-Wide Interaction Network of Nutrient Stress Genes in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Côtôé

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional efforts to describe essential genes in bacteria have typically emphasized nutrient-rich growth conditions. Of note, however, are the set of genes that become essential when bacteria are grown under nutrient stress. For example, more than 100 genes become indispensable when the model bacterium Escherichia coli is grown on nutrient-limited media, and many of these nutrient stress genes have also been shown to be important for the growth of various bacterial pathogens in vivo. To better understand the genetic network that underpins nutrient stress in E. coli, we performed a genome-scale cross of strains harboring deletions in some 82 nutrient stress genes with the entire E. coli gene deletion collection (Keio to create 315,400 double deletion mutants. An analysis of the growth of the resulting strains on rich microbiological media revealed an average of 23 synthetic sick or lethal genetic interactions for each nutrient stress gene, suggesting that the network defining nutrient stress is surprisingly complex. A vast majority of these interactions involved genes of unknown function or genes of unrelated pathways. The most profound synthetic lethal interactions were between nutrient acquisition and biosynthesis. Further, the interaction map reveals remarkable metabolic robustness in E. coli through pathway redundancies. In all, the genetic interaction network provides a powerful tool to mine and identify missing links in nutrient synthesis and to further characterize genes of unknown function in E. coli. Moreover, understanding of bacterial growth under nutrient stress could aid in the development of novel antibiotic discovery platforms.

  18. Essential astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    Essential Astrophysics is a book to learn or teach from, as well as a fundamental reference volume for anyone interested in astronomy and astrophysics. It presents astrophysics from basic principles without requiring any previous study of astronomy or astrophysics. It serves as a comprehensive introductory text, which takes the student through the field of astrophysics in lecture-sized chapters of basic physical principles applied to the cosmos. This one-semester overview will be enjoyed by undergraduate students with an interest in the physical sciences, such as astronomy, chemistry, engineering or physics, as well as by any curious student interested in learning about our celestial science. The mathematics required for understanding the text is on the level of simple algebra, for that is all that is needed to describe the fundamental principles. The text is of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare the interested student for more advanced specialized courses in the future. Astronomical examples are provide...

  19. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Energy flow and nutrient cycling are essential for the functioning of an ... biochemical (i.e. intra system) nutrient cycling and food webs; this refers to both the physical and ..... (1998) suggested that microbial activity could be limited by litter moisture .... Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers on ...

  20. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have signifi cantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 base mineral index for Swedish forest soils, and basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research in areas that include...

  1. The Nutrient and Energy Sensor Sirt1 Regulates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis by Altering the Production of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2) Essential in the Maturation of Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) from Its Prohormone in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toorie, Anika M; Cyr, Nicole E; Steger, Jennifer S; Beckman, Ross; Farah, George; Nillni, Eduardo A

    2016-03-11

    Understanding the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hormones in energy balance is paramount in the search for approaches to mitigate the obese state. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity leads to increased levels of glucocorticoids (GC) that are known to regulate body weight. The axis initiates the production and release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Levels of active CRH peptide are dependent on the processing of its precursor pro-CRH by the action of two members of the family of prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2). Here, we propose that the nutrient sensor sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) regulates the production of CRH post-translationally by affecting PC2. Data suggest that Sirt1 may alter the preproPC2 gene directly or via deacetylation of the transcription factor Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1). Data also suggest that Sirt1 may alter PC2 via a post-translational mechanism. Our results show that Sirt1 levels in the PVN increase in rats fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks. Furthermore, elevated Sirt1 increased PC2 levels, which in turn increased the production of active CRH and GC. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence supporting the hypothesis that PVN Sirt1 activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and basal GC levels by enhancing the production of CRH through an increase in the biosynthesis of PC2, which is essential in the maturation of CRH from its prohormone, pro-CRH. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Short-term effect of nutrient availability and rainfall distribution on biomass production and leaf nutrient content of savanna tree species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R M Barbosa

    Full Text Available Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use. Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation affects seedlings' above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf

  3. Short-term effect of nutrient availability and rainfall distribution on biomass production and leaf nutrient content of savanna tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eduardo R M; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T; van Langevelde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings' above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient concentration

  4. [New nutrients in enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Martínez, C

    2000-01-01

    1. Medical and surgical stress (major surgery, sepsis, injuries,...) increases requirements of certain essential nutrients and others considered non-essential or semi-essential. 2. Some nutrients such as glutamine, arginine, omega 3 fatty acids nucleotides, ... have a considerable influence on the immune function (delayed hypersensitivity, lymphocyte sub-population counts, immunological tests,..) and improve certain metabolic and nutritional indices (nitrogen balance, medium and short life proteins,...). For this reason, they are called "immunonutrients" or "immunity regulators". 3. The supply of special enteral formulas for situations of immunological compromise, with the addition of one or more of the nutrients considered today as "immunity regulators" has increased since 1988 in both absolute and percentage terms. 4. These nutrient-enriched enteral formulas improve the rate of infections, reduce the number of days on ventilator equipment, the length of hospital stays for critical patients, with a more marked effect on surgical patients. 5. The evidence seems today to support the use of enriched formulas with critical patients. Nonetheless, some caution must be maintained as it has not been possible to show any reduction in the mortality of the cases studied nor, in short, in the prognosis of patients affected by situations of hypercatabolism and reduced immunity. 6. We feel that their use should, therefore, be carried out in accordance with the protocols and in patients expected to survive, where the evolution reveals severe catabolism unhindered by conventional therapy.

  5. KNIME essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bakos, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    KNIME Essentials is a practical guide aimed at getting the results you want, as quickly as possible.""Knime Essentials"" is written for data analysts looking to quickly get up to speed using the market leader in data processing tools, KNIME. No knowledge of KNIME is required, but we will assume that you have some background in data processing.

  6. Several 'problem nutrients' are identified in complementary feeding of Guatemalan infants with continued breastfeeding using the concept of 'critical nutrient density'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenaar, M; Hernández, L; Campos, R; Solomons, N W

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends nutritionally adequate complementary feeding (CF) through the introduction of indigenous foodstuffs and local foods while breastfeeding for at least 2 years. To determine the adequacy of the contribution of CF to the diets of Guatemalan infants at the 7th-12th month of life receiving high-intensity continued breastfeeding. Critical nutrient densities for CF were modelled using age- and sex-specific energy and protein requirements assuming children to be at the 50th weight percentile of local peers and 15th weight percentiles of the 2006 WHO standards. Nutrient requirements for the total diet were determined using the recommended nutrient intakes. Breast milk was assumed to provide 75% of total energy at the 7th-9th month and 50% at the 10th-12th month. Gaps between computed critical nutrient densities and the CF consumption of 128 Guatemalan infants based on data collected by means of three nonconsecutive 24-h quantitative intake recalls were examined. Locally consumed foods with nutrient densities above the modelled critical densities were identified. Observed non-breast milk complementation would result in total diets providing inadequate nutrient density for vitamin A, niacin and vitamin C in some age groups. Major gaps for calcium, iron and zinc were ubiquitous across all groups. Few foods commonly consumed among Guatemalan infants had adequate densities of 'problem nutrients'. The critical nutrient density concept is useful to evaluate the nutrient adequacy of the infant's diet. Fortified foods are essential sources of the main 'problem nutrients', namely calcium, iron and zinc, given that natural sources are scarce.

  7. Antiretroviral therapy provided to HIV-infected Malawian women in a randomized trial diminishes the positive effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements on breast-milk B vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H; Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; York, Emily R; Adair, Linda S; Flax, Valerie L; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum. Women were assigned to receive antiretrovirals and LNSs, antiretrovirals only, LNSs only, or a control. Antiretrovirals and LNSs were given to the mothers from weeks 0 to 28. The antiretrovirals were zidovudine/lamivudine and nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. LNSs provided 93-118% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and vitamin B-12. Infants were exclusively breastfed. LNSs increased milk concentrations of all vitamins except thiamin, whereas antiretrovirals lowered concentrations of nicotinamide, pyridoxal, and vitamin B-12. Although antiretrovirals alone had no significant effect on riboflavin concentrations, they negatively affected the LNS-induced increase in this vitamin. Thiamin was not influenced by the study interventions. Concentrations of all B vitamins were much lower than usually accepted values. All B vitamins were low in milk, and all but thiamin were increased by maternal supplementation with LNSs. Antiretrovirals alone decreased concentrations of some B vitamins in milk. When LNS was given in addition to antiretrovirals, the negative effect of antiretrovirals offset the positive effect of LNSs for all vitamins except thiamin. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164762. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  9. Calculus I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus I covers functions, limits, basic derivatives, and integrals.

  10. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  11. Differential equations I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Differential Equations I covers first- and second-order equations, series solutions, higher-order linear equations, and the Laplace transform.

  12. Pre-calculus essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Pre-Calculus reviews sets, numbers, operations and properties, coordinate geometry, fundamental algebraic topics, solving equations and inequalities, functions, trigonometry, exponents

  13. Business statistics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Louise

    2014-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Business Statistics I includes descriptive statistics, introduction to probability, probability distributions, sampling and sampling distributions, interval estimation, and hypothesis t

  14. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  15. Statistics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics I covers include frequency distributions, numerical methods of describing data, measures of variability, parameters of distributions, probability theory, and distributions.

  16. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  17. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  18. Modern algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lutfiyya, Lutfi A

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Modern Algebra includes set theory, operations, relations, basic properties of the integers, group theory, and ring theory.

  19. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  20. Computer science I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science I includes fundamental computer concepts, number representations, Boolean algebra, switching circuits, and computer architecture.

  1. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  2. Antiretroviral therapy provided to HIV-infected Malawian women in a randomized trial diminishes the posiitive effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements on breast milk B-vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is little information on B-vitamin concentrations in human milk or how they are affected by maternal B-vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral (ARV) therapy or maternal supplementation. Objective: To evaluate effects of ARV therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on B-v...

  3. Nutrição mineral, crescimento e teor de óleo essencial da menta em solução nutritiva sob diferentes concentrações de fósforo e épocas de coleta Mineral nutrition, growth and essential oil content of mint in nutrient solution under different phosphorus concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rodrigues

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de concentrações de P e épocas de coleta sobre o crescimento, nutrição mineral e teor de óleo essencial da menta (Mentha piperita L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo 2 épocas de coleta (65 e 95 dias de cultivo (DC e 5 concentrações de P na solução nutritiva (6; 12; 18; 24 e 30 mg L-1, com 4 repetições. Foi determinada a massa seca de folhas (MSF, caules (MSC, raízes (MSR e total (MST e as relações folha:caule (F:C e parte aérea:raiz (PA:R. Também, foi determinado o teor de óleo essencial em folhas frescas. Os níveis críticos foliares e acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea da menta foram estimados por meio da análise química das folhas e caules. As concentrações de P na solução influenciaram o crescimento e a produção de óleo essencial pela menta. Na coleta realizada aos 65 DC, apenas a MSF foi influenciada pelo P, não se observando efeito sobre os teores de óleo essencial. Aos 95 DC, o aumento da concentração de P promoveu aumentos significativos na massa seca das partes e do total da menta e, também, nos teores de óleo essencial, sendo o teor máximo (2,192 dag kg-1 obtido com 19,50 mg L-1 de P. As maiores concentrações de P avaliadas (24 e 30 mg L-1, promoveram aumentos na produção de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea da menta, mas, reduziram os teores de óleo essencial, devido ao efeito de diluição, não significando, portanto, ganhos de produção de óleo por planta. Os teores foliares dos nutrientes associados ao teor máximo de óleo aos 95 DC foram em g kg-1: N=37,2; =3,9; K=21,2; Ca=9,3; Mg=3,8; S=3,0; e, em mg kg-1: B=35; Cu=8; Fe=323; Mn=145 e Zn=22. A exigência nutricional aos 95 DC relacionada ao teor máximo de óleo essencial seguiu a seqüência: N>K>Ca>P>Mg>S>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu.The effect of P concentrations and harvest period upon the growth, mineral nutrition and essential oil

  4. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  5. [A framework for assessing essential public health nursing skills and achievement levels required for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahara, Kiyomi; Omori, Junko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Hirano, Yuko; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Arakida, Mikako; Oki, Sachiko; Okamoto, Reiko; Okuyama, Noriko; Kaihara, Itsuko; Sudo, Hiroko; Nagae, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Misako; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a framework for essential skills and the achievement levels necessary for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse (PHN) in Japan. Two rounds of questionnaire-based investigations using the Delphi methodology were conducted. Subjects were 197 PHNs from municipalities or companies and 146 nurse educators from universities, colleges, junior colleges, or technical nursing schools. (1) The essential skills framework consisted of three (macro, intermediate and micro) levels. Macro-level items were based on the principle of justice, a primary pillar of health care: (A) community assessment to identify health problems; (B) solving and improving particular health problems in collaboration with people to enable them to promote their own health; (C) promoting equitable access and distribution of community resources for health and daily living. Micro-level items had four achievement levels: (I) independent; (II) instructor-guided; (III) laboratory exercise; (IV) theoretical understanding. Micro-level items for A and B had two domains for achievement: individual/family and group/community. (2) In the first round over 70% of respondents said "very important," "important" or "acceptable" for all micro-level items. In the second round, over 90% said all micro-level items fit within macro and intermediate-level items. (3) In the second round, micro-level items attained 70% consensus among PHNs and nurse educators were 71 of 93 (76.3%). Micro-level expression was used for adjustment and the final framework of essential skills yielded 3 macro, 8 intermediate and 59 micro-level items and 95 levels of achievement. (4) In the final framework, the level of achievement for "individual/family" (Macro-level A and B) was almost level I, and for "group/community" almost II or III. The number of micro-level items at level IV for C was 14 of 21 (66.7%). (5) Compared with PHNs, educators generally

  6. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  7. Essential Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  8. Essential AOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fraine, Bruno; Ernst, Erik; Südholt, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has produced interesting language designs, but also ad hoc semantics that needs clarification. We contribute to this clarification with a calculus that models essential AOP, both simpler and more general than existing formalizations. In AOP, advice may intercept ...

  9. Highcharts essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shahid, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web developer with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and want to quickly get started with this web charting technology, this is the book for you. This book will also serve as an essential guide to those who have probably used a similar library and are now looking at migrating to Highcharts.

  10. Mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and phosphorus fertilizer on growth, essential oil production and nutrient uptake in peppermint (Mentha piperita L. Inoculação com fungos micorrízicos e adubação fosfatada no crescimento, produção de óleo essencial e absorção de nutrientes em hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Arango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices A4 and Glomus intraradices B1 and two phosphorus levels (10 and 40 mg kg-1 on root colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake and essential oil content in Mentha piperita L. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in 4x2 factorial arrangement, in completely randomized design. At sixty days after transplanting, the mycorrhizal plants had significantly higher fresh matter, dry matter and leaf area compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The inoculation increased P, K and Ca levels in the shoot which were higher under 40 mg P kg-1 of soil. Plants grown with 40 mg P kg-1 soil increased the essential oil yield per plant by about 40-50% compared to those cultivated with 10 mg P kg-1, regardless of the mycorrhizal treatment. Among the studied fungal species, inoculation with G. intraradices A4 and a high level of P significantly increased plant growth and essential oil yield, compared to the other studied mycorrhizal fungal species. In conclusion, inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into peppermint plants is a feasible alternative to increase the essential oil production and reduce the use of fertilizers required to obtain economic production of peppermint under phosphorus-deficient soil condition.Este estudo avaliou os efeitos da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices A4 e Glomus intraradices B1 e duas doses de fósforo (10 e 40 mg kg-1 sobre a colonização radicular, crescimento, absorção de nutrientes e óleos essenciais em Mentha piperita L. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegetação no delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4x2. Sessenta dias após o transplantio, as plantas micorrizadas apresentaram massa fresca, massa seca, e área foliar significativamente maior em comparação as não-micorrizadas. A inoculação aumentou o teor de P, K e

  11. Prezi essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Domi

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn Prezi, and specifically design within Prezi, this is the book for you. Perhaps you already know a bit about Prezi but have never used it, or perhaps you have used Prezi before but want to learn how to incorporate your own custom design elements. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic design concepts and the use of Prezi, but prior experience is not essential.

  12. Linux Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roderick W

    2012-01-01

    A unique, full-color introduction to Linux fundamentals Serving as a low-cost, secure alternative to expensive operating systems, Linux is a UNIX-based, open source operating system. Full-color and concise, this beginner's guide takes a learning-by-doing approach to understanding the essentials of Linux. Each chapter begins by clearly identifying what you will learn in the chapter, followed by a straightforward discussion of concepts that leads you right into hands-on tutorials. Chapters conclude with additional exercises and review questions, allowing you to reinforce and measure your underst

  13. Essential SQLAlchemy

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Essential SQLAlchemy introduces a high-level open-source code library that makes it easier for Python programmers to access relational databases such as Oracle, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. SQLAlchemy has become increasingly popular since its release, but it still lacks good offline documentation. This practical book fills the gap, and because a developer wrote it, you get an objective look at SQLAlchemy's tools rather than an advocate's description of all the "cool" features. SQLAlchemy includes both a database server-independent SQL expression language and an object-relational mappe

  14. Thermodynamics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  15. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  16. Geometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Geometry I includes methods of proof, points, lines, planes, angles, congruent angles and line segments, triangles, parallelism, quadrilaterals, geometric inequalities, and geometric

  17. Thermodynamics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics I includes review of properties and states of a pure substance, work and heat, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics

  18. Group theory I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  19. Data structures I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures I includes scalar variables, arrays and records, elementary sorting, searching, linked lists, queues, and appendices of binary notation and subprogram parameter passi

  20. Data structures II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge

  1. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  2. Computer science II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly

  3. C programming language essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Ernest C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. C Programming Language discusses fundamental notions, data types and objects, expressions, statements, declarations, function and program structure, the preprocessor, and the standar

  4. Boolean algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean

  5. Set theory essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Set Theory includes elementary logic, sets, relations, functions, denumerable and non-denumerable sets, cardinal numbers, Cantor's theorem, axiom of choice, and order relations.

  6. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  7. Physics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physics I includes vectors and scalars, one-dimensional motion, plane motion, dynamics of a particle, work and energy, conservation of energy, dynamics of systems of particles, rotation

  8. Laplace transforms essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  9. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  10. Algebra & trigonometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry I includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, eq

  11. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  12. Electronics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics I covers fundamentals of semiconductor devices, junction diodes, bipolar junction transistors, power supplies, multitransistor circuits, small signals, low-frequency anal

  13. Electronics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  14. Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leutholtz Brian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skeletal muscle tissue is tightly regulated throughout our bodies by balancing its synthesis and breakdown. Many factors are known to exist that cause profound changes on the overall status of skeletal muscle, some of which include exercise, nutrition, hormonal influences and disease. Muscle hypertrophy results when protein synthesis is greater than protein breakdown. Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has been shown to increase muscular strength and muscular hypertrophy. In general, resistance training causes a stimulation of protein synthesis as well as an increase in protein breakdown, resulting in a negative balance of protein. Providing nutrients, specifically amino acids, helps to stimulate protein synthesis and improve the overall net balance of protein. Strategies to increase the concentration and availability of amino acids after resistance exercise are of great interest and have been shown to effectively increase overall protein synthesis. 123 After exercise, providing carbohydrate has been shown to mildly stimulate protein synthesis while addition of free amino acids prior to and after exercise, specifically essential amino acids, causes a rapid pronounced increase in protein synthesis as well as protein balance.13 Evidence exists for a dose-response relationship of infused amino acids while no specific regimen exists for optimal dosing upon ingestion. Ingestion of whole or intact protein sources (e.g., protein powders, meal-replacements has been shown to cause similar improvements in protein balance after resistance exercise when compared to free amino acid supplements. Future research should seek to determine optimal dosing of ingested intact amino acids in addition to identifying the cellular mechanistic machinery (e.g. transcriptional and translational mechanisms for causing the increase in protein synthesis.

  15. Effects of Fallow Genealogical Cycles on the Build-up of Nutrients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    which helped to conserve and build-up essential nutrients in the soil by minimizing the loss of nutrients ... The study suggested that for efficient conservation practices, fallow land mostly the ...... of Agroforestry Systems to Improve Human.

  16. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  17. Dietary essentiality of “nutritionally non-essential amino acids” for animals and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be provided in the diet to meet requirements. In contrast, nutritionally non-essential AA (NEAA) are those AA which can be synthesized de novo in adequate amounts by the animal organism to meet requirements for maintenance, growth, development, and health and, therefore, need not be provided in the diet. Although EAA and NEAA had been described for over a century, there are no compelling data to substantiate the assumption that NEAA are synthesized sufficiently in animals and humans to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. NEAA play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling pathways, digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients, DNA and protein synthesis, proteolysis, metabolism of glucose and lipids, endocrine status, men and women fertility, acid–base balance, antioxidative responses, detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, neurotransmission, and immunity. Emerging evidence indicates dietary essentiality of “nutritionally non-essential amino acids” for animals and humans to achieve their full genetic potential for growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases. This concept represents a new paradigm shift in protein nutrition to guide the feeding of mammals (including livestock), poultry, and fish. PMID:26041391

  18. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF NUTRIENT FORAMINA OF 200 HUMAN RADII IN GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    Swati; Shaista

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: radius is situated on the outer aspect of the forearm. Its anterior surface shows presence of nutrient canal transmitting nutrient artery. Nutrient artery is the major blood supply of long bone mainly during the growing period and early phase of ossification. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Nutrient arterial supply is also essential for survival of osteocytes in procedures such as bone grafts. Location, number and position of nutrient foramen play an important role in ...

  19. Biological potential of extraterrestrial materials. 2. Microbial and plant responses to nutrients in the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, M. N.; Conner, A. J.; Killham, K.; Deamer, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    Meteoritic materials are investigated as potential early planetary nutrients. Aqueous extracts of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous meteorite are utilized as a sole carbon source by microorganisms, as demonstrated by the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescence equipped with the lux gene. Nutrient effects are observed also with the soil microorganisms Nocardia asteroides and Arthrobacter pascens that reach populations up to 5 x 10(7) CFU/ml in meteorite extracts, similar to populations in terrestrial soil extracts. Plant tissue cultures of Asparagus officinalis and Solanum tuberosum (potato) exhibit enhanced pigmentation and some enhanced growth when meteorite extracts are added to partial nutrient media, but inhibited growth when added to full nutrient solution. The meteorite extracts lead to large increases in S, Ca, Mg, and Fe plant tissue contents as shown by X-ray fluorescence, while P, K, and Cl contents show mixed effects. In both microbiological and plant tissue experiments, the nutrient and inhibitory effects appear to be best balanced for growth at about 1:20 (extracted solid : H2O) ratios. The results suggest that solutions in cavities in meteorites can provide efficient concentrated biogenic and early nutrient environments, including high phosphate levels, which may be the limiting nutrient. The results also suggest that carbonaceous asteroid resources can sustain soil microbial activity and provide essential macronutrients for future space-based ecosystems.

  20. Essential thrombocythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brière Jean B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Essential thrombocythemia (ET is an acquired myeloproliferative disorder (MPD characterized by a sustained elevation of platelet number with a tendency for thrombosis and hemorrhage. The prevalence in the general population is approximately 30/100,000. The median age at diagnosis is 65 to 70 years, but the disease may occur at any age. The female to male ratio is about 2:1. The clinical picture is dominated by a predisposition to vascular occlusive events (involving the cerebrovascular, coronary and peripheral circulation and hemorrhages. Some patients with ET are asymptomatic, others may experience vasomotor (headaches, visual disturbances, lightheadedness, atypical chest pain, distal paresthesias, erythromelalgia, thrombotic, or hemorrhagic disturbances. Arterial and venous thromboses, as well as platelet-mediated transient occlusions of the microcirculation and bleeding, represent the main risks for ET patients. Thromboses of large arteries represent a major cause of mortality associated with ET or can induce severe neurological, cardiac or peripheral artery manifestations. Acute leukemia or myelodysplasia represent only rare and frequently later-onset events. The molecular pathogenesis of ET, which leads to the overproduction of mature blood cells, is similar to that found in other clonal MPDs such as chronic myeloid leukemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia of the spleen. Polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia of the spleen and ET are generally associated under the common denomination of Philadelphia (Ph-negative MPDs. Despite the recent identification of the JAK2 V617F mutation in a subset of patients with Ph-negative MPDs, the detailed pathogenetic mechanism is still a matter of discussion. Therapeutic interventions in ET are limited to decisions concerning the introduction of anti-aggregation therapy and/or starting platelet cytoreduction. The therapeutic value of hydroxycarbamide

  1. Essential travel medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...

  2. White root tips supply plants with oxygen, water and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2016-01-01

    The main, most important function of roots belonging to horticultural crops is the uptake of water and nutrients. Healthy roots are essential for a healthy plant. After all, if the uptake of water and nutrients is not functioning properly, then other aspects also leave a lot to be desired

  3. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nutrient cycling in agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, L.

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of agricultural production to meet global food demands has led to excessive nutrient leaching from agricultural areas. These losses have negative environmental impacts and pose a waste of valuable fertilizer. Soil biota are essential for nutrient cycling in soil and thus could be

  4. Nutrient and phytoplankton analysis of a Mediterranean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M T; Rodilla, M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected (Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  5. Influence of Physiological Stress on Nutrient Stoichiometry in Larval Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Haslett, Savhannah; Fritz, Kelley A; Whiles, Matt R; Warne, Robin W

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors alters animal phenotypes as well as nutrient metabolism, assimilation, and excretion. While stress-induced shifts in nutrient processes are known to alter organismal carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry, there has been little exploration of how environmental factors influence phosphorous (P). A better understanding of how P cycling varies with animal physiological state may provide insight into across-scale processes, because P is essential to animal function and ecological processes such as production and decomposition. We tested the effects of predator stress and exogenous glucocorticoids on C∶N∶P stoichiometry of larval amphibians. Glucocorticoids altered nutrient stoichiometry, apparently by modulating ossification and renal function. This reduced whole-body P and significantly increased N∶P. Additionally, elevated glucocorticoids caused a long-term reduction in P excretion. This reduction may reflect an initial unmeasured loss of P that glucocorticoids induce over acute timescales. In contrast, exposure to predator cues had no effect on larval C∶N∶P stoichiometry, which highlights that different stressors have varied effects on the endocrine stress response. Predation, in particular, is ubiquitous in the environment; thus, larvae responding to predators have conserved mechanisms that likely prevent or minimize physiological disruption. These results demonstrate the differing physiological roles of N and P, distinct nutrient demands associated with amphibian metamorphosis, and the contrasting effects that different environmental factors have on the physiological stress response. Our results also suggest that anthropogenic changes to the environment that induce chronic stress in amphibians could affect the biogeochemistry of nutrient-poor environments where they may act as keystone species.

  6. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Analysis of a Mediterranean Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M. T.; Rodilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected ( Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  7. Couchbase essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Zablocki, John

    2015-01-01

    This book is for those application developers who want to achieve greater flexibility and scalability from their software. Whether you are familiar with other NoSQL databases or have only used relational systems, this book will provide you with enough background to move you along at your own pace. If you are new to NoSQL document databases, the design discussions and introductory material will give you the information you need to get started with Couchbase.

  8. HDInsight essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nadipalli, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide full of step-by-step instructions on how to build a multi-node Hadoop cluster on Windows servers.If you are a data architect or developer who wants to understand how to transform your data using open source software, such as MapReduce, Hive, Pig and JavaScript, and also leverage the Windows infrastructure; this book is perfect for you. It is also ideal if you are part of a team who is starting or planning a Hadoop implementation, and you want to understand the key components of Hadoop, and how HDInsight provides added value in administration and reporting.

  9. accumulation in roots, and of limitation of essential nutrients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maram

    2012-04-26

    . Physiol. 101: 7-12. Strogonov BS (1973). Structure and function of plant cells in saline habitats: New trends in the study of salt tolerance. Translated from. Russian by A. Mercado. Translation edited by B. Gollek. John Wiley.

  10. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2013-07-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are defined as physical, chemical, physiologic, or pathophysiologic relationships between a drug and a nutrient. The causes of most clinically significant drug-nutrient interactions are usually multifactorial. Failure to identify and properly manage drug-nutrient interactions can lead to very serious consequences and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Nevertheless, with thorough review and assessment of the patient's history and treatment regimens and a carefully executed management strategy, adverse events associated with drug-nutrient interactions can be prevented. Based on the physiologic sequence of events after a drug or a nutrient has entered the body and the mechanism of interactions, drug-nutrient interactions can be categorized into 4 main types. Each type of interaction can be managed using similar strategies. The existing data that guide the clinical management of most drug-nutrient interactions are mostly anecdotal experience, uncontrolled observations, and opinions, whereas the science in understanding the mechanism of drug-nutrient interactions remains limited. The challenge for researchers and clinicians is to increase both basic and higher level clinical research in this field to bridge the gap between the science and practice. The research should aim to establish a better understanding of the function, regulation, and substrate specificity of the nutrient-related enzymes and transport proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as assess how the incidence and management of drug-nutrient interactions can be affected by sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms. This knowledge can help us develop a true personalized medicine approach in the prevention and management of drug-nutrient interactions.

  11. Physics Essentials For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    For students who just need to know the vital concepts of physics, whether as a refresher, for exam prep, or as a reference, Physics Essentials For Dummies is a must-have guide. Free of ramp-up and ancillary material, Physics Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only. It provides discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in an introductory physics course, from force and motion to momentum and kinetics. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical physics concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as we

  12. Growth and mineral nutrition in seedlings of australian cedar (Toona ciliata subjected to nutrient deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate nutritional requirements and the effect of nutrient deprivation on the development of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis, a greenhouse experiment was conducted. The substrate used was a dystroferric red latosol with low nutrient availability, using 15 treatments and applying the missing element technique. The experiment included two complete treatments (one provided N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Zn with limestone while another provided N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu and Zn without limestone, besides deprivation of each nutrient (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B, -Cu and -Zn, one treatment with combined deprivation of B, Cu and Zn, one treatment applying limestone only, one treatment applying N, P, K, S, B, Cu and Zn, without limestone, and one absolute control treatment (natural soil. The following characteristics were evaluated: height, diameter, shoot dry matter and root dry matter, and nutrient content in the shoot dry matter after 150 days. Australian cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, and nutrients P, N, S, Ca, K, Mg and Cu, in that order, were found to be limiting factors to plant development. B and Zn deprivation did not affect plant development. Limestone application was essential for the development of Australian cedar plants. Initial deficiency symptoms were found to be the result of S, limestone and N deprivation.

  13. Contribution of Dairy to Nutrient Intake in the Western Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Kasper; Valenberg, van Hein

    2017-01-01

    Milk and dairy products play an important role in providing nutrients in both Western and developing countries. Most research in this area focuses on the intake of individual nutrients from food products, like dairy products. However, nutrients are not consumed, and do not function, in isolation.

  14. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  16. Cisco networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Start a career in networking Cisco Networking Essentials, 2nd Edition provides the latest for those beginning a career in networking. This book provides the fundamentals of networking and leads you through the concepts, processes, and skills you need to master fundamental networking concepts. Thinking of taking the CCENT Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician ICND1 Exam 100-101? This book has you covered! With coverage of important topics and objectives, each chapter outlines main points and provides clear, engaging discussion that will give you a sound understanding of core topics and c

  17. Stable isotope-labelled feed nutrients to assess nutrient-specific feed passage kinetics in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of digesta passage kinetics in ruminants is essential to predict nutrient supply to the animal in relation to optimal animal performance, environmental pollution and animal health. Fractional passage rates (FPR) of feed are widely used in modern feed evaluation systems and mechanistic

  18. The role of nutrient solution composition on the uptake of nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding and optimisation of the key agronomical aspects required for successful hydroponic cultivation of cut tulips in South Africa, a warm production region, is essential to unlock its commercial potential. In this study the effect of nutrient solution composition, cultivar and physiological bulb age on the growth, ...

  19. Essential Tremor Is More Than a Tremor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Home About the IETF Volunteer For Healthcare Providers Giving Options Donate Prev Next IETF > About Essential Tremor > ... Essential Tremor Foundation Seeks Grant Proposals Raving Fan Home About the IETF Volunteer For Healthcare Providers Giving ...

  20. Essential Tremor Is More Than a Tremor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Home About the IETF Volunteer For Healthcare Providers Giving Options Donate Prev Next IETF > About Essential Tremor > ... Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor symptoms Raving Fan Home About the IETF Volunteer For Healthcare Providers Giving ...

  1. Dynamics of nutrient uptake strategies: lessons from the tortoise and the hare

    OpenAIRE

    Menge, Duncan N. L.; Ballantyne, Ford; Weitz, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    Many autotrophs vary their allocation to nutrient uptake in response to environmental cues, yet the dynamics of this plasticity are largely unknown. Plasticity dynamics affect the extent of single versus multiple nutrient limitation and thus have implications for plant ecology and biogeochemical cycling. Here we use a model of two essential nutrients cycling through autotrophs and the environment to determine conditions under which different plastic or fixed nutrient uptake strategies are ada...

  2. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... changes in feed intake and energy balance. It is concluded that severely reduced nutrient availability in late gestation affects fetal growth in utero and has a prolonged negative effect on lactation performance....

  3. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  4. Modelling of the Nutrient Medium for Plants Cultivation in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODELLING OF THE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SPACEFLIGHT Nechitajlo G.S.*, Rakhmetova A.A.**, Bogoslovskaja O.A.**, Ol'hovskay I.P.**, Glushchenko N.N.** *Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru **V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru The valuable life and fruitful activity of cosmonauts and researchers in conditions of spaceflights and prolonged work at space stations are only possible with creating life area providing fresh air, natural food, comfortable psychological conditions, etc. The solution of that problem under space conditions seems impossible without use of high nano- and biotechnologies for plants growth. A priority should be given not only to choose species of growth plants in space, but also to improve conditions for their growth which includes optimal nourishing components for plants, preparation of nutrient mediums, illumination and temperature. We are deeply convinced that just manipulations with growing conditions for cultivated plants, but not genes changes, is a guarantee of success in the decision of this problem. For improving the method of plants growing on the artificial nutrient medium with balanced content of components, being necessary for growth and development of plants, we added essential metal elements: Fe, Zn, Cu - in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other easily dissolving salts. Nanoparticulated metals are known to have a number of advantages in comparison with salts: metals in an electroneutral form are characterized with the prolonged and multifunctional action, low toxicity per se and appearing to be much below the toxicity of the same metals in the ionic forms, accumulation as a reserve being used in biotic dozes, active distribution in bodies and organs of plants and stimulation of vital processes. A high reactivity

  5. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as "Agro-Industrial Ecology", is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  7. Fructose-asparagine is a primary nutrient during growth of Salmonella in the inflamed intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn, which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10-/- mice. The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1- SPI2- or ttrA mutants, respectively. The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies.

  8. Nutrient synchrony in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    In animal nutrition, the nutrient composition of the daily feed supply is composed to match the nutrient requirements for the desired performance. The time of nutrient availability within a day is usually considered not to affect the fate of nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate effects

  9. Report: Comprehensive nutrients analysis of rhizomes of Polygonatum verticillatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Faridullah; Ibrar, Muhammad; Hassan, Sohail; Shah, Waheed Ali

    2012-10-01

    The current study was undertaken to estimate the concentration of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Sb and Mn), macronutrients (Na, Ca and K) and essential life nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid) along with ash, fiber and moisture contents. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for the analysis of micronutrients while flame photometry for macronutrients. For proximate analysis (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ash, fibers and moisture), Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods (AOAC) were used and titration method for ascorbic acid determination. It is evident from the results that the crude extract and its fractions accumulate significant concentrations of both micro and macro nutrients. The significant quantities of essential life nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid along with ash, fiber and moisture contents were also found in extracts. It is concluded that the extracts of rhizomes accumulated significant quantities of life indispensible nutrients and validated the ethnobotanical uses of the plant as tonic and energizer.

  10. Essential dynamics and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Essential Dynamics & Relativity provides students with an introduction to the core aspects of dynamics and special relativity. The author reiterates important ideas and terms throughout and covers concepts that are often missing from other textbooks at this level. He also places each topic within the wider constructs of the theory, without jumping from topic to topic to illustrate a point.The first section of the book focuses on dynamics, discussing the basic aspects of single particle motion and analyzing the motion of multi-particle systems. The book also explains the dynamical behavior of b

  11. The essential David Bohm

    CERN Document Server

    Nichol, Lee

    2002-01-01

    There are few scientists of the twentieth century whose life's work has created more excitement and controversy than that of physicist David Bohm (1917-1992). For the first time in a single volume, The Essential David Bohm offers a comprehensive overview of Bohm's original works from a non-technical perspective. Including three chapters of previously unpublished material, and a forward by the Dalai Lama, each reading has been selected to highlight some aspect of the implicate order process, and to provide an introduction to one of the most provocative thinkers of our time.

  12. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  13. Essential and non-essential elements in natural vegetation in southern Norway: Contribution from different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordløkken, Marit, E-mail: marit.nordlokken@ntnu.no; Berg, Torunn; Flaten, Trond Peder; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of essential and non-essential elements in five widespread species of natural boreal vegetation were studied with respect to seasonal variation and contribution from different sources. The plant species included in the study were Betula pubescens, Sorbus aucuparia, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum, Calluna vulgaris and Deschampsia flexuosa. Concentrations of elements essential to plants remained essentially constant or decreased slightly throughout the growing season. Concentrations of most non-essential elements increased or tended to increase on a dry mass basis from June to July as well as from July to September. The increasing trend for these elements was observed for all species except C. vulgaris. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the material indicated a common source for many of the non-essential elements; Sc, Ti, V, Ga, As, Y, Sb, lanthanides, Pb, Bi, and U, i.e. both elements presumably of geogenic origin and elements associated with trans-boundary air pollution. Uptake by plant roots appeared to be the main source of nutrient elements as well as some non-essential elements. - Highlights: • Concentrations of elements in different plant species were studied. • Changes in concentrations during a growing season were identified. • PCA indicated a common source for many of the non-essential elements. • Uptake by roots appeared to be the plant’s main source of nutrient elements.

  14. Hardwood seeding root and nutrient parameters for a model of nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J M; Scarbrough, J D; Mays, P A

    2001-01-01

    Use of mechanistic models is an increasingly accepted way to evaluate complex processes. The Barber-Cushman model provides a means to simulate nutrient uptake once information on root system characteristics, nutrient uptake, and soil nutrient supply are developed. Objectives of this study were to determine during a growing season: (i) root growth for 1-yr-old black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) seedlings; (ii) net plant increase in N, P, K, Ca, and Mg; (iii) soil solution and solid phase nutrient concentrations; and (iv) the influence of root growth and soil nutrient supply changes on nutrient uptake using the Barber-Cushman model. Seedlings were grown in pots containing A horizon soil from two forest sites. Measurements were made on five occasions during the growing season. Root growth averaged 41.5 cm d-1 for red maple compared with 28.0 and 16.7 cm d-1 for cherry and oak, respectively. Seventy-five percent of root growth occurred at the end of the growing season. Total plant N showed the greatest change (25-58%) due to soil source. Model simulations underestimated observed uptake by 31 to 99%. A clear relationship between soil solution nutrient concentration and plant uptake, an important assumption of the model, was not observed. Results indicate care will need to be exercised in the development and use of root growth and nutrient supply values in mechanistic models.

  15. USA Nutrient managment forecasting via the "Fertilizer Forecaster": linking surface runnof, nutrient application and ecohydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick; Buda, Anthony; Kleinman, Peter; Miller, Douglas; Lin, Henry; Beegle, Douglas; Knight, Paul

    2017-04-01

    USA and state nutrient management planning offers strategic guidance that strives to educate farmers and those involved in nutrient management to make wise management decisions. A goal of such programs is to manage hotspots of water quality degradation that threaten human and ecosystem health, water and food security. The guidance provided by nutrient management plans does not provide the day-to-day support necessary to make operational decisions, particularly when and where to apply nutrients over the short term. These short-term decisions on when and where to apply nutrients often make the difference between whether the nutrients impact water quality or are efficiently utilized by crops. Infiltrating rainfall events occurring shortly after broadcast nutrient applications are beneficial, given they will wash soluble nutrients into the soil where they are used by crops. Rainfall events that generate runoff shortly after nutrients are broadcast may wash off applied nutrients, and produce substantial nutrient losses from that site. We are developing a model and data based support tool for nutrient management, the Fertilizer Forecaster, which identifies the relative probability of runoff or infiltrating events in Pennsylvania (PA) landscapes in order to improve water quality. This tool will support field specific decisions by farmers and land managers on when and where to apply fertilizers and manures over 24, 48 and 72 hour periods. Our objectives are to: (1) monitor agricultural hillslopes in watersheds representing four of the five Physiographic Provinces of the Chesapeake Bay basin; (2) validate a high resolution mapping model that identifies soils prone to runoff; (3) develop an empirically based approach to relate state-of-the-art weather forecast variables to site-specific rainfall infiltration or runoff occurrence; (4) test the empirical forecasting model against alternative approaches to forecasting runoff occurrence; and (5) recruit farmers from the four

  16. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  17. Biofortification of crops with nutrients: factors affecting utilization and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Twyman, Richard M; Zhu, Changfu; Farré, Gemma; Serrano, José Ce; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Muñoz, Pilar; Sandmann, Gerhard; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Biofortification is an effective and economical method to improve the micronutrient content of crops, particularly staples that sustain human populations in developing countries. Whereas conventional fortification requires artificial additives, biofortification involves the synthesis or accumulation of nutrients by plants at source. Little is known about the relative merits of biofortification and artificial fortification in terms of nutrient bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and much depends on the biochemical nature of the nutrient, which can promote or delay uptake, and determine how efficiently different nutrients are transported through the blood, stored, and utilized. Data from the first plants biofortified with minerals and vitamins provide evidence that the way in which nutrients are presented can affect how they are processed and utilized in the human body. The latest studies on the effects of the food matrix, processing and storage on nutrient transfer from biofortified crops are reviewed, as well as current knowledge about nutrient absorption and utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Essential Tremor Is More Than a Tremor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Google+ (Opens in new window) Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Click to print ( ... in new window) Essential Tremor is More Than a Tremor Providing a voice for people with essential ...

  19. Essential Tremor Is More Than a Tremor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in new window) Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Click to print ( ... in new window) Essential Tremor is More Than a Tremor Providing a voice for people with essential ...

  20. Essential Tremor Is More Than a Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Options Donate Prev Next IETF > About Essential Tremor > Video Video Click to share on Facebook (Opens ... Click to print (Opens in new window) Essential Tremor is More Than a Tremor Providing a voice ...

  1. Essential Tremor Is More Than a Tremor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Giving Options Donate Prev Next IETF > About Essential Tremor > Video Video Click to share on Facebook (Opens ... Click to print (Opens in new window) Essential Tremor is More Than a Tremor Providing a voice ...

  2. Morphometrical and Topographical Anatomy of Position of Nutrient Foramen on Fully Ossified Left Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Hossain Parash

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The femur is the typical long bone of lower limb which extends from the pelvis to the knee. It forms the skeleton of the thigh, bears body weight, supports movement of legs; provide attachment to muscles, form blood cells and acts as a store house for calcium and phosphate. The nutrient foramina are cavities that conduct the nutrient arteries and the peripheral nerves. The majority blood supply for femur originates from the nutrient arteries, mainly during the growing period and during the early phase of ossification. In bone grafts the nutrient blood supply is crucial and it should be preserved in order to promote the fracture healing.Objective: The anatomy of nutrient foramen of femur is very essential for orthopedic & vascular surgeons as well as to radiologists for planning of treatment.Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2012. The study comprised 199 fully ossified left sided dry femur of both sex (n=89 male, n=110 female. Sampling technique was purposive. Morphometric and topographic study was carried out on all samples by direct physical and photographic methods.Results: The most common position of nutrient foramen on the shaft of femur was found on the middle 1/5th in both male and female femur (50.78% in male and 56.86% in female respectively.Conclusion: The anatomical knowledge about this study might be useful in certain surgical procedures as well as micro vascular bone transfer to preserve the circulation.

  3. Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Robert; Dalling, James W; Harms, Kyle E; Yavitt, Joseph B; Stallard, Robert F; Mirabello, Matthew; Hubbell, Stephen P; Valencia, Renato; Navarrete, Hugo; Vallejo, Martha; Foster, Robin B

    2007-01-16

    The importance of niche vs. neutral assembly mechanisms in structuring tropical tree communities remains an important unsettled question in community ecology [Bell G (2005) Ecology 86:1757-1770]. There is ample evidence that species distributions are determined by soils and habitat factors at landscape (Yasuni), and Panama (Barro Colorado Island). Using spatial distribution maps of >0.5 million individual trees of 1,400 species and 10 essential plant nutrients, we used Monte Carlo simulations of species distributions to test plant-soil associations against null expectations based on dispersal assembly. We found that the spatial distributions of 36-51% of tree species at these sites show strong associations to soil nutrient distributions. Neutral dispersal assembly cannot account for these plant-soil associations or the observed niche breadths of these species. These results indicate that belowground resource availability plays an important role in the assembly of tropical tree communities at local scales and provide the basis for future investigations on the mechanisms of resource competition among tropical tree species.

  4. Nutrient needs of performance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lawrence

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the National Research Council (NRC Subcommittee on Horse Nutrition defined three categories of exercise: light, moderate or intense. In the 6th revised edition of "The Nutrient Requirements of Horses" (NRC, 2007, there are four categories for exercising horses: light exercise, moderate exercise, heavy exercise and very heavy exercise. Light exercise is described as 1 to 3 hours/week of mostly walking and trotting. Many horses kept for recreational riding would be included in the light exercise category. Moderate exercise consists of 3 to 5 hours/week of mostly trotting with some walking, some cantering and possibly some jumping or other type of more difficult activity. Horses used for horse shows, ranch work and frequent recreational riding would fit into the moderate exercise category. Heavy exercise is described as 4 to 5 hours/week of trotting, cantering, galloping and some jumping, cattle work, etc. Horses engaged in three day eventing, polo, endurance racing or other competitive events would be in this category. The very heavy exercise category includes racehorses and a few other horses that compete at the elite level of endurance or three day eventing. The NRC (2007 provides recommendations for nutrient intakes by mature exercising horses and for yearlings and two year olds that are receiving regular exercise. Many of the recommendations are similar to those in the 1989 publication, but others have been increased or decreased. For example, crude protein recommendations for exercising horses are generally lower than in the last edition. However, lysine requirements are relatively similar and the publication suggests that protein quality should be emphasized more than in the past. The 2007 NRC contains more information about the factors that influence the requirements for each nutrient, making it easier for users to develop diets for individual horses.

  5. Nutrients in the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  6. Characterizing nutrient uptake kinetics for efficient crop production during Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef. growth in a closed indoor hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Rahman, Arifur; Azam, Hossain; Kim, Hyung Seok; Kwon, Man Jae

    2017-01-01

    A balanced nutrient supply is essential for the healthy growth of plants in hydroponic systems. However, the commonly used electrical conductivity (EC)-based nutrient control for plant cultivation can provide amounts of nutrients that are excessive or inadequate for proper plant growth. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of major and minor nutrient uptake in a nutrient solution during the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef.) in a closed hydroponic system. The concentrations of major and minor ions in the nutrient solution were determined by various analytical methods including inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), ion specific electrodes, and/or colorimetric methods. The concentrations of the individual nutrient ions were compared with changes in the EC. The EC of the nutrient solution varied according to the different growth stages of tomato plants. Variation in the concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ was similar to the EC variation. However, in the cases of PO43-, Na+, Cl-, dissolved Fe and Mn, Cu2+, and Zn2+, variation did not correspond with that of EC. These ions were generally depleted (to 0 mg L-1) during tomato growth, suggesting that these specific ions should be monitored individually and their supply increased. Nutrient uptake rates of major ions increased gradually at different growth stages until harvest (from 15 mg L-1 d-1). Saturation indices determined by MINEQL+ simulation and a mineral precipitation experiment demonstrated the potential for amorphous calcium phosphate precipitation, which may facilitate the abiotic adsorptive removal of dissolved Fe, dissolved Mn, Cu2+, and Zn2+.

  7. Characterizing nutrient uptake kinetics for efficient crop production during Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef. growth in a closed indoor hydroponic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yeon Lee

    Full Text Available A balanced nutrient supply is essential for the healthy growth of plants in hydroponic systems. However, the commonly used electrical conductivity (EC-based nutrient control for plant cultivation can provide amounts of nutrients that are excessive or inadequate for proper plant growth. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of major and minor nutrient uptake in a nutrient solution during the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef. in a closed hydroponic system. The concentrations of major and minor ions in the nutrient solution were determined by various analytical methods including inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES, ion chromatography (IC, ion specific electrodes, and/or colorimetric methods. The concentrations of the individual nutrient ions were compared with changes in the EC. The EC of the nutrient solution varied according to the different growth stages of tomato plants. Variation in the concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ was similar to the EC variation. However, in the cases of PO43-, Na+, Cl-, dissolved Fe and Mn, Cu2+, and Zn2+, variation did not correspond with that of EC. These ions were generally depleted (to 0 mg L-1 during tomato growth, suggesting that these specific ions should be monitored individually and their supply increased. Nutrient uptake rates of major ions increased gradually at different growth stages until harvest (from 15 mg L-1 d-1. Saturation indices determined by MINEQL+ simulation and a mineral precipitation experiment demonstrated the potential for amorphous calcium phosphate precipitation, which may facilitate the abiotic adsorptive removal of dissolved Fe, dissolved Mn, Cu2+, and Zn2+.

  8. Essential real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous introduction to the techniques and results of real analysis, metric spaces and multivariate differentiation, suitable for undergraduate courses. Starting from the very foundations of analysis, it offers a complete first course in real analysis, including topics rarely found in such detail in an undergraduate textbook such as the construction of non-analytic smooth functions, applications of the Euler-Maclaurin formula to estimates, and fractal geometry.  Drawing on the author’s extensive teaching and research experience, the exposition is guided by carefully chosen examples and counter-examples, with the emphasis placed on the key ideas underlying the theory. Much of the content is informed by its applicability: Fourier analysis is developed to the point where it can be rigorously applied to partial differential equations or computation, and the theory of metric spaces includes applications to ordinary differential equations and fractals. Essential Real Analysis will appeal t...

  9. Mode of Managing Nutrient Solution Based on N Use Efficiency for Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabite, Ibraimo Teleha; Lei, Zhang; Ningning, Yao; Qiang, Fu; Haiye, Yu

    2017-01-01

    In aeroponic cultivation the nutrient solution is an essential component to achieve good production results. And nitrogen is the main constituent element of the nutrient solution and essential element in plant nutrition. Therefore, the management and monitoring nutrient solution and existing nitrogen is fundamental. The experiment shows that three modes of replacing the nutrient solution and three initial pH values and their interaction significantly influenced the fresh weight and dry matter of lettuce. The highest values of fresh and dry weight were recorded in the fifth treatment where there is an interaction between pH 6 and the mode of replacing half of the nutrient solution. The consumption rate of nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N), ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 -N) and gross nitrogen (GN) was higher during stage 1 (10 days after transplanting), especially for the mode of complete replacing nutrient solution.

  10. Posidonia oceanica meadow: a low nutrient high chlorophyll (LNHC system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laumont Noémie

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of very low nutrient concentrations in its vicinity – both column and pore waters-, the Posidonia oceanica of the Revellata Bay displays high biomass and productivity. We measured the nutrient fluxes from the sediment into the water enclosed among the leaf shoots ("canopy water" to determine if it is possible source of nutrients for P. oceanica leaves. Results During the summer, the canopy water appears to act as a nutrient reservoir for the plant. During that period, the canopy water layer displays both a temperature 0.5°C cooler than the upper water column, and a much higher nutrient content, as shown in this work using a very simple original technique permitting to sample water with a minimal disturbance of the water column's vertical structure. Despite low nutrient concentrations in pore water, mean net fluxes were measured from the sediment to the canopy water. These fluxes are sufficient to provide 20% of the mean daily nitrogen and phosphorus requirement of the P. oceanica shoots. Conclusion An internal cycling of nutrients from P. oceanica senescent leaves was previously noted as an efficient strategy to help face low nutrient availability. The present study points out a second strategy which consists in holding back, in the canopy, the nutrients released at the water-sediment interface. This process occurs when long leaves, during poor nutrient periods in the water column, providing, to P. oceanica, the possibility to develop, high biomass, high chlorophyll quantities in low nutrient environment (a Low Nutrients High Chlorophyll system.

  11. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  12. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  13. A REVIEW ON DIAGNOSIS OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS IN PLANT LEAF IMAGE USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    S Jeyalakshmi; R Radha

    2017-01-01

    Plants, for their growth and survival, need 13 mineral nutrients. Toxicity or deficiency in any one or more of these nutrients affects the growth of plant and may even cause the destruction of the plant. Hence, a constant monitoring system for tracking the nutrient status in plants becomes essential for increase in production as well as quality of yield. A diagnostic system using digital image processing would diagnose the deficiency symptoms much earlier than human eyes could recognize. This...

  14. Insights into Digestion and Absorption of Major Nutrients in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption is necessary for the survival of living organisms and has evolved into the complex and specific task of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. While most people simply assume that their GI tract will work properly to use nutrients, provide energy, and release wastes, few nonscientists know the details about how various…

  15. Impact of Temperature and Nutrients on Carbon: Nutrient Tissue Stoichiometry of Submerged Aquatic Plants: An Experiment and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthuis, Mandy; van Deelen, Emma; van Donk, Ellen; Zhang, Peiyu; Bakker, Elisabeth S

    2017-01-01

    Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1-5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability. We hypothesized that elevated temperature leads to higher carbon:nutrient ratios through enhanced nutrient-use efficiency, while nutrient addition leads to lower carbon:nutrient ratios by the luxurious uptake of nutrients. We addressed these hypotheses with an experimental and a meta-analytical approach. We performed a full-factorial microcosm experiment with the freshwater plant Elodea nuttallii grown at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C on sediment consisting of pond soil/sand mixtures with 100, 50, 25, and 12.5% pond soil. To address the effect of climatic warming and nutrient addition on the carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged freshwater and marine plants we performed a meta-analysis on experimental studies that elevated temperature and/or added nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). In the microcosm experiment, C:N ratios of Elodea nuttallii decreased with increasing temperature, and this effect was most pronounced at intermediate nutrient availability. Furthermore, higher nutrient availability led to decreased aboveground C:P ratios. In the meta-analysis, nutrient addition led to a 25, 22, and 16% reduction in aboveground C:N and C:P ratios and belowground C:N ratios, accompanied with increased N content. No consistent effect of elevated temperature on plant stoichiometry could be observed, as very few studies were found on this topic and contrasting results were reported. We conclude that while nutrient addition consistently leads to

  16. Impact of Temperature and Nutrients on Carbon: Nutrient Tissue Stoichiometry of Submerged Aquatic Plants: An Experiment and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Velthuis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1–5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability. We hypothesized that elevated temperature leads to higher carbon:nutrient ratios through enhanced nutrient-use efficiency, while nutrient addition leads to lower carbon:nutrient ratios by the luxurious uptake of nutrients. We addressed these hypotheses with an experimental and a meta-analytical approach. We performed a full-factorial microcosm experiment with the freshwater plant Elodea nuttallii grown at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C on sediment consisting of pond soil/sand mixtures with 100, 50, 25, and 12.5% pond soil. To address the effect of climatic warming and nutrient addition on the carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged freshwater and marine plants we performed a meta-analysis on experimental studies that elevated temperature and/or added nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus. In the microcosm experiment, C:N ratios of Elodea nuttallii decreased with increasing temperature, and this effect was most pronounced at intermediate nutrient availability. Furthermore, higher nutrient availability led to decreased aboveground C:P ratios. In the meta-analysis, nutrient addition led to a 25, 22, and 16% reduction in aboveground C:N and C:P ratios and belowground C:N ratios, accompanied with increased N content. No consistent effect of elevated temperature on plant stoichiometry could be observed, as very few studies were found on this topic and contrasting results were reported. We conclude that while nutrient addition

  17. Nutrient composition of niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient composition of niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass.) cultivated in different parts of Ethiopia. ... significant correlations among some metals in the niger seed. The study revealed that niger seed is good source of essential metals and free from toxic metal such as Cd and hence safe for human consumption.

  18. Nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis spat assemblages in a macrotidal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, van W.; Troost, K.; Jansen, H.M.; Smaal, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Besides exercising grazing control over phytoplankton populations, suspension-feeding bivalves can also stimulate carrying capacity by regeneration of nutrients. This study provides new data on nutrient uptake and release dynamics, and potential implications for availability and stoichiometry of

  19. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for grass nutrient estimations in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available at various scales such as local, regional and global scale. Traditional field techniques to measure grass nutrient concentration have been reported to be laborious and time consuming. Remote sensing techniques provide opportunity to map grass nutrient...

  20. HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TO IMPROVE NUTRIENT AND OXYGEN DELIVERY FOR IN SITU BIORECLAMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in situ delivery of nutrients and oxygen in soil is a serious problem in implementing in situ biodegradation. Current technology requires ideal site conditions to provide the remediating organisms with the nutrients and oxygen required for their metabolism, but...

  1. Export of nutrients from the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Valdés, Sinhué; Tsubouchi, Takamasa; Bacon, Sheldon; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.; Sanders, Richards; McLaughlin, Fiona A.; Petrie, Brian; Kattner, Gerhard; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2013-04-01

    study provides the first physically based mass-balanced transport estimates of dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate) for the Arctic Ocean. Using an inverse model-generated velocity field in combination with a quasi-synoptic assemblage of hydrographic and hydrochemical data, we quantify nutrient transports across the main Arctic Ocean gateways: Davis Strait, Fram Strait, the Barents Sea Opening (BSO), and Bering Strait. We found that the major exports of all three nutrients occur via Davis Strait. Transports associated with the East Greenland Current are almost balanced by transports associated with the West Spitsbergen Current. The most important imports of nitrate and phosphate to the Arctic occur via the BSO, and the most important import of silicate occurs via Bering Strait. Oceanic budgets show that statistically robust net silicate and phosphate exports exist, while the net nitrate flux is zero, within the uncertainty limits. The Arctic Ocean is a net exporter of silicate (-15.7 ± 3.2 kmol s-1) and phosphate (-1.0 ± 0.3 kmol s-1; net ± 1 standard error) to the North Atlantic. The export of excess phosphate (relative to nitrate) from the Arctic, calculated at -1.1 ± 0.3 kmol s-1, is almost twice as large as previously estimated. Net transports of silicate and phosphate from the Arctic Ocean provide 12% and 90%, respectively, of the net southward fluxes estimated at 47°N in the North Atlantic. Additional sources of nutrients that may offset nutrient imbalances are explored, and the relevance and the pathway of nutrient transports to the North Atlantic are discussed.

  2. Carbon storage and nutrient mobilization from soil minerals by deep roots and rhizospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Harrison, Robert; Stupak, Inge

    2016-01-01

    -term supplies of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have significantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 “base mineral index” for Swedish forest soils, and the basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research...

  3. Comparison of stream nutrient conditions in a subtropical lowland watershed to EPA suggested criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    April Mason; Y. Jun Xu; Johnny M. Grace

    2007-01-01

    Nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon are essential to the health and diversity of stream ecosystems. However, excess nutrients can cause eutrophication, resulting in overgrowth of aquatic plants and decline of the ecosystem diversity. A paired-watershed study was initiated in a subtropical forested watershed within the Ouachita River Basin in...

  4. Nutrient and algal responses to winterkilled fish-derived nutrient subsidies in eutrophic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenebeck, Casey W.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.; German, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Fishes inhabiting shallow, glacial lakes of the Prairie Pothole Region in the United States and Canada periodically experience hypoxia in severe winters that can lead to extensive fish mortality resulting in high biomasses of dead fish. However, the role of carcass-derived nutrient subsidies in shallow, eutrophic lakes translocated to pelagic primary producers is not well documented. This study quantified the influence of winterkill events on nutrient contributions from decaying fish carcasses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the phytoplankton response among pre- and postwinterkill years and compared seasonal patterns of nutrient limitation and phytoplankton community composition between winterkill and nonwinterkill lakes. We found that fish carcasses contributed an estimated 2.5–4.3 kg/ha of total (Kjeldahl) nitrogen (N) and 0.3–0.5 kg/ha of total phosphorus (P) to lakes that experienced winterkill conditions. Nutrient bioassays showed that winterkill lakes were primarily N limited, congruent with the low N:P ratios produced by fish carcasses corrected for the disproportionate release of N and P (8.6). Nutrient subsidies translocated from decomposed fish to pelagic primary producers seemed to have little immediate influence on the seasonal phytoplankton community composition, but total N and subsequent chlorophyll-a increased the year following the winterkill event. Cyanobacteria density varied seasonally but was higher in winterkill lakes, presumably due to the integration of nutrients released from fish decomposition. This study provides evidence that large inputs of autochthonous fish-derived nutrients contribute to nutrient availability within winterkilled systems and increase the maximum attainable biomass of the phytoplankton community.

  5. The Nutrient Density of Snacks: A Comparison of Nutrient Profiles of Popular Snack Foods Using the Nutrient-Rich Foods Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie; Rao, Goutham; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data) in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3), milk (52.5), and fruit (30.1) emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (-4.4), pies and cakes (-11.1), and carbonated soft drinks (-17.2) emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  6. Eutrophication of Buttermilk Bay, a cape cod coastal embayment: Concentrations of nutrients and watershed nutrient budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiela, Ivan; Costa, Joseph E.

    1988-07-01

    Nutrient concentrations in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment on the northern end of Buzzards Bay, MA, are higher in the nearshore where salinities are lower. This pattern suggests that freshwater sources may contribute significantly to nutrient inputs into Buttermilk Bay. To evaluate the relative importance of the various sources we estimated inputs of nutrients by each major source into the watershed and into the bay itself. Septic systems contributed about 40% of the nitrogen and phosphorus entering the watershed, with precipitation and fertilizer use adding the remainder. Groundwater transported over 85% of the nitrogen and 75% of the phosphorus entering the bay. Most nutrients entering the watershed failed to reach the bay; uptake by forests, soils, denitrification, and adsorption intercepted two-thirds of the nitrogen and nine-tenths of the phosphorus that entered the watershed. The nutrients that did reach the bay most likely originated from subsoil injections into groundwater by septic tanks, plus some leaching of fertilizers. Buttermilk Bay water has relatively low nutrient concentrations, probably because of uptake of nutrients by macrophytes and because of relatively rapid tidal flushing. Annual budgets of nutrients entering the watershed showed a low nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio of 6, but passage of nutrients through the watershed raised N/P to 23, probably because of adsorption of PO4 during transit. The N/P ratio of water that leaves the watershed and presumably enters the bay is probably high enough to maintain active growth of nitrogenlimited coastal producers. There is a seasonal shift in N/P in the water column of Buttermilk Bay. N/P exceeded the 16∶1 Redfield ratio during midwinter; the remainder of the year N/P fell below 16∶1. This suggests that annual budgets do not provide sufficiently detailed data with which to interpret nutrient-limitation of producers. Further, some idea of water turnover is also needed to evaluate impact of loading

  7. What is essential tremor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elble, Rodger J

    2013-01-01

    Classic essential tremor is a clinical syndrome of action tremor in the upper limbs (at least 95% of patients) and less commonly the head, face/jaw, voice, tongue, trunk, and lower limbs, in the absence of other neurologic signs. However, the longstanding notion of that essential tremor is a monosymptomatic tremor disorder is being challenged by a growing literature describing associated disturbances of tandem walking, personality, mood, hearing and cognition. There is also epidemiologic, pathologic and genetic evidence that essential tremor is pathophysiologically heterogeneous. Misdiagnosis of essential tremor is common because clinicians frequently overlook other neurologic signs and because action tremor in the hands is caused by many conditions, including dystonia, Parkinson disease and drug-induced tremor. Thus, essential tremor is nothing more than a syndrome of idiopathic tremulousness, and the challenge for researchers and clinicians is to find specific etiologies of this syndrome. PMID:23591755

  8. Mussel adhesion - essential footwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J Herbert

    2017-02-15

    Robust adhesion to wet, salt-encrusted, corroded and slimy surfaces has been an essential adaptation in the life histories of sessile marine organisms for hundreds of millions of years, but it remains a major impasse for technology. Mussel adhesion has served as one of many model systems providing a fundamental understanding of what is required for attachment to wet surfaces. Most polymer engineers have focused on the use of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa), a peculiar but abundant catecholic amino acid in mussel adhesive proteins. The premise of this Review is that although Dopa does have the potential for diverse cohesive and adhesive interactions, these will be difficult to achieve in synthetic homologs without a deeper knowledge of mussel biology; that is, how, at different length and time scales, mussels regulate the reactivity of their adhesive proteins. To deposit adhesive proteins onto target surfaces, the mussel foot creates an insulated reaction chamber with extreme reaction conditions such as low pH, low ionic strength and high reducing poise. These conditions enable adhesive proteins to undergo controlled fluid-fluid phase separation, surface adsorption and spreading, microstructure formation and, finally, solidification. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  10. Effect of Processing Methods on the Nutrients and Anti Nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutrients and antinutrients compositions of vegetables cannot be over emphasized. The effect of different processing methods on the nutrients and antinutrients compositions in leaves of wild lettuce (Lactuca taraxacifolia) i.e. the sweet type was evaluated to determine the most appropriate methods for retaining its ...

  11. Nutrients and Anti Nutrients Composition of Two Varieties of Sorrel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the nutrients and anti nutrients composition of sorrel leaves and seeds from red and yellow calyx plants. Materials and methods: Fresh leaves and dry seeds of the two varieties were cleaned and milled. Standard assay techniques were used to evaluate the two varieties of the leaves and seeds for ...

  12. Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Composition of Cereal Products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Content of iron was higher in all the cereal products and levels of antinutrient analyzed were within safe levels. Conclusion: Nutrient density of commonly consumed cereal products in Samaru – Zaria is low but the levels of antinutrient in the cereal product were within the safe levels. Key words: Cereal products, Nutrient ...

  13. Micronutrients, Essential Fatty Acids and Bone Health in Phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirdas, Serwet; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; van der Lee, Hanneke J. H.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Vaz, Fred M; ter Horst, Nienke M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Bosch, Annet M.

    Introduction: In phenylketonuria (PKU), a natural protein-restricted dietary treatment prevents severe cognitive impairment. Nutrient deficiencies may occur due to strict diet. This study is aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and blood concentrations of micronutrients and essential fatty acids

  14. A REVIEW ON DIAGNOSIS OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS IN PLANT LEAF IMAGE USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeyalakshmi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants, for their growth and survival, need 13 mineral nutrients. Toxicity or deficiency in any one or more of these nutrients affects the growth of plant and may even cause the destruction of the plant. Hence, a constant monitoring system for tracking the nutrient status in plants becomes essential for increase in production as well as quality of yield. A diagnostic system using digital image processing would diagnose the deficiency symptoms much earlier than human eyes could recognize. This will enable the farmers to adopt appropriate remedial action in time. This paper focuses on the review of work using image processing techniques for diagnosing nutrient deficiency in plants.

  15. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura

    2017-03-10

    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil. Results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the commercial hydroponic nutrient solution (i.e. solution containing water and essential nutrients) exhibited similar performance (i.e., water flux and reverse salt flux) to other inorganic draw solutions when treating synthetic wastewater. The use of hydroponic solution is highly advantageous since it provides all the required macro- (i.e., N, P and K) and micronutrients (i.e., Ca, Mg, S, Mn, B, Zn and Mo) in a single balanced solution and can therefore be used directly after dilution without the need to add any elements. After long-term operation (i.e. up to 75% water recovery), different physical cleaning methods were tested and results showed that hydraulic flushing can effectively restore up to 75% of the initial water flux while osmotic backwashing was able to restore the initial water flux by more than 95%; illustrating the low-fouling potential of the FDFO process. Pilot-scale studies demonstrated that the FDFO process is able to produce the required nutrient concentration and final water quality (i.e., pH and conductivity) suitable for hydroponic applications. Coupling FDFO with pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) in the later stages could help in saving operational costs (i.e., energy and membrane replacement costs). Finally, the test application of nutrient solution produced by the pilot FDFO process to hydroponic lettuce showed similar growth pattern as the control without any signs of nutrient deficiency.

  16. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    . Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called ...

  17. Nutrient solutions for soilless cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient solutions intended for plant growth are already used from the middle of the 19th century, when the importance of mineral elements for plant growth was made clear by Justus von Liebig. In advance, the nutrient solutions used to grow plants in so called “water cultures” had a simple

  18. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  19. Comparison of sampling methodologies for nutrient monitoring in streams: uncertainties, costs and implications for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, J.; Martinsen, L.; Hasler, B.; de Jonge, H.; Karydi, E.; Ovesen, N. B.; Kronvang, B.

    2014-11-01

    Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems caused by excess concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus may have harmful consequences for biodiversity and poses a health risk to humans via water supplies. Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus losses to aquatic ecosystems involves implementation of costly measures, and reliable monitoring methods are therefore essential to select appropriate mitigation strategies and to evaluate their effects. Here, we compare the performances and costs of three methodologies for the monitoring of nutrients in rivers: grab sampling; time-proportional sampling; and passive sampling using flow-proportional samplers. Assuming hourly time-proportional sampling to be the best estimate of the "true" nutrient load, our results showed that the risk of obtaining wrong total nutrient load estimates by passive samplers is high despite similar costs as the time-proportional sampling. Our conclusion is that for passive samplers to provide a reliable monitoring alternative, further development is needed. Grab sampling was the cheapest of the three methods and was more precise and accurate than passive sampling. We conclude that although monitoring employing time-proportional sampling is costly, its reliability precludes unnecessarily high implementation expenses.

  20. Stoichiometry and estimates of nutrient standing stocks of larval salamanders in Appalachian headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Milanovich; John C. Maerz; Amy D. Rosemond

    2015-01-01

    1.Because of their longevity and skeletal phosphorus demand, vertebrates can have distinct influences on the uptake, storage and recycling of nutrients in ecosystems. Quantification of body stoichiometry, combined with estimates of abundance or biomass, can provide insights into the effect of vertebrates on nutrient cycling. 2.We measured the nutrient content and...

  1. Translocação orgânica, produtividade e rendimento de óleo essencial de Mentha piperita L. cultivada em solução nutritiva com variação dos níveis de N, P, K e Mg Organic translocation, productivity and essential oil yield of Mentha piperita L. cultivated in nutrient solution with varying N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2009-01-01

    relação às demais plantas. Todos esses índices indicam melhor produtividade das plantas submetidas ao tratamento 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg, que também apresentaram rendimento de óleo essencial, em média, maior durante o ciclo. Conclui-se que a redução de 35% de N, 50% de P, 75% de K (65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg é indicada para o cultivo e extração de óleo essencial de M. piperita.This study aimed to evaluate organic translocation, physiologic indexes of growth analysis and essential oil yield of Mentha piperita L. cultivated in nutrient solution with varying levels of N, P, K and Mg. Thus, four treatments were evaluated: 50% N, P, K, 25% Mg; 50% N, P, K, Mg; 65% N, 50% P, 25% K, 100% Mg; and 100% N, P, K, Mg. Organic translocation was assessed through leaf mass ratio (LMR and dry matter distribution to the different organs. The physiologic indexes leaf area ratio (LAR, specific leaf area (SLA, net assimilation rate (NAR and relative growth rate (RGR, derived from growth analysis, were estimated using the software ANACRES, following the quadratic exponential fitting of leaf area and dry mass of leaves and total plant, relative to time. Essential oil yield was calculated as percentage after extraction from shoot using hydrodistillation. Plants subjected to the treatment with complete level of nutrients (100%N/P/K/Mg less efficiently exported organic material from the leaf and LMR showed slower decrease due to the longer retention of such material in its production site. Besides, those plants did not present higher productivity and NAR and RGR curves showed slower decrease. Plants subjected to the treatment with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had adequate organic matter exportation from the leaves to the stem and petioles, as demonstrated by LMR and dry matter distribution to these organs. Also in these plants, LAR was higher at the initial development and lower at 94 DAT, indicating leaf shading as a result of growth, and SLA showed less variation during the cycle, reflecting

  2. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  3. Nutrient supplies for optimal health in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William W

    2007-12-01

    The most commonly recommended standard for postnatal nutrition of very preterm infants is one that meets the unique nutritional requirements of the growing human fetus and duplicates normal in utero human fetal growth (weight and body composition) and development. Normal fetal nutrition, therefore, may be a useful guide for designing postnatal nutritional strategies in very preterm infants who need to grow and develop outside the uterus. Such information indicates that normal fetal nutrition requires certain nutrients in optimal amounts and certain growth-promoting hormones in response to nutrient supply that together support optimal fetal growth and development; these include oxygen, glucose, lipids, amino acids, and insulin. Interestingly, nutrient restriction and nutrient excess in the fetus, while leading to different phenotypes, produce a similar phenotype in later life characterized as the "metabolic syndrome," consisting of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. After birth, preterm infants--who almost universally are not fed as much as normally growing fetuses receive in nutrient supply via the placenta--also end up with a higher incidence of short stature and a predisposition to the metabolic syndrome, whereas those fed excessive amounts of energy and who develop excessive growth primarily of adipose tissue in early life (rapid, positive crossing of weight-for-length centiles) also develop a higher incidence of the metabolic syndrome. It is clear, therefore, that just the right amount of the essential nutrients is required to produce optimal outcome; this is as true for the preterm infant as it is for the fetus.

  4. Nutrient allocation among stem, leaf and inflorescence of jatropha plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane L. S. de Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInformation on the partitioning of nutrients among various organs in jatropha plants, as a complementary tool for the recommendation of fertilization, is still not available. This study aimed to evaluate the contents of macro and micronutrients in stems, leaves and inflorescences of jatropha branches at the beginning of flowering. At the beginning of flowering, adult jatropha plants were sampled and divided into five compartments: inflorescences, leaves from vegetative branches, leaves from flowering branches, stems from vegetative branches and stems from flowering branches. Jatropha inflorescences are a drain of nutrients. Leaves are important sources of nutrients demanded by the inflorescences at the beginning of flowering. The higher allocation of nutrients in the inflorescences suggests the need for preventive/corrective fertilizations, which must be performed at least 30 days before flowering, providing plants with nutrients in adequate amounts for a good yield.

  5. Chitinases Are Essential for Cell Separation in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Öztürk, Merve; Hartmann, Sarah; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Moerschbacher, Bruno; Walton, Jonathan D; Göhre, Vera

    2015-09-01

    Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall, providing rigidity and stability. Its degradation is mediated by chitinases and supposedly ensures the dynamic plasticity of the cell wall during growth and morphogenesis. Hence, chitinases should be particularly important for fungi with dramatic morphological changes, such as Ustilago maydis. This smut fungus switches from yeast to filamentous growth for plant infection, proliferates as a mycelium in planta, and forms teliospores for spreading. Here, we investigate the contribution of its four chitinolytic enzymes to the different morphological changes during the complete life cycle in a comprehensive study of deletion strains combined with biochemical and cell biological approaches. Interestingly, two chitinases act redundantly in cell separation during yeast growth. They mediate the degradation of remnant chitin in the fragmentation zone between mother and daughter cell. In contrast, even the complete lack of chitinolytic activity does not affect formation of the infectious filament, infection, biotrophic growth, or teliospore germination. Thus, unexpectedly we can exclude a major role for chitinolytic enzymes in morphogenesis or pathogenicity of U. maydis. Nevertheless, redundant activity of even two chitinases is essential for cell separation during saprophytic growth, possibly to improve nutrient access or spreading of yeast cells by wind or rain. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Chitinases Are Essential for Cell Separation in Ustilago maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Öztürk, Merve; Hartmann, Sarah; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Moerschbacher, Bruno; Walton, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall, providing rigidity and stability. Its degradation is mediated by chitinases and supposedly ensures the dynamic plasticity of the cell wall during growth and morphogenesis. Hence, chitinases should be particularly important for fungi with dramatic morphological changes, such as Ustilago maydis. This smut fungus switches from yeast to filamentous growth for plant infection, proliferates as a mycelium in planta, and forms teliospores for spreading. Here, we investigate the contribution of its four chitinolytic enzymes to the different morphological changes during the complete life cycle in a comprehensive study of deletion strains combined with biochemical and cell biological approaches. Interestingly, two chitinases act redundantly in cell separation during yeast growth. They mediate the degradation of remnant chitin in the fragmentation zone between mother and daughter cell. In contrast, even the complete lack of chitinolytic activity does not affect formation of the infectious filament, infection, biotrophic growth, or teliospore germination. Thus, unexpectedly we can exclude a major role for chitinolytic enzymes in morphogenesis or pathogenicity of U. maydis. Nevertheless, redundant activity of even two chitinases is essential for cell separation during saprophytic growth, possibly to improve nutrient access or spreading of yeast cells by wind or rain. PMID:25934689

  7. Marketing management : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze

  8. Marketingmanagement : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze

  9. Roitt's essential immunology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delves, Peter J; Roitt, Ivan M

    2011-01-01

    ... of the immune system, the hallmark easy-reading style of Roitt's Essential Immunology clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of immunity to clinical applications...

  10. Children with Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can become a test of will, ingenuity, and stamina. The normal challenges of growing up are magnified ... require staying inside the lines or tracing. Team sports, physical education. Some students with essential tremor have ...

  11. Essential software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gorton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Job titles like ""Technical Architect"" and ""Chief Architect"" nowadays abound in software industry, yet many people suspect that ""architecture"" is one of the most overused and least understood terms in professional software development. Gorton's book tries to resolve this dilemma. It concisely describes the essential elements of knowledge and key skills required to be a software architect. The explanations encompass the essentials of architecture thinking, practices, and supporting technologies. They range from a general understanding of structure and quality attributes through technical i

  12. Artifacts and essentialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner “essence” that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity and ownership. Classic examples include famous works of art (e.g., the Mona Lisa is authentic because of its provenance), but ordinary artifacts likewise receive value from their history (e.g., a worn and tattered blanket may have special value if it was one's childhood possession). Moreover, in some cases, object history may be thought to have causal effects on individual artifacts, much as an animal essence has causal effects. I review empirical support for these claims and consider the implications for both artifact concepts and essentialism. This perspective suggests that artifact concepts cannot be contained in a theoretical framework that focuses exclusively on similarity or even function. Furthermore, although there are significant differences between essentialism of natural kinds and essentialism of artifact individuals, the commonalities suggest that psychological essentialism may not derive from folk biology but instead may reflect more domain-general perspectives on the world. PMID:23976903

  13. Artifacts and essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A

    2013-09-01

    Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner "essence" that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity and ownership. Classic examples include famous works of art (e.g., the Mona Lisa is authentic because of its provenance), but ordinary artifacts likewise receive value from their history (e.g., a worn and tattered blanket may have special value if it was one's childhood possession). Moreover, in some cases, object history may be thought to have causal effects on individual artifacts, much as an animal essence has causal effects. I review empirical support for these claims and consider the implications for both artifact concepts and essentialism. This perspective suggests that artifact concepts cannot be contained in a theoretical framework that focuses exclusively on similarity or even function. Furthermore, although there are significant differences between essentialism of natural kinds and essentialism of artifact individuals, the commonalities suggest that psychological essentialism may not derive from folk biology but instead may reflect more domain-general perspectives on the world.

  14. Nutrient cycling for biomass: Interactive proteomic/transcriptomic networks for global carbon management processes within poplar-mycorrhizal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cseke, Leland [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This project addresses the need to develop system-scale models at the symbiotic interface between ectomycorrhizal fungi (Laccaria bicolor) and tree species (Populus tremuloides) in response to environmental nutrient availability / biochemistry. Using our now well-established laboratory Laccaria x poplar system, we address the hypothesis that essential regulatory and metabolic mechanisms can be inferred from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic-level changes that occur in response to environmental nutrient availability. The project addresses this hypothesis by applying state-of-the-art protein-level analytic approaches to fill the gap in our understanding of how mycorrhizal regulatory and metabolic processes at the transcript-level translate to nutrient uptake, carbon management and ultimate net primary productivity of plants. In most cases, these techniques were not previously optimized for poplar trees or Laccaria. Thus, one of the major contributions of this project has been to provide avenues for new research in these species by overcoming the pitfalls that had previously prevented the use of techniques such as ChIP-Seq and SWATH-proteomics. Since it is the proteins that sense and interact with the environment, participate in signal cascades, activate and regulate gene expression, perform the activities of metabolism and ultimately sequester carbon and generate biomass, an understanding of protein activities during symbiosis-linked nutrient uptake is critical to any systems-level approach that links metabolic processes to the environment. This project uses a team of experts at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to address the above hypothesis using a multiple "omics" approach that combines gene and protein expression as well as protein modifications, and biochemical analyses (performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)) in poplar trees under mycorrhizal and

  15. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Drewnowski, Adam; O'Neil, Carol E

    2014-12-01

    The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and peas (legumes), and nuts and seeds that are prepared without added solid fats, added sugars, and sodium' as nutrient dense. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans further states that nutrient-dense foods and beverages provide vitamins, minerals and other substances that may have positive health effects with relatively few (kilo)calories or kilojoules. Finally, the definition states nutrients and other beneficial substances have not been 'diluted' by the addition of energy from added solid fats, added sugars or by the solid fats naturally present in the food. However, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee and other scientists have failed to clearly define 'nutrient density' or to provide criteria or indices that specify cut-offs for foods that are nutrient dense. Today, 'nutrient density' is a ubiquitous term used in the scientific literature, policy documents, marketing strategies and consumer messaging. However, the term remains ambiguous without a definitive or universal definition. Classifying or ranking foods according to their nutritional content is known as nutrient profiling. The goal of the present commentary is to address the research gaps that still exist before there can be a consensus on how best to define nutrient density, highlight the situation in the USA and relate this to wider, international efforts in nutrient profiling.

  16. Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mettler, Fred A. Jr

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging, by Drs. Fred A Mettler and Milton J Guiberteau, provides the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to master key nuclear imaging techniques. From physics, instrumentation, quality control, and legal requirements to hot topics such as sodium fluoride, radiopharmaceuticals, and recommended pediatric administered doses and guidelines, this sixth edition covers the fundamentals and recent developments in the practice of nuclear medicine.

  17. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  18. Roles for PI(3,5)P2 in nutrient sensing through TORC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Natsuko; Mao, Kai; Jin, Yui; Tevzadze, Gela; Kauffman, Emily J.; Park, Sujin; Bridges, Dave; Loewith, Robbie; Saltiel, Alan R.; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Weisman, Lois S.

    2014-01-01

    TORC1, a conserved protein kinase, regulates cell growth in response to nutrients. Localization of mammalian TORC1 to lysosomes is essential for TORC1 activation. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), an endosomal signaling lipid, is implicated in insulin-dependent stimulation of TORC1 activity in adipocytes. This raises the question of whether PI(3,5)P2 is an essential general regulator of TORC1. Moreover, the subcellular location where PI(3,5)P2 regulates TORC1 was not known. Here we report that PI(3,5)P2 is required for TORC1 activity in yeast and regulates TORC1 on the vacuole (lysosome). Furthermore, we show that the TORC1 substrate, Sch9 (a homologue of mammalian S6K), is recruited to the vacuole by direct interaction with PI(3,5)P2, where it is phosphorylated by TORC1. Of importance, we find that PI(3,5)P2 is required for multiple downstream pathways via TORC1-dependent phosphorylation of additional targets, including Atg13, the modification of which inhibits autophagy, and phosphorylation of Npr1, which releases its inhibitory function and allows nutrient-dependent endocytosis. These findings reveal PI(3,5)P2 as a general regulator of TORC1 and suggest that PI(3,5)P2 provides a platform for TORC1 signaling from lysosomes. PMID:24478451

  19. Managed nutrient reduction impacts on nutrient concentrations, water clarity, primary production, and hypoxia in a north temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Candace; Smith, Leslie; Krumholz, Jason; Coupland, Catherine; Stoffel, Heather; Keller, Aimee; McManus, M. Conor; Reed, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Except for the Providence River and side embayments like Greenwich Bay, Narragansett Bay can no longer be considered eutrophic. In summer 2012 managed nitrogen treatment in Narragansett Bay achieved a goal of reducing effluent dissolved inorganic nitrogen inputs by over 50%. Narragansett Bay represents a small northeast US estuary that had been heavily loaded with sewage effluent nutrients since the late 1800s. The input reduction was reflected in standing stock nutrients resulting in a statistically significant 60% reduction in concentration. In the Providence River estuary, total nitrogen decreased from 100 μm to about 40 μm, for example. We tested four environmental changes that might be associated with the nitrogen reduction. System apparent production was significantly decreased by 31% and 45% in the upper and mid Bay. Nutrient reductions resulted in statistically improved water clarity in the mid and upper Bay and in a 34% reduction in summer hypoxia. Nitrogen reduction also reduced the winter spring diatom bloom; winter chlorophyll levels after nutrient reduction have been significantly lower than before the reduction. The impact on the Bay will continue to evolve over the next few years and be a natural experiment for other temperate estuaries that will be experiencing nitrogen reduction. To provide perspective we review factors effecting hypoxia in other estuaries with managed nutrient reduction and conclude that, as in Narragansett Bay, physical factors can be as important as nutrients. On a positive note managed nutrient reduction has mitigated further deterioration in most estuaries.

  20. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long Term Large Scale river nutrient changes across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Naden, Pam; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Helen; Davies, Jessica; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Quinton, John; Stuart, Marianne; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-04-01

    During recent decades and centuries, pools and fluxes of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (C, N and P) in UK rivers and ecosystems have been transformed by the spread and fertiliser-based intensification of agriculture (necessary to sustain human populations), by atmospheric pollution, by human waste (rising in line with population growth), and now by climate change. The principal objective of the UK's NERC-funded Macronutrients LTLS research project has been to account for observable terrestrial and aquatic pools, concentrations and fluxes of C, N and P on the basis of past inputs, biotic and abiotic interactions, and transport processes. More specifically, over the last 200 years, what have been the temporal responses of plant and soil nutrient pools in different UK catchments to nutrient enrichment, and what have been the consequent effects on nutrient transfers from land to the atmosphere, freshwaters and estuaries? The work described here addresses the second question by providing an integrated quantitative description of the interlinked land and water pools and annual fluxes of C, N and P for UK catchments over time. A national-scale modelling environment has been developed, combining simple physically-based gridded models that can be parameterised using recent observations before application to long timescales. The LTLS Integrated Model (LTLS-IM) uses readily-available driving data (climate, land-use, nutrient inputs, topography), and model estimates of both terrestrial and freshwater nutrient loads have been compared with measurements from sites across the UK. Here, the focus is on the freshwater nutrient component of the LTLS-IM, but the terrestrial nutrient inputs required for this are provided by models of nutrient processes in semi-natural and agricultural systems, and from simple models of nutrients arising from human waste. In the freshwater model, lateral routing of dissolved and particulate nutrients and within-river processing such as

  2. Nutrient removal from farm effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Wong, L; Adriano, D C

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a two-pond system used to treat dairy farm effluent was monitored over a period of 7 months. The retention of nutrients by two porous materials was examined both in the laboratory batch (zeolite and bark) and pilot-scale field (bark) experiments. The results indicated that biological treatment of farm effluents using the two-pond system was not effective in the removal of nutrients, which are likely to become pollutant when discharged to waterways. Both the bark and zeolite materials were effective in the removal of N, P and K from effluent. These materials can be placed in the second (i.e., aerobic) pond to treat effluents, which can then be discharged to streams with minimum impact on water quality. The nutrient-enriched porous materials can be recycled as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner.

  3. NEWHINTS cluster randomised trial to evaluate the impact on neonatal mortality in rural Ghana of routine home visits to provide a package of essential newborn care interventions in the third trimester of pregnancy and the first week of life: trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Catherine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tackling neonatal mortality is essential for the achievement of the child survival millennium development goal. There are just under 4 million neonatal deaths, accounting for 38% of the 10.8 million deaths among children younger than 5 years of age taking place each year; 99% of these occur in low- and middle-income countries where a large proportion of births take place at home, and where postnatal care for mothers and neonates is either not available or is of poor quality. WHO and UNICEF have issued a joint statement calling for governments to implement "Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival", following several studies in South Asia which achieved substantial reductions in neonatal mortality through community-based approaches. However, their feasibility and effectiveness have not yet been evaluated in Africa. The Newhints study aims to do this in Ghana and to develop a feasible and sustainable community-based approach to improve newborn care practices, and by so doing improve neonatal survival. Methods Newhints is an integrated intervention package based on extensive formative research, and developed in close collaboration with seven District Health Management Teams (DHMTs in Brong Ahafo Region. The core component is training the existing community based surveillance volunteers (CBSVs to identify pregnant women and to conduct two home visits during pregnancy and three in the first week of life to address essential care practices, and to assess and refer very low birth weight and sick babies. CBSVs are supported by a set of materials, regular supervisory visits, incentives, sensitisation activities with TBAs, health facility staff and communities, and providing training for essential newborn care in health facilities. Newhints is being evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial, and intention to treat analyses. The clusters are 98 supervisory zones; 49 have been randomised for

  4. NEWHINTS cluster randomised trial to evaluate the impact on neonatal mortality in rural Ghana of routine home visits to provide a package of essential newborn care interventions in the third trimester of pregnancy and the first week of life: trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Betty R; Manu, Alexander; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; ten Asbroek, Guus; Gyan, Thomas; Weobong, Benedict; Lewandowski, R Eric; Soremekun, Seyi; Danso, Samuel; Pitt, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Hill, Zelee

    2010-05-17

    Tackling neonatal mortality is essential for the achievement of the child survival millennium development goal. There are just under 4 million neonatal deaths, accounting for 38% of the 10.8 million deaths among children younger than 5 years of age taking place each year; 99% of these occur in low- and middle-income countries where a large proportion of births take place at home, and where postnatal care for mothers and neonates is either not available or is of poor quality. WHO and UNICEF have issued a joint statement calling for governments to implement "Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival", following several studies in South Asia which achieved substantial reductions in neonatal mortality through community-based approaches. However, their feasibility and effectiveness have not yet been evaluated in Africa. The Newhints study aims to do this in Ghana and to develop a feasible and sustainable community-based approach to improve newborn care practices, and by so doing improve neonatal survival. Newhints is an integrated intervention package based on extensive formative research, and developed in close collaboration with seven District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) in Brong Ahafo Region. The core component is training the existing community based surveillance volunteers (CBSVs) to identify pregnant women and to conduct two home visits during pregnancy and three in the first week of life to address essential care practices, and to assess and refer very low birth weight and sick babies. CBSVs are supported by a set of materials, regular supervisory visits, incentives, sensitisation activities with TBAs, health facility staff and communities, and providing training for essential newborn care in health facilities.Newhints is being evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial, and intention to treat analyses. The clusters are 98 supervisory zones; 49 have been randomised for implementation of the Newhints intervention, with the

  5. Nutrient enrichment is associated with altered nectar and pollen chemical composition in Succisa pratensis Moench and increased larval mortality of its pollinator Bombus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Tobias; Hulsmans, Eva; Vanden Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on amino acid and sugar composition of nectar and pollen in the grassland plant Sucissa pratensis, and the subsequent colony size and larval mortality of the pollinating bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found less of the essential amino acids glycine and arginine in the pollen of fertilized plants, and more arginine, ornithine and threonine in the pollen of control plants. Nectar glucose and pollen fructose levels were lower in fertilized plants as compared to control plants. Furthermore, bumblebee colonies visiting fertilized plants showed more dead larvae than colonies visiting control plants. Our results suggest that the fitness of bumblebees can be negatively affected by changes in their food quality following nutrient pollution. If similar patterns hold for other plant and pollinator species, this may have far reaching implications for the maintenance of pollination ecosystem services, as nutrient pollution continues to rise worldwide.

  6. Decomposition, nutrient release patterns and nutrient fluxes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted on leaf litter fall, decomposition, nutrient release patterns and nutrient fluxes of Akyaakrom (AS) and Dopiri (DS) secondary forest leaf litter in Dwinyama watershed. Leaf litter production were 9.1 and 6.8 t ha-1 y-1 in AS and 8.9 and 6.5 t ha-1 y-1 in DS in the 1st (September 1998-August 1999) and ...

  7. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  8. Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Benstead, Jonathan P; Huryn, Alexander D; Nelson, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Temperature and nutrient availability play key roles in controlling the pathways and rates at which energy and materials move through ecosystems. These factors have also changed dramatically on Earth over the past century as human activities have intensified. Although significant effort has been devoted to understanding the role of temperature and nutrients in isolation, less is known about how these two factors interact to influence ecological processes. Recent advances in ecological stoichiometry and metabolic ecology provide a useful framework for making progress in this area, but conceptual synthesis and review are needed to help catalyze additional research. Here, we examine known and potential interactions between temperature and nutrients from a variety of physiological, community, and ecosystem perspectives. We first review patterns at the level of the individual, focusing on four traits--growth, respiration, body size, and elemental content--that should theoretically govern how temperature and nutrients interact to influence higher levels of biological organization. We next explore the interactive effects of temperature and nutrients on populations, communities, and food webs by synthesizing information related to community size spectra, biomass distributions, and elemental composition. We use metabolic theory to make predictions about how population-level secondary production should respond to interactions between temperature and resource supply, setting up qualitative predictions about the flows of energy and materials through metazoan food webs. Last, we examine how temperature-nutrient interactions influence processes at the whole-ecosystem level, focusing on apparent vs. intrinsic activation energies of ecosystem processes, how to represent temperature-nutrient interactions in ecosystem models, and patterns with respect to nutrient uptake and organic matter decomposition. We conclude that a better understanding of interactions between temperature and

  9. Farmers' use of nutrient management: lessons from watershed case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Deanna L; Hoag, Dana L K; Luloff, Al E; Meals, Donald W; Neas, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. There is little literature describing nutrient management decision-making. Here, two case studies are described that address this gap: (i) a synthesis of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, and (ii) field surveys from three nutrient-impaired river basins/watersheds in North Carolina (Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Jordan Lake drainage areas). Results indicate farmers generally did not fully apply nutrient management plans or follow basic soil test recommendations even when they had them. Farmers were found to be hesitant to apply N at university-recommended rates because they did not trust the recommendations, viewed abundant N as insurance, or used recommendations made by fertilizer dealers. Exceptions were noted when watershed education, technical support, and funding resources focused on nutrient management that included easing management demands, actively and consistently working directly with a small group of farmers, and providing significant resource allocations to fund agency personnel and cost-share funds to farmers. Without better dialogue with farmers and meaningful investment in strategies that reward farmers for taking what they perceive as risks relative to nutrient reduction, little progress in true adoption of nutrient management will be made. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuscher, Stefan; Kolter, Andreas; Hoffmann, Astrid; Pillen, Klaus; Krämer, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs). In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in the cultivated variety Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare cv. Scarlett. Plants were cultivated on an anthropogenically heavy metal-contaminated soil collected in an agricultural field, thus allowing simultaneous localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the accumulation of both essential nutrients and toxic trace elements in barley as a model cereal crop. For accumulation of the micronutrients Fe and Zn and the interfering toxin Cd, we identified 25, 16 and 5 QTL, respectively. By examining the gene content of the introgressions, we associated QTL with candidate genes based on homology to known metal homeostasis genes of Arabidopsis and rice. Global comparative analyses suggested the preferential remobilization of Cu and Fe, over Cd, from the flag leaf to developing grains. Our data identifies grain micronutrient filling as a regulated and nutrient-specific process, which operates differently from vegetative micronutrient homoeostasis. In summary, this study provides novel QTL for micronutrient accumulation in the presence of toxic analogues and supports a higher degree of metal specificity of trace element partitioning during grain filling in barley than previously reported for other cereals.

  11. Central orchestration of peripheral nutrient partitioning and substrate utilization: implications for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, R G P; Joly-Amado, A; Cansell, C; Castel, J; Martinez, S; Delbes, A S; Luquet, S

    2014-06-01

    Energy homoeostasis is maintained through a complex interplay of nutrient intake and energy expenditure. The central nervous system is an essential component of this regulation, as it integrates circulating signals of hunger and satiety to develop adaptive responses at the behavioural and metabolic levels, while the hypothalamus is regarded as a particularly crucial structure in the brain in terms of energy homoeostasis. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus contains at least two intermingled neuronal populations: the neurons that produce neuropeptide Y (NPY); and the Agouti-related protein (AgRP) produced by AgRP/NPY neurons situated below the third ventricle in close proximity to proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-producing neurons. POMC neurons exert their catabolic and anorectic actions by releasing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), while AgRP neurons oppose this action by exerting tonic GABAergic inhibition of POMC neurons and releasing the melanocortin receptor inverse agonist AgRP. The release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides by second-order AgRP neurons appears to take place on a multiple time scale, thereby allowing neuromodulation of preganglionic neuronal activity and subsequent control of nutrient partitioning - in other words, the coordinated regulation of conversion, storage and utilization of carbohydrates vs. lipids. This suggests that the function of AgRP neurons extends beyond the strict regulation of feeding to the regulation of efferent organ activity, such that AgRP neurons may now be viewed as an important bridge between central detection of nutrient availability and peripheral nutrient partitioning, thus providing a mechanistic link between obesity and obesity-related disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Managing Soil Biota-Mediated Decomposition and Nutrient Mineralization in Sustainable Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann K. Whalen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of organic residues into plant-available nutrients occurs through decomposition and mineralization and is mediated by saprophytic microorganisms and fauna. Of particular interest is the recycling of the essential plant elements—N, P, and S—contained in organic residues. If organic residues can supply sufficient nutrients during crop growth, a reduction in fertilizer use is possible. The challenge is synchronizing nutrient release from organic residues with crop nutrient demands throughout the growing season. This paper presents a conceptual model describing the pattern of nutrient release from organic residues in relation to crop nutrient uptake. Next, it explores experimental approaches to measure the physical, chemical, and biological barriers to decomposition and nutrient mineralization. Methods are proposed to determine the rates of decomposition and nutrient release from organic residues. Practically, this information can be used by agricultural producers to determine if plant-available nutrient supply is sufficient to meet crop demands at key growth stages or whether additional fertilizer is needed. Finally, agronomic practices that control the rate of soil biota-mediated decomposition and mineralization, as well as those that facilitate uptake of plant-available nutrients, are identified. Increasing reliance on soil biological activity could benefit crop nutrition and health in sustainable agroecosystems.

  13. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  14. Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

  15. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  16. Energy and nutrient utilisation by embryonic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael B; Speake, Brian K

    2002-11-01

    Most reptiles are oviparous, with the developing embryos relying on the contents of the yolk to sustain development until hatching (lecithotrophy). The yolk is composed primarily of lipid and protein, which act as an energy source and the essential components to build embryonic tissue. Nevertheless, yolk and the resulting embryos contain many other nutrients, including inorganic ions, vitamins, carotenoids, water and hormones. Apart from water and oxygen, which may be taken up by eggs, and some inorganic ions that can come from the eggshell or even from outside the egg, everything required by the embryo must be in the egg when it is laid. Approximately 20% of squamate reptiles are viviparous, exhibiting a variety of placental complexities. Species with complex placentae have reduced yolk volumes, with the mother augmenting embryonic nutrition by provision across the placenta (placentotrophy). Despite assumed advantages of placentotrophy, only 5 out of approximately 100 lineages of viviparous squamates exhibit substantial placentotrophy. This paper reviews available and recent information on the yolk contents of a variety of squamate reptiles to ask the question, how are nutrients transported from the yolk to the embryo or across the placenta? Although, current available data suggest that, in broad terms, yolk is taken up by embryos without discrimination of the nutrients, there are some apparent exceptions, including the very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, fundamental differences in the patterns of energy utilisation in lizards and snakes suggest fundamental differences in lipid profiles in these taxa, which appear to reflect the differences between placentotrophic and lecithotrophic viviparous lizards.

  17. Inflammation markers in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Dimitrios; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Charalampos; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2014-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a common health disorder with uncertain etiology and unclear pathophysiology. There is evidence that various systems interact in uncertain ways and mechanisms to cause hypertension. It is also well known that inflammation is a key feature in the initiation, progression and clinical implication of several cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has become evident that the immune system and inflammatory response are also essential in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Many inflammation markers such as CRP, cytokines, and adhesion molecules have been found elevated in hypertensive patients supporting the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Also, in normotensive individuals, these markers have been associated with the risk of developing hypertension, whereas in hypertensive patients they have been associated with target organ damage as well as with the risk for future cardiovascular events. Thus, understanding the role of inflammation in hypertension provides new insights for novel therapeutic approaches, targeting inflammation for the treatment of hypertension and its complications.

  18. Essentials of radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...

  19. The Essential Microbe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 9. The Essential Microbe. S K Bhattacharjee. Book Review Volume 12 Issue 9 September 2007 pp 80-82. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/09/0080-0082. Author Affiliations.

  20. Essential trichomegaly: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dutra Rossetto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports two cases of symptomatic essential trichomegaly. Trichomegaly may develop in various diseases, including anorexia nervosa, hypothyroidism, pregnancy, pretibial myxedema, systemic lupus erythematosus, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and uveitis. The exact incidence trichomegaly is unknown, and the condition remains sporadically reported. Two cases of symptomatic trichomegaly without any associated systemic disorder are presented in this paper.

  1. Essential trichomegaly: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Julia Dutra; Nascimento, Heloisa; Muccioli, Cristina; Belfort Jr, Rubens

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports two cases of symptomatic essential trichomegaly. Trichomegaly may develop in various diseases, including anorexia nervosa, hypothyroidism, pregnancy, pretibial myxedema, systemic lupus erythematosus, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and uveitis. The exact incidence trichomegaly is unknown, and the condition remains sporadically reported. Two cases of symptomatic trichomegaly without any associated systemic disorder are presented in this paper.

  2. ESSENTIAL DYNAMICS OF PROTEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMADEI, A; LINSSEN, ABM; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of extended molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of lysozyme in vacuo and in aqueous solution reveals that it is possible to separate the configurational space into two subspaces: (1) an ''essential'' subspace containing only a few degrees of freedom in which anharmonic motion occurs that

  3. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive A Kirkby

    Full Text Available Removing carbon dioxide (CO2 from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C in resistant soil organic matter (SOM is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur-C:N:P:S to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0-10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m, more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C.

  4. Essential Tremor Is More Than a Tremor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Home About the IETF Volunteer For Healthcare Providers Giving Options Donate Prev Next IETF > About Essential Tremor > Video Video Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click ...

  5. Essential Tremor Is More Than a Tremor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reaching out to healthcare providers and the general public. This six-minute video tells the stories of six people living with ET. It goes beyond ... Essential Tremor Foundation Seeks Grant Proposals FDA approves ...

  6. Overview of essential tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Zesiewicz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Theresa A Zesiewicz, Abinaya Chari, Israt Jahan, Amber M Miller, Kelly L SullivanDepartment of Neurology, Parkinson Research Foundation, James A. Haley Veterans Administration Hospital,University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Essential tremor (ET is one of the most common movement disorders in the world. Despite this, only one medication (propranolol is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA to treat it. Fortunately, recent studies have identified some additional medications as treatment of ET. Surgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus, offer treatment for refractory tremor. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and medical and surgical treatment of ET will be discussed in this paper.Keywords: Essential tremor, diagnosis, treatment, pathogenesis

  7. Trombocitemia Essencial Essential thrombocythaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Leite

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential thrombocythaemia is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the proliferation of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, leading to a persistent increase in circulating platelets. Apart from this increase (>600 x 10(9/L this disease also exhibits accentuated hyperplasia of the megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, splenomegaly and clinically both thrombotic and haemorrhagic episodes. The etiology of this illness is largely unknown and the clinical manifestations are mostly asymptomatic, thus the diagnostic is often accidentally made. Here the case report of a 71-year-old male patient is discussed, who was admitted into hospital due to occlusion of the femoral artery requiring re-vascularisation. The physical exam showed that the patient suffered several other symptoms related to essential thrombocythaemia. In conclusion, this is a grave, potentially fatal disease which needs further study to determine the etiology. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a good prognosis.

  8. Pharmacotherapy of Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedera, Peter; Cibulčík, František; Davis, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This has limited the development of effective pharmacotherapy. The current therapeutic armamentaria for ET represent the product of careful clinical observation rather than targeted molecular modeling. Here we review their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, dosing, and adverse effect profiles and propose a treatment algorithm. We also discuss the concept of medically refractory tremor, as therapeutic trials should be limited unless invasive therapy is contraindicated or not desired by patients. PMID:24385718

  9. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  10. Android application security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, Pragati

    2013-01-01

    Android Application Security Essentials is packed with examples, screenshots, illustrations, and real world use cases to secure your apps the right way.If you are looking for guidance and detailed instructions on how to secure app data, then this book is for you. Developers, architects, managers, and technologists who wish to enhance their knowledge of Android security will find this book interesting. Some prior knowledge of development on the Android stack is desirable but not required.

  11. Rake task management essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Koleshko, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    A step-by-step and interactive approach explaining the Rake essentials along with code examples and advanced features. If you are a developer who is acquainted with the Ruby language and want to speed up writing the code concerned with files, then this book is for you. To start reading this book, basic Ruby knowledge is required; however, a huge amount of experience with the language is not necessary.

  12. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  13. Moodle administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Henrick, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.

  14. Sequential nutrient uptake as a potential mechanism for phytoplankton to maintain high primary productivity and balanced nutrient stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Liu, Hao; Harrison, Paul J.

    2017-05-01

    We hypothesize that phytoplankton have the sequential nutrient uptake strategy to maintain nutrient stoichiometry and high primary productivity in the water column. According to this hypothesis, phytoplankton take up the most limiting nutrient first until depletion, continue to draw down non-limiting nutrients and then take up the most limiting nutrient rapidly when it is available. These processes would result in the variation of ambient nutrient ratios in the water column around the Redfield ratio. We used high-resolution continuous vertical profiles of nutrients, nutrient ratios and on-board ship incubation experiments to test this hypothesis in the Strait of Georgia. At the surface in summer, ambient NO3- was depleted with excess PO43- and SiO4- remaining, and as a result, both N : P and N : Si ratios were low. The two ratios increased to about 10 : 1 and 0. 45 : 1, respectively, at 20 m. Time series of vertical profiles showed that the leftover PO43- continued to be removed, resulting in additional phosphorus storage by phytoplankton. The N : P ratios at the nutricline in vertical profiles responded differently to mixing events. Field incubation of seawater samples also demonstrated the sequential uptake of NO3- (the most limiting nutrient) and then PO43- and SiO4- (the non-limiting nutrients). This sequential uptake strategy allows phytoplankton to acquire additional cellular phosphorus and silicon when they are available and wait for nitrogen to become available through frequent mixing of NO3- (or pulsed regenerated NH4). Thus, phytoplankton are able to maintain high productivity and balance nutrient stoichiometry by taking advantage of vigorous mixing regimes with the capacity of the stoichiometric plasticity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show the in situ dynamics of continuous vertical profiles of N : P and N : Si ratios, which can provide insight into the in situ dynamics of nutrient stoichiometry in the water column and the inference of

  15. Nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and nutrient removal in the Nordic and Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Arvid; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Natural ecological functions provide essential and fundamental benefits to mankind, but can also be actively employed in nature-based solutions to specific challenges in society. For example, water-related ecosystem services have a role in such societal benefits as flood protection, erosion control, and excess nutrient removal. Ecosystem services may be produced and consumed in different locations, and research has recently attempted to formalize this discrepancy in identifying service providing areas (SPAs), service benefitting areas (SBAs), and service connecting areas (SCAs). However, in terms of water-related services, there is a lack of formal evaluation of how SPAs, SBAs, and SCAs are related to hydrological measures such as discharge, flood recurrence, excess nutrient removal, etc. We seek to map SPAs, SBAs and SCAs for a number of key ecosystem services in the Nordic and Arctic region though established ecological definitions (typically, based on land use) and evaluate the findings alongside metrics of hydrological connectivity (river networks), provisioning areas (runoff generating areas), and benefitting areas (river stretches where water flow is moderated). We make use of extensive GIS analysis using both high-resolution land cover data and river network maps. In the end, the results are expected to contribute to identifying how water-related ecosystem services can be employed as nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and nutrient removal in a changing climate in the Nordic and Arctic regions.

  16. Biogeochemical characterization of the Cointzio reservoir (Morelia, Mexico) and identification of a watershed-dependent cycling of nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Némery, J.; Alvarado, R.; Gratiot, N.; Duvert, C.; Mahé, F.; Duwig, C.; Bonnet, M.; Prat, C.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Cointzio reservoir (capacity 70 Mm3) is an essential component of the drinking water supply (20 %) of Morelia city (1 M inhabitants, Michoacán, Mexico). The watershed is 627 km2 and mainly forested (45 %) and cultivated (43 %) with recent increase of avocados plantations. The mean population density is 65 inh./km2 and there are no waste water treatment plants in the villages leading locally to high levels of organic and nutritive pollution. Soils are mostly volcanic and recent deforestations have led to important processes of erosion especially during the wet season (from June to October). As a result the reservoir presents a high turbidity level (Secchi water potabilization processes difficult. Moreover, eutrophication and development of undesirable algae such as Cyanobacteria may even increase the water treatment cost. A weekly composite sampling was realized in 2009 at the reservoir entry and exit in order to determine nutrients mass balance. At the reservoir entrance, discharges were measured continuously. At the exit, discharges were obtained from the Comición Nacional Del Agua (CNA). The water residence time in the reservoir is lower than one year. Nutrients fluxes entering and exiting the reservoir were calculated as the product of water discharges and weekly concentrations of nutrients. Within the reservoir, the vertical distributions of temperature, oxygen, turbidity, pH (with a Hydrolab probe), nutrients (PO43-, NH4+, NO3-), Dissolved Organic Carbon, chlorophyll a (laboratory analysis with a Hach Lange spectrophotometer), phytoplankton and zooplankton (variety and abundance) were measured every month to determine its seasonal dynamics. Samples of deposited sediments were also taken to assess phosphorus (P) stock. Nutrient inputs revealed to be strongly conditioned by the watershed hydrology. During low flow period (November to May), the baseflow is much more concentrated in dissolved nutrients. On the contrary, the high flows (June to October) bring

  17. Molecular characterization of the first aromatic nutrient transporter from the sodium neurotransmitter symporter family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshkevitch, Ella A; Assis-Nascimento, Poincyane; Popova, Lyudmila B; Miller, Melissa M; Kohn, Andrea B; Phung, Elizabeth N; Mandal, Anita; Harvey, William R; Boudko, Dmitri Y

    2006-08-01

    Nutrient amino acid transporters (NATs, subfamily of sodium neurotransmitter symporter family SNF, a.k.a. SLC6) represent a set of phylogenetically and functionally related transport proteins, which perform intracellular absorption of neutral, predominantly essential amino acids. Functions of NATs appear to be critical for the development and survival in organisms. However, mechanisms of specific and synergetic action of various NAT members in the amino acid transport network are virtually unexplored. A new transporter, agNAT8, was cloned from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae (SS). Upon heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes it performs high-capacity, sodium-coupled (2:1) uptake of nutrients with a strong preference for aromatic catechol-branched substrates, especially phenylalanine and its derivatives tyrosine and L-DOPA, but not catecholamines. It represents a previously unknown SNF phenotype, and also appears to be the first sodium-dependent B(0) type transporter with a narrow selectivity for essential precursors of catecholamine synthesis pathways. It is strongly and specifically transcribed in absorptive and secretory parts of the larval alimentary canal and specific populations of central and peripheral neurons of visual-, chemo- and mechano-sensory afferents. We have identified a new SNF transporter with previously unknown phenotype and showed its important role in the accumulation and redistribution of aromatic substrates. Our results strongly suggest that agNAT8 is an important, if not the major, provider of an essential catechol group in the synthesis of catecholamines for neurochemical signaling as well as ecdysozoan melanization and sclerotization pathways, which may include cuticle hardening/coloring, wound curing, oogenesis, immune responses and melanization of pathogens.

  18. Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Thompson, Craig B

    2017-06-07

    Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis. However, proliferating cells depend on growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient uptake to support biomass formation. Here, we review cellular nutrient acquisition strategies and their regulation by growth factors and cell-intrinsic nutrient sensors. We also discuss how oncogenes and tumour suppressors promote nutrient uptake and thereby support the survival and growth of cancer cells.

  19. Linear feedback controls the essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The design of control systems is at the very core of engineering. Feedback controls are ubiquitous, ranging from simple room thermostats to airplane engine control. Helping to make sense of this wide-ranging field, this book provides a new approach by keeping a tight focus on the essentials with a limited, yet consistent set of examples. Analysis and design methods are explained in terms of theory and practice. The book covers classical, linear feedback controls, and linear approximations are used when needed. In parallel, the book covers time-discrete (digital) control systems and juxtapos

  20. Algebra I Essentials For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    With its use of multiple variables, functions, and formulas algebra can be confusing and overwhelming to learn and easy to forget. Perfect for students who need to review or reference critical concepts, Algebra I Essentials For Dummies provides content focused on key topics only, with discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical Algebra I course, from functions and FOILs to quadratic and linear equations. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical algebra concepts as they help students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learner

  1. Farming and the geography of nutrient production for human use: a transdisciplinary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Thornton, Philip K; Power, Brendan; Bogard, Jessica R; Remans, Roseline; Fritz, Steffen; Gerber, James S; Nelson, Gerald; See, Linda; Waha, Katharina; Watson, Reg A; West, Paul C; Samberg, Leah H; van de Steeg, Jeannette; Stephenson, Eloise; van Wijk, Mark; Havlík, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Information about the global structure of agriculture and nutrient production and its diversity is essential to improve present understanding of national food production patterns, agricultural livelihoods, and food chains, and their linkages to land use and their associated ecosystems services. Here we provide a plausible breakdown of global agricultural and nutrient production by farm size, and also study the associations between farm size, agricultural diversity, and nutrient production. This analysis is crucial to design interventions that might be appropriately targeted to promote healthy diets and ecosystems in the face of population growth, urbanisation, and climate change. We used existing spatially-explicit global datasets to estimate the production levels of 41 major crops, seven livestock, and 14 aquaculture and fish products. From overall production estimates, we estimated the production of vitamin A, vitamin B 12 , folate, iron, zinc, calcium, calories, and protein. We also estimated the relative contribution of farms of different sizes to the production of different agricultural commodities and associated nutrients, as well as how the diversity of food production based on the number of different products grown per geographic pixel and distribution of products within this pixel (Shannon diversity index [ H ]) changes with different farm sizes. Globally, small and medium farms (≤50 ha) produce 51-77% of nearly all commodities and nutrients examined here. However, important regional differences exist. Large farms (>50 ha) dominate production in North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand. In these regions, large farms contribute between 75% and 100% of all cereal, livestock, and fruit production, and the pattern is similar for other commodity groups. By contrast, small farms (≤20 ha) produce more than 75% of most food commodities in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, south Asia, and China. In Europe, west Asia and north Africa, and

  2. Benthic trophic status and nutrient fluxes in shallow-water sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsen, Anna; Hulth, Stefan; Pihl, Leif; Sundbäck, Kristina

    2008-07-01

    Proliferation of fast-growing ephemeral macroalgae in shallow-water embayments constitutes a large-scale environmental change of coastal marine ecosystems. Since inorganic nutrients essential for the initiation and maintenance of macroalgal growth may be supplied from the underlying sediment, we investigated the coupling between benthic inorganic nutrient (mainly N and P) fluxes and sediment properties in 6 bays representing a wide gradient of sediment characteristics (grain size, organic matter content, solid phase C and N). The initial characterization of bays was made in June and also included measurements of oxygen flux and microphytobenthic and macrofaunal biomass. In September, still within the growth season of the macroalgae, complementary experiments with sediment-water incubations for benthic flux measurements of oxygen and nutrients focused on trophic status (balance between auto- and heterotrophy) as a controlling factor for rates of measured benthic nutrient fluxes. Generally, sediments rendered autotrophic by microphytobenthic photosynthesis removed nutrients from the overlying water, while heterotrophic sediments supplied nutrients to the overlying bottom water. Estimations of the green-algal nutrient demand suggested that late in the growth season, net heterotrophic sediments could cover 20% of the N-demand and 70% of the P demand. As the benthic trophic status is a functional variable more closely coupled to nutrient fluxes than the comparably conservative structural parameter organic matter content, we suggest that the trophic status is a more viable parameter to classify sediments and predict benthic nutrient fluxes in shallow-water environments.

  3. Soil nutrient availability and reproductive effort drive patterns in nutrient resorption in Pentachlethra macroloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. L. Tully; Tana Wood; A. M. Schwantes; D. Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The removal of nutrients from senescing tissues, nutrient resorption, is a key strategy for conserving nutrients in plants. However, our understanding of what drives patterns of nutrient resorption in tropical trees is limited. We examined the effects of nutrient sources (stand-level and tree-level soil fertility) and sinks (reproductive effort) on nitrogen (N) and...

  4. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  5. Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-05-01

    Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines.

  6. Evaluating changes in water quality with respect to nonpoint source nutrient management strategies in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisman, J.; Sekellick, A.; Blomquist, J.; Devereux, O. H.; Hively, W. D.; Johnston, M.; Moyer, D.; Sweeney, J.

    2014-12-01

    Chesapeake Bay is a eutrophic ecosystem with periodic hypoxia and anoxia, algal blooms, diminished submerged aquatic vegetation, and degraded stocks of marine life. Knowledge of the effectiveness of actions taken across the watershed to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the bay (i.e. "best management practices" or BMPs) is essential to its restoration. While nutrient inputs from point sources (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and other industrial and municipal operations) are tracked, inputs from nonpoint sources, including atmospheric deposition, farms, lawns, septic systems, and stormwater, are difficult to measure. Estimating reductions in nonpoint source inputs attributable to BMPs requires compilation and comparison of data on water quality, climate, land use, point source discharges, and BMP implementation. To explore the relation of changes in nonpoint source inputs and BMP implementation to changes in water quality, a subset of small watersheds (those containing at least 10 years of water quality monitoring data) within the Chesapeake Watershed were selected for study. For these watersheds, data were compiled on geomorphology, demographics, land use, point source discharges, atmospheric deposition, and agricultural practices such as livestock populations, crop acres, and manure and fertilizer application. In addition, data on BMP implementation for 1985-2012 were provided by the Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A spatially referenced nonlinear regression model (SPARROW) provided estimates attributing N and P loads associated with receiving waters to different nutrient sources. A recently developed multiple regression technique ("Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge and Season" or WRTDS) provided an enhanced understanding of long-term trends in N and P loads and concentrations. A suite of deterministic models developed by the CBPO was used to estimate expected

  7. Porous tube plant nutrient delivery system development: A device for nutrient delivery in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery Systems or PTPNDS (U.S. Patent #4,926,585) has been under development for the past six years with the goal of providing a means for culturing plants in microgravity, specifically providing water and nutrients to the roots. Direct applications of the PTPNDS include plant space biology investigations on the Space Shuttle and plant research for life support in the Space Station Freedom. In the past, we investigated various configurations, the suitability of different porous materials, and the effects of pressure and pore size on plant growth. Current work is focused on characterizing the physical operation of the system, examining the effects of solution aeration, and developing prototype configurations for the Plant Growth Unit (PGU), the flight system for the Shuttle mid-deck. Future developments will involve testing on KC-135 parabolic flights, the design of flight hardware and testing aboard the Space Shuttle.

  8. With Climate Change Expanding Trade Routes in the Arctic and the Resultant Pursuit of Resources, it is Crucial that the Eight Arctic Nations Find Paths Towards Sustainability and Peace in the Region. Traditional Arctic Games are an Essential Scenario that Provide an Important Scale for Analysis Aimed at Medium-long term Sustainability in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    With climate change expanding trade routes in the Arctic and the resultant pursuit of oil, gas, mineral deposits, and fish, it is imperative that the eight Arctic countries find paths towards sustainability and peace in the region. Revisiting and understanding the traditional games of the indigenous people of these regions can go a long way towards helping those determining the region's future to work cooperatively towards these goals. Traditional games are an essential scenario that provide an important scale for analysis aimed at medium-long term sustainability in the Arctic. Throughout history the games we have played have been a testament about who we were, and are. From early Inuit bone and hunting games, to the gladiator contests of Ancient Rome, to the modern American game of baseball, the games we play have served as a statement of and a rehearsal for the life-world of that period and place. By reconnecting with and understanding the games of our past, we can build meaningful bridges between our past and present, and hopefully gain a better understanding of our modern world. The aforesaid are timely and important, especially as they relate to indigenous people throughout the world who are trying to preserve their traditions in a fast changing modern world. This presentation/paper will offer, based on my research and experiences in the Arctic, lessons learned from traditional Sámi and Inuit games that may help promote sustainability and peace in the Arctic world. Hopefully by acknowledging these lessons we can pursue a path forward, together reconnecting with the traditional games of the Arctic with the hope of building meaningful bridges between the past and present and moreover, helping to enhance our understanding of the important role traditional games can play in shaping an Arctic where sustainability and peace flourish.

  9. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  10. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  11. Twisted network programming essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fettig, Abe

    2005-01-01

    Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s

  12. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  13. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  14. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  15. Geometry essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque

  16. Autodesk Maya 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Naas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The premiere book on getting started with Maya 2014 Whether you're just beginning, or migrating from another 3D application, this step-by-step guide is what you need to get a good working knowledge of Autodesk Maya 2014. Beautifully illustrated with full-color examples and screenshots, Autodesk Maya 2014 Essentials explains the basics of Maya as well as modeling, texturing, animating, setting a scene, and creating visual effects. You'll absorb important concepts and techniques, and learn how to confidently use Maya tools the way professionals do. Each chapter includes fun and cha

  17. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  18. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  19. Nutrient and Anti nutrient Composition of Jams Prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutrient composition of prepared jams was higher than that of commercially available (control) one, though commercial jam rated highest in all sensory parameters investigated. Addition of carrot extract improved the â-carotene content and acceptability of prepared jams. Conclusion: The relatively high level of -carotene ...

  20. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  1. Anti-nutrients and mineral nutrient potential of gmelina ( Gmelina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the mineral and anti-nutrient composition of ripe gmelina whole fruit (RGWF), unripe gmelina whole fruit (UGWF) and ripe gmelina fruit pulp (RGFP) as potential livestock feed ingredients. The fruit pulp was low in alkanoid (0.14-0.58%DM), and phyto-haemaglutinnin (136- 276Hu/g) but high in tannin ...

  2. Fiber optic spectrophotometry monitoring of plant nutrient deficiency under hydroponic culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Boey, William S. L.; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; He, Duo-Min

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, fiber optic spectrophotometry (FOSpectr) was adapted to provide early detection of plant nutrient deficiency by measuring leaf spectral reflectance variation resulting from nutrient stress. Leaf reflectance data were obtained form a local vegetable crop, Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey), grown in nitrate-nitrogen (N)- and calcium (Ca)- deficient hydroponics nutrient solution. FOSpectr analysis showed significant differences in leaf reflectance within the first four days after subjecting plants to nutrient-deficient media. Recovery of the nutrient-stressed plants could also be detected after transferring them back to complete nutrient solution. In contrast to FOSpectr, plant response to nitrogen and calcium deficiency in terms of reduced growth and tissue elemental levels was slower and less pronounced. Thus, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using FOSpectr methodology as a non-destructive alternative to augment current methods of plant nutrient analysis.

  3. Regulatory Effects of Cu, Zn, and Ca on Fe Absorption: The Intricate Play between Nutrient Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Scheers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient for almost every living organism because it is required in a number of biological processes that serve to maintain life. In humans, recycling of senescent erythrocytes provides most of the daily requirement of iron. In addition, we need to absorb another 1–2 mg Fe from the diet each day to compensate for losses due to epithelial sloughing, perspiration, and bleeding. Iron absorption in the intestine is mainly regulated on the enterocyte level by effectors in the diet and systemic regulators accessing the enterocyte through the basal lamina. Recently, a complex meshwork of interactions between several trace metals and regulatory proteins was revealed. This review focuses on advances in our understanding of Cu, Zn, and Ca in the regulation of iron absorption. Ascorbate as an important player is also considered.

  4. Essential amino acids: master regulators of nutrition and environmental footprint?

    OpenAIRE

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna; Mosca, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The environmental footprint of animal food production is considered several-fold greater than that of crops cultivation. Therefore, the choice between animal and vegetarian diets may have a relevant environmental impact. In such comparisons however, an often neglected issue is the nutritional value of foods. Previous estimates of nutrients? environmental footprint had predominantly been based on either food raw weight or caloric content, not in respect to human requirements. Essential amino a...

  5. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  6. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  7. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  8. [The essentiality and rationality of the Brazilian national listing of essential medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2017-03-01

    One strategy to implement the rational use of medicines is the adoption of an 'essential medicines list'. The objective of this study was to analyze the list of medicines contained in the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines (Rename, 2013) in terms of essentiality and rationality. Essentiality was determined by comparing this list to the 18th Essential Medicines List (EML) published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Drugs which were part of the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines but not included in the EML were assessed using the classification described in La revue Prescrire to detect medications without added therapeutic value. It was discovered that the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines contains 190 medications not included in the EML, of which 63 have no added therapeutic value. In addition, discrepancies were identified between the recommendations of the WHO and the drugs included in the Brazilian National Relation of Essential Medicines. It is concluded that drugs that are non-essential and provide no added therapeutic value should not be included in a list of essential medicines funded by the three Brazilian federal entities.

  9. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2017-09-05

    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  10. Prevention and treatment of cancers by immune modulating nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Madka, Venkateshwar; Kumar, Gaurav; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory data support the protective effects of bioactive nutrients in our diets for various diseases. Along with various factors, such as genetic history, alcohol, smoking, exercise, and dietary choices play a vital role in affecting an individual's immune responses toward a transforming cell, by either preventing or accelerating a neoplastic transformation. Ample evidence suggests that dietary nutrients control the inflammatory and protumorigenic responses in immune cells. Immunoprevention is usually associated with the modulation of immune responses that help in resolving the inflammation, thus improving clinical outcome. Various metabolic pathway-related nutrients, including glutamine, arginine, vitamins, minerals, and long-chain fatty acids, are important components of immunonutrient mixes. Epidemiological studies related to these substances have reported different results, with no or minimal effects. However, several studies suggest that these nutrients may have immune-modulating effects that may lower cancer risk. Preclinical studies submit that most of these components may provide beneficial effects. The present review discusses the available data, the immune-modulating functions of these nutrients, and how these substances could be used to study immune modulation in a neoplastic environment. Further research will help to determine whether the mechanistic signaling pathways in immune cells altered by nutrients can be exploited for cancer prevention and treatment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nutrient and media recycling in heterotrophic microalgae cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-02-01

    In order for microalgae-based processes to reach commercial production for biofuels and high-value products such as omega-3 fatty acids, it is necessary that economic feasibility be demonstrated at the industrial scale. Therefore, process optimization is critical to ensure that the maximum yield can be achieved from the most efficient use of resources. This is particularly true for processes involving heterotrophic microalgae, which have not been studied as extensively as phototrophic microalgae. An area that has received significant conceptual praise, but little experimental validation, is that of nutrient recycling, where the waste materials from prior cultures and post-lipid extraction are reused for secondary fermentations. While the concept is very simple and could result in significant economic and environmental benefits, there are some underlying challenges that must be overcome before adoption of nutrient recycling is viable at commercial scale. Even more, adapting nutrient recycling for optimized heterotrophic cultures presents some added challenges that must be identified and addressed that have been largely unexplored to date. These challenges center on carbon and nitrogen recycling and the implications of using waste materials in conjunction with virgin nutrients for secondary cultures. The aim of this review is to provide a foundation for further understanding of nutrient recycling for microalgae cultivation. As such, we outline the current state of technology and practical challenges associated with nutrient recycling for heterotrophic microalgae on an industrial scale and give recommendations for future work.

  12. The Coupling of Solution Chemistry to Plant Nutrient Demand in an on Demand Nutrient Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the proposal will be to determine the suitability of the DASI instrument in providing a signal that can be recognized and be utilized as an indicator of plant stress. The method to be utilized for evaluating stress is the presentation of an every increasing level of nutrient deficiency and salinity stress (addition of salt (NACl) or increasing concentration of balanced nutrient) while simultaneously recording spectral reflectance using the DASI instrument and monitoring the traditional processes of gas exchange and nutrient uptake parameters. In this manner, we will be able to directly compare the DASI measurements with known stresses as determined by the traditional gas exchange and nutrient uptake measures of stress. We anticipate that the DASI will provide a sensitive identifier of plant stress; recording signals of the resulting changes in plant metabolism in real time, far before any visible effects of stress could be observed. Thus, there is a potential for very early management intervention to correct a stress condition before damage could develop. The present response time for the observation of visual symptoms of plant stress is considerable and only provides an indication that a stress is present after it has been present for an extended period of time. Thus, the impact of a plant-based life support function will have already been significant. An additional benefit of this research to regenerative life support will be the characterization of a potential recovery scenario from various degrees of stress. The experimental approach to be employed includes the removal of the stress at various points in the stress gradient and the characterization of plant performance and reflectance spectra during recovery from various degrees of stress. Spectral reflectance imaging techniques have been developed and used to measure the biochemical composition of plants and relate these characteristics to the fluxes of biochemical elements within the ecosystem.

  13. Essential and Embattled Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2014-01-01

    with reference to the controversies surrounding the sarin gas attrack on Ghouta Damascus 21 August 2013. The article first argues that expertise continues to be essential in the sense that it is integral to contemporary policy-controversies. As the discussion around the sarin gas attack shows expertise is both...... constituted through controversies and at the same time constituting them. The article proceeds to suggest that precisely because this is the case, it is important that expertise also remains embattled. As shown with reference to the sarin gas attack controversies, it is only through contestation that the role...... to remain contested requires more than attention to hybrid agency and actants. It suggests that it also requires enrolling arguments from the "critical" approaches that Latour rejects. The article insists on the integration of three such "critical" arguments: the critique of markets for ideas...

  14. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  15. TQM: the essential concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.

  16. Pregabalin for essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Filippini, Graziella; Colosimo, Carlo; Zappia, Mario

    2016-10-20

    Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders. Treatment primarily consists of pharmacological agents. While primidone and propranolol are well-established treatments in clinical practice, they may be ineffective in 25% to 55% of patients and can produce serious adverse events in a large percentage of them. For these reasons, it is worth evaluating the treatment alternatives for essential tremor. Some specialists have suggested that pregabalin could be a potentially useful agent, but there is uncertainty about its efficacy and safety. To assess the effects of pregabalin versus placebo or other treatment for essential tremor in adults. We performed a systematic search without language restrictions to identify all relevant trials up to December 2015. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, NICE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We handsearched grey literature and examined the reference lists of identified studies and reviews. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pregabalin versus placebo or any other treatments. We included studies in which the diagnosis of ET was made according to accepted and validated diagnostic criteria. We excluded studies conducted in patients presenting secondary forms of tremor or reporting only neurophysiological parameters to assess outcomes. Two reviewers independently collected and extracted data using a data collection form. We assessed the risk of bias of the body of evidence, and we used inverse variance methods to analyse continuous outcomes and measurement scales. We compared the mean difference between treatment groups, and we combined results for dichotomous outcomes using Mantel-Haenszel methods and risk differences We used Review Manager software for data management and analysis. We only found one study eligible for this review (22 participants). We assessed the risk of

  17. DSP Architecture Design Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Marković, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    In DSP Architecture Design Essentials, authors Dejan Marković and Robert W. Brodersen cover a key subject for the successful realization of DSP algorithms for communications, multimedia, and healthcare applications. The book addresses the need for DSP architecture design that maps advanced DSP algorithms to hardware in the most power- and area-efficient way. The key feature of this text is a design methodology based on a high-level design model that leads to hardware implementation with minimum power and area. The methodology includes algorithm-level considerations such as automated word-length reduction and intrinsic data properties that can be leveraged to reduce hardware complexity. From a high-level data-flow graph model, an architecture exploration methodology based on linear programming is used to create an array of architectural solutions tailored to the underlying hardware technology. The book is supplemented with online material: bibliography, design examples, CAD tutorials and custom software.

  18. Labetalol in essential hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, A.; Orme, M.; Serlin, M. J.; Maciver, M.

    1982-01-01

    1 Labetalol is an effective agent in essential hypertension as documented in open studies and controlled studies in which its efficacy has been compared with both placebo and a variety of other anti-hypertensive drugs. 2 Labetalol given by mouth lowers blood pressure rapidly. There is no evidence of tolerance to its anti-hypertensive action. 3 Adverse effects include excessive hypotension, but only when the drug is given in large doses. Epigastric discomfort and scalp tingling have been documented especially after intravenous administration. 4 From a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic point of view, labetalol can be given once daily, but postural hypotension after large (> 1 g) single doses may limit the usefulness of once daily regimes. Twice daily administration appears an acceptable compromise. PMID:6124264

  19. Modelling and simulation of nutrient dispersion from coated fertilizer granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Radzuan; Daud, Hanita; Nor, Shafiq Mohd.

    2014-10-01

    The usage of Controlled-Release Fertilizer (CRF) is essential in plants and crops to fulfill the need and requirement for the modern agriculture which now feeds 6 billion people. Therefore modeling and simulation of nutrient release from coated fertilizer has become the best method to study the behavior of some parameters toward water saturation in and nutrient release from the coated-fertilizer granule. This paper is the improvement development of modeling and computer simulation by Basu [1] which include some of the factors affecting the water saturation time and nutrient release time from a coated-fertilizer. The effect of granule radius, the diffusivity of water and nutrient, the temperature of surrounding, the contact areas and the characteristic of the coating are studied and the simulation was developed using MATLAB software. The studies and understanding of this project is very important and useful especially to determine the important parameters in the manufacturing process of the coated-fertilizer granule and also will be useful for the farmers/users in the selection of the best fertilizers for their crops.

  20. The Role of Post-Exercise Nutrient Administration on Muscle Protein Synthesis and Glycogen Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Chris; Wilborn, Colin; Taylor, Lem; Kerksick, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient administration following an exercise bout vastly affects anabolic processes within the human body, irrespective of exercise mode. Of particular importance are protein and carbohydrates whereby these two macronutrients portray distinct functions as anabolic agents. It has been confirmed that protein and/or amino acid ingestion following resistance training is required to reach a positive protein/nitrogen balance, and carbohydrate intake during recovery is the most important consideration to replenish glycogen stores from an exhaustive exercise bout. Several factors play significant roles in determining the effectiveness of protein and carbohydrate supplementation on post-exercise protein and glycogen synthesis. Improper application of these factors can limit the body’s ability to reach an anabolic status. The provided evidence clearly denotes the importance these two macronutrients have in regards to post-exercise nutrition and anabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of dietary protein and carbohydrate intake during the recovery state on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen synthesis. Key points Post-exercise nutrient intake is essential for promoting protein synthesis and glycogen synthesis. The timing and amount of protein and/or carbohydrate ingested affects the rate and amount of synthesis. The type/form of protein and/or carbohydrate ingested after exercise alters anabolic processes during the recovery period. PMID:24149627

  1. [Mineral nutrient content in cow milk and dairy products in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Sara Josefina; de Landeta, María C; Andérica, Daniel; Pighín, Andrés; Cufré, Juan A

    2003-09-01

    Cow milk and dairy products supply essential inorganic elements for humans, and constitute the most important source of bioavailable calcium in our diet. In order to obtain data about mineral nutrient composition of dairy products that are produced and sold in Argentina, the contents of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn and Cu in whole and low fat fluid milk, dried milk and yogurt were analyzed. P was assessed by a colorimetric method, and the other elements by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In raw milk, the mineral content shows a certain degree of variability, in addition to the variability introduced by the different processing conditions, in order to meet the requirements prescribed by trade regulations and to produce dairy products. In all cases, skimming increases the concentration of mineral nutrients, which is especially remarkable in Ca contained in skimmed milk powder. In yogurt, added milk solids like dried milk or evaporated milk appreciably increase the mineral content, even more so if ultrafiltrates are used. These ultrafiltrates increase the Ca/P ratio, which probably improves Ca bioavailability. The results obtained in these analyses provide data that are not yet available from the National Table of Food Composition, and which prove necessary and fundamental for nutritional and dietary evaluation.

  2. The role of post-exercise nutrient administration on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Chris; Wilborn, Colin; Taylor, Lem; Kerksick, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient administration following an exercise bout vastly affects anabolic processes within the human body, irrespective of exercise mode. Of particular importance are protein and carbohydrates whereby these two macronutrients portray distinct functions as anabolic agents. It has been confirmed that protein and/or amino acid ingestion following resistance training is required to reach a positive protein/nitrogen balance, and carbohydrate intake during recovery is the most important consideration to replenish glycogen stores from an exhaustive exercise bout. Several factors play significant roles in determining the effectiveness of protein and carbohydrate supplementation on post-exercise protein and glycogen synthesis. Improper application of these factors can limit the body's ability to reach an anabolic status. The provided evidence clearly denotes the importance these two macronutrients have in regards to post-exercise nutrition and anabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of dietary protein and carbohydrate intake during the recovery state on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen synthesis. Key pointsPost-exercise nutrient intake is essential for promoting protein synthesis and glycogen synthesis.The timing and amount of protein and/or carbohydrate ingested affects the rate and amount of synthesis.The type/form of protein and/or carbohydrate ingested after exercise alters anabolic processes during the recovery period.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of activities, such as eating, drinking, or writing. Essential tremor can also occur when the muscles are ... the tremor may affect the voice (vocal tremor). Essential ... using eating utensils, writing, shaving, or applying makeup, and in some cases ...

  4. Hydroponics: A Versatile System to Study Nutrient Allocation and Plant Responses to Nutrient Availability and Exposure to Toxic Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T; McInturf, Samuel A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G

    2016-07-13

    Hydroponic systems have been utilized as one of the standard methods for plant biology research and are also used in commercial production for several crops, including lettuce and tomato. Within the plant research community, numerous hydroponic systems have been designed to study plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we present a hydroponic protocol that can be easily implemented in laboratories interested in pursuing studies on plant mineral nutrition. This protocol describes the hydroponic system set up in detail and the preparation of plant material for successful experiments. Most of the materials described in this protocol can be found outside scientific supply companies, making the set up for hydroponic experiments less expensive and convenient. The use of a hydroponic growth system is most advantageous in situations where the nutrient media need to be well controlled and when intact roots need to be harvested for downstream applications. We also demonstrate how nutrient concentrations can be modified to induce plant responses to both essential nutrients and toxic non-essential elements.

  5. Hydroponics: A Versatile System to Study Nutrient Allocation and Plant Responses to Nutrient Availability and Exposure to Toxic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T.; McInturf, Samuel A.; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroponic systems have been utilized as one of the standard methods for plant biology research and are also used in commercial production for several crops, including lettuce and tomato. Within the plant research community, numerous hydroponic systems have been designed to study plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we present a hydroponic protocol that can be easily implemented in laboratories interested in pursuing studies on plant mineral nutrition. This protocol describes the hydroponic system set up in detail and the preparation of plant material for successful experiments. Most of the materials described in this protocol can be found outside scientific supply companies, making the set up for hydroponic experiments less expensive and convenient. The use of a hydroponic growth system is most advantageous in situations where the nutrient media need to be well controlled and when intact roots need to be harvested for downstream applications. We also demonstrate how nutrient concentrations can be modified to induce plant responses to both essential nutrients and toxic non-essential elements. PMID:27500800

  6. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus).

  7. Vitamins and Other Nutrients during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight & fitness > Vitamins and other nutrients during pregnancy Vitamins and other nutrients during pregnancy E-mail to ... supplements without your provider’s OK. What are prenatal vitamins? Prenatal vitamins are multivitamins made just for pregnant ...

  8. Land use and nutrient inputs affect priming in Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mganga, Kevin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Organic C and nutrients additions in soil can accelerate mineralisation of soil organic matter i.e. priming effects. However, only very few studies have been conducted to investigate the priming effects phenomenon in tropical Andosols. Nutrients (N, P, N+P) and 14C labelled glucose were added to Andosols from six natural and intensively used ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro i.e. (1) savannah, (2) maize fields, (3) lower montane forest, (4) coffee plantation, (5) grasslands and (6) Chagga homegardens. Carbon-dioxide emissions were monitored over a 60 days incubation period. Mineralisation of glucose to 14CO2 was highest in coffee plantation and lowest in Chagga homegarden soils. Maximal and minimal mineralisation rates immediately after glucose additions were observed in lower montane forest with N+P fertilisation (9.1% ± 0.83 d -1) and in savannah with N fertilisation (0.9% ± 0.17 d -1), respectively. Glucose and nutrient additions accelerated native soil organic matter mineralisation i.e. positive priming. Chagga homegarden soils had the lowest 14CO2 emissions and incorporated the highest percent of glucose into microbial biomass. 50-60% of the 14C input was retained in soil. We attribute this mainly to the high surface area of non-crystalline constituents i.e. allophanes, present in Andosols and having very high sorption capacity for organic C. The allophanic nature of Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro especially under traditional Chagga homegarden agroforestry system shows great potential for providing essential environmental services, notably C sequestration. Key words: Priming Effects, Andosols, Land Use Changes, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Allophanes, Tropical Agroforestry

  9. Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 - Essentials is an excellent introduction to the essential features, functions, and workflows of Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional. Master the tools you will need to make Robot work for you: Go from zero to proficiency with this thorough and detailed introduction to the essential concepts and workflows of Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016. - Demystify the interface - Manipulate and manage Robot tables like a pro - Learn how to use Robot's modeling tools - Master loading techniques - Harness Robot automated load combinations - Decipher simplified seismic loading - Discover workflows for steel and concrete design - Gain insights to help troubleshoot issues Guided exercises are provided to help cement fundamental concepts in Robot Structural Analysis and drive home key functions. Get up to speed quickly with this essential text and add Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2016 to your analysis and design toolbox. New in 2016: AWC-NDS ...

  10. Influence of Essential Oils on Infectious Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Elżbieta; Rusiecka-Ziółkowska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are substances of plant origin used to produce cosmetics, to preserve and aromatize food. Recently, they have become more popular among scientists and doctors due to their germicidal, antifungal, antiviral and anti-parasitic properties. As a consequence, essential oils are regarded as the source of new therapeutic substances. Numerous publications have been written regarding their effect on microorganisms in vitro. There have also been reports regarding their use in therapy as an additive to the traditional medical treatment. Essential oils may have other properties with positive effect on health because they may have an influence on the central nervous system and human mental state. It should be, however, kept in mind that compounds of essential oils might also have side effects and lead, like antibiotics, to the selection of resistant pathogens. It is necessary to develop quality standards of obtaining and using these plant preparations, so that they may provide safe and effective assistance in the fight against human pathogens.

  11. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  12. The naked planet Earth: Most essential pre-requisite for the origin and evolution of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maruyama

    2013-03-01

    To satisfy the tight conditions to make the Earth habitable, the formation mechanism of primordial Earth is an important factor. At first, a ‘dry Earth’ must be made through giant impact, followed by magma ocean to float nutrient-enriched primordial continents (anorthosite + KREEP. Late bombardment from asteroid belt supplied water to make 3–5 km thick ocean, and not from icy meteorites from Kuiper belt beyond cool Jupiter. It was essential to meet the above conditions that enabled the Earth as a habitable planet with evolved life forms. The tight constraints that we evaluate for birth and evolution of life on Earth would provide important guidelines for planetary scientists hunting for life in the exo-solar planets.

  13. Essential role of vitamin C and zinc in child immunity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, S; Wenzlaff, S; Hornig, D

    2010-01-01

    With the progressive elimination of dietary protein-energy deficits, deficiencies of micronutrients are emerging as the limiting factors in ensuring children's optimal health. Data from several countries in Asia and Latin America indicate that deficiencies of vitamin C and zinc continue to be at alarming levels. This article reviews the roles of vitamin C and zinc in supporting children's growth and development, with a particular focus on the complementary roles they play in supporting immune functions and combating infections. The contemporary relevance of vitamin C and zinc deficiency in the Asian and Latin American regions, both undergoing a rapid nutritional transition, are also discussed. Overall, there is increasing evidence that deficiency of vitamin C and zinc adversely affects the physical and mental growth of children and can impair their immune defences. Nutrition should be the main vehicle for providing these essential nutrients; however, supplementation can represent a valid support method, especially in developing regions.

  14. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  15. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  16. Short Communication Preliminary Studies on Nutrients Removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Preliminary Studies on Nutrients Removal Potential of Selected Aquatic Plants. ... Aquatic plants can remove nutrients (P&N) from sewage or industrial wastewater through accumulation. ... This study had identified some aquatic plants as good potential nutrient removers especially in wetlands.

  17. Modeling global nutrient export from watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, A.F.; Seitzinger, S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart

  18. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  19. Benchmarking nutrient use efficiency of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Groen, E.A.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Hennart, S.; Stilmant, D.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of a system, generally computed as the amount of nutrients in valuable outputs over the amount of nutrients in all inputs, is commonly used to benchmark the environmental performance of dairy farms. Benchmarking the NUE of farms, however, may lead to biased

  20. Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) Model: A New Method for Estimating the Global Dietary Supply of Nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R; Micha, Renata; Golden, Christopher D; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Myers, Samuel S

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1) data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2) household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model--the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) model--to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961-2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes) in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against independent

  1. Aromatherapy: Using Essential Oils as a Supportive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Debra; Jones, Tisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils can be a great adjunct to cancer care, aiding in the management of side effects, such as insomnia and nausea. Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about the quality and safety of essential oils when using them for clinical purposes. Using lesser quality essential oils and not understanding safety guidelines can negatively affect clinical outcomes. This article provides an overview of how nurses can help patients with cancer safely use essential oils as a supportive therapy.

  2. Nutrient behaviour in urban drainages

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, David Kam Wai

    2017-01-01

    Urbanisation has altered the natural landscape, removing features that previously acted to retain, transform and process nitrogen and phosphorus within catchments. In Melbourne the past legacy of traditional urban design aimed at efficient drainage of stormwater has resulted in higher stormwater volumes with high pollutant concentrations. Excessive concentrations of such nutrients in urban runoff can have an adverse impact on the ecological health of receiving waters. The aims of this stu...

  3. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  4. Pre-Algebra Essentials For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Many students worry about starting algebra. Pre-Algebra Essentials For Dummies provides an overview of critical pre-algebra concepts to help new algebra students (and their parents) take the next step without fear. Free of ramp-up material, Pre-Algebra Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only. It provides discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical pre-algebra course, from fractions, decimals, and percents to scientific notation and simple variable equations. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical pre-algebra

  5. Prediction of essential proteins based on overlapping essential modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bihai; Wang, Jianxin; Li, Min; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Many computational methods have been proposed to identify essential proteins by using the topological features of interactome networks. However, the precision of essential protein discovery still needs to be improved. Researches show that majority of hubs (essential proteins) in the yeast interactome network are essential due to their involvement in essential complex biological modules and hubs can be classified into two categories: date hubs and party hubs. In this study, combining with gene expression profiles, we propose a new method to predict essential proteins based on overlapping essential modules, named POEM. In POEM, the original protein interactome network is partitioned into many overlapping essential modules. The frequencies and weighted degrees of proteins in these modules are employed to decide which categories does a protein belong to? The comparative results show that POEM outperforms the classical centrality measures: Degree Centrality (DC), Information Centrality (IC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), Subgraph Centrality (SC), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Edge Clustering Coefficient Centrality (NC), and two newly proposed essential proteins prediction methods: PeC and CoEWC. Experimental results indicate that the precision of predicting essential proteins can be improved by considering the modularity of proteins and integrating gene expression profiles with network topological features.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of a pulse nutrient addition technique for estimating nutrient uptake in large streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Lin; J.R. Webster

    2012-01-01

    The constant nutrient addition technique has been used extensively to measure nutrient uptake in streams. However, this technique is impractical for large streams, and the pulse nutrient addition (PNA) has been suggested as an alternative. We developed a computer model to simulate Monod kinetics nutrient uptake in large rivers and used this model to evaluate the...

  7. A smart market for nutrient credit trading to incentivize wetland construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F.; Prabodanie, R. A. Ranga; Kostel, Jill A.

    2017-03-01

    Nutrient trading and constructed wetlands are widely discussed solutions to reduce nutrient pollution. Nutrient markets usually include agricultural nonpoint sources and municipal and industrial point sources, but these markets rarely include investors who construct wetlands to sell nutrient reduction credits. We propose a new market design for trading nutrient credits, with both point source and non-point source traders, explicitly incorporating the option of landowners to build nutrient removal wetlands. The proposed trading program is designed as a smart market with centralized clearing, done with an optimization. The market design addresses the varying impacts of runoff over space and time, and the lumpiness of wetland investments. We simulated the market for the Big Bureau Creek watershed in north-central Illinois. We found that the proposed smart market would incentivize wetland construction by assuring reasonable payments for the ecosystem services provided. The proposed market mechanism selects wetland locations strategically taking into account both the cost and nutrient removal efficiencies. The centralized market produces locational prices that would incentivize farmers to reduce nutrients, which is voluntary. As we illustrate, wetland builders' participation in nutrient trading would enable the point sources and environmental organizations to buy low cost nutrient credits.

  8. Competition for nutrients and light: testing advances in resource competition with a natural phytoplankton community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, Amanda; Stomp, Maayke; Greenwell, Emma; Grosse, Julia; Huisman, Jef

    2018-02-17

    A key challenge in ecology is to understand how nutrients and light affect the biodiversity and community structure of phytoplankton and plant communities. According to resource competition models, ratios of limiting nutrients are major determinants of the species composition. At high nutrient levels, however, species interactions may shift to competition for light, which might make nutrient ratios less relevant. The "nutrient-load hypothesis" merges these two perspectives, by extending the classic model of competition for two nutrients to include competition for light. Here, we test five key predictions of the nutrient-load hypothesis using multispecies competition experiments. A marine phytoplankton community sampled from the North Sea was inoculated in laboratory chemostats provided with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads, to induce either single resource limitation or co-limitation of N, P and light. Four of the five predictions were validated by the experiments. In particular, different resource limitations favored the dominance of different species. Increasing nutrient loads caused changes in phytoplankton species composition, even if the N:P ratio of the nutrient loads remained constant, by shifting the species interactions from competition for nutrients to competition for light. In all treatments, small species became dominant whereas larger species were competitively excluded, supporting the common view that small cell size provides a competitive advantage under resource-limited conditions. Contrary to expectation, all treatments led to coexistence of diatoms, cyanobacteria and green algae, resulting in a higher diversity of species than predicted by theory. Because the coexisting species comprised three phyla with different photosynthetic pigments, we speculate that niche differentiation in the light spectrum might play a role. Our results show that mechanistic resource competition models that integrate nutrient-based and light

  9. Soluble iron nutrients in Saharan dust over the central Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Joana A.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Sá, Marta O.; Alves, Eliane G.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Angelis, Isabella H.; Ditas, Florian; Saturno, Jorge; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Santos, Rosa M. N.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Taylor, Philip E.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The intercontinental transport of aerosols from the Sahara desert plays a significant role in nutrient cycles in the Amazon rainforest, since it carries many types of minerals to these otherwise low-fertility lands. Iron is one of the micronutrients essential for plant growth, and its long-range transport might be an important source for the iron-limited Amazon rainforest. This study assesses the bioavailability of iron Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the particulate matter over the Amazon forest, which was transported from the Sahara desert (for the sake of our discussion, this term also includes the Sahel region). The sampling campaign was carried out above and below the forest canopy at the ATTO site (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), a near-pristine area in the central Amazon Basin, from March to April 2015. Measurements reached peak concentrations for soluble Fe(III) (48 ng m-3), Fe(II) (16 ng m-3), Na (470 ng m-3), Ca (194 ng m-3), K (65 ng m-3), and Mg (89 ng m-3) during a time period of dust transport from the Sahara, as confirmed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing data and air mass backward trajectories. Dust sampled above the Amazon canopy included primary biological aerosols and other coarse particles up to 12 µm in diameter. Atmospheric transport of weathered Saharan dust, followed by surface deposition, resulted in substantial iron bioavailability across the rainforest canopy. The seasonal deposition of dust, rich in soluble iron, and other minerals is likely to assist both bacteria and fungi within the topsoil and on canopy surfaces, and especially benefit highly bioabsorbent species. In this scenario, Saharan dust can provide essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves. The influence of this input on the ecology of the forest canopy and topsoil is discussed, and we argue that this influence would likely be different from that of nutrients from the weathered Amazon bedrock, which otherwise provides the

  10. Soil fertility in deserts: a review on the influence of biological soil crusts and the effect of soil surface disturbance on nutrient inputs and losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; Phillips, S.; Duniway, M.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    Sources of desert soil fertility include parent material weathering, aeolian deposition, and on-site C and N biotic fixation. While parent materials provide many soil nutrients, aeolian deposition can provide up to 75% of plant-essential nutrients including N, P, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Cu, and Fe. Soil surface biota are often sticky, and help retain wind-deposited nutrients, as well as providing much of the N inputs. Carbon inputs are from both plants and soil surface biota. Most desert soils are protected by cyanobacterial-lichen-moss soil crusts, chemical crusts and/or desert pavement. Experimental disturbances applied in US deserts show disruption of soil surfaces result in decreased N and C inputs from soil biota by up to 100%. The ability to glue aeolian deposits in place is compromised, and underlying soils are exposed to erosion. The ability to withstand wind increases with biological and physical soil crust development. While most undisturbed sites show little sediment production, disturbance by vehicles or livestock produce up to 36 times more sediment production, with soil movement initiated at wind velocities well below commonly-occurring wind speeds. Soil fines and flora are often concentrated in the top 3 mm of the soil surface. Winds across disturbed areas can quickly remove this material from the soil surface, thereby potentially removing much of current and future soil fertility. Thus, disturbances of desert soil surfaces can both reduce fertility inputs and accelerate fertility losses.

  11. On-The-Move Nutrient Delivery System - Description and Initial Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mountain, Scott

    2004-01-01

    .... A novel nutrient delivery system has been developed to provide Warfighters on-demand access to flavored electrolyte- and carbohydrate-enhanced drinks, to provide hydration, and energy to sustain work...

  12. Soil nutrient assessment for urban ecosystems in Hubei, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Guo Li

    Full Text Available Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges and three topographies (mountainous [142-425 m a.s.l], hilly [66-112 m a.s.l], and plain [26-30 m a.s.l]. Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available boron (B concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca, sulfur (S, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05. Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers.

  13. Essentials of WTO law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, Denise; Van den Bossche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At a time when developments in WTO law have made this field increasingly complex, this concise and non-technical introduction provides a timely and carefully considered overview of the substantive rules and institutional arrangements of the WTO. Illustrative examples clarify important issues of the

  14. GameSalad essentials

    CERN Document Server

    DeQuadros, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    If you want to create your own game, but don't know where to start, this is the book for you. Whether you've used GameSalad before, or have prior game development experience or not you are sure to learn! Imaging software experience, such as Photoshop, is good to have, but art and assets are provided in the book's resources.

  15. Alprazolam for essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Filippini, Graziella; Zappia, Mario; Colosimo, Carlo

    2015-12-06

    Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders. Treatment is based primarily on pharmacological agents. On this basis, although primidone and propranolol are well-established treatments in clinical practice, they could be ineffective in 25% to 55% of patients and can produce serious adverse events (AEs) in a large percentage of individuals. For these reasons, evaluating treatment alternatives for ET may be a worthwhile pursuit. Alprazolam has been suggested as a potentially useful agent for treatment of individuals with ET, but its efficacy and safety are uncertain. PrimaryTo assess the efficacy and safety of alprazolam in the treatment of individuals with ET. SecondaryTo examine effects of alprazolam treatment on the quality of life of people with ET. We carried out a systematic search without language restrictions to identify all relevant trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (January 1966 to September 2015), EMBASE (January 1988 to September 2015), the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (1999 to September 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (1997 to September 2015) and the World Health Organiza tion (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2004 to September 2015). We handsearched grey literature and examined the reference lists of identified studies and reviews. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of alprazolam versus placebo or any other treatment. We included studies in which ET was diagnosed according to accepted and validated diagnostic criteria. We excluded studies that included patients presenting with secondary forms of tremor or reporting only neurophysiological parameters for the pur p ose of assessing outcomes. Two review authors independently collected and extracted data using a data collection form. We assessed risk of bias and the body of evidence. We used inverse variance methods for continuous outcomes and measurement scales

  16. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs

  17. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Quirós, Jose R; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A; Key, Timothy J; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Beulens, Joline W J; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and

  18. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Moskal

    Full Text Available Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses.We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312. Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436 provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores.The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research

  19. Comparing the nutrient rich foods index with "Go," "Slow," and "Whoa," foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor

    2011-02-01

    The US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has grouped foods and beverages into three classes: "Go," "Slow," and "Whoa," as part of a children's guide to eating right. Using nutrient composition data in the 2004 Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, this descriptive study compared the Go, Slow, and Whoa food classes to tertiles of food rankings generated by the Nutrient Rich Foods Index. A total of 1,045 foods and beverages were first assigned into Go, Slow, and Whoa classes and then ranked by the Nutrient Rich Foods Index nutrient profile model. The Nutrient Rich Foods Index model was based on nine nutrients to encourage: protein, fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, calcium, iron, magnesium, and potassium; and on three nutrients to limit: saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium, all calculated per 100 calories. Both the Go, Slow, and Whoa and the Nutrient Rich Foods Index models readily distinguished between energy-dense and nutrient-rich beverages and foods, and the three Go, Slow, and Whoa classes closely corresponded to tertiles of Nutrient Rich Foods Index scores. There were some disagreements in the class assignment of fortified cereals, some dairy products, and diet beverages. Unlike the Go, Slow, and Whoa model, the Nutrient Rich Foods Index model produced continuous scores that could be used to rank foods within a given class. The study provides an illustration of how diverse nutrient profiling systems can be used to identify healthful foods and beverages. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  1. Acceptability of different lipid-based nutrient supplements for adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements (LNS) can provide nutritional support and can be adapted to the needs of adults infected with HIV. However, consumption of these products may be limited by monotony or by an unacceptably strong taste of highly concentrated micronutrients. This study investigated the acceptability of ...

  2. Nutrient leaching when compost is part of plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioretention cells collect urban runoff and are used to slow storm water surge, reduce or remove nutrients or other pollutants, and provide aesthetics to the landscape. A cell is filled with soil mixed with sand, compost, and other materials, and underlain by an aggregate layer and drainage pipe. Th...

  3. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the nutritive composition of Chrysophyllum albidum Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called “Udara” is ...

  4. Water and nutrient management in natural and constructed wetlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vymazal, Jan

    2010-01-01

    ... are also used in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment but within a more controlled environment. In addition, wetlands provide the supporting services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services such as soil formation and retention, nutrient cycling, primary production or water cycling. In short, wetlands are clearly among t...

  5. Full-scale implementation of external nitrification biological nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the external nitrification (EN) biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) system, the nitrification process is removed from the main BNRAS system to a fixed media system external to the AS system (Hu et al., 2003). The ENBNRAS system provides considerable advantages over the conventional BNRAS ...

  6. Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Donald S.; Harrison, James H.; Sinard, John H.; Riben, Michael W.; Boyer, Philip J.; Plath, Sue; Thompson, Arlene; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recognition of the importance of informatics to the practice of pathology has surged. Training residents in pathology informatics has been a daunting task for most residency programs in the United States because faculty often lacks experience and training resources. Nevertheless, developing resident competence in informatics is essential for the future of pathology as a specialty. Objective: To develop and deliver a pathology informatics curriculum and instructional framework that guides pathology residency programs in training residents in critical pathology informatics knowledge and skills, and meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Informatics Milestones. Design: The College of American Pathologists, Association of Pathology Chairs, and Association for Pathology Informatics formed a partnership and expert work group to identify critical pathology informatics training outcomes and to create a highly adaptable curriculum and instructional approach, supported by a multiyear change management strategy. Results: Pathology Informatics Essentials for Residents (PIER) is a rigorous approach for educating all pathology residents in important pathology informatics knowledge and skills. PIER includes an instructional resource guide and toolkit for incorporating informatics training into residency programs that vary in needs, size, settings, and resources. PIER is available at http://www.apcprods.org/PIER (accessed April 6, 2016). Conclusions: PIER is an important contribution to informatics training in pathology residency programs. PIER introduces pathology trainees to broadly useful informatics concepts and tools that are relevant to practice. PIER provides residency program directors with a means to implement a standardized informatics training curriculum, to adapt the approach to local program needs, and to evaluate resident performance and progress over time. PMID:28725772

  7. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.

    Agricultural nutrients are a

  8. Emgu CV essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Shin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to Emgu CV libraries, with sample code and examples used throughout to explain the concepts clearly. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the Computer Vision field and the implementation of that topic in Emgu CV.If you are a C# programmer working on computer vision projects, this book is for you. You should have prior experience with C#.

  9. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  10. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formula. This opinion reviews the opinion provided by the Scientific Committee on Food...... in infant and follow-on formula proposed by the Panel cover the nutritional needs of virtually all healthy infants born at term and there is no need to exceed these amounts in formulae, as nutrients which are not used or stored have to be excreted and this may put a burden on the infant’s metabolism...

  11. Shedding light onto nutrient responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants: nutrient interactions may lead to unpredicted outcomes of the symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ferrol, Nuria

    2014-05-01

    The role and importance of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) in plant nitrogen (N) nutrition is uncertain. We propose that this be clarified by using more integrative experimental designs, with the use of a gradient of N supply and the quantification of an extensive array of plant nutrient contents. Using such an experimental design, we investigated AM effects on plant N nutrition, whether the mycorrhizal N response (MNR) determines the mycorrhizal growth response (MGR), and how MNR influences plants' C economy. Oryza sativa plants were inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mossae. AM effects were studied along a gradient of N supplies. Biomass, photosynthesis, nutrient and starch contents, mycorrhizal colonization and OsPT11 gene expression were measured. C investment in fungal growth was estimated. Results showed that, in rice, MGR was dependent on AM nutrient uptake effects, namely on the synergy between N and Zn, and not on C expenditure. The supply of C to the fungus was dependent on the plant's nutrient demand, indicated by high shoot C/N or low %N. We conclude that one of the real reasons for the negative MGR of rice, Zn deficiency of AMF plants, would have remained hidden without an experimental design allowing the observation of plants' response to AM along gradients of nutrient concentrations. Adopting more integrative and comprehensive experimental approaches in mycorrhizal studies seems therefore essential if we are to achieve a true understanding of AM function, namely of the mechanisms of C/N exchange regulation in AM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. Dust outpaces bedrock in nutrient supply to montane forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciego, S. M.; Riebe, C. S.; Hart, S. C.; Blakowski, M. A.; Carey, C. J.; Aarons, S. M.; Dove, N. C.; Botthoff, J. K.; Sims, K. W. W.; Aronson, E. L.

    2017-03-01

    Dust provides ecosystem-sustaining nutrients to landscapes underlain by intensively weathered soils. Here we show that dust may also be crucial in montane forest ecosystems, dominating nutrient budgets despite continuous replacement of depleted soils with fresh bedrock via erosion. Strontium and neodymium isotopes in modern dust show that Asian sources contribute 18-45% of dust deposition across our Sierra Nevada, California study sites. The remaining dust originates regionally from the nearby Central Valley. Measured dust fluxes are greater than or equal to modern erosional outputs from hillslopes to channels, and account for 10-20% of estimated millennial-average inputs of bedrock P. Our results demonstrate that exogenic dust can drive the evolution of nutrient budgets in montane ecosystems, with implications for predicting forest response to changes in climate and land use.

  14. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via

  15. Plant Biomass Leaching for Nutrient Recovery in Closed Loop Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy P.; Wheeler, Raymond (Compiler); Lunn, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Plants will be important for food and O2 production during long term human habitation in space. Recycling of nutrients (e.g., from waste materials) could reduce the resupply costs of fertilizers for growing these plants. Work at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has shown that ion exchange resins can extract fertilizer (plant essential nutrients) from human waste water, after which the residual brine could be treated with electrodialysis to recover more water and produce high value chemicals (e.g., acids and bases). In habitats with significant plant production, inedible biomass becomes a major source of solid waste. To "close the loop" we also need to recover useful nutrients and fertilizer from inedible biomass. We are investigating different approaches to retrieve nutrients from inedible plant biomass, including physical leaching with water, processing the biomass in bioreactors, changing the pH of leaching processing, and/or conducting multiple leaches of biomass residues.

  16. Soil testing for P and K has value in nutrient management for annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Geisseler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrients in forms available to plant roots are essential for sustainable crop production. Soil testing for phosphorus and potassium availability allows growers and crop advisers to determine whether a soil is likely to respond to fertilization. As yields have risen with improved management and production systems, crop nutrient demand and the removal of nutrients with harvested crops have increased. An in-depth discussion of soil tests for phosphorus and potassium and their use in California cropping systems is clearly needed. We review how these nutrients become available to plant roots, how samples are taken and test results interpreted, complementary ways to assess the adequacy of supplies and what research is needed to improve soil testing for phosphorus and potassium.

  17. Nutrient uptake, biomass yield and quantitative analysis of aliphatic aldehydes in cilantro plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient uptake, biomass production and yield of the major compounds in the essential oil of five genotypes of Coriandrum sativum L. The treatments were four accessions donated by the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council (NGRAC), U.S. Department...

  18. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle ingestion alters nutrient absorption in an in vitro model of the small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingestion of nanoparticles from products such as agricultural chemicals, processed food, and nutritional supplements is nearly unavoidable. The gastrointestinal tract serves as a critical interface and a barrier between the body and the external environment, and is the site of essential nutrient abs...

  19. Emergence of steady and oscillatory localized structures in a phytoplankton-nutrient model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagaris, Antonios; Doelman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Co-limitation of marine phytoplankton growth by light and nutrient, both of which are essential for phytoplankton, leads to complex dynamic behaviour and a wide array of coherent patterns. The building blocks of this array can be considered to be deep chlorophyll maxima, or DCMs, which are

  20. Nutrient intake and functional ability of older persons by gender and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate nutrition, healthy ageing and the ability to function independently are essential components of a good quality of life. Objective: To assess the nutrient intake as well as functional ability of older persons (65 years and above). Methods: Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select a total of ...

  1. Essential Oil of Otostegia integrifolia Benth: Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of the oil was either comparable to or better than griseofulvin against most of the fungal pathogens tested. The study provides evidence for an excellent broadspectrum antimicrobial and significant antioxidant activity of O. integrifolia essential oil, a possible explanation for the traditional use of the plant.

  2. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  3. A novel approach to selecting and weighting nutrients for nutrient profiling of foods and diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Hersey, James C; Muth, Mary K

    2012-12-01

    Nutrient profiling of foods is the science of ranking or classifying foods based on their nutrient composition. Most profiling systems use similar weighting factors across nutrients due to lack of scientific evidence to assign levels of importance to nutrients. Our aim was to use a statistical approach to determine the nutrients that best explain variation in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores and to obtain β-coefficients for the nutrients for use as weighting factors for a nutrient-profiling algorithm. We used a cross-sectional analysis of nutrient intakes and HEI scores. Our subjects included 16,587 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008 who were 2 years of age or older and not pregnant. Our main outcome measure was variation (R(2)) in HEI scores. Linear regression analyses were conducted with HEI scores as the dependent variable and all possible combinations of 16 nutrients of interest as independent variables, with covariates age, sex, and ethnicity. The analyses identified the best 1-nutrient variable model (with the highest R(2)), the best 2-nutrient variable model, and up to the best 16-nutrient variable model. The model with 8 nutrients explained 65% of the variance in HEI scores, similar to the models with 9 to 16 nutrients, but substantially higher than previous algorithms reported in the literature. The model contained five nutrients with positive β-coefficients (ie, protein, fiber, calcium, unsaturated fat, and vitamin C) and three nutrients with negative coefficients (ie, saturated fat, sodium, and added sugar). β-coefficients from the model were used as weighting factors to create an algorithm that generated a weighted nutrient density score representing the overall nutritional quality of a food. The weighted nutrient density score can be easily calculated and is useful for describing the overall nutrient quality of both foods and diets. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by

  4. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  5. VMware Horizon Mirage essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Von Oven, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical, step-by-step approach to teach you how to build a successful infrastructure.This book is perfect for desktop administrators who want to deploy a solution to centrally manage their endpoint images across their entire estate using VMware Horizon Mirage. You need to have some experience in desktop image management using Microsoft Windows operating systems and Windows applications, as well as be familiar with Active Directory, SQL, IIS, and general server infrastructure relating to supporting end users.

  6. Source SDK development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bernier, Brett

    2014-01-01

    The Source Authoring Tools are the pieces of software used to create custom content for games made with Valve's Source engine. Creating mods and maps for your games without any programming knowledge can be time consuming. These tools allow you to create your own maps and levels without the need for any coding knowledge. All the tools that you need to start creating your own levels are built-in and ready to go! This book will teach you how to use the Authoring Tools provided with Source games and will guide you in creating your first maps and mods (modifications) using Source. You will learn ho

  7. Application of the “4R” nutrient stewardship concept to horticultural crops: getting nutrients in the “right” place

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4R nutrient stewardship concept was introduced in 2009 by International Plant Nutrition Institute to define the right source, rate, time, and place to apply fertilizers to produce not only the most economical outcome in any given crop but to also to provide desirable social and environmental ben...

  8. Nutrientes minerales en alimentos industrializados

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández F., Eloisa; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Quispe, Clara; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Alencastre M., Ana; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Hasta el momento los alimentos industrializados que se consumen en nuestro medio aún no han sido estudiados por su contenido de nutrientes minerales. Se presenta los contenidos de fósforo, calcio, hierro, sodio, potasio, cobre y magnesio en 33 alimentos de procedencia nacional e importados. El 70% de estos alimentos son preferentemente consumidos por niños. Se ha empleado métodos oficiales de A.O.A.C.: para fósforo el método colorimétrico, los otros minerales mediante Absorción Atómica, Espec...

  9. Quantifying and managing food-sourced nutrient metabolism in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Wang, Jin; Bai, Xuemei; Zhang, Guoqin; Li, Xinhu; Ge, Rubing; Ye, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Food supply and consumption are critical for sustaining urban system functions, and are key determinants of the quantity and pathways of nutrient flow in cities. Nutrient elements from urban food consumption are becoming major pollutant sources in urban environments. Therefore, understanding flow magnitude and pathways, the role of a growing population, and changing dietary structure and technology in future nutrient metabolism are essential to understand cities as ecosystems and urban environmental management. Taking the city of Xiamen, a rapid urbanizing area of Southeast China as a case study, we simulated urban metabolism of three major food-sourced nutrient elements (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus or CNP) over 1991-2010 and environmental emissions. Impacts of future population growth, dietary habit change, and waste treatment improvement on various environments were forecast by scenario analysis. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test how different waste treatment technologies affect environmental emissions from food-sourced nutrients. Our results show that the food-sourced CNP had various metabolic fluxes through urban systems, with carbon mostly emitted into the air and nitrogen and phosphorus mostly discharged into landfills and water. Population growth and dietary structure change will accelerate increases of nutrient emissions to the environment, whereas enhancing current waste treatment technology can just alter emissions to different environments. Based on the results, we discuss how food-sourced nutrient metabolism can be better managed, to enhance connectivity between cities and their hinterlands and maintain environmental emissions within the carrying capacity of the cities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Multi-nutrient fortification of human milk for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer V E; Embleton, Nicholas D; Harding, Jane E; McGuire, William

    2016-05-08

    Exclusively breast milk-fed preterm infants may accumulate nutrient deficits leading to extrauterine growth restriction. Feeding preterm infants with multi-nutrient fortified human breast milk rather than unfortified breast milk may increase nutrient accretion and growth rates and may improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. To determine whether multi-nutrient fortified human breast milk improves important outcomes (including growth and development) over unfortified breast milk for preterm infants without increasing the risk of adverse effects (such as feed intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (until February 2016), as well as conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants with multi-nutrient (protein and energy plus minerals, vitamins or other nutrients) fortified human breast milk versus unfortified (no added protein or energy) breast milk. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We separately evaluated trial quality, data extracted by two review authors and data synthesised using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences and mean differences (MDs). We assessed the quality of evidence at the outcome level using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We identified 14 trials in which a total of 1071 infants participated. The trials were generally small and weak methodologically. Meta-analyses provided low-quality evidence that multi-nutrient fortification of breast milk increases in-hospital rates of growth (MD 1.81 g/kg/d, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 2.40); length (MD 0.12 cm/wk, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.17); and

  11. Avocado consumption by adults is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and some measures of adiposity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocados contain a beneficial lipid profile, including a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as dietary fiber, essential nutrients, and phytochemicals. However, little epidemiologic data exist on the effect that consumption of avocados has on overall nutrient intake, diet quality, adi...

  12. Even more Chironomid species for classifying lake nutrient status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Ruse

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD classifies ecological status of a waterbody by the determination of its natural reference state to provide a measure of perturbation by human impacts based on taxonomic composition and abundance of aquatic species. Ruse (2010; 2011 has provided methods of assessing anthropogenic perturbations to lake ecological status, in terms of nutrient enrichment and acidification, by analysing collections of floating pupal exuviae discarded by emerging adult Chironomidae. The previous nutrient assessment method was derived from chironomid and environmental data collected during 178 lake surveys of all WFD types found in Britain. Canonical Correspondence Analysis provided species optima in relation to phosphate and nitrogen concentrations. Species found in less than three surveys were excluded from analysis in case of spurious association with environmental values. Since Ruse (2010 an additional 72 lakes have been surveyed adding 31 more species for use in nutrient status assessment. These additional scoring species are reported here. The practical application of the Chironomid Pupal Exuvial Technique (CPET to classify WFD lake nutrient status is demonstrated using CPET survey data from lakes in Poland.

  13. Computed Tomography Findings of Mandibular Nutrient Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Sekiya, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Tsukioka, Tsuneyuki; Muramatsu, Teruaki; Kaneda, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of mandibular nutrient canals using CT images. We retrospectively analyzed the mandibular CT images of 194 consecutive patients. For image analysis such as canal prevalence, location, number, size, shape, and the CT value of nutrient foramina were determined using CT axial images of 0.5 and 3 mm slice thickness. We revealed that the nutrient canals were seen 94.3% in the mandible, mostly seen in the anterior region. By location, nutrient canals were particularly seen between the central and lateral incisors. The mean number of nutrient canals was 2.7. The mean diameter of the nutrient foramen between the central and lateral incisors was 1.0 mm. In about 80% of the cases, foramina between the central and lateral incisors were ovoid. The mean CT value for the nutrient foramina between the central and lateral incisors was 411 HU. Mandibular nutrient canals were ovoid shape, and the mean CT value was 411 HU. By preoperative knowledge of the position and anatomy of the mandibular nutrient canals, complications such as injury to the nutrient canals can be avoided.

  14. Genetic algorithm essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to genetic algorithms (GAs) with an emphasis on making the concepts, algorithms, and applications discussed as easy to understand as possible. Further, it avoids a great deal of formalisms and thus opens the subject to a broader audience in comparison to manuscripts overloaded by notations and equations. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides an introduction to GAs, starting with basic concepts like evolutionary operators and continuing with an overview of strategies for tuning and controlling parameters. In turn, the second part focuses on solution space variants like multimodal, constrained, and multi-objective solution spaces. Lastly, the third part briefly introduces theoretical tools for GAs, the intersections and hybridizations with machine learning, and highlights selected promising applications.

  15. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reuscher

    Full Text Available The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs. In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in the cultivated variety Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare cv. Scarlett. Plants were cultivated on an anthropogenically heavy metal-contaminated soil collected in an agricultural field, thus allowing simultaneous localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL for the accumulation of both essential nutrients and toxic trace elements in barley as a model cereal crop. For accumulation of the micronutrients Fe and Zn and the interfering toxin Cd, we identified 25, 16 and 5 QTL, respectively. By examining the gene content of the introgressions, we associated QTL with candidate genes based on homology to known metal homeostasis genes of Arabidopsis and rice. Global comparative analyses suggested the preferential remobilization of Cu and Fe, over Cd, from the flag leaf to developing grains. Our data identifies grain micronutrient filling as a regulated and nutrient-specific process, which operates differently from vegetative micronutrient homoeostasis. In summary, this study provides novel QTL for micronutrient accumulation in the presence of toxic analogues and supports a higher degree of metal specificity of trace element partitioning during grain filling in barley than previously reported for other cereals.

  17. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.

  18. Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rosol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species. Methods: Data collected during the 2007–2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used. Results: A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet. Conclusions: If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.

  19. Modeling ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, southwest Florida. II. Nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Christopher; Doering, Peter; Wan, Yongshan; Sun, Detong

    2014-12-01

    . These findings provide information essential to the development of a resource-based approach to improve the management of both freshwater inflow and estuarine biotic resources.

  20. Obesity, a disorder of nutrient partitioning: the MONA LISA hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, G A

    1991-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying different types of obesity have been gradually clarified. Animal models with hypothalamic, genetic or dietary obesity have been examined with a feedback model. Four common final pathways are involved in this model. One of these final common pathways is the sympathetic nervous system. Most Obesities kNown Are Low In Sympathetic Activity states the MONA LISA Hypothesis. A second common pathway is the endocrine system involving adrenal glucocorticosteroids. The third common pathway is hyperphagia. Although not essential for most obesities, hyperphagia may be essential in animals with injury to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. The final pathway is reduced physical activity. The tonic activity of these systems and their response to changes in the diet affect nutrient partitioning between fat and protein. This framework has been used to review genetic obesity, hypothalamic obesity and dietary obesity.

  1. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  2. KATNAL1 regulation of sertoli cell microtubule dynamics is essential for spermiogenesis and male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee B Smith

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a complex process reliant upon interactions between germ cells (GC and supporting somatic cells. Testicular Sertoli cells (SC support GCs during maturation through physical attachment, the provision of nutrients, and protection from immunological attack. This role is facilitated by an active cytoskeleton of parallel microtubule arrays that permit transport of nutrients to GCs, as well as translocation of spermatids through the seminiferous epithelium during maturation. It is well established that chemical perturbation of SC microtubule remodelling leads to premature GC exfoliation demonstrating that microtubule remodelling is an essential component of male fertility, yet the genes responsible for this process remain unknown. Using a random ENU mutagenesis approach, we have identified a novel mouse line displaying male-specific infertility, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved ATPase domain of the novel KATANIN p60-related microtubule severing protein Katanin p60 subunit A-like1 (KATNAL1. We demonstrate that Katnal1 is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells (SC from 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc and that, consistent with chemical disruption models, loss of function of KATNAL1 leads to male-specific infertility through disruption of SC microtubule dynamics and premature exfoliation of spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium. The identification of KATNAL1 as an essential regulator of male fertility provides a significant novel entry point into advancing our understanding of how SC microtubule dynamics promotes male fertility. Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives.

  3. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus under various dietary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Ayayee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, fed low-quality (LQD and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA. We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  4. Nutrient pathways of flexor tendons in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, P R; Lesker, P A

    1982-09-01

    The perfusion and diffusion pathways to the flexor profundus tendons of 40 monkeys were investigated by measuring the uptake of tritiated proline by various tendon segments. In the absence of all vascular connections, the process of diffusion provides nutrients to all areas of flexor tendon and in this study the process of diffusion was greater. The distal segment of tendon was observed to be profused most rapidly. The proximal tendon segment is perfused from both the muscular-tendinous junction and the vinculum longus; vincular segment perfusion is via the vinculum longus vessels alone; central segment perfusion is shared by the vinculum longus and vinculum brevis vasculature. The distal segment uptake is by both the process of diffusion or vinculum brevis perfusion. The osseous attachment at the distal phalanx contributes little to tendon nutrition.

  5. Nutrient pathways of flexor tendons in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1982-09-01

    The perfusion and diffusion pathways to the flexor profundus tendons of 40 monkeys were investigated by measuring the uptake of tritiated proline by various tendon segments. In the absence of all vascular connections, the process of diffusion provides nutrients to all areas of flexor tendon and in this study the process of diffusion was greater. The distal segment of tendon was observed to be profused most rapidly. The proximal tendon segment is perfused from both the muscular-tendinous junction and the vinculum longus; vincular segment perfusion is via the vinculum longus vessels alone; central segment perfusion is shared by the vinculum longus and vinculum brevis vasculature. The distal segment uptake is by both the process of diffusion or vinculum brevis perfusion. The osseous attachment at the distal phalanx contributes little to tendon nutrition.

  6. Leptin regulates the reward value of nutrient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Ana I; Vaynshteyn, Jake; Voss, Henning U; Ren, Xueying; Gradinaru, Viviana; Zang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; de Araujo, Ivan E; Friedman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    We developed an assay for quantifying the reward value of nutrient and used it to analyze the effects of metabolic state and leptin. In this assay, mice chose between two sippers, one of which dispensed water and was coupled to optogenetic activation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and the other of which dispensed natural or artificial sweeteners. This assay measured the reward value of sweeteners relative to lick-induced optogenetic activation of DA neurons. Mice preferred optogenetic stimulation of DA neurons to sucralose, but not to sucrose. However, the mice preferred sucralose plus optogenetic stimulation versus sucrose. We found that food restriction increased the value of sucrose relative to sucralose plus optogenetic stimulation, and that leptin decreased it. Our data suggest that leptin suppresses the ability of sucrose to drive taste-independent DA neuronal activation and provide new insights into the mechanism of leptin's effects on food intake. PMID:22081158

  7. Nutrient controls on biocomplexity of mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangrove forests are important coastal ecosystems that provide a variety of ecological and societal services. These intertidal, tree-dominated communities along tropical coastlines are often described as “simple systems,” compared to other tropical forests with larger numbers of plant species and multiple understory strata; however, mangrove ecosystems have complex trophic structures, and organisms exhibit unique physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations to environmental conditions characteristic of the land-sea interface. Biogeochemical functioning of mangrove forests is also controlled by interactions among the microbial, plant, and animal communities and feedback linkages mediated by hydrology and other forcing functions. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to understand more fully the impact of nutrient variability on these delicate and important ecosystems.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): An essential nutrient and a nutraceutical for brain health and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Grace Y; Simonyi, Agnes; Fritsche, Kevin L; Chuang, Dennis Y; Hannink, Mark; Gu, Zezong; Greenlief, C Michael; Yao, Jeffrey K; Lee, James C; Beversdorf, David Q

    2017-03-10

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched in phospholipids in the brain and retina, is known to play multi-functional roles in brain health and diseases. While arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), DHA is linked to action of the Ca2+-independent iPLA2. DHA undergoes enzymatic conversion by 15-lipoxygenase (Alox 15) to form oxylipins including resolvins and neuroprotectins, which are powerful lipid mediators. DHA can also undergo non-enzymatic conversion by reacting with oxygen free radicals (ROS), which cause the production of 4-hydoxyhexenal (4-HHE), an aldehyde derivative which can form adducts with DNA, proteins and lipids. In studies with both animal models and humans, there is evidence that inadequate intake of maternal n-3 PUFA may lead to aberrant development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). What is less certain is whether consumption of n-3 PUFA is important in maintaining brain health throughout one's life span. Evidence mostly from non-human studies suggests that DHA intake above normal nutritional requirements might modify the risk/course of a number of diseases of the brain. This concept has fueled much of the present interest in DHA research, in particular, in attempts to delineate mechanisms whereby DHA may serve as a nutraceutical and confer neuroprotective effects. Current studies have revealed ability for the oxylipins to regulation of cell redox homeostasis through the Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/Antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) anti-oxidant pathway, and impact signaling pathways associated with neurotransmitters, and modulation of neuronal functions involving brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). This review is aimed at describing recent studies elaborating these mechanisms with special regard to aging and Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Symbiotic fungi that are essential for plant nutrient uptake investigated with NMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallon, J.; Wallander, H.; Hammer, E.; Arteaga Marrero, N.; Auzelyte, V.; Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, C.; Olsson, P. A.; Wegdén, M.

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear microprobe (NMP) technique using PIXE for elemental analysis and STIM on/off axis for parallel mass density normalization has proven successful to investigate possible interactions between minerals and ectomycorrhizal (EM) mycelia that form symbiotic associations with forest trees. The ability for the EM to make elements biologically available from minerals and soil were compared in field studies and in laboratory experiments, and molecular analysis (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify ectomycorrhizal species from the field samplings. EM rhizomorphs associated with apatite in laboratory systems and in mesh bags incubated in forest ecosystems contained larger amounts of Ca than similar rhizomorphs connected to acid-washed sand. EM mycelium produced in mesh bags had a capacity to mobilize P from apatite-amended sand and a high concentration of K in some rhizomorphs suggests that these fungi are good accumulators of K and may have a significant role in transporting K to trees. Spores formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in laboratory cultures were compared with spores formed in saline soils in Tunisia in Northern Africa. We found lower concentrations of P and higher concentrations of Cl in the spores collected from the field than in the spores collected from laboratory cultures. For the case of laboratory cultures, the distribution of e.g. P and K was found to be clearly correlated.

  10. Heme, an Essential Nutrient from Dietary Proteins, Critically Impacts Diverse Physiological and Pathological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Hooda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme constitutes 95% of functional iron in the human body, as well as two-thirds of the average person’s iron intake in developed countries. Hence, a wide range of epidemiological studies have focused on examining the association of dietary heme intake, mainly from red meat, with the risks of common diseases. High heme intake is associated with increased risk of several cancers, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer. Likewise, the evidence for increased risks of type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease associated with high heme intake is compelling. Furthermore, recent comparative metabolic and molecular studies of lung cancer cells showed that cancer cells require increased intracellular heme biosynthesis and uptake to meet the increased demand for oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins. Increased levels of hemoproteins in turn lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy generation, thereby fueling cancer cell progression. Together, both epidemiological and molecular studies support the idea that heme positively impacts cancer progression. However, it is also worth noting that heme deficiency can cause serious diseases in humans, such as anemia, porphyrias, and Alzheimer’s disease. This review attempts to summarize the latest literature in understanding the role of dietary heme intake and heme function in diverse diseases.

  11. The global nutrient challenge. From science to public engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Howard, C.M. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Datta, A. [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-04-15

    Among the many environment and development challenges facing humanity, it is fair to say that nutrients do not currently feature so regularly in the newspapers, radio and television. The media tends to prefer easy single issues which affect our daily lives in a clear-cut way. The role of carbon in climate change is a good example. We all depend on climate. Burning fossil fuels makes more carbon dioxide, tending to change temperature and rainfall patterns, to which we can easily relate. The science is complex, but it is a simple message for the public to understand. It does not take long to think of several other easily grasped threats, like urban air pollution, poor drinking water, or even the occurrence of horsemeat in food chains. It is perhaps for these reasons that the role of nutrients in environmental change has received much less public attention. After all, nutrients - including nitrogen, phosphorus and many micronutrients - play multiple roles in our world; they affect many biogeochemical processes and they lead to a plethora of interacting threats. If we are not careful, we can quickly get buried in the complexity of the different ways in which our lives are affected by these elements. The outcome is that it can become hard to convey the science of global nutrient cycles in a way that the public can understand. These are points about which we have given substantial thought as we contributed to a recently launched report Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution (Sutton et al., 2013). The report was commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and conducted by the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management in cooperation with the International Nitrogen Initiative. The commission was not to provide a full scientific assessment, but rather to develop a global overview of the challenges associated with nutrient management. Drawing on existing knowledge, the aim was to distill the nature of the

  12. Plants cause ecosystem nutrient depletion via the interruption of bird-derived spatial subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Plant introductions and subsequent community shifts are known to affect nutrient cycling, but most such studies have focused on nutrient enrichment effects. The nature of plant-driven nutrient depletions and the mechanisms by which these might occur are relatively poorly understood. In this study we demonstrate that the proliferation of the commonly introduced coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, interrupts the flow of allochthonous marine subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems via an indirect effect: impact on birds. Birds avoid nesting or roosting in C. nucifera, thus reducing the critical nutrient inputs they bring from the marine environment. These decreases in marine subsidies then lead to reductions in available soil nutrients, decreases in leaf nutrient quality, diminished leaf palatability, and reduced herbivory. This nutrient depletion pathway contrasts the more typical patterns of nutrient enrichment that follow plant species introductions. Research on the effects of spatial subsidy disruptions on ecosystems has not yet examined interruptions driven by changes within the recipient community, such as plant community shifts. The ubiquity of coconut palm introductions across the tropics and subtropics makes these observations particularly noteworthy. Equally important, the case of C. nucifera provides a strong demonstration of how plant community changes can dramatically impact the supply of allochthonous nutrients and thereby reshape energy flow in ecosystems. PMID:20133852

  13. Family medicine residents' knowledge and attitudes about drug-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, A B; DeForge, B R; Sobal, J; Muncie, H L; Michocki, R

    1995-04-01

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requires that health professionals recognize the importance of drug-nutrient interactions and educate patients to prevent adverse effects. Drug-nutrient interactions are an important issue in medical practice, but it is not clear how or if physicians are trained in this issue. This investigation was a needs assessment that examined attitudes and knowledge about drug-nutrient interactions that was examined in a national sample of 834 family medicine residents in 56 residency programs. Most reported they had little or no formal training in drug-nutrient interactions in medical school (83%) or residency (80%). However, 79% believed it was the physician's responsibility to inform patients about drug-nutrient interactions, although many thought pharmacists (75%) and dietitians (66%) share this responsibility. Overall, residents correctly answered 61% +/- 19 of fourteen drug-nutrient interaction knowledge items. There was a slight increase in drug-nutrient knowledge as year of residency increased. Physicians' knowledge of drug-nutrient interactions may be improved by including nutrition education in the topics taught by physicians, nutritionists, and pharmacists using several educational strategies. Nutrition educators in particular can play a role in curriculum development about drug-nutrient interactions by developing, refining, and evaluating materials and educational tools. Nutrition educators need to provide this information in academic settings for the training of all health professionals as well as in patient education settings such as hospitals and public health clinics.

  14. Proposal for a method to estimate nutrient shock effects in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Nuno F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plating methods are still the golden standard in microbiology; however, some studies have shown that these techniques can underestimate the microbial concentrations and diversity. A nutrient shock is one of the mechanisms proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this study, a tentative method to assess nutrient shock effects was tested. Findings To estimate the extent of nutrient shock effects, two strains isolated from tap water (Sphingomonas capsulata and Methylobacterium sp. and two culture collection strains (E. coli CECT 434 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 were exposed both to low and high nutrient conditions for different times and then placed in low nutrient medium (R2A and rich nutrient medium (TSA. The average improvement (A.I. of recovery between R2A and TSA for the different times was calculated to more simply assess the difference obtained in culturability between each medium. As expected, A.I. was higher when cells were plated after the exposition to water than when they were recovered from high-nutrient medium showing the existence of a nutrient shock for the diverse bacteria used. S. capsulata was the species most affected by this phenomenon. Conclusions This work provides a method to consistently determine the extent of nutrient shock effects on different microorganisms and hence quantify the ability of each species to deal with sudden increases in substrate concentration.

  15. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  16. Essential medicines management during emergencies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S K S; Qureshi, J A R H; Jooma, R; Bile, K M; Kazi, G N; Zaibi, W A; Zafar, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the experiences of essential medicine management in providing cure and care to victims of Pakistan's 2005 earthquake in a safe, rational and effective mode. The health interventions assured access to essential medicine, sustained supply, inventory control through a computerized logistic support system and rational use of medicines. World Health Organization Pakistan outlined modalities for acceptance of donated medicines, assisted in speedy procurement of medicines and designed customized kits. Proper storage of medicines at controlled temperature was ensured in warehousing facilities in 12 locations. A steady supply of medicines and their consumption without stock-outs in the 56 first-level care facilities of calamity-hit areas helped to ascertain the average consumption and cost of essential medicines and supplies for the catchment population. Tools for quantification and forecasting of medicines and supplies were developed and shared. Medicines and medical supplies were efficiently used resulting in minimum wastage.

  17. Project Management: Essential Skill of Nurse Informaticists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    With the evolution of nursing informatics (NI), the list of skills has advanced from the original definition that included 21 competencies to 168 basic competencies identified in the TIGER-based Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies (TANIC) and 178 advanced skills in the Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment (NICA) L3/L4 developed by Chamberlain College of Nursing, Nursing Informatics Research Team (NIRT). Of these competencies, project management is one of the most important essentials identified since it impacts all areas of NI skills and provides an organizing framework for processes and projects including skills such as design, planning, implementation, follow-up and evaluation. Examples of job roles that specifically require project management skills as an essential part of the NI functions include management, administration, leadership, faculty, graduate level master's and doctorate practicum courses. But first, better understanding of the NI essential skills is vital before adequate education and training programs can be developed.

  18. Managing urban nutrient biogeochemistry for sustainable urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Gibson, Valerie; Cui, Shenghui; Yu, Chang-Ping; Chen, Shaohua; Ye, Zhilong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-09-01

    Urban ecosystems are unique in the sense that human activities are the major drivers of biogeochemical processes. Along with the demographic movement into cities, nutrients flow towards the urban zone (nutrient urbanization), causing the degradation of environmental quality and ecosystem health. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of nutrient cycling within the urban ecosystem compared to natural ecosystems. The dynamic process of nutrient urbanization is then explored taking Xiamen city, China, as an example to examine the influence of rapid urbanization on food sourced nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism. Subsequently, the concept of a nutrient footprint and calculation method is introduced from a lifecycle perspective. Finally, we propose three system approaches to mend the broken biogeochemical cycling. Our study will contribute to a holistic solution which achieves synergies between environmental quality and food security, by integrating technologies for nutrient recovery and waste reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning Neuroimaging. 100 essential cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asis Bravo-Rodriguez, Francisco de [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain). Diagnostic and Therapeutics Neuroradiology; Diaz-Aguilera, Rocio [Alto Guadalquivir Hospital, Andujar, Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Radiology; Hygino da Cruz, Luiz Celso [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). CDPI and IRM Ressonancia Magnetica

    2012-07-01

    Neuroradiology is the branch of radiology that comprises both imaging and invasive procedures related to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, organs of special sense (eyes, ears, nose), cranial and spinal nerves, and cranial, cervical, and spinal vessels. Special training and skills are required to enable the neuroradiologist to function as an expert diagnostic and therapeutic consultant and practitioner. In addition to knowledge of imaging findings, the neuroradiologist is required to learn the fundamentals of structural and functional neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and neuropathophysiology as well as the clinical manifestations of diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck, and organs of special sense. This book is intended as an introduction to neuroradiology and aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of this highly specialized radiological subspecialty. One hundred illustrated cases from clinical practice are presented in a standard way. Each case is supported by representative images and is divided into three parts: a brief summary of the patient's medical history, a discussion of the disease, and a description of the most characteristic imaging features of the disorder. The focus is not only on common neuroradiological entities such as stroke and acute head trauma but also on less frequent disorders that the practitioner should recognize. Learning Neuroimaging: 100 Essential Cases is an ideal resource for neuroradiology and radiology residents, neurology residents, neurosurgery residents, nurses, radiology technicians, and medical students. (orig.)

  20. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  1. Nutrient pharmacotherapy for gut mucosal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, R D; Rombeau, J L

    1998-06-01

    The use of nutrients for pharmacotherapy is a recent advance in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders or alterations of gut function and structure. Nutrients may have a direct effect on the gut, or may enhance the response to medications. Alternatively, pharmacologic agents may improve the absorption of nutrients. Potentially, pharmacotherapy may be an adjunct to the traditional approach used in the treatment of compromised patients.

  2. Compost supplementation with nutrients and microorganisms in composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Ospina, Diego A; Montoya, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The composting is an aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process by which different organic materials are transformed into more stable compounds. The product obtained is the compost, which contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. However, the compost usage in agriculture is constrained because of its long-time action and reduced supply of nutrients to the crops. To enhance the content of nutrients assimilable by the plants in the compost, its supplementation with nutrients and inoculation with microorganisms have been proposed. The objective of this work was to review the state of the art on compost supplementation with nutrients and the role played by the microorganisms involved (or added) in their transformation during the composting process. The phases of composting are briefly compiled and different strategies for supplementation are analyzed. The utilization of nitrogenous materials and addition of microorganisms fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere or oxidizing ammonia into more assimilable for plants nitrogenous forms are analyzed. Several strategies for nitrogen conservation during composting are presented as well. The supplementation with phosphorus and utilization of microorganisms solubilizing phosphorus and potassium are also discussed. Main groups of microorganisms relevant during the composting process are described as well as most important strategies to identify them. In general, the development of this type of nutrient-enriched bio-inputs requires research and development not only in the supplementation of compost itself, but also in the isolation and identification of microorganisms and genes allowing the degradation and conversion of nitrogenous substances and materials containing potassium and phosphorus present in the feedstocks undergoing the composting process. In this sense, most important research trends and strategies to increase nutrient content in the compost

  3. Nutrient adequacy and its correlation in a sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Bhattacherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrient adequacy is the level of intake of an essential nutrient in relation to the nutrient requirement for adequate health, which is expressed as the percentage of recommended dietary allowance. To develop an effective nationwide preventive program to combat malnutrition, it is necessary not only to assess the nature and magnitude of the problem of nutrient inadequacy but to identify factors affecting it especially at the household level. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of nutrient adequacy in a sample of households in a rural area of Darjeeling district and to find out the factors associated with nutrient adequacy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2014 in 821 households of Darjeeling district, India. The major dependent variable used in this study was the mean nutrient adequacy ratio of a household and the independent variables were number of family members, number of under-five children in the family, literacy of head of the family, literacy of the wife of the head of the family, income of the family, and percentage expenditure on food. Results: The prevalence of nutrient adequate households was found to be 35.3% among the study households. It was observed that the percentage expenditure on food had the highest contribution toward nutrient adequacy, followed by number of under-five children in the family and literacy of the wife of the head of the family. Undernutrition was found to be prevalent in 56.6% of the households. Conclusion: Majority of the study population had a diet less than the required amount and expectedly, undernutrition was also present in huge proportions.

  4. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  5. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, Holly L; Hutchinson, Jayne; Jewell, Jo; Breda, Joao J; Cade, Janet E

    2017-11-27

    The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS) but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third ( n = 19), mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC), had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40%) countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  6. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. A coastal surface seawater analyzer for nitrogenous nutrient mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masserini, Robert T.; Fanning, Kent A.; Hendrix, Steven A.; Kleiman, Brittany M.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite-data-based modeling of chlorophyll indicates that ocean waters in the mesosphere category are responsible for the majority of oceanic net primary productivity. Coastal waters, which frequently have surface chlorophyll values in the mesosphere range and have strong horizontal chlorophyll gradients and large temporal variations. Thus programs of detailed coastal nutrient surveys are essential to the study of the dynamics of oceanic net primary productivity, along with land use impacts on estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The degree of variability in these regions necessitates flexible instrumentation capable of near real-time analysis to detect and monitor analytes of interest. This work describes the development of a portable coastal surface seawater analyzer for nutrient mapping that can simultaneously elucidate with high resolution the distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium - the three principal nitrogenous inorganic nutrients in coastal systems. The approach focuses on the use of pulsed xenon flash lamps to construct an analyzer which can be adapted to any automated chemistry with fluorescence detection. The system has two heaters, on-the-fly standardization, on-board data logging, an independent 24 volt direct current power supply, internal local operating network, a 12 channel peristaltic pump, four rotary injection/selection valves, and an intuitive graphical user interface. Using the methodology of Masserini and Fanning (2000) the detection limits for ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate plus nitrite were 11, 10, and 22 nM, respectively. A field test of the analyzer in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters demonstrated its ability to monitor and delineate the complexity of inorganic nitrogen nutrient enrichments within a coastal system.

  8. NONRUMINANT NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM: Nutrient and non-nutrient sensing and signaling in the gastrointestinal tract1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J S Radcliffe

    2011-01-01

    .... Here, Radcliffe features a symposium held on Jul 15, 2010 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Animal Science highlighting recent findings regarding "Nutrient and Non-nutrient Sensing...

  9. Fast detection of nutrient limitation in macroalgae and seagrass with nutrient-induced fluorescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Haan, J.; Huisman, J.; Dekker, F.; ten Brinke, J.L.; Ford, A.K.; van Ooijen, J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Visser, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid determination of which nutrients limit the primary production of macroalgae and seagrasses is vital for understanding the impacts of eutrophication on marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, current methods to assess nutrient limitation are often cumbersome and time consuming.

  10. Fast Detection of Nutrient Limitation in Macroalgae and Seagrass with Nutrient-Induced Fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Haan, J.; Huisman, J.; Dekker, F.; ten Brinke, J.L.; Ford, A.K.; van Ooijen, J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Visser, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapid determination of which nutrients limit the primary production of macroalgae and seagrasses is vital for understanding the impacts of eutrophication on marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, current methods to assess nutrient limitation are often cumbersome and time consuming.

  11. Selenium as an Essential Micronutrient: Roles in Cell Cycle and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an anticancer nutrient, and the essential role of Se in growth of most mammalian cells is well recognized but certain cancer cells appear to have acquired a survival advantage under conditions of Se-deficiency. The objective of the present study is to understand the molecular basis ...

  12. Nutrient reference value: non-communicable disease endpoints--a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, J R; Blumberg, J B; L'Abbe, M; LeDoux, M; Rice, H B; von Schacky, C; Yaktine, A; Griffiths, J C

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition is complex-and seemingly getting more complicated. Most consumers are familiar with "essential nutrients," e.g., vitamins and minerals, and more recently protein and important amino acids. These essential nutrients have nutrient reference values, referred to as dietary reference intakes (DRIs) developed by consensus committees of scientific experts convened by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and carried out by the Food and Nutrition Board. The DRIs comprise a set of four nutrient-based reverence values, the estimated average requirements, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs), the adequate intakes and the tolerable upper intake levels for micronutrient intakes and an acceptable macronutrient distribution range for macronutrient intakes. From the RDA, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) derives a labeling value called the daily value (DV), which appears on the nutrition label of all foods for sale in the US. The DRI reports do not make recommendations about whether the DV labeling values can be set only for what have been defined to date as "essential nutrients." For example, the FDA set a labeling value for "dietary fiber" without having the DV. Nutrient reference values-requirements are set by Codex Alimentarius for essential nutrients, and regulatory bodies in many countries use these Codex values in setting national policy for recommended dietary intakes. However, the focus of this conference is not on essential nutrients, but on the "nonessential nutrients," also termed dietary bioactive components. They can be defined as "Constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs, which are responsible for changes in health status (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Public Health and Science, Department of Health and Human Services in Fed Regist 69:55821-55822, 2004)." Substantial and often persuasive

  13. Essential Math Skills for Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2011-01-01

    Just the math skills you need to excel in the study or practice of engineering Good math skills are indispensable for all engineers regardless of their specialty, yet only a relatively small portion of the math that engineering students study in college mathematics courses is used on a frequent basis in the study or practice of engineering. That's why Essential Math Skills for Engineers focuses on only these few critically essential math skills that students need in order to advance in their engineering studies and excel in engineering practice. Essential Math Skills for Engineers features con

  14. ANTI-NUTRIENTS, AMINO ACID QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF “NDUDUAGWORAGWO” TRADITIONAL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majesty K.C. Duru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A “nduduagworagwo” is a traditional food of Akokwa people in Imo State, South eastern, Nigeria. Based on the recent linkage of natural foods to health, the anti-nutrients, amino acid quality and performance characteristics of “nduduagworagwo” traditional food was studied. Low levels of cyanogenic glycoside (0.09±0.03mg/100g, phytate (0.04±0.00 mg/100g, and oxalate (0.29±0.05 mg/100g anti-nutrients were observed in the studied food. Anti-nutrient/nutrient interactions; oxalate/calcium (0.73, phytate/calcium (0.01, and phytate/iron (0.02 in “nduduagworagwo” were lower than their critical values. Essential and non-essential amino acids were also obtained in the food. The chemical scores for observed amino acids compared favourably with those of reference food materials and some other existing traditional foods. The performance characteristics in this study indicated that “nduduagworagwo” could be an intermediate protein food that can enhance the body with good digestibility (96.00± 2.87% and biological (58.06± 1.04% values. The present study has revealed the anti-nutrients, amino acid quality, and performance characteristic of “nduduagworagwo” traditional food.

  15. Internal nutrient sources and nutrient distributions in Alviso Pond A3W, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Garrett, Krista K.; Takekawa, John Y.; Parcheso, Francis; Piotter, Sara; Clearwater, Iris; Shellenbarger, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Within the Alviso Salt Pond complex, California, currently undergoing avian-habitat restoration, pore-water profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1) were deployed in triplicate at two contrasting sites in Pond A3W (“Inlet”, near the inflow, and “Deep”, near the middle of the pond; figs. 1 and 2; table 1, note that tables in this report are provided online only as a .xlsx workbook at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1128/). Deployments were conducted in 2010 and 2012 during the summer algal-growth season. Specifically, three deployments, each about 7 weeks apart, were undertaken each summer. This study provides the first measurements of the diffusive flux of nutrients across the interface between the pond bed and water column (that is, benthic nutrient flux). These nutrient fluxes are crucial to pond restoration efforts because they typically represent a major (if not the greatest) source of nutrients to the water column in both ponds and other lentic systems. For soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP, the most biologically available form in solution), benthic flux was positive both years (that is, out of the sediment into the water column; table 2), with the exception of the August 2010 deployment, which exhibited nearly negligible but negative flux. Overall, the average SRP flux was significantly greater at Deep (23.9 ± 8.6 micromoles per square meter per hour (µmol-m-2-h-1); all errors shown reflect the 95-percent confidence interval) than Inlet (12.6 ± 4.9 µmol-m-2-h-1). There was much greater temporal variability in SRP flux in the pond than reported for the lower estuary (Topping and others, 2001). For dissolved ammonia, benthic flux was consistently positive on all six sampling trips, and similar to SRP, the fluxes at Deep (258 ± 49 µmol-m-2-h-1) were consistently greater than those at Inlet (28 ± 11 µmol-m-2-h-1). Dissolved ammonia fluxes reported for South San Francisco Bay by Topping and others (2001) fall in between these values. Once again, greater

  16. Content of some anti-nutrients and nutrients in some new plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight edible plant foods have been analyzed in order to detect differences in nutritional quality, considering the balance between nutrients and anti-nutrient compounds present in each. The most important nutrients studied in this paper were: water, starch, free sugars, such as glucose, fructose and sucrose.

  17. Microbial enzyme activity, nutrient uptake and nutrient limitation in forested streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Frank H. McCormick; Bret C. Harvey; Sherri L. Johnson; Melvin L. Warren; Colleen M. Elonen

    2010-01-01

    The flow of organic matter and nutrients from catchments into the streams draining them and the biogeochemical transformations of organic matter and nutrients along flow paths are fundamental processes instreams (Hynes,1975; Fisher, Sponseller & Heffernan, 2004). Microbial biofilms are often the primary interface for organic matter and nutrient uptake and...

  18. Exploring the Optimal Strategy to Predict Essential Genes in Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Lu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting essential genes is important in many aspects of biology, medicine and bioengineering. In previous research, we have developed a machine learning based integrative algorithm to predict essential genes in bacterial species. This algorithm lends itself to two approaches for predicting essential genes: learning the traits from known essential genes in the target organism, or transferring essential gene annotations from a closely related model organism. However, for an understudied microbe, each approach has its potential limitations. The first is constricted by the often small number of known essential genes. The second is limited by the availability of model organisms and by evolutionary distance. In this study, we aim to determine the optimal strategy for predicting essential genes by examining four microbes with well-characterized essential genes. Our results suggest that, unless the known essential genes are few, learning from the known essential genes in the target organism usually outperforms transferring essential gene annotations from a related model organism. In fact, the required number of known essential genes is surprisingly small to make accurate predictions. In prokaryotes, when the number of known essential genes is greater than 2% of total genes, this approach already comes close to its optimal performance. In eukaryotes, achieving the same best performance requires over 4% of total genes, reflecting the increased complexity of eukaryotic organisms. Combining the two approaches resulted in an increased performance when the known essential genes are few. Our investigation thus provides key information on accurately predicting essential genes and will greatly facilitate annotations of microbial genomes.

  19. Nutrient concentrations in coarse and fine woody debris of Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Paul A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary forest harvesting practices, specifically harvesting woody biomass as a source of bioenergy feedstock, may remove more woody debris from a site than conventional harvesting. Woody debris, particularly smaller diameter woody debris, plays a key role in maintaining ecosystem nutrient stores following disturbance. Understanding nutrient concentrations within woody debris is necessary for assessing the long-term nutrient balance consequences of altered woody debris retention, particularly in forests slated for use as bioenergy feedstocks. Nutrient concentrations in downed woody debris of various sizes, decay classes, and species were characterized within one such forest type, Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Nutrient concentrations differed significantly between size and decay classes and generally increased as decay progressed. Fine woody debris (≤ 7.5 cm diameter) had higher nutrient concentrations than coarse woody debris (> 7.5 cm diameter) for all nutrients examined except Na and Mn, and nutrient concentrations varied among species. Concentrations of N, Mn, Al, Fe, and Zn in coarse woody debris increased between one and three orders of magnitude, while K decreased by an order of magnitude with progressing decay. The variations in nutrient concentrations observed here underscore the complexity of woody debris nutrient stores in forested ecosystems and suggest that retaining fine woody debris at harvest may provide a potentially important source of nutrients following intensive removals of bioenergy feedstocks.

  20. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as with standard treatments , for symptom management . Essential oils (also known as volatile oils) are the fragrant ( aromatic ) part found in many plants, often under the surface of leaves, bark, or peel. The fragrance is released if ...

  1. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

    2007-06-01

    Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial

  2. Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned <50% of those amounts to the forest soil, except for Al. The amount of Al that returned to the soil was similar in both areas due to the high contribution of Tibouchina pulchra (82% of Al returned. Comparatively, high proportion of three dominant native tree species (Myrsine coriacea, T. pulchra and Cecropia pachystachya explained better litter nutrient use efficiency (mainly N and P in the site with the least advanced successional stage. Although litterfall of these species show lower nutrient concentrations than the other tree species, their nutrient fluxes were high in both sites, indicating a certain independence from soil essential nutrients. Such feature of the native species is very advantageous and should be considered in forest restoration programs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1869-1882. Epub 2011 December 01.

  3. Essential idempotents and simplex codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Chalom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We define essential idempotents in group algebras and use them to prove that every mininmal abelian non-cyclic code is a repetition code. Also we use them to prove that every minimal abelian code is equivalent to a minimal cyclic code of the same length. Finally, we show that a binary cyclic code is simplex if and only if is of length of the form $n=2^k-1$ and is generated by an essential idempotent.

  4. Extracoelenteric zooplankton feeding is a key mechanism of nutrient acquisition for the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Diantari, R.; Lewaru, M.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Internal and external feeding on zooplankton may provide scleractinian corals with important nutrients. However, the latter process has never been properly quantified. To quantify the dynamics of zooplankton capture, digestion and release for a scleractinian coral, we performed detailed video

  5. LBA-ECO ND-30 Nutrient Analysis and Gas Fluxes, Forest Chronosequences, Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides fine litterfall mass and nutrient concentrations from samples collected at chronosequences established at Sao Francisco do Para and Capitao...

  6. LBA-ECO LC-21 Foliar Nutrients, Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements for foliar nutrients from logging blocks in the Tapajos National Forest, Para Western Santarem, Brazil. Data are included for...

  7. Epigenetic mechanisms of nutrient-induced modulation of gene expression and cellular functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing next-generation sequencing technology in combination with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology, our study provides systematic and novel insights into the relationships between nutrition and epigenetics. One paradigmatic example of nutrient-epigenetic-phenotype relationship is th...

  8. Methods for identifying an essential gene in a prokaryotic microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuya, Hiroaki

    2006-01-31

    Methods are provided for the rapid identification of essential or conditionally essential DNA segments in any species of haploid cell (one copy chromosome per cell) that is capable of being transformed by artificial means and is capable of undergoing DNA recombination. This system offers an enhanced means of identifying essential function genes in diploid pathogens, such as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Energy and nutrient density of foods in relation to their carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D; Martin, Agnes; Verger, Eric O; Voinnesson, Marc; Imbert, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A carbon footprint is the sum of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) associated with food production, processing, transporting, and retailing. We examined the relation between the energy and nutrient content of foods and associated GHGEs as expressed as g CO2 equivalents. GHGE values, which were calculated and provided by a French supermarket chain, were merged with the Composition Nutritionnelle des Aliments (French food-composition table) nutrient-composition data for 483 foods and beverages from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety. Foods were aggregated into 34 food categories and 5 major food groups as follows: meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, frozen and processed fruit and vegetables, grains, and sweets. Energy density was expressed as kcal/100 g. Nutrient density was determined by using 2 alternative nutrient-density scores, each based on the sum of the percentage of daily values for 6 or 15 nutrients, respectively. The energy and nutrient densities of foods were linked to log-transformed GHGE values expressed per 100 g or 100 kcal. Grains and sweets had lowest GHGEs (per 100 g and 100 kcal) but had high energy density and a low nutrient content. The more-nutrient-dense animal products, including meat and dairy, had higher GHGE values per 100 g but much lower values per 100 kcal. In general, a higher nutrient density of foods was associated with higher GHGEs per 100 kcal, although the slopes of fitted lines varied for meat and dairy compared with fats and sweets. Considerations of the environmental impact of foods need to be linked to concerns about nutrient density and health. The point at which the higher carbon footprint of some nutrient-dense foods is offset by their higher nutritional value is a priority area for additional research. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

  11. LITTERFALL AND NUTRIENT RETURNS IN ISOLATED STANDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    and branch morphology, leaf size and arrangement. The main objective of this study was to examine litter production and nutrient returns through litterfall by isolated stands of Terminalia catappa, and determine the contributions of nutrient elements to the rainforest soil by the isolated exotic, through a direct comparison with.

  12. Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bopp, L.; Boyd, P. W.; Galbraith, E. D.; Geider, R. J.; Guieu, C.; Jaccard, S. L.; Jickells, T. D.; La Roche, J.; Lenton, T. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Marañón, E.; Marinov, I.; Moore, J. K.; Nakatsuka, T.; Oschlies, A.; Saito, M. A.; Thingstad, T. F.; Tsuda, A.; Ulloa, O.

    2013-09-01

    Microbial activity is a fundamental component of oceanic nutrient cycles. Photosynthetic microbes, collectively termed phytoplankton, are responsible for the vast majority of primary production in marine waters. The availability of nutrients in the upper ocean frequently limits the activity and abundance of these organisms. Experimental data have revealed two broad regimes of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in the modern upper ocean. Nitrogen availability tends to limit productivity throughout much of the surface low-latitude ocean, where the supply of nutrients from the subsurface is relatively slow. In contrast, iron often limits productivity where subsurface nutrient supply is enhanced, including within the main oceanic upwelling regions of the Southern Ocean and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Phosphorus, vitamins and micronutrients other than iron may also (co-)limit marine phytoplankton. The spatial patterns and importance of co-limitation, however, remain unclear. Variability in the stoichiometries of nutrient supply and biological demand are key determinants of oceanic nutrient limitation. Deciphering the mechanisms that underpin this variability, and the consequences for marine microbes, will be a challenge. But such knowledge will be crucial for accurately predicting the consequences of ongoing anthropogenic perturbations to oceanic nutrient biogeochemistry.

  13. LITTERFALL AND NUTRIENT RETURNS IN ISOLATED STANDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Keywords: Litterfall, Nutrient returns, Seasonal variation, Southern Nigeria, Terminalia catappa, Tropical rainforest. Introduction. In the tropical rainforests, plants and soils are in equilibrium involving an almost closed cycling of nutrients which is achieved by a very high rate of litter production, rapid mineralization and a.

  14. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  15. Trichoderma -mediated enhancement of nutrient uptake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma harzianum is a naturally occurring filamentous fungus which solubilizes mineral nutrients and inorganic fertilizers, increasing availability and uptake of nutrients to the plant. Rhizoctonia solani is a major problem for seedlings, causing damping-off and in mature plants causing foot and root rot in the tomato crop, ...

  16. Complementary Feeding Practices And Nutrient Intake From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary Feeding Practices And Nutrient Intake From Habitual Complementary Foods Of Infants And Children Aged 6-18 Months Old In Lusaka, Zambia. ... Compared with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) at 6-8, 9-11 and 12-18 months of age, the daily nutrient intakes were 88%, 121% and 94% for energy ...

  17. Photosynthetic performance, epiphyte biomass and nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy nutrient loads in coastal waters often lead to excessive growth of microalgal and macroalgal epiphytes on seagrass leaves, with varying effects on the underlying seagrasses. This study evaluates the photosynthetic performance, epiphytic biomass and tissue nutrient content of two tropical seagrasses, Cymodocea ...

  18. Design of a Nutrient Reclamation System for the Cultivation of Microalgae for Biofuel Production and Other Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Heather Nicole

    Microalgal biomass has been identified as a promising feedstock for a number of industrial applications, including the synthesis of new pharmaceutical and biofuel products. However, there are several economic limitations associated with the scale up of existing algal production processes. Critical economic studies of algae-based industrial processes highlight the high cost of supplying essential nutrients to microalgae cultures. With microalgae cells having relatively high nitrogen contents (4 to 8%), the N fertilizer cost in industrial-scale production is significant. In addition, the disposal of the large volumes of cell residuals that are generated during product extraction stages can pose other economic challenges. While waste streams can provide a concentrated source of nutrients, concerns about the presence of biological contaminants and the expense of heat treatment pose challenges to processes that use wastewater as a nutrient source in microalgae cultures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential application of ultrafiltration technology to aid in the utilization of agricultural wastewater in the cultivation of a high-value microalgae strain. An ultrafiltration system was used to remove inorganic solids and biological contaminants from wastewater taken from a swine farm in Savoy, Arkansas. The permeate from the system was then used as the nutrient source for the cultivation of the marine microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. During the ultrafiltration system operation, little membrane fouling was observed, and permeate fluxes remained relatively constant during both short-term and long-term tests. The complete rejection of E. coli and coliforms from the wastewater was also observed, in addition to a 75% reduction in total solids, including inorganic materials. The processed permeate was shown to have very high concentrations of total nitrogen (695.6 mg L-1) and total phosphorus (69.1 mg L-1 ). In addition, the growth of P. cruentum was analyzed in

  19. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eFernandez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of agrochemical sprays to the aerial parts of crop plants is an important agricultural practice world-wide. While variable effectiveness is often seen in response to foliar treatments, there is abundant evidence showing the beneficial effect of foliar fertilizers in terms of improving the metabolism, quality and yields of crops. This mini-review is focused on the major bottlenecks associated with the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied nutrient solutions. A better understanding of complex scenario surrounding the ultimate delivery of foliar-applied nutrients to sink cells and organs is essential for improving the effectiveness and performance of foliar fertilizers.

  20. Genetic diversity of standard leaf nutrients in Coffea canephora genotypes during phenological phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, W R; Rodrigues, W P; Vieira, H D; Oliveira, M G; Dias, J R M; Partelli, F L

    2016-10-06

    Diagnosing foliar nutritional status is essential for fertilizer recommendations and for the identification of nutrient imbalances. This study aimed to verify genetic diversity and establish mean standards (leaf nutrient contents; LNCs) and relationships among leaf nutrients (LNC relationships; LNCRs) in seven conilon coffee genotypes during both pre-flowering and bean-filling stages. Twenty crops from several cities in the northern region of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, with crop yield either equal to or greater than 100 bags per hectare (during two harvests) were assessed. A total of 140 samples were collected during each evaluation period for quantification of leaf nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and B). The Ward procedure, a hierarchical genetic clustering method, was used to quantify the genetic diversity among genotypes. To examine differences between the LNCs and LNCRs, F-and Scott-Knott tests were used. LNCs and LNCRs showed significant differences among the conilon coffee genotypes during the evaluation periods. Additionally, the 8V, 10V,and 12V genotypes exhibited the highest values for most of the nutrients, especially for N, P, and Cu. Therefore, the clustering method revealed genetic diversity among genotypes for standard leaf nutrient levels, implying that leaf diagnosis could be specific to each genotype and phenological stage.

  1. A framework to assess biogeochemical response to ecosystem disturbance using nutrient partitioning ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranabetter, J. Marty; McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Enders, Sara K.; Fraterrigo, Jennifer M.; Higuera, Philip E.; Morris, Jesse L.; Rastetter, Edward B.; Barnes, Rebecca; Buma, Brian; Gavin, Daniel G.; Gerhart, Laci M.; Gillson, Lindsey; Hietz, Peter; Mack, Michelle C.; McNeil, Brenden; Perakis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances affect almost all terrestrial ecosystems, but it has been difficult to identify general principles regarding these influences. To improve our understanding of the long-term consequences of disturbance on terrestrial ecosystems, we present a conceptual framework that analyzes disturbances by their biogeochemical impacts. We posit that the ratio of soil and plant nutrient stocks in mature ecosystems represents a characteristic site property. Focusing on nitrogen (N), we hypothesize that this partitioning ratio (soil N: plant N) will undergo a predictable trajectory after disturbance. We investigate the nature of this partitioning ratio with three approaches: (1) nutrient stock data from forested ecosystems in North America, (2) a process-based ecosystem model, and (3) conceptual shifts in site nutrient availability with altered disturbance frequency. Partitioning ratios could be applied to a variety of ecosystems and successional states, allowing for improved temporal scaling of disturbance events. The generally short-term empirical evidence for recovery trajectories of nutrient stocks and partitioning ratios suggests two areas for future research. First, we need to recognize and quantify how disturbance effects can be accreting or depleting, depending on whether their net effect is to increase or decrease ecosystem nutrient stocks. Second, we need to test how altered disturbance frequencies from the present state may be constructive or destructive in their effects on biogeochemical cycling and nutrient availability. Long-term studies, with repeated sampling of soils and vegetation, will be essential in further developing this framework of biogeochemical response to disturbance.

  2. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Selecting Nutrient-Dense Foods for Good Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie D; Kandiah, Jayanthi; Maggi, Annette

    2016-09-01

    The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage selection of nutrient-dense foods for health promotion and disease prevention and management. The purpose of this Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics practice paper is to provide an update regarding the science and practice of nutrient-dense food identification and selection. Characterization of tools used to identify nutrient density of foods is provided and recommendations for how registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, might use available profiling tools to help consumers select nutrient-dense foods is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A mathematical function for the description of nutrient-response curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ahmadi

    Full Text Available Several mathematical equations have been proposed to modeling nutrient-response curve for animal and human justified on the goodness of fit and/or on the biological mechanism. In this paper, a functional form of a generalized quantitative model based on Rayleigh distribution principle for description of nutrient-response phenomena is derived. The three parameters governing the curve a has biological interpretation, b may be used to calculate reliable estimates of nutrient response relationships, and c provide the basis for deriving relationships between nutrient and physiological responses. The new function was successfully applied to fit the nutritional data obtained from 6 experiments including a wide range of nutrients and responses. An evaluation and comparison were also done based simulated data sets to check the suitability of new model and four-parameter logistic model for describing nutrient responses. This study indicates the usefulness and wide applicability of the new introduced, simple and flexible model when applied as a quantitative approach to characterizing nutrient-response curve. This new mathematical way to describe nutritional-response data, with some useful biological interpretations, has potential to be used as an alternative approach in modeling nutritional responses curve to estimate nutrient efficiency and requirements.

  4. A mathematical function for the description of nutrient-response curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Several mathematical equations have been proposed to modeling nutrient-response curve for animal and human justified on the goodness of fit and/or on the biological mechanism. In this paper, a functional form of a generalized quantitative model based on Rayleigh distribution principle for description of nutrient-response phenomena is derived. The three parameters governing the curve a) has biological interpretation, b) may be used to calculate reliable estimates of nutrient response relationships, and c) provide the basis for deriving relationships between nutrient and physiological responses. The new function was successfully applied to fit the nutritional data obtained from 6 experiments including a wide range of nutrients and responses. An evaluation and comparison were also done based simulated data sets to check the suitability of new model and four-parameter logistic model for describing nutrient responses. This study indicates the usefulness and wide applicability of the new introduced, simple and flexible model when applied as a quantitative approach to characterizing nutrient-response curve. This new mathematical way to describe nutritional-response data, with some useful biological interpretations, has potential to be used as an alternative approach in modeling nutritional responses curve to estimate nutrient efficiency and requirements.

  5. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. PMID:26773034

  6. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Potential Development Essential Oil Production of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.

  8. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  9. Macropinocytosis: A Metabolic Adaptation to Nutrient Stress in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Recouvreux

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenic mutations, such as Ras mutations, drive not only enhanced proliferation but also the metabolic adaptations that confer to cancer cells the ability to sustain cell growth in a harsh tumor microenvironment. These adaptations might represent metabolic vulnerabilities that can be exploited to develop novel and more efficient cancer therapies. Macropinocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved endocytic pathway that permits the internalization of extracellular fluid via large endocytic vesicles known as macropinosomes. Recently, macropinocytosis has been determined to function as a nutrient-scavenging pathway in Ras-driven cancer cells. Macropinocytic uptake of extracellular proteins, and their further degradation within endolysosomes, provides the much-needed amino acids that fuel cancer cell metabolism and tumor growth. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that govern the process of macropinocytosis, as well as discuss recent work that provides evidence of the important role of macropinocytosis as a nutrient supply pathway in cancer cells.

  10. Macropinocytosis: A Metabolic Adaptation to Nutrient Stress in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recouvreux, Maria Victoria; Commisso, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations, such as Ras mutations, drive not only enhanced proliferation but also the metabolic adaptations that confer to cancer cells the ability to sustain cell growth in a harsh tumor microenvironment. These adaptations might represent metabolic vulnerabilities that can be exploited to develop novel and more efficient cancer therapies. Macropinocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved endocytic pathway that permits the internalization of extracellular fluid via large endocytic vesicles known as macropinosomes. Recently, macropinocytosis has been determined to function as a nutrient-scavenging pathway in Ras-driven cancer cells. Macropinocytic uptake of extracellular proteins, and their further degradation within endolysosomes, provides the much-needed amino acids that fuel cancer cell metabolism and tumor growth. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that govern the process of macropinocytosis, as well as discuss recent work that provides evidence of the important role of macropinocytosis as a nutrient supply pathway in cancer cells.

  11. Growth of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel in mine water treatment wetlands: effects of metal and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L

    2004-11-01

    The abandoned mine of Shilbottle Colliery, Northumberland, UK is an example of acidic spoil heap discharge that contains elevated levels of many metals. Aerobic wetlands planted with the common reed, Phragmites australis, were constructed at the site to treat surface runoff from the spoil heap. The presence of a perched water table within the spoil heap resulted in the lower wetlands receiving acidic metal contaminated water from within the spoil heap while the upper wetland receives alkaline, uncontaminated surface runoff from the revegetated spoil. This unique situation enabled the comparison of metal uptake and growth of plants used in treatment schemes in two cognate wetlands. Results indicated a significant difference in plant growth between the two wetlands in terms of shoot height and seed production. Analyses of metal and nutrient concentrations within plant tissues provided the basis for three hypotheses to explain these differences: (i) the toxic effects of high levels of metals in shoot tissues (ii) the inhibition of Ca (an essential nutrient) uptake by the presence of metals and H{sup +} ions, and (iii) low concentrations of bioavailable nitrogen sources resulting in nitrogen deficiency. This has important implications for the engineering of constructed wetlands in terms of the potential success of plant establishment and vegetation development.

  12. Growth of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel in mine water treatment wetlands: effects of metal and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesley C. Batty; Paul L. Younger [University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

    2004-11-01

    The abandoned mine of Shilbottle Colliery, Northumberland, UK is an example of acidic spoil heap discharge that contains elevated levels of many metals. Aerobic wetlands planted with the common reed, Phragmites australis, were constructed at the site to treat surface runoff from the spoil heap. The presence of a perched water table within the spoil heap resulted in the lower wetlands receiving acidic metal contaminated water from within the spoil heap while the upper wetland receives alkaline, uncontaminated surface runoff from the revegetated spoil. This unique situation enabled the comparison of metal uptake and growth of plants used in treatment schemes in two cognate wetlands. Results indicated a significant difference in plant growth between the two wetlands in terms of shoot height and seed production. Analyses of metal and nutrient concentrations within plant tissues provided the basis for three hypotheses to explain these differences: (i) the toxic effects of high levels of metals in shoot tissues, (ii) the inhibition of Ca (an essential nutrient) uptake by the presence of metals and H{sup +} ions, and (iii) low concentrations of bioavailable nitrogen sources resulting in nitrogen deficiency. This has important implications for the engineering of constructed wetlands in terms of the potential success of plant establishment and vegetation development.

  13. Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jill L; Smith, Rose; Juutinen, Sari; Moore, Tim R; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash

    2011-10-01

    Plants in nutrient-poor environments typically have low foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations, long-lived tissues with leaf traits designed to use nutrients efficiently, and low rates of photosynthesis. We postulated that increasing N availability due to atmospheric deposition would increase photosynthetic capacity, foliar N, and specific leaf area (SLA) of bog shrubs. We measured photosynthesis, foliar chemistry and leaf morphology in three ericaceous shrubs (Vaccinium myrtilloides, Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada, with a background deposition of 0.8 g N m(-2) a(-1). While biomass and chlorophyll concentrations increased in the highest nutrient treatment for C. calyculata, we found no change in the rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), carboxylation (V(cmax)), or SLA with nutrient (N with and without PK) addition, with the exception of a weak positive correlation between foliar N and A(max) for C. calyculata, and higher V(cmax) in L. groenlandicum with low nutrient addition. We found negative correlations between photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and foliar N, accompanied by a species-specific increase in one or more amino acids, which may be a sign of excess N availability and/or a mechanism to reduce ammonium (NH(4)) toxicity. We also observed a decrease in foliar soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, essential minerals for plant growth, but no change in polyamines, indicators of physiological stress under conditions of high N accumulation. These results suggest that plants adapted to low-nutrient environments do not shift their resource allocation to photosynthetic processes, even after reaching N sufficiency, but instead store the excess N in organic compounds for future use. In the long term, bog species may not be able to take advantage of elevated nutrients, resulting in them being replaced by species that are better adapted to a higher nutrient environment.

  14. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  15. Litter decomposition of Rhizophora stylosa in Sabang-Weh Island, Aceh, Indonesia; evidence from mass loss and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRMA DEWIYANTI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dewiyanti I (2010 Litter decomposition of Rhizophora stylosa in Sabang-Weh Island, Aceh, Indonesia; evidence from mass loss and nutrients. Biodiversitas 11: 139-144. Mangrove is an essential coastal ecosystem that provides nutrients to estuarine and its surrounding environments through its litter decomposition. This vegetation can be considered as an important ecosystem in food web along the coast. The research was conducted in mangrove forest in Sabang-Weh Island, Aceh. Rhizophora stylosa was dominant species of mangrove in the study area that still remains after tsunami catastrophe in 2004. This study was conducted from February to April 2008, and the purposes were to obtain the decomposition rate of senescent leaves and to measure mass loss, and nutrient contents of decomposing leaves under different inundation regime. Three plots were established in each site. Decomposition of R. stylosa leaves were studied by using litter bag technique. They were made of synthetic nylon which had size 20x30 cm and mesh size was 1x1.25 mm2. Senescent leaves were used because they present major leaves on the forest floor and started to decay. Remaining leaves decreased during experiment period because decomposition process had been taking placein the study area. Time required for decomposing a half of the initial material (t50 was 67 days and 63 days for site next to the land and site next to the sea, respectively. The decay rate can be expressed by the decay coefficient (K and the results of K were 0.010 and 0.011 (d-1. The value of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, C: N ratio and phosphorous (P during decomposition periods were no significant difference in sites but significant difference in time. The C: N ratio of decomposing leaves decreased in both sites. Low C: N ratio in the last of observation indicated that R. stylosa leaves were decomposed easier at the end of observation than that in the beginning of observation.

  16. Levels of Essential and Non-Essential Elements in Commercially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enebi Jasper

    as essential oils, vitamins, flavonoids, glycosides, etc.). ... and E. The leaves are also rich in β -carotene and are an exceptionally .... leaves. 8 .The mineral elements found in M. oleifera play both a curative and preventive role in combating human disease. Potassium. The presence of K in high amounts is of special interest ...

  17. LEVELS OF ESSENTIAL AND NON-ESSENTIAL METALS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    of Rhamnus prinoides which are used for bitterness of local alcoholic beverages in Ethiopia and as traditional medicine in some African countries. Levels of essential metals (Ca, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) and toxic metals (Cd and Pb) in the leaves and stems of Rhamnus prinoides (Gesho) cultivated in Ethiopia ...

  18. Levels of essential and non-essential elements in commercially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this study was to assess the quality of commercially packaged moringa tea brands available in the retail markets in Nigerian cities on the basis of the essential and nonessential elemental content in their tissues. Four different brands of moringa tea comprising two locally processed teas and two imported teas ...

  19. Generalized Nutrient Taxes Can Increase Consumer Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David

    2015-11-01

    Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Sensory Neurons that Detect Stretch and Nutrients in the Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Erika K; Chang, Rui B; Strochlic, David E; Umans, Benjamin D; Lowell, Bradford B; Liberles, Stephen D

    2016-06-30

    Neural inputs from internal organs are essential for normal autonomic function. The vagus nerve is a key body-brain connection that monitors the digestive, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. Within the gastrointestinal tract, vagal sensory neurons detect gut hormones and organ distension. Here, we investigate the molecular diversity of vagal sensory neurons and their roles in sensing gastrointestinal inputs. Genetic approaches allowed targeted investigation of gut-to-brain afferents involved in homeostatic responses to ingested nutrients (GPR65 neurons) and mechanical distension of the stomach and intestine (GLP1R neurons). Optogenetics, in vivo ganglion imaging, and genetically guided anatomical mapping provide direct links between neuron identity, peripheral anatomy, central anatomy, conduction velocity, response properties in vitro and in vivo, and physiological function. These studies clarify the roles of vagal afferents in mediating particular gut hormone responses. Moreover, genetic control over gut-to-brain neurons provides a molecular framework for understanding neural control of gastrointestinal physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.