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Sample records for provide additional stability

  1. When do anterior external or internal fixators provide additional stability in an unstable (Tile C) pelvic fracture? A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, E; Theologis, A A; Horst, P; Kandemir, U; Pekmezci, M

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the additional stability that is provided by anterior external and internal fixators in an unstable pelvic fracture model (OTA 61-C). An unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C) was created in 27 synthetic pelves by making a 5-mm gap through the sacral foramina (posterior injury) and an ipsilateral pubic rami fracture (anterior injury). The posterior injury was fixed with either a single iliosacral (IS) screw, a single trans-iliac, trans-sacral (TS) screw, or two iliosacral screws (S1S2). Two anterior fixation techniques were utilized: external fixation (Ex-Fix) and supra-acetabular external fixation and internal fixation (In-Fix); supra-acetabular pedicle screws connected with a single subcutaneous spinal rod. The specimens were tested using a nondestructive single-leg stance model. Peak-to-peak (P2P) displacement and rotation and conditioning displacement (CD) were calculated. The Ex-Fix group failed in 83.3 % of specimens with concomitant single-level posterior fixation (Total: 15/18-7 of 9 IS fixation, 8 of 9 TS fixation), and 0 % (0/9) of specimens with concomitant two-level (S1S2) posterior fixation. All specimens with the In-Fix survived testing except for two specimens treated with In-Fix combined with IS fixation. Trans-sacral fixation had higher pubic rotation and greater sacral and pubic displacement than S1S2 (p < 0.05). Rotation of the pubis and sacrum was not different between In-Fix constructs combined with single-level IS and TS fixation. In this model of an unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C), anterior fixation with an In-Fix was biomechanically superior to an anterior Ex-Fix in the setting of single-level posterior fixation. There was no biomechanical difference between the In-Fix and Ex-Fix when each was combined with two levels of posterior sacral fixation.

  2. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  3. Enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes in water-ethanol mixtures: negatively charged groups artificially introduced into alpha-chymotrypsin provide additional activation and stabilization effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, E V; Gladilin, A K; Vakurov, A V; Heitz, F; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1997-07-20

    Formation of noncovalent complexes between alpha-chymotrypsin (CT) and a polyelectrolyte, polybrene (PB), has been shown to produce two major effects on enzymatic reactions in binary mixtures of polar organic cosolvents with water. (i) At moderate concentrations of organic cosolvents (10% to 30% v/v), enzymatic activity of CT is higher than in aqueous solutions, and this activation effect is more significant for CT in complex with PB (5- to 7-fold) than for free enzyme (1.5- to 2.5-fold). (ii) The range of cosolvent concentrations that the enzyme tolerates without complete loss of catalytic activity is much broader. For enhancement of enzyme stability in the complex with the polycation, the number of negatively charged groups in the protein has been artificially increased by using chemical modification with pyromellitic and succinic anhydrides. Additional activation effect at moderate concentrations of ethanol and enhanced resistance of the enzyme toward inactivation at high concentrations of the organic solvent have been observed for the modified preparations of CT in the complex with PB as compared with an analogous complex of the native enzyme. Structural changes behind alterations in enzyme activity in water-ethanol mixtures have been studied by the method of circular dichroism (CD). Protein conformation of all CT preparations has not changed significantly up to 30% v/v of ethanol where activation effects in enzymatic catalysis were most pronounced. At higher concentrations of ethanol, structural changes in the protein have been observed for different forms of CT that were well correlated with a decrease in enzymatic activity. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 267-277, 1997.

  4. Stability issues in reconstitution by weapon addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-08-01

    Reconstitution of strategic forces by the unilateral uploading of additional weapons from initially symmetric modest force levels reduces first strike stability. These changes are quantified and traced to changes in first and second strike costs in a model of missile exchanges in which both strikes are optimized analytically.

  5. Stabilized zirconia with cerium and neodymium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, I.M. de; Pessoa, R.C.; Nasar, M.C.; Nasar, R.S.; Rodriques, M.K.C.; Oliveira, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Zr 0,9 Ce 0,05 Nd 0,05 O 1,975 system was synthesized with the use of the Pechini method. The polymeric resin was calcined at 350 deg C/3 h and analysed by FTIR that show bands relative to organic. Radicals esther type. The TGA curve indicated the polymeric decomposition occurring from 30 deg C to 740 deg C. DTA analysis show a exothermic peak in 100 deg C due to loss of water of material. From 500 deg C to 800 deg C was observed a intense peak due to polymer decomposition and the zirconia crystallization. The calcined powder from 350 deg C/3 h e 30 min to 900 deg/3 h were analysed by XRD that show the crystalline phase formation with the increase of temperature. The X-ray diffraction pattern show the presence of two phases, such as tetragonal and cubic of zirconia demonstrating that neodymium and cerium additions led to zirconia stabilization. (author)

  6. Use of additive material to stabilize the soil swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaee, B.; Estabragh, A. R.; Bordbar, A. T.; Eskandari, G. H.

    2009-04-01

    Change volume increasing of soil, because of increase in its humidity content causes appearing of swelling phenomenon in the soil. This phenomenon has created a lot of damages in the building which is constructed on this kind of soils. Usage the additive materials which stabilize the swelling, has been the subject of many researches. In this research the Potential expansibility of the expansive soils, which were stabilized by additive materials such as Lime, cement and coal ash, was investigated. To get this purpose, by preparing soil samples mixed with upper additive material, changes of potential swelling of stabilized soils were compared. The results revealed that usage of these stabilizing materials caused the decrease in destructive effects due to swelling of soils to some extent. Keywords: swelling, soil stabilizing, additive material, coal ash

  7. A hardness result for core stability in additive hedonic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woeginger, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of a decision problem in hedonic coalition formation games. We prove that core stability in additive hedonic games is complete for the second level of the polynomial hierarchy.

  8. Build platform that provides mechanical engagement with additive manufacturing prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amelia M.

    2018-03-06

    A build platform and methods of fabricating an article with such a platform in an extrusion-type additive manufacturing machine are provided. A platform body 202 includes features 204 that extend outward from the body 202. The features 204 define protrusive areas 206 and recessive areas 208 that cooperate to mechanically engage the extruded material that forms the initial layers 220 of an article when the article is being fabricated by a nozzle 12 of the additive manufacturing machine 10.

  9. Sintering nanodisperse zirconium powders with various stabilizing additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsiferov V.N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of various stabilizing additives on sintering kinetics of nanodisperse powders was studied by thermomechanical analysis. Temperature ranges of the most intense shrinking, characteristic points of shrinking rate changes were established. Peaks characterizing the most intense shrinking of nanodisperse zirconium powder samples were shown to allow to arrange the stabilizing additives as follows: Y2O3→CeO2→TiO2.

  10. Neutral insulin solutions physically stabilized by addition of Zn2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Havelund, S; Hommel, E; Sørensen, E; Kühl, C

    1986-01-01

    Commercial neutral insulin solutions, all of which contain 2-3 zinc atoms per hexameric unit of insulin, have a relatively limited physical stability when exposed to heat and movement, as for example in insulin infusion pumps. Physical stabilization of neutral insulin solutions has been obtained by addition of two extra Zn2+ per hexamer of insulin. This addition stabilizes porcine and human neutral solutions equally well and does not affect the chemical stability of the insulin. The stabilization is probably obtained by a further strengthening of the hexameric structure of insulin, so that the formation of insoluble insulin fibrils (via the dissociation into the insulin monomer or dimer) is impeded or prevented. The addition of an extra 2 Zn2+ has been shown to be without influence on the insulin immunogenicity in rabbits or on the rate of absorption after subcutaneous injection in diabetic patients. It is concluded that neutral insulin solution can be physically stabilized by addition of extra Zn2+ without affecting other qualities of the insulin preparation including chemical stability, immunogenicity, and duration of action after injection.

  11. JNC's experience of complementary accesses provided by the additional protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) examined problems on implementation of the Additional Protocol to Japan/IAEA Safeguards Agreement with the Government of Japan and International Atomic Energy Agency through trials performed at Oarai Engineering Center before it entered into force. On December 16th 1999, the Additional Protocol entered into force, and in last January JNC provided the first JNC site information to STA. Then our Government provided it of all Japan to IAEA in last June. Also in this January, we sent the additional information changed from old one to MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). The first Complementary Access of not only JNC but also Japan was implemented on JNC Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center on the end of last November. Since then, we have had over 10 times experience of Complementary Accesses for about one year especially on Tokai works and Ningyo-Toge. JNC's experience of Complementary Accesses will be introduced. (author)

  12. 75 FR 37971 - Providing Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Part IV The President Memorandum of June 25, 2010--Providing Stability and Security for Medicare Reimbursements #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 125 / Wednesday...

  13. Development of thermal stability additive packages for JP-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.D.; Harrison, W.E. III; Edwards, T.; Morris, R.W.; Shouse, D.T. [USAF Wright Lab., Wright-Paterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Advanced military aircraft use fuel as the primary heat sink to cool engine and airframe components. As the fuel is thermally stressed, thermal oxidative reactions take place that result in the formation of deposits. These deposits degrade aircraft performance and ultimately lead to premature servicing of the affected components. The frequency of these incidents, coupled with the projected cooling requirements for future systems, demonstrates that current thermal stability limits are inadequate. In response to this situation, the United States Air Force (USAF) has embarked on a program to improve thermal stability using specially formulated additive packages. Results indicate that additives offer significant thermal stability improvement. This paper describes the USAF program to develop and deploy an improved JP-8 for fleet-wide use by 1998.

  14. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) using commercial additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterelizable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its mechanical properties. Therefore, radiolytic of PMMA is important for it to become commercially radiosterizable. In this work some commercial additives, originally used in photo-and thermo-oxidate stabilization of polymers, were tested. Only two additives, type HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer), denoted Scavenger, showed a good protective quality. The investigation of radiation-induced main scissions was carried out by viscosimetric method. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.3 w/w%, promotes a great molecular radioprotection of 93%. That means a reduction of G-value (scissions/100 eV) from 0.611 to 0.053. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (T g ) of PMMA (no additive) significantly changed by radiation does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. The spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. (author)

  15. THERMOOXIDATIVE STABILITY OF JET FUEL WITH FULLERENES AS AN ADDITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.В. Іванов

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Heating of fuels in presence of oxygen reduces their thermal-oxidative stability, leads to a solid phase in the form of sludge and tar, which, sedimented at the details of the fuel system, change its characteristics and cause contamination of fuel filters and injectors, spool control sticking, reduce efficiency of heat exchangers. Nanomaterials, performance of which is considerably superior to the natural materials, are the basis for the movement of humanity's progress. Therefore, with a develpoment of technologies it has become necessary to carry out a research of modified additives – fullerens, to improve an oxidative stability of fuels. We have carried out an investigation of thermal-oxidative stability of fuel RT as a function of additive C60 concentration. The results has shown that even 0,043 g/l fullerene addition as an antioxidant, reduces the amount of sediment in the fuel almost by half. Usage of fullerenes for improvement of petroleum products performance properties is a promising area of research.

  16. Strong-stability-preserving additive linear multistep methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2018-02-20

    The analysis of strong-stability-preserving (SSP) linear multistep methods is extended to semi-discretized problems for which different terms on the right-hand side satisfy different forward Euler (or circle) conditions. Optimal perturbed and additive monotonicity-preserving linear multistep methods are studied in the context of such problems. Optimal perturbed methods attain larger monotonicity-preserving step sizes when the different forward Euler conditions are taken into account. On the other hand, we show that optimal SSP additive methods achieve a monotonicity-preserving step-size restriction no better than that of the corresponding nonadditive SSP linear multistep methods.

  17. Industrial Wastes as Auxiliary Additives to Cement/Lime Stabilization of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stabilization involves the use of chemical agents for initiating reactions within the soil for modification of its geotechnical properties. Cement and lime stabilization have been the most common stabilization methods adopted for soil treatment. Cement stabilization results in good compressive strengths and is preferred for cohesionless to moderately cohesive soil but loses effectiveness when the soil is highly plastic. Lime stabilization is the most preferred method for plastic clays; however, it proves to be ineffective in sulphate rich clays and performs poorly under extreme conditions. With such drawbacks, lots of researches have been undertaken to address the issues faced with each stabilization method, in particular, the use of solid wastes for soil stabilization. Solid waste reuse has gained high momentum for achieving sustainable waste management in recent times. Research has shown that the use of solid wastes as additives with and replacement for conventional stabilizers has resulted in better results than the performance of either individually. This review provides insight into some of the works done by earlier researchers on lime/cement stabilization with industrial wastes as additives and helps to form a sound platform for further research on industrial wastes as additives to conventional stabilizers.

  18. The Use of Nuclear Generation to Provide Power System Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Wyman-Pain; Yuankai Bian; Furong Li

    2016-01-01

    The decreasing use of fossil fuel power stations has a negative effect on the stability of the electricity systems in many countries. Nuclear power stations have traditionally provided minimal ancillary services to support the system but this must change in the future as they replace fossil fuel generators. This paper explains the development of the four most popular reactor types still in regular operation across the world which have formed the basis for most reactor dev...

  19. Organic additives stabilize RNA aptamer binding of malachite green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yubin; Chi, Hong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Marks, Robert S; Steele, Terry W J

    2016-11-01

    Aptamer-ligand binding has been utilized for biological applications due to its specific binding and synthetic nature. However, the applications will be limited if the binding or the ligand is unstable. Malachite green aptamer (MGA) and its labile ligand malachite green (MG) were found to have increasing apparent dissociation constants (Kd) as determined through the first order rate loss of emission intensity of the MGA-MG fluorescent complex. The fluorescent intensity loss was hypothesized to be from the hydrolysis of MG into malachite green carbinol base (MGOH). Random screening organic additives were found to reduce or retain the fluorescence emission and the calculated apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding. The protective effect became more apparent as the percentage of organic additives increased up to 10% v/v. The mechanism behind the organic additive protective effects was primarily from a ~5X increase in first order rate kinetics of MGOH→MG (kMGOH→MG), which significantly changed the equilibrium constant (Keq), favoring the generation of MG, versus MGOH without organic additives. A simple way has been developed to stabilize the apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding over 24h, which may be beneficial in stabilizing other triphenylmethane or carbocation ligand-aptamer interactions that are susceptible to SN1 hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, A; Cambon, C

    2009-03-01

    We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Omega(0)) and the additional "precessing" Coriolis force (with angular velocity -epsilonOmega(0)), normal to it. A "weak" shear flow, with rate 2epsilon of the same order of the Poincaré "small" ratio epsilon , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler's equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov's [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré's [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small epsilon . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet's theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small epsilon , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger epsilon values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally

  1. Strong-stability-preserving additive linear multistep methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis; Ketcheson, David I.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of strong-stability-preserving (SSP) linear multistep methods is extended to semi-discretized problems for which different terms on the right-hand side satisfy different forward Euler (or circle) conditions. Optimal perturbed

  2. Base Stabilization Guidance and Additive Selection for Pavement Design and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Significant improvements have been made in base stabilization practice that include design specifications and methodology, experience with the selection of stabilizing additives, and equipment for distribution and uniform blending of additives. For t...

  3. Nash Stability in Additively Separable Hedonic Games and Community Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    2009-01-01

      We prove that the problem of deciding whether a Nash stable   partition exists in an Additively Separable Hedonic Game is   NP-complete. We also show that the problem of deciding whether a   non trivial Nash stable partition exists in an   Additively Separable Hedonic Game with   non......-negative and symmetric   preferences is NP-complete. We motivate our study of the   computational complexity by linking Nash stable partitions in   Additively Separable Hedonic Games to community structures in   networks. Our results formally justify that computing community   structures in general is hard....

  4. Chemical stabilization of polymers: Implications for dermal exposure to additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, N; Girard, M; Schneider, L; Weijgert, V Van De; Wilde, A; Kappenstein, O; Vieth, B; Hutzler, C; Luch, A

    2018-04-16

    Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE. To this end, a tailor-made polymer was applied in aging studies that had been furnished with two different mixtures of phenol- and diarylamine-based antioxidants, plasticizers and processing aids. Upon accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of the material, the formation of LDPE degradation products was monitored with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Compared to pure LDPE, a protective effect of added antioxidants could be observed on the integrity of the polymer. Further, thermo-oxidative degradation of the additives and its kinetics were investigated using LDPE or squalane as matrix. The half-lives of additives in both matrices revealed significant differences between the tested additives as well as between LDPE and squalane. For instance, 2-tert-butyl-6-[(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenol (Antioxidant 2246) showed a half-life 12 times lower when incorporated in LDPE as compared to squalane. As a model for dermal exposure of consumers, human skin was brought into contact with the tailor-made LDPE containing additives ex vivo in static Franz diffusion cells. The skin was then analyzed for additives and decomposition products. This study proved 10 polymer additives of diverse pysicochemical properties and functionalities to migrate out of the polymer and eventually overcome the intact human skin barrier during contact. Moreover, their individual distribution within

  5. Core Stability in Chain-Component Additive Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Solymosi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Chain-component additive games are graph-restricted superadditive games, where an exogenously given line-graph determines the cooperative possibilities of the players.These games can model various multi-agent decision situations, such as strictly hierarchical organisations or sequencing / scheduling

  6. Effects of additives on thermal stability of Li ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Roth, E. Peter; Crafts, Chris C.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Henriksen, Gary; Amine, Khalil

    Li ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles, because these cells offer superior combination of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are proposed for battery systems in both internal combustion engine and fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicles. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial applications. The thermal-abuse response of Li ion cells has been improved by the incorporation of more stable anode carbons and electrolyte additives. Electrolyte solutions containing vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFP) as well as some proprietary flame-retardant additives were evaluated. Test cells in the 18,650 configuration were built at Sandia National Laboratories using new stable electrode materials and electrolyte additives. A special test fixture was designed to allow determination of self-generated cell heating during a thermal ramp profile. The flammability of vented gas and expelled electrolyte was studied using a novel arrangement of a spark generator placed near the cell to ignite vent gas if a flammable gas mixture was present. Flammability of vent gas was somewhat reduced by the presence of certain additives. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was also used to characterize 18,650-size test cell heat and gas generation. Gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and was found to consist of CO 2, H 2, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene and small amounts of C1-C4 organic molecules.

  7. Valency stabilization of Polyvalent Iron Ions in Solution By some Organic additives during Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Abdel Hamid, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Valency stabilization of polyvalent ions in gamma irradiated aqueous solutions is sometimes necessary for the success of some chemical operations. In some previous publications valency stabilization of some polyvalent ions in solution upon gamma irradiation was achieved by using additives capable of interacting with the oxidizing or reducing species formed by water radiolysis in the medium. The results showed that the duration of valency stabilization depends on the concentration of the additives used.In the present work, a series of some organic additives has been used to investigate their capability in inducing valency stabilization of polyvalent iron ions when subjected to extended gamma irradiation periods. The results showed that the efficiency of valency stabilization depends on the amount and chemical structure of the organic additive used

  8. Influence of additives on the stability of the phases of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, D.C.C.; Gouvea, D.

    2011-01-01

    Problems with the stability of gamma alumina in catalytic reactions have been solved with the inclusion of additives during the synthesis of alumina. These additives stabilize the temperature of phase transition allowing the use of metastable alumina at high temperatures, but the mechanisms of action of additives are not well defined. It is known that each family of additive or additives behaves in different ways for this stabilization. This work aimed to study the performance of MgO and ZrO 2 , respectively at different concentrations in alumina synthesized via Pechini. The samples were analyzed by DSC, X-ray diffraction, measurement of specific surface area by BET analysis, and infrared analysis. The results showed an increase in transition temperature for both additives, and a different changes for specific surface area, showing that MgO and ZrO 2 work on improving the stability but with distinct mechanisms. (author)

  9. Effect of small addition of Cr on stability of retained austenite in high carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Rumana; Pahlevani, Farshid, E-mail: f.pahlevani@unsw.edu.au; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2017-03-15

    High carbon steels with dual phase structures of martensite and austenite have considerable potential for industrial application in high abrasion environments due to their hardness, strength and relatively low cost. To design cost effective high carbon steels with superior properties, it is crucial to identify the effect of Chromium (Cr) on the stability of retained austenite (RA) and to fully understand its effect on solid-state phase transition. This study addresses this important knowledge gap. Using standard compression tests on bulk material, quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, nano-indentation on individual austenitic grains, transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction–based orientation microscopy techniques, the authors investigated the effect of Cr on the microstructure, transformation behaviour and mechanical stability of retained austenite in high carbon steel, with varying Cr contents. The results revealed that increasing the Cr %, altered the morphology of the RA and increased its stability, consequently, increasing the critical pressure for martensitic transformation. This study has critically addressed the elastoplastic behaviour of retained austenite – and provides a deep understanding of the effect of small additions of Cr on the metastable austenite of high carbon steel from the macro- to nano-level. Consequently, it paves the way for new applications for high carbon low alloy steels. - Highlights: • Effect of small addition of Cr on metastable austenite of high carbon steel from the macro- to nano-level • A multi-scale study of elastoplastic behaviour of retained austenite in high carbon steel • The mechanical stability of retained austenite during plastic deformation increased with increasing Cr content • Effect of grain boundary misorientation angle on hardness of individual retained austenite grains in high carbon steel.

  10. 46 CFR 173.025 - Additional intact stability standards: Counterballasted vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE Lifting § 173.025 Additional intact stability standards: Counterballasted vessels. (a) Each vessel equipped to counterballast while lifting must be shown... loading and operation and at each combination of hook load and crane radius. (b) When doing the...

  11. Simulation of longitudinal differential protection of transmission lines with additional stabilization and APU system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Tomislav D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the algorithm for the longitudinal differential protection of transmission lines with automatic reclosing. Classic stabilization is not sufficient for avoiding of unnecessary operations caused by saturation of current transformer. This problem can occur during the fault plased outside of the protected zone of the transmission line. It is shown how unnecessary operation can occur during the outside fault whithout using of additional stabilization. The different types of faults were simulated and comparison of relay operations with and without additional stabilization is presented. The simulations were performed on the three-phase model of the transmission line formed by using of MATLAB/Simulink program.

  12. Prey-predator dynamics with prey refuge providing additional food to predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Joydev; Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of interplay between prey refugia and additional food are reported. • Hopf bifurcation conditions are derived analytically. • Existence of unique limit cycle is shown analytically. • Predator extinction may be possible at very high prey refuge ecological systems. - Abstract: The impacts of additional food for predator on the dynamics of a prey-predator model with prey refuge are investigated. The equilibrium points and their stability behaviours are determined. Hopf bifurcation conditions are derived analytically. Most significantly, existence conditions for unique stable limit cycle in the phase plane are shown analytically. The analytical results are in well agreement with the numerical simulation results. Effects of variation of refuge level as well as the variation of quality and quantity of additional food on the dynamics are reported with the help of bifurcation diagrams. It is found that high quality and high quantity of additional food supports oscillatory coexistence of species. It is observed that predator extinction possibility in high prey refuge ecological systems may be removed by supplying additional food to predator population. The reported theoretical results may be useful to conservation biologist for species conservation in real world ecological systems.

  13. Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Vijayakumar, M.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-01-01

    The stability of the electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow battery was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment and in-situ flow-battery testing methods. The effects of inorganic and organic additives have been studied. The additives containing the ions of potassium, phosphate, and polyphosphate are not suitable stabilizing agents because of their reactions with V(V) ions, forming precipitates of KVSO6 or VOPO4. Of the chemicals studied, polyacrylic acid and its mixture with CH3SO3H are the most promising stabilizing candidates which can stabilize all the four vanadium ions (V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+) in electrolyte solutions up to 1.8 M. However, further effort is needed to obtain a stable electrolyte solution with >1.8 M V5+ at temperatures higher than 40 C.

  14. Ab initio study of effects of substitutional additives on the phase stability of γ-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kaiyun; Music, Denis; Sarakinos, Kostas; Schneider, Jochen M

    2010-01-01

    Using ab initio calculations, we have evaluated two structural descriptions of γ-Al 2 O 3 , spinel and tetragonal hausmannite, and explored the relative stability of γ-Al 2 O 3 with respect to α-Al 2 O 3 with 2.5 at.% of Si, Cr, Ti, Sc, and Y additives to identify alloying element induced electronic structure changes that impede the γ to α transition. The total energy calculations indicate that Si stabilizes γ-Al 2 O 3 , while Cr stabilizes α-Al 2 O 3 . As Si is added, a bond length increase in α-Al 2 O 3 is observed, while strong and short Si-O bonds are formed in γ-Al 2 O 3 , consequently stabilizing this phase. On the other hand, Cr additions induce a smaller bond length increase in α-Al 2 O 3 than in γ-Al 2 O 3 , therefore stabilizing the α-phase. The bulk moduli of γ-Al 2 O 3 with these additives show no significant changes. The phase stability and elastic property data discussed here underline the application potential of Si alloyed γ-Al 2 O 3 for applications at elevated temperatures. Furthermore it is evident that the tetragonal hausmannite structure is a suitable description for γ-Al 2 O 3 .

  15. Stabilization of Proteins and Noncovalent Protein Complexes during Electrospray Ionization by Amino Acid Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Lu, Haiyan; Chingin, Konstantin; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-07-21

    Ionization of proteins and noncovalent protein complexes with minimal disturbance to their native structure presents a great challenge for biological mass spectrometry (MS). In living organisms, the native structure of intracellular proteins is commonly stabilized by solute amino acids (AAs) accumulated in cells at very high concentrations. Inspired by nature, we hypothesized that AAs could also pose a stabilizing effect on the native structure of proteins and noncovalent protein complexes during ionization. To test this hypothesis, here we explored MS response for various protein complexes upon the addition of free AAs at mM concentrations into the electrospray ionization (ESI) solution. Thermal activation of ESI droplets in the MS inlet capillary was employed as a model destabilizing factor during ionization. Our results indicate that certain AAs, in particular proline (Pro), pose considerable positive effect on the stability of noncovalent protein complexes in ESI-MS without affecting the signal intensity of protein ions and original protein-ligand equilibrium, even when added at the 20 mM concentration. The data suggest that the degree of protein stabilization is primarily determined by the osmolytic and ampholytic characteristics of AA solutes. The highest stability and visibility of noncovalent protein complexes in ESI-MS are achieved using AA additives with neutral isoelectric point, moderate proton affinity, and unfavorable interaction with the native protein state. Overall, our results indicate that the simple addition of free amino acids into the working solution can notably improve the stability and accuracy of protein analysis by native ESI-MS.

  16. Effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological characteristics of the upgraded brown coal water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Datin Fatia; Muta'alim; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Upgraded brown coal water mixture (UBCWM) preparation by using an Indonesian upgraded coal produced by upgraded brown coal (UBC) process, was carried out to study the effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological behavior of the UBCWM. Three kinds of anionic dispersing additives, naphthalene sulfonic formaldehyde condensate (NSF), poly (meth) acrylate (PMA) and poly styrene sulfonic acid (PSS) and three kinds of stabilizing additives, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), rhansam gum (S-194) and gellan gum (S-60) were used in this study. Results indicate that the addition of NSF 0.3 wt.% together with S-194 0.01 wt.% is effective in preparing UBCWM with good slurryability and stability, based on its rheological characteristics with the apparent viscosity at shear rate of 100 s - 1 and yield stress at zero point of shear rate. The rheological behavior of all of the UBCWM that prepared, exhibits non-Newtonian Bingham plastic. From the economical point of view, the price of S-194 is expensive. On the other hand, CMC is cheap and abundant. Therefore, the addition of CMC 0.01 wt.% together with NSF 0.3 wt.% is also effective in preparing UBCWM with good fluidity and stability. (author)

  17. High-temperature grain size stabilization of nanocrystalline Fe–Cr alloys with Hf additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lulu, E-mail: lli18@ncsu.edu; Saber, Mostafa; Xu, Weizong; Zhu, Yuntian; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2014-09-08

    The influence of 1–4 at% Hf additions on the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline Fe–14Cr alloys was studied in this work. XRD-calculated grain size and microhardness results were reported versus isochronal annealing treatments up to 1100 °C. Microstructural evolution was investigated using channeling contrast FIB imaging and TEM. Grain size of samples with 4 at% Hf was found to be maintained in the nanoscale range at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Zener pinning was considered as a major source of high temperature grain size stabilization. By comparing the Orowan strengthening contribution to the total hardness, the deviation of grain size predictions from the actual grain size in Fe–14Cr–4Hf suggests the presence of thermodynamic stabilization by the solute segregation to grain boundaries (GBs). A predictive thermodynamic model indicates that the thermodynamic stabilization can be expected.

  18. The effect of leachate recirculation with enzyme cellulase addition on waste stability in landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffira, N.; Kristanto, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation is known to enhance waste stabilization. However, the composition of waste in Indonesia is comprised by organic waste which is lignocellulosic materials that considered take a long time to degrade under anaerobic condition. To accelerate the degradation process, enzyme addition is ought to do. Cellulase is an enzyme that can catalyse cellulose and other polysaccharide decomposition processes. Therefore, operation of waste degradation using leachate recirculation with a cellulase addition to enhance waste stabilization was investigated using anaerobic bioreactor landfill. The experiment was performed on 2 conditions; leachate recirculation with cellulase addition and recirculation only as a control. The addition of cellulase is reported to be significant in decreasing organic content, represented by volatile solid parameter. The volatile solid reduction in the cellulase augmented reactor and control reactor was 17.86% and 7.90%, respectively. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest cellulose reduction. Settlement of the landfill in a bioreactor with enzyme addition (32.67%) was reported to be higher than the control (19.33%). Stabilization of landfill review by the decreasing rate constant of the cellulose and lignin ratio parameter was more rapidly achieved by the enzyme addition (0.014 day-1) compared to control (0.002 day-1).

  19. Stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. Application to the construction of a stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detourne, G.

    1967-06-01

    This research is concerned with the stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. It is required to hold the calibration straight line of the spectrometer in a position which is fixed initially to better than 5x10 -5 channel. A prototype numerical stabilizer has been constructed : the SPECTROSTAB; it is made up of two independent control loops; one of these makes the spectrometer gain depend on the derivatives of a reference peak at high energies; the other makes the origin of the energy scale depend on the derivatives of a second reference peak at low energies A theoretical study of the behaviour of a control loop shows that a direct action stabilizer gives the most accurate stabilization; the loss in resolving power on the theoretical peaks of the spectra attains about 1 % with a scintillation detector, and 10 % with a semi-conductor detector. Various tests show that the expected results are obtained and that the displacement of the spectral peaks produced by the derivatives are hidden by errors in the calculation of the peak abscissae. (author) [fr

  20. Influence of additives on phase stabilization of scandia-doped zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, Eliana Navarro dos Santos; Grosso, Robson Lopes; Reis, Shirley Leite dos; Muccillo, Reginaldo, E-mail: enavarro@usp.br, E-mail: roblopeg@usp.br, E-mail: shirley.reis@usp.br, E-mail: muccillo@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    The effects of small additions of tin, zinc, calcium and boron oxides on phase composition and electrical conductivity of zirconia-10 mol% scandia were investigated. Compounds containing 1 mol% zinc, tin and calcium oxides and 1, 3 and 5 wt.% boron oxide were prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. Full stabilization of the cubic structure at room temperature was obtained with additions of 1 mol% calcium oxide and 2 wt.% boron oxide. Partially stabilized compounds exhibit herringbone structure, characteristic of the β- rhombohedric phase. Specimens with calcium as additive show total conductivity of 23.8 mS.cm{sup -1} at 750 deg C with activation energy of 1.13 eV. Liquid phase sintering by boron oxide addition is effective to enhance the densification of the solid electrolyte. (author)

  1. Non-Archimedean Hyers-Ulam Stability of an Additive-Quadratic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Azadi Kenary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using fixed point method and direct method, we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the following additive-quadratic functional equation 2((++/+2((−+/+2((+−/+2((−++/=4(+4(+4(, where is a positive real number, in non-Archimedean normed spaces.

  2. The conformational stability and flexibility of insulin with an additional intramolecular cross-link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brems, D.N.; Brown, P.L.; Nakagawa, S.H.; Tager, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conformational stability and flexibility of insulin containing a cross-link between the alpha-amino group of the A-chain to the epsilon-amino group of Lys29 of the B-chain was examined. The cross-link varied in length from 2 to 12 carbon atoms. The conformational stability was determined by guanidine hydrochloride-induced equilibrium denaturation and flexibility was assessed by H2O/D2O amide exchange. The cross-link has substantial effects on both conformational stability and flexibility which depend on its length. In general, the addition of a cross-link enhances conformational stability and decreases flexibility. The optimal length for enhanced stability and decreased flexibility was the 6-carbon link. For the 6-carbon link the Gibbs free energy of unfolding was 8.0 kcal/mol compared to 4.5 kcal/mol for insulin, and the amide exchange rate decreased by at least 3-fold. A very short cross-link (i.e. the 2-carbon link) caused conformational strain that was detectable by a lack of stabilization in the Gibbs free energy of unfolding and enhancement in the amide exchange rate compared to insulin. The effect of the cross-link length on insulin hydrodynamic properties is discussed relative to previously obtained receptor binding results

  3. Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rumer, Joseph W.; Ashraf, Raja S.; Eisenmenger, Nancy D.; Huang, Zhenggang; Meager, Iain; Nielsen, Christian B.; Schroeder, Bob C.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; McCulloch, Iain

    2015-01-01

    A bis-azide-based small molecule crosslinker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a noninvasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dual Function Additives: A Small Molecule Crosslinker for Enhanced Efficiency and Stability in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rumer, Joseph W.

    2015-02-01

    A bis-azide-based small molecule crosslinker is synthesized and evaluated as both a stabilizing and efficiency-boosting additive in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Activated by a noninvasive and scalable solution processing technique, polymer:fullerene blends exhibit improved thermal stability with suppressed polymer skin formation at the cathode and frustrated fullerene aggregation on ageing, with initial efficiency increased from 6% to 7%. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Addition of Fish Oil to Cream Cheese Affects Lipid Oxidation, Sensory Stability and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Horsewell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the oxidative stability during storage of fish oil enriched cream cheeses when fish oil was added either as neat oil or pre-emulsified oil with sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, or a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids as emulsifier. Results showed that the addition of fish oil decreased the oxidative stability of cream cheeses regardless of the addition method, especially when the cheese was stored longer than five weeks. The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched cream cheeses was highest when fish oil was added as neat oil or in a delivery emulsion prepared with a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids. Adding the fish oil in a delivery emulsion prepared with whey protein or caseinate resulted in a less oxidative stable product. It was furthermore shown that the microstructure of the cream cheeses was affected by fish oil addition, and it was suggested that the change in microstructure was partly responsible for the oxidative stability of the cream cheeses.

  6. Insulin analog with additional disulfide bond has increased stability and preserved activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Norrman, Mathias; Ribel, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone controlling glucose homeostasis. All known vertebrate insulin analogs have a classical structure with three 100% conserved disulfide bonds that are essential for structural stability and thus the function of insulin. It might be hypothesized that an additional disulfide...... bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use. To address this hypothesis, we designed insulin with an additional interchain disulfide bond in positions A10/B4 based on Cα-Cα distances, solvent exposure, and side-chain orientation in human insulin...... (HI) structure. This insulin analog had increased affinity for the insulin receptor and apparently augmented glucodynamic potency in a normal rat model compared with HI. Addition of the disulfide bond also resulted in a 34.6°C increase in melting temperature and prevented insulin fibril formation...

  7. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  8. EFFECT OF PHYTOGENIC ADDITIVES ON OXIDATION STABILITY OF FROZEN CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bobko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oxidative stability of frozen chicken breast and thigh muscle after application of feed mixtures enriched by phytogenic additives was investigated. The 150 pieces one-day-old chicks of Cobb 500 hybrid combination were divided into three groups: C - control group, G1 – experimental group with addition 1000 mg kg-1 Biostrong 510 + FortiBac and G2 – experimental group with addition 1000 mg kg-1 Agolin Acid.  The broiler chickens were fed during 42 days by ad libitum. Samples of chicken breast and thigh muscle were analysed in the 1st day and after 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th month of frozen storage at -18 °C. During testing period we recorded positive influence of phytogenic additives on oxidative stability of chicken meat in experimental groups (G1, G2. After 6th month of frozen storage, we found higher malondialdehyde (MDA values and lower oxidative stability of breast muscle in control group (0.167 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups G1 (0.149 mg.kg-1 and G2 (0.145 mg.kg-1. Similar tendency of oxidative changes as in the breast muscle was recorded in the thigh muscle. At the end of frozen storage MDA average values of thigh muscle were higher in control group (0.181 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups (G1 - 0.163 mg.kg-1 and G2 - 0.160 mg.kg-1.  Based on the obtained results we can stated, that phytogenic additives applied in chicken nutrition had positive influence of, namely on oxidation stability of fatty substances.

  9. The Strength Behaviour of Lime Stabilized Organic Clay Soil Modified by Catalyst Additeives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khitam Abdulhussein Saeed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The organic clay soil can be found in many large size reclaimed lands. These soils present enormously high settlement potential and low strength that needs to be improved by means of effective ground improvement techniques. One of the low cost techniques is to modify the soil with lime in-situ to make it suitable for construction and allow it to increase in strength by pozzolanic reactions between lime and clay minerals. Lime is known to be an effective stabilization material for clayey soil. Nevertheless, its effectiveness may be less with organic clay due to low effective strength properties. Thus, this study concerns the addition of catalyst i.e. zeolite which may improve the performance of lime stabilization to accelerate lime-organic clay reactions. The unconfined compressive test (UCT is conducted on remoulded samples (38mm x 80mm for 0, 7, 14 , 28, and 90 days of curing period. The addition of synthetic zeolite in lime-organic stabilized soil has increased the soil strength by 185% at 90 days curing period at the design mix of organic clay + 10% lime +10% zeolite. The higher value of UCS indicates that zeolite is an effective catalyst to enhance lime stabilization.

  10. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase I: Soil washing final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration and technology development activities, GTS Duratek, Inc., and its subcontractors have demonstrated an integrated thermal waste treatment system at Fernald, OH, as part the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. Specifically, MAWS integrates soil washing, vitrification of mixed waste streams, and ion exchange to recycle and remediate process water to achieve, through a synergistic effect, a reduction in waste volume, increased waste loading, and production of a durable, leach-resistant, stable waste form suitable for disposal. This report summarizes the results of the demonstration/testing of the soil washing component of the MAWS system installed at Fernald (Plant 9). The soil washing system was designed to (1) process contaminated soil at a rate of 0.25 cubic yards per hour; (2) reduce overall waste volume and provide consistent-quality silica sand and contaminant concentrates as raw material for vitrification; and (3) release clean soil with uranium levels below 35 pCi/g. Volume reductions expected ranged from 50-80 percent; the actual volume reduction achieved during the demonstration reached 66.5 percent. The activity level of clean soil was reduced to as low as 6 pCi/g from an initial average soil activity level of 17.6 pCi/g (the highest initial level of soil provided for testing was 41 pCi/g). Although the throughput of the soil washing system was inconsistent throughout the testing period, the system was online for sufficient periods to conclude that a rate equivalent to 0.25 cubic yards per hour was achieved

  11. Vitrification of F006 plating waste sludge by Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Solidification into glass of nickel-on-uranium plating wastewater treatment plant sludge (F006 Mixed Waste) has been demonstrated at the Savannah River She (SRS). Vitrification using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), greatly enhanced the solubility and retention of heavy metals In glass. The bench-scale tests using RASP achieved 76 wt% waste loading In both soda-lime-silica and borosilicate glasses. The RASP has been Independently verified by a commercial waste management company, and a contract awarded to vitrify the approximately 500,000 gallons of stored waste sludge. The waste volume reduction of 89% will greatly reduce the disposal costs, and delisting of the glass waste is anticipated. This will be the world's first commercial-scale vitrification system used for environmental cleanup of Mixed Waste. Its stabilization and volume reduction abilities are expected to set standards for the future of the waste management Industry

  12. Positron annihilation study of yttria-stabilized zirconia nanopowders containing Cr2O3 additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, I; Cizek, J; Melikhova, O; Kuriplach, J; Konstantinova, T E; Danilenko, I A

    2011-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia compacted nanopowders, doped with trivalent chromium oxide, were studied by means of high-resolution positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening techniques. The observed data suggest that positrons annihilate mainly in vacancylike defects at grain boundaries or in larger open volumes most likely located at triple points. The results also show that an addition of Cr 2 O 3 leads to a decrease in grain size.

  13. Progressive taxation as a tool for providing the budget system stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita A. Vakhtina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the alternative additional sources of income of the state budget in the framework of the action plan of the Russian government to provide socioeconomic stability of the country in 2016. Methods comparative and dynamic analysis classification and typology description and measurements including using the tools of institutional Economics the data were interpreted using tables. Results it is shown that due to the lack of financial resources the government has to make unpopular decisions that reduce the level of social support of the population for the near future. The adopted laws stipulating the principles of address character and needs when providing regional measures of social support increase the risks of poverty and inequality. The analysis has been made of the ranking position of Russia and member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in terms of GDP per capita human development index and quality of life index. The article grounds the need for institutional change to facilitate transition to progressive taxation and redistribution of the tax burden from the poor and middle classes to the super rich. The flat personal income tax rate has not led to the desired results of growing tax revenues in the budget. Russia is still among the top ten states with the largest tax evasion losses. The weak redistributive mechanisms including a flat scale of personal income tax regressive social security contributions and low property taxes lead to stagnation inequality underfunding of education and health. Scientific novelty the article proves the conclusion about need of institutional transformations associated with changing the current tax policy priorities. The transition to a progressive scale of income and wealth taxation promotes the transfer of tax burden from the middle and poor to the rich. These measures can provide a double economic effect. On the one hand the principle of effective taxation

  14. A study for providing additional storage spaces to ET-RR-1 spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, A.; Ashoub, N.; Saleh, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    The ET-RR-1 reactor spent fuel storage pool is a trapezoidal aluminum tank concrete shield and of capacity 10 m 3 . It can hold up to 60 fuel assemblies. The long operation history of the ET-RR-1 reactor resulted in a partially filled spent fuel storage with the remaining spaces not enough to host a complete load from the reactor. This work have been initiated to evaluate possible alternative solutions for providing additional storage spaces to host the available EK-10 fuel elements after irradiation and any foreseen fuel in case of reactor upgrading. Several alternate solutions have been reviewed and decision on the most suitable one is under study. These studies include criticality calculation of some suggested alternatives like reracking the present spent fuel storage pool and double tiering by the addition of a second level storage rack above the existing rack. The two levels may have different factor. Criticality calculation of the double tiering possible accident was also studied. (author)

  15. Effect of different phytogenic additives on oxidation stability of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bobko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stability (TBARS method of breast and thigh muscle after application of feed mixtures enriched by phytogenic additives. The experiment started with 150 pieces one-day-old chicks of Cobb 500 hybrid combination. They were divided into one control (C and two experimental groups (1st EG and 2nd EG. Each group included 50 chicks. In experimental groups, feed additives were applied as followed: 100 mg.kg-1 Agolin Poultry (in the 1st EG and 500 mg.kg-1 Agolin Tannin Plus (in the 2nd EG. Experimental broiler chickens were fed during 42 days by ad libitum. Chicken meat samples of breast and thigh muscle were analysed in the 1st day, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th month of storage in frozen storage at -18 °C. We recorded positive influence on chicken meat oxidative stability in all experimental groups with application of phytogenic feed additives. Obtained results showed that applied phytogenic additives had positive influence on oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles. At the end of frozen storage (in 6th month, we found higher malondialdehyde (MDA values and lower oxidative stability (p <0.05 of breast muscle in control group (0.167 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups (from 0.150 mg.kg-1 in 1. EG to 0.155 mg.kg-1 in 2. EG. In the thigh muscle, we found similar tendency of oxidative changes as in the breast muscle. At the end of frozen storage (in the 6th month, MDA average values of thigh muscle were higher (p <0.05 in control group (0.181 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups (1. EG 0.164 mg.kg-1 and 2. EG 0.169 mg.kg-1. Significant differences (p <0.05 between the control and experimental groups were found from the 5th month of storage in thigh and breast muscle. Obtained results indicate positive influence of phytogenic additives applied in chicken nutrition, namely on stabilization of fatty substance to degradation processes. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0

  16. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHICKEN MEAT AFTER APPLICATION PHYTOGENIC ADDITIVES IN THEIR DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bobko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stability (TBARS method of breast and thigh muscle after application of feed mixtures enriched by phytogenic additives. The experiment started with 250 pieces one-day-old chicks of Cobb 500 hybrid combination. They were divided into one control (C and four experimental groups (1st EG, 2nd EG, 3rd EG, 4th EG. Each group included 50 chicks. In experimental groups, feed additives were applied as followed: 100 mg kg-1 Agolin Poultry (in the 1st EG, 500 mg kg-1 Agolin Tannin Plus (in the 2nd EG, 1000 mg kg-1 Biostrong 510 + FortiBac (in the 3rd EG and 1000 mg kg-1 Agolin Acid (in the 4th EG. We recorded positive influence on chicken meat oxidative stability in all experimental groups with application of plant feed additives. Experimental broiler chickens were fed during 42 days by ad libitum. Chicken meat samples of breast and thigh muscle were analyzed in the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day of storage in cold conditions at 4 °C. Obtained results showed that applied phytogenic additives had positive influence on oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles. At the end of cold store (in 7th day, we found higher malondialdehyde (MDA values and lower oxidative stability (P<0.05 of breast muscle in control group (0.157 mg kg-1 compared to experimental groups (from 0.124 mg kg-1 in the 3rd EG to 0.133 mg kg-1 in the 1st EG. In the thigh muscle, we found similar tendency of oxidative changes as in the breast muscle. At the end of cold store (in the 7th day, MDA average values of thigh muscle were higher (P<0.05 in control group (0.179 mg kg-1 compared to experimental groups (from 0.136 mg kg-1 in the 4th EG to 0.141 mg kg-1 in the 1st EG. Significant differences (P<0.05 between the control and experimental groups were found from the 5th day of storage in thigh muscle in contrast to breast muscle. Obtained results indicate positive influence of phytogenic additives applied in chicken nutrition, namely on

  17. Experimental Study of Hydrogen Addition Effects on a Swirl-Stabilized Methane-Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of H2 addition on a premixed methane-air flame was studied experimentally with a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor. Experiments with 0%, 25%, and 50% H2 molar fraction in the fuel mixture were conducted under atmospheric pressure. The primary objectives are to study the impacts of H2 addition on flame lean blowout (LBO limits, flame shapes and anchored locations, flow field characteristics, precessing vortex core (PVC instability, as well as the CO emission performance. The flame LBO limits were identified by gradually reducing the equivalence ratio until the condition where the flame physically disappeared. The time-averaged CH chemiluminescence was used to reveal the characteristics of flame stabilization, e.g., flame structure and stabilized locations. In addition, the inverse Abel transform was applied to the time-averaged CH results so that the distribution of CH signal on the symmetric plane of the flame was obtained. The particle image velocimetry (PIV was used to detect the characteristics of the flow field with a frequency of 2 kHz. The snapshot method of POD (proper orthogonal decomposition and fast Fourier transform (FFT were adopted to capture the most prominent coherent structures in the turbulent flow field. CO emission was monitored with an exhaust probe that was installed close to the combustor exit. The experimental results indicated that the H2 addition extended the flame LBO limits and the operation range of low CO emission. The influence of H2 addition on the flame shape, location, and flow field was observed. With the assistance of POD and FFT, the combustion suppression impacts on PVC was found.

  18. Influence of dispersing additives and blend composition on stability of marine high-viscosity fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Митусова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a definition of the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel from the point of view of the colloid-chemical concept of oil dispersed systems. The necessity and importance of the inclusion in the current regulatory requirements of this quality parameter of high-viscosity marine fuel is indicated. The objects of the research are high-viscosity marine fuels, the basic components of which are heavy oil residues: fuel oil that is the atmospheric residue of oil refining and viscosity breaking residue that is the product of light thermal cracking of fuel oil. As a thinning agent or distillate component, a light gas oil was taken from the catalytic cracking unit. The stability of the obtained samples was determined through the xylene equivalent index, which characterizes the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel to lamination during storage, transportation and operation processes. To improve performance, the resulting base compositions of high-viscosity marine fuels were modified by introducing small concentrations (0.05 % by weight of stabilizing additives based on oxyethylated amines of domestic origin and alkyl naphthalenes of foreign origin.

  19. Certain Actions from the Functional Movement Screen Do Not Provide an Indication of Dynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G.; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Jordan, Corrin A.; Luczo, Tawni M.; Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Jalilvand, Farzad; Schultz, Adrian B.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stability is an essential physical component for team sport athletes. Certain Functional Movement Screen (FMS) exercises (deep squat; left- and right-leg hurdle step; left- and right-leg in-line lunge [ILL]; left- and right-leg active straight-leg raise; and trunk stability push-up [TSPU]) have been suggested as providing an indication of dynamic stability. No research has investigated relationships between these screens and an established test of dynamic stability such as the modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT), which measures lower-limb reach distance in posteromedial, medial, and anteromedial directions, in team sport athletes. Forty-one male and female team sport athletes completed the screens and the mSEBT. Participants were split into high-, intermediate-, and low-performing groups according to the mean of the excursions when both the left and right legs were used for the mSEBT stance. Any between-group differences in the screens and mSEBT were determined via a one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustment (p in any of the screens, and only two positive correlations between the screens and the mSEBT (TSPU and right stance leg posteromedial excursion, r = 0.37; left-leg ILL and left stance leg posteromedial excursion, r = 0.46). The mSEBT clearly indicated participants with different dynamic stability capabilities. In contrast to the mSEBT, the selected FMS exercises investigated in this study have a limited capacity to identify dynamic stability in team sport athletes. PMID:26557187

  20. Certain Actions from the Functional Movement Screen Do Not Provide an Indication of Dynamic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockie Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stability is an essential physical component for team sport athletes. Certain Functional Movement Screen (FMS exercises (deep squat; left- and right-leg hurdle step; left- and right-leg in-line lunge [ILL]; left- and right-leg active straight-leg raise; and trunk stability push-up [TSPU] have been suggested as providing an indication of dynamic stability. No research has investigated relationships between these screens and an established test of dynamic stability such as the modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT, which measures lower-limb reach distance in posteromedial, medial, and anteromedial directions, in team sport athletes. Forty-one male and female team sport athletes completed the screens and the mSEBT. Participants were split into high-, intermediate-, and low-performing groups according to the mean of the excursions when both the left and right legs were used for the mSEBT stance. Any between-group differences in the screens and mSEBT were determined via a one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustment (p < 0.05. Data was pooled for a correlation analysis (p < 0.05. There were no between-group differences in any of the screens, and only two positive correlations between the screens and the mSEBT (TSPU and right stance leg posteromedial excursion, r = 0.37; left-leg ILL and left stance leg posteromedial excursion, r = 0.46. The mSEBT clearly indicated participants with different dynamic stability capabilities. In contrast to the mSEBT, the selected FMS exercises investigated in this study have a limited capacity to identify dynamic stability in team sport athletes.

  1. Expert panel on additional cross subsidisation. Considering arguments and providing expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Lowe, S.; Mason, A.

    2007-10-01

    In the period end 2005 till September 2006 MVA London in cooperation with SEO Amsterdam was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Transport to perform an analysis of the economic and competition effects of the different proposals from the European Commission to include aviation in the European Emission Trading System (ETS). Roughly at the same time CE Delft was commissioned to study the overall impacts of this inclusion for the European Commission. Both studies considered the possibility that inclusion of aviation in the ETS could lead to the distortion of competition between airlines through cross-subsidisation. The studies concluded differently on additional possibilities for cross-subsidisation. As a result, both parties have different views on the possible distortion of the competitive market on routes where EU-based carriers compete directly with carriers based outside the EU. CE Delft concluded that 'none of the policy options considered in this study will significantly damage the competitive position of EU airlines relative to non-EU airlines'. In contrast, MVA and SEO (2006) concluded that 'effective cross-subsidisation by non-EU carriers in the Departing EU scope of the ETS appears to be more probable than cross-subsidisation by EU network carriers in the Intra-EU scope of the ETS'. In July 2007, the Dutch Ministry of Transport, DGTL commissioned CE Delft, MVA and SEO to study the causes for their different opinions and to see whether a further investigation could shed more light on the likelihood of additional cross-subsidisation. Formally, the aim of the work currently carried out is: (1) To determine whether it is possible to assess the impacts on the competitive market between EU based carriers and non-EU based carriers based on sound economic reasoning and analysis of empirical data; and, if so, (2) to determine whether the inclusion of aviation in ETS as proposed by the European Commission will offer non-EU airlines the opportunity to increase their

  2. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability

  3. [Influence of autoclave sterilization on dimensional stability and detail reproduction of 5 additional silicone impression materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tong-kai; Sun, Zhi-hui; Jiang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability and detail reproduction of five additional silicone impression materials after autoclave sterilization. Impressions were made on the ISO 4823 standard mold containing several marking lines, in five kinds of additional silicone. All the impressions were sterilized by high temperature and pressure (135 °C, 212.8 kPa) for 25 min. Linear measurements of pre-sterilization and post-sterilization were made with a measuring microscope. Statistical analysis utilized single-factor analysis with pair-wise comparison of mean values when appropriate. Hypothesis testing was conducted at alpha = 0.05. No significant difference was found between the pre-sterilization and post-sterilization conditions for all locations, and all the absolute valuse of linear rate of change less than 8%. All the sterilization by the autoclave did not affect the surfuce detail reproduction of the 5 impression materials. The dimensional stability and detail reproduction of the five additional silicone impression materials in the study was unaffected by autoclave sterilization.

  4. The conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte upon addition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Farzana Abd.; Salleh, Fauzani Md.; Mohamed, Nor Sabirin

    2017-12-01

    The effect of graphene composition on the conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte was studied. These polymer composite solid electrolytes were synthesized by sol gel method and prepared via the solution-casting technique. The compositions of graphene were varied between 10 wt% to 70 wt%. The changes in the functional group of polymer composite after the addition of graphene were characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted at ambient temperature in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz to study the conductivity of the polymer composite. The highest conductivity was obtained at 60 wt% graphene with the value of 2.85×10-4 Scm-1. Sample without the addition of graphene showed the lowest conductivity value of 1.77×10-7 Scm-1 and acts as an insulator. The high conductivity at 60 wt% graphene loading is related to dehydration of cellulose. This is supported by the FTIR spectrum where the absorption peaks of C-O stretching vibrations of polymer composite is weakened and the hydroxyl group is slightly shifted compared to the FTIR spectrum without the addition of graphene. Linear sweep voltammetry results demonstrated that the polymer composite solid electrolyte exhibited electrochemical stability up to 3.2 V.

  5. Effects of mineral additives on biochar formation: carbon retention, stability, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiyue; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Jianfei; Ding, Zhenliang

    2014-10-07

    Biochar is being recognized as a promising tool for long-term carbon sequestration, and biochar with high carbon retention and strong stability is supposed to be explored for that purpose. In this study, three minerals, including kaolin, calcite (CaCO3), and calcium dihydrogen phosphate [Ca(H2PO4)2], were added to rice straw feedstock at the ratio of 20% (w/w) for biochar formation through pyrolysis treatment, aiming to improve carbon retention and stabilization in biochar. Kaolin and CaCO3 had little effect on the carbon retention, whereas Ca(H2PO4)2 increased the carbon retention by up to 29% compared to untreated biochar. Although the carbon loss from the kaolin-modified biochar with hydrogen peroxide oxidation was enhanced, CaCO3 and Ca(H2PO4)2 modification reduced the carbon loss by 18.6 and 58.5%, respectively. Moreover, all three minerals reduced carbon loss of biochar with potassium dichromate oxidation from 0.3 to 38.8%. The microbial mineralization as CO2 emission in all three modified biochars was reduced by 22.2-88.7% under aerobic incubation and 5-61% under anaerobic incubation. Enhanced carbon retention and stability of biochar with mineral treatment might be caused by the enhanced formation of aromatic C, which was evidenced by cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Our results indicated that the three minerals, especially Ca(H2PO4)2, were effective in increasing carbon retention and strengthening biochar stabilization, which provided a novel idea that people could explore and produce the designated biochar with high carbon sequestration capacity and stability.

  6. Effect of copper additions in tin molten pool on stability temperature and critical current of Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzliak, J.; Hutka, P.; Tomasich, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tested is the effect of 55 at% copper addition into the tin bath on the stability temperature and crytical current of Nb 3 Sn, prepared by the diffusion method. It is shown that copper presence in the tin bath transfers the stability temperature of NbSn 2 and Nb 6 Sn 5 phases below the annealing temperature of 700 deg C. It results in Nb 3 Sn appearance at the annealing temperatures above 600 deg C. The critical current increase is explained as follows: lower Nb 3 Sn appearance temperatures provide fine-grained structure of superconducting Nb 3 Sn layer with greater density of binning centers and with higher critical current in accordance with NbSn prepared by the diffusion of pure tin into niobium

  7. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.; Maitino, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    Stabilization traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. Typical contaminants are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP-the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC-the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California's and EPA's, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens). The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements

  8. Carvacrol, a food-additive, provides neuroprotection on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Yu

    Full Text Available Carvacrol (CAR, a naturally occurring monoterpenic phenol and food additive, has been shown to have antimicrobials, antitumor, and antidepressant-like activities. A previous study demonstrated that CAR has the ability to protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of CAR on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that CAR (50 mg/kg significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. This neuroprotection was in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with CAR still provided protection on infarct volume when it was administered intraperitoneally at 2 h after reperfusion; however, intracerebroventricular post-treatment reduced infarct volume even when the mice were treated with CAR at 6 h after reperfusion. These findings indicated that CAR has an extended therapeutic window, but delivery strategies may affect the protective effects of CAR. Further, we found that CAR significantly decreased the level of cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, suggesting the anti-apoptotic activity of CAR. Finally, our data indicated that CAR treatment increased the level of phosphorylated Akt and the neuroprotection of CAR was reversed by a PI3K inhibitor LY-294002, demonstrating the involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of CAR. Due to its safety and wide use in the food industry, CAR is a promising agent to be translated into clinical trials.

  9. CORE STABILIZATION EXERCISES AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION SURGERY PROVIDES BETTER OUTCOMES: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpreet Kaur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased core stability displaces center of gravity away from base of support reducing activity participation of athlete. Present study was conducted to study the effect of core stabilization exercises after reconstruction surgery of ACL on functional outcomes. Methods: 30 subjects following 5 months of ACL reconstruction were randomly assigned to either group that performed (study group or did not performed (control group additional core stabilization exercises in conjugation with standard rehabilitation protocol. Outcome measures were: activity level using Tegnar activity level scale and functional performance using triple hop test. Outcome measures were compared at day 1 and day 42 of the treatment. Result: Significant improvement was seen in the study group for Tegnar score with mean difference changing from 4.5 to 1.5 from day 1 to day 42 of treatment (p=0.039 while the control group showed improvement in mean difference changing from 3.8 to 1.4 (p=.045 from day 1 to day 42 of treatment. Highly significant improvement was seen in the study group for triple hop test with mean difference changing from 25 to 6.7 (p<.001 compared to the control group with mean difference changing from 15.2 to 9.7(p=.005 from day 1 to day 42 of treatment. Conclusions: Both the groups showed improvement for activity level and functional performance but highly significant improvement was seen in the study group for functional performance. Core stabilization exercises in conjugation with the standard ACL rehabilitation protocol results better improvement in the triple hop test.

  10. Stabilizing additives added during cell lysis aid in the solubilization of recombinant proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Leibly

    Full Text Available Insoluble recombinant proteins are a major issue for both structural genomics and enzymology research. Greater than 30% of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli appear to be insoluble. The prevailing view is that insolubly expressed proteins cannot be easily solubilized, and are usually sequestered into inclusion bodies. However, we hypothesize that small molecules added during the cell lysis stage can yield soluble protein from insoluble protein previously screened without additives or ligands. We present a novel screening method that utilized 144 additive conditions to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. These selected additives are natural ligands, detergents, salts, buffers, and chemicals that have been shown to increase the stability of proteins in vivo. We present the methods used for this additive solubility screen and detailed results for 41 potential drug target recombinant proteins from infectious organisms. Increased solubility was observed for 80% of the recombinant proteins during the primary and secondary screening of lysis with the additives; that is 33 of 41 target proteins had increased solubility compared with no additive controls. Eleven additives (trehalose, glycine betaine, mannitol, L-Arginine, potassium citrate, CuCl(2, proline, xylitol, NDSB 201, CTAB and K(2PO(4 solubilized more than one of the 41 proteins; these additives can be easily screened to increase protein solubility. Large-scale purifications were attempted for 15 of the proteins using the additives identified and eight (40% were prepared for crystallization trials during the first purification attempt. Thus, this protocol allowed us to recover about a third of seemingly insoluble proteins for crystallography and structure determination. If recombinant proteins are required in smaller quantities or less purity, the final success rate may be even higher.

  11. STABILITY OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN AND AROUND THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE HD 47186 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamical stability of an additional, potentially habitable planet in the HD 47186 planetary system. Two planets are currently known in this system: a 'hot Neptune' with a period of 4.08 days and a Saturn-mass planet with a period of 3.7 years. Here we consider the possibility that one or more undetected planets exist between the two known planets and possibly within the habitable zone (HZ) in this system. Given the relatively low masses of the known planets, additional planets could have masses ∼ + , and hence be terrestrial-like and further improving potential habitability. We perform N-body simulations to identify the stable zone between planets b and c and find that much of the inner HZ can harbor a 10 M + planet. With the current radial velocity threshold of ∼1 m s -1 , an additional planet should be detectable if it lies at the inner edge of the habitable zone at 0.8 AU. We also show that the stable zone could contain two additional planets of 10 M + each if their eccentricities are lower than ∼0.3.

  12. Influence of additives on the stability of the phases of alumina; Influencia de aditivos na estabilidade das fases da alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, D.C.C.; Gouvea, D., E-mail: deisedorosario@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Laboratorio de Processos Ceramicos

    2011-07-01

    Problems with the stability of gamma alumina in catalytic reactions have been solved with the inclusion of additives during the synthesis of alumina. These additives stabilize the temperature of phase transition allowing the use of metastable alumina at high temperatures, but the mechanisms of action of additives are not well defined. It is known that each family of additive or additives behaves in different ways for this stabilization. This work aimed to study the performance of MgO and ZrO{sub 2}, respectively at different concentrations in alumina synthesized via Pechini. The samples were analyzed by DSC, X-ray diffraction, measurement of specific surface area by BET analysis, and infrared analysis. The results showed an increase in transition temperature for both additives, and a different changes for specific surface area, showing that MgO and ZrO{sub 2} work on improving the stability but with distinct mechanisms. (author)

  13. Decision support system of e-book provider selection for library using Simple Additive Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptayani, P. I.; Dewi, K. C.

    2018-01-01

    Each library has its own criteria and differences in the importance of each criterion in choosing an e-book provider for them. The large number of providers and the different importance levels of each criterion make the problem of determining the e-book provider to be complex and take a considerable time in decision making. The aim of this study was to implement Decision support system (DSS) to assist the library in selecting the best e-book provider based on their preferences. The way of DSS works is by comparing the importance of each criterion and the condition of each alternative decision. SAW is one of DSS method that is quite simple, fast and widely used. This study used 9 criteria and 18 provider to demonstrate how SAW work in this study. With the DSS, then the decision-making time can be shortened and the calculation results can be more accurate than manual calculations.

  14. Industrial Wastes as Auxiliary Additives to Cement/Lime Stabilization of Soils

    OpenAIRE

    James, Jijo; Pandian, P. Kasinatha

    2016-01-01

    Chemical stabilization involves the use of chemical agents for initiating reactions within the soil for modification of its geotechnical properties. Cement and lime stabilization have been the most common stabilization methods adopted for soil treatment. Cement stabilization results in good compressive strengths and is preferred for cohesionless to moderately cohesive soil but loses effectiveness when the soil is highly plastic. Lime stabilization is the most preferred method for plastic clay...

  15. Biliary complications following orthotopic liver transplantation: May contrast-enhanced MR Cholangiography provide additional information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Boraschi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR Cholangiography may improve the level of diagnostic confidence provided by conventional T2-weighted MR Cholangiography in the evaluation of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  16. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-Cu x Sb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.

  17. Stability of a Generalized Euler-Lagrange Type Additive Mapping and Homomorphisms in C∗-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X,Y be Banach modules over a C∗-algebra and let r1,…,rn∈ℝ be given. We prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the following functional equation in Banach modules over a unital C∗-algebra: ∑j=1nf(−rjxj+∑1≤i≤n,i≠jrixi+2∑i=1nrif(xi=nf(∑i=1nrixi. We show that if ∑i=1nri≠0, ri,rj≠0 for some 1≤iadditive. As an application, we investigate homomorphisms in unital C∗-algebras.

  18. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, P.; Savoini, B.; Ferrari, B.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Sanchez-Herencia, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y 2 O 3 ) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y 2 O 3 has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y 2 O 3 addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y 2 O 3 addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y 2 O 3 as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca 2+ with Y 3+ ions appears to promote the formation of OH − vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: ► We reveal the influence of Y 2 O 3 on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. ► Incorporation of Y 2 O 3 delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. ► Addition of Y 2 O 3 enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  19. Storage stability of milk-cans with the addition of maltodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the study of the safety milk-containing canned food. The examine sample has multicomponent non-standard composition. The part of components is presented by food additives of a plant origin. The composition of product was varied for improvement of its properties and increase of storage stability. Starch treacly additives were widely expansion in the dairy industry. In milk-containing tinned was decided to replace partially a sweet component – sugar with maltodextrin. As maltodextrin possesses less sweet taste, the basic component was replaced partially. The manufacturing process of the product involves mixing the dry components in order to obtain the desired properties. The technology excludes process of evaporation and use of the expensive volume equipment. For comparison of properties of development investigated a reference template. The reference template s a product of a classical formulation which includes the origin of the components of milk and sugar. Organoleptic properties are studied of two samples. Defined that taste, a smell, appearance and a consistence of development and a control sample are similar on the first periods of storage. However, the consistence of a control sample is aggravating after 6 months of storage. In process of investigation is determined such parameters as the water activity, the dynamic viscosity and the active acidity. Values of these indicators for a new product are in rated limits, but they are much lower than the reference. Carried out the analysis of the received results. We concluded that milkcontaining tinned with maltodextrin have a high storage stability and better performance compared to the control sample.

  20. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on the type of services or supplies the provider or supplier type will furnish and bill Medicare. (3... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... documentation includes written and electronic documents (including the NPI of the physician who ordered the home...

  2. A genomic island provides Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 additional copper resistance: a possible competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Luis H; Jerez, Carlos A

    2011-11-01

    There is great interest in understanding how extremophilic biomining bacteria adapt to exceptionally high copper concentrations in their environment. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 genome possesses the same copper resistance determinants as strain ATCC 23270. However, the former strain contains in its genome a 160-kb genomic island (GI), which is absent in ATCC 23270. This GI contains, amongst other genes, several genes coding for an additional putative copper ATPase and a Cus system. A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 showed a much higher resistance to CuSO(4) (>100 mM) than that of strain ATCC 23270 (<25 mM). When a similar number of bacteria from each strain were mixed and allowed to grow in the absence of copper, their respective final numbers remained approximately equal. However, in the presence of copper, there was a clear overgrowth of strain ATCC 53993 compared to ATCC 23270. This behavior is most likely explained by the presence of the additional copper-resistance genes in the GI of strain ATCC 53993. As determined by qRT-PCR, it was demonstrated that these genes are upregulated when A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 is grown in the presence of copper and were shown to be functional when expressed in copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutants. Thus, the reason for resistance to copper of two strains of the same acidophilic microorganism could be determined by slight differences in their genomes, which may not only lead to changes in their capacities to adapt to their environment, but may also help to select the more fit microorganisms for industrial biomining operations. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  3. Computerized analysis of isometric tension studies provides important additional information about vasomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration-response curves of isometric tension studies on isolated blood vessels are obtained traditionally. Although parameters such as Imax, EC50 and pA2 may be readily calculated, this method does not provide information on the temporal profile of the responses or the actual nature of the reaction curves. Computerized data acquisition systems can be used to obtain average data that represent a new source of otherwise inaccessible information, since early and late responses may be observed separately in detail

  4. 34 CFR 645.13 - What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are they...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional services do Upward Bound Math and... Program? § 645.13 What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are... provided under § 645.11(b), an Upward Bound Math and Science Center must provide— (1) Intensive instruction...

  5. Carbon doped PDMS: conductance stability over time and implications for additive manufacturing of stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Rocha, Rui; Osorio, Luis; Almeida, Miguel; De Almeida, Anibal; Ramachandran, Vivek; Tabatabai, Arya; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Carbon doped PDMS (cPDMS), has been used as a conductive polymer for stretchable electronics. Compared to liquid metals, cPDMS is low cost and is easier to process or to print with an additive manufacturing process. However, changes on the conductance of the carbon based conductive PDMS (cPDMS) were observed over time, in particular after integration of cPDMS and the insulating polymer. In this article we investigate the process parameters that lead to improved stability over conductance of the cPDMS over time. Slight modifications to the fabrication process parameters were conducted and changes on the conductance of the samples for each method were monitored. Results suggested that change of the conductance happens mostly after integration of a pre-polymer over a cured cPDMS, and not after integration of the cPDMS over a cured insulating polymer. We show that such changes can be eliminated by adjusting the integration priority between the conductive and insulating polymers, by selecting the right curing temperature, changing the concentration of the carbon particles and the thickness of the conductive traces, and when possible by changing the insulating polymer material. In this way, we obtained important conclusions regarding the effect of these parameters on the change of the conductance over time, that should be considered for additive manufacturing of soft electronics. Also, we show that these changes can be possibly due to the diffusion from PDMS into cPDMS. (paper)

  6. Treating electrolytic manganese residue with alkaline additives for stabilizing manganese and removing ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changbo; Wang, Jiwei [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Nanfang [Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) from the electrolytic manganese industry is a solid waste containing mainly calcium sulfate dihydrate and quartzite. It is impossible to directly use the EMR as a building material due to some contaminants such as soluble manganese, ammonia nitrogen and other toxic substances. To immobilize the contaminants and reduce their release into the environment, treating EMR using alkaline additives for stabilizing manganese and removing ammonia was investigated. The physical and chemical characteristics of the original EMR were characterized by XRFS, XRD, and SEM. Leaching test of the original EMR shows that the risks to the environment are the high content of soluble manganese and ammonia nitrogen. The influence of various alkaline additives, solidifying reaction time, and other solidifying reaction conditions such as outdoor ventilation and sunlight, and rain flow on the efficiencies of Mn{sup 2+} solidification and ammonia nitrogen removal was investigated. The results show that with mass ratio of CaO to residue 1 : 8, when the solidifying reaction was carried out indoors for 4 h with no rain flow, the highest efficiencies of Mn{sup 2+} solidification and ammonia nitrogen removal (99.98% and 99.21%) are obtained. Leaching test shows that the concentration and emission of manganese and ammonia nitrogen of the treated EMR meets the requirements of the Chinese government legislation (GB8978-1996)

  7. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150 degrees C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150 degrees C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150 degrees C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs

  8. Treating electrolytic manganese residue with alkaline additives for stabilizing manganese and removing ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Changbo; Wang, Jiwei; Wang, Nanfang

    2013-01-01

    Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) from the electrolytic manganese industry is a solid waste containing mainly calcium sulfate dihydrate and quartzite. It is impossible to directly use the EMR as a building material due to some contaminants such as soluble manganese, ammonia nitrogen and other toxic substances. To immobilize the contaminants and reduce their release into the environment, treating EMR using alkaline additives for stabilizing manganese and removing ammonia was investigated. The physical and chemical characteristics of the original EMR were characterized by XRFS, XRD, and SEM. Leaching test of the original EMR shows that the risks to the environment are the high content of soluble manganese and ammonia nitrogen. The influence of various alkaline additives, solidifying reaction time, and other solidifying reaction conditions such as outdoor ventilation and sunlight, and rain flow on the efficiencies of Mn"2"+ solidification and ammonia nitrogen removal was investigated. The results show that with mass ratio of CaO to residue 1 : 8, when the solidifying reaction was carried out indoors for 4 h with no rain flow, the highest efficiencies of Mn"2"+ solidification and ammonia nitrogen removal (99.98% and 99.21%) are obtained. Leaching test shows that the concentration and emission of manganese and ammonia nitrogen of the treated EMR meets the requirements of the Chinese government legislation (GB8978-1996)

  9. Benzalkonium Chloride Provides Remarkable Stability to Liquid Protein Lures for Trapping Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, R; Williams, T

    2017-12-05

    Hydrolyzed protein lures are widely used to monitor fruit fly pests but are rapidly degraded by microbial activity and must be replaced frequently. To improve the stability of lures, the quaternary ammonium biocide, benzalkonium chloride (BC), was evaluated in mixtures with two hydrolyzed proteins commonly used to monitor Anastrepha spp. The mean number of Anastrepha obliqua adults captured during six consecutive weeks using Captor + borax with the addition of 240 mg BC/liter, not renewed during the test, was similar to Captor + borax that was replaced at weekly intervals and was more effective than Captor + borax without BC. Numbers of A. obliqua flies captured in 30% CeraTrap diluted in water containing 240 mg BC/liter were similar to those caught in traps baited with Captor + borax or 30% CeraTrap without BC in the first 9 d of evaluation but was significantly more effective than both lures after 56 d. After >2 mo of use, 30% CeraTrap containing 240 mg BC/liter remained as effective as newly prepared 30% CeraTrap. The addition of BC to lures reduced surface tension of liquid lures by ~40-50%. However, when BC was increased to 720 mg BC/liter, only a small additional reduction in surface tension was observed and higher concentrations of BC did not increase capture rates. These findings could contribute to reduced costs for trapping networks and the development of long-lasting formulations of liquid protein lures for bait stations and mass-trapping targeted at major tephritid pests. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, P., E-mail: pparente@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Savoini, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Ferrari, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Sanchez-Herencia, A.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca{sup 2+} with Y{sup 3+} ions appears to promote the formation of OH{sup -} vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reveal the influence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  11. Stability of cracked naphthas from thermal and catalytic processes and their additive response. Part 1. Evaluation of stability and additive response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Joshi, G.C.; Rastogi, S.N. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    1995-05-01

    Olefinic naphthas derived from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) or thermal cracking units are increasingly being used in high-octane motor gasoline with growing concern for resulting fuel quality. Hindered phenols and substituted arylamines are the two classes of antioxidants generally used for improving the stability of gasoline. The olefin types in cracked naphthas depend strongly on the process from which they are derived and hence are expected to show different responses with different antioxidants. However, systematic information on this aspect of antioxidant action is non-existent in the literature. Using two representative commercial antioxidants from each class with representative naphthas (FCC, visbreaking and coker), it was found that phenolic antioxidants gave a better response with thermally cracked naphthas. With amine-type antioxidants no clear preference could be observed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Microstructure and high temperature stability of age hardenable AA2219 aluminium alloy modified by Sc, Mg and Zr additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, P. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, IIT-Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: puvvala_nagaraju@yahoo.com; Srinivasa Rao, K. [Metallurgical Engineering Department, Andhra University, Visakapatnam 530003 (India); Reddy, G.M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500258 (India); Kamaraj, M.; Prasad Rao, K. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, IIT-Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-08-25

    The present work pertains to the improvement of high temperature stability of age hardenable AA2219 aluminium-copper (6.3%) alloy. Addition of scandium, magnesium and zirconium to the base metal AA2219 was adopted to improve this high temperature stability. These additions were systematically varied by preparing alloys of different composition using gas tungsten arc melting. Long time ageing studies and impression creep technique were used to study the high temperature stability of the alloys. These modified compositions of the alloy resulted in fine equiaxed grains, refined eutectics, large number of high temperature stable and finer precipitates. Among all the compositions, 0.8% Sc + 0.45% Mg + 0.2% Zr addition was found to be significant in improving the high temperature stability of AA2219 alloy. This may be attributed to the possible microstructural changes, solute enrichment of the matrix and pinning of the grain boundaries by the finer precipitates.

  13. Low silicon U(Al,Si)3 stabilization by Zr addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizarro, L.M.; Alonso, P.R.; Rubiolo, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous knowledge states that (U,Zr)Al 3 and U(Al,Si) 3 phases with Zr and Si content higher than 6 at.% (7.7 wt%) and 4 at.% (1.4 wt%), respectively, does not partially transform to UAl 4 at 600 o C. In this work, four alloys within the quaternary system U-Al-Si-Zr were made with a fixed nominal 0.18 at.% (0.1 wt%) Si content in order to assess the synergetic effect of both Zr and Si alloying elements to the thermodynamic stability of the (U,Zr)(Al,Si) 3 phase. Heat treatments at 600 deg. C were undertaken and samples were analyzed by means of XRD, EPMA and EDS techniques. A remarkable conclusion is that addition of 0.3 at.% Si in the (U,Zr)(Al,Si) 3 phase reduces in 2.7 at.% the necessary Zr content to inhibit its transformation to U(Al,Si) 4 .

  14. Effect of Co3O4 addition on densification of 8 mil% Yttria stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilo, J.P.F.; Neto, P.P.B.; Souza, G.L.; Macedo, D.A.; Paskocimas, C.A.; Nascimento, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    8 mol% Yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) is the most common material used as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In recent years, many research efforts have been focused on trying to reduce its sintering temperature with a view of the possibility of co-sintering of the anode/electrolyte interface. In this context, the use of sintering aids is a major technological routes used to enhance the densification of YSZ. In this work, Co 3 O 4 powders obtained by the Pechini method were used as sintering aids for 8YSZ. The effect of the addition of Co 3 O 4' (between 0.075 and 1 wt.%) in the densification of 8YSZ was investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and density measurements. The results indicated that the optimum temperature sintering decreases with increasing content of Co 3 O 4 . The best content of the sintering aid was 0.25 wt.%, for this content was obtained value of relative density above 90% after sintering at temperatures as low as 1350 deg C. (author)

  15. Effect of SiO2 addition in the zirconia stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, R.C.; Lima, U.R.; Nasar, M.C.; Nasar, R.S.; Yoshida, I.V.P.; Acchar, W.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this work was investigated the zirconia stabilization with a mixture of resins based on silico nas promoting the Zr O 2 /Si O 2 formation. The powder was heated and characterized by TGA, DTA, FTIR, XRD and SEM/EDS. The results indicated the tetragonal and cubic phase formation stabilized at 1000 deg C/2 h. The increase of calcing temperature promoted decrease of stabilization. The amorphous silica calcined at 1000 deg C induced defects into the zirconia structure and favour the formation of more stable phases. The decrease of stabilization at high temperatures are related to growth of crystallite above of critical value. (author)

  16. Network Physics - the only company to provide physics-based network management - secures additional funding and new executives

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Network Physics, the only provider of physics-based network management products, today announced an additional venture round of $6 million in funding, as well as the addition of David Jones as president and CEO and Tom Dunn as vice president of sales and business development" (1 page).

  17. Improved thermal stability and oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–N coating by Si addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Yang, Bing; Xu, Yuxiang; Pei, Fei; Zhou, Liangcai; Du, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Addition of Si is very effective in upgrading the machining performance and thermal properties of Al–Ti–N coating. Here, we concentrate on the thermal stability and oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–Si–N coating. Alloying with Si favors the growth of wurtzite phase, and thereby causes a drop in hardness from ∼ 34.5 to 28.7 GPa. However, Si-containing coating retards the formation of w-AlN during thermal annealing, and thereby behaves a high hardness value of ∼ 31.3 GPa after annealing at T a = 1100 °C. After 10 h exposure in air at 850 °C, Al–Ti–N coating is fully oxidized. Incorporation of Si significantly improves the oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–N due to the combined effects with the promoted formation of Al-oxide rich top-scale and retarded transformation of anatase (a-) TiO 2 into rutile (r-) TiO 2 , where only ∼ 1.43 μm oxide scale is shown after oxidation at 1100 °C for 15 h. Noticeable is that the worst oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–Si–N coating in the temperature range from 800 to 1100 °C is obtained at 950 °C with oxide scale of ∼ 1.76 μm due to the fast formation of r-TiO 2 . Additionally, a pre-oxidation at 1000 °C has a positive effect on the oxidation resistance of Al–Ti–Si–N coating, which is attributed to the formation of Al-oxide rich top-scale, and thus inhibits the outward diffusion of metal atoms and inward diffusion of O. - Highlights: • Si as a substitutional solid solution and via the formation of a-Si 3 N 4 coexists. • Si addition favors the growth of wurtzite phase and causes a decreased hardness. • Alloying with Si improves the oxidation resistance of AlTiN. • AlTiSiN behaves the worst oxidation resistance at 950 °C from 800 to 1100 °C. • A pre-oxidation at 1000 °C improves the oxidation resistance of AlTiSiN coating

  18. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen O Martinson

    Full Text Available A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  19. The effects of Cu addition on the microstructure and thermal stability of an Al-Mg-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Jin; Jing, Li; Jie, Shao Guang

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cu addition on the microstructure and thermal stability of 6082 Al-Mg-Si alloys were investigated. The results show the Q' precipitates are formed when aged at 170 o C for 4 h in 6082 alloy with 0.6% Cu addition. The hardness value of the alloy with 0.6% Cu is always distinctly higher than that of the alloy without Cu during isothermal treatment at 250 o C. Based on the TEM and three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) results, the thermal stability of the 6082 alloys with Cu addition is discussed with respect to the distribution of Cu

  20. Improved Efficiency and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells Induced by CO Functionalized Hydrophobic Ammonium-Based Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhifang; Raga, Sonia R; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Yao, Xuyang; Jiang, Yan; Ono, Luis K; Ning, Zhijun; Tian, He; Qi, Yabing

    2018-01-01

    Because of the rapid rise of the efficiency, perovskite solar cells are currently considered as the most promising next-generation photovoltaic technology. Much effort has been made to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. Here, it is demonstrated that the addition of a novel organic cation of 2-(6-bromo-1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)ethan-1-ammonium iodide (2-NAM), which has strong Lewis acid and base interaction (between CO and Pb) with perovskite, can effectively increase crystalline grain size and reduce charge carrier recombination of the double cation FA 0.83 MA 0.17 PbI 2.51 Br 0.49 perovskite film, thus boosting the efficiency from 17.1 ± 0.8% to 18.6 ± 0.9% for the 0.1 cm 2 cell and from 15.5 ± 0.5% to 16.5 ± 0.6% for the 1.0 cm 2 cell. The champion cell shows efficiencies of 20.0% and 17.6% with active areas of 0.1 and 1.0 cm 2 , respectively. Moreover, the hysteresis behavior is suppressed and the stability is improved. The result provides a promising route to further elevate efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells by the fine tuning of triple organic cations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Haptic Cues for Balance: Use of a Cane Provides Immediate Body Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sozzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haptic cues are important for balance. Knowledge of the temporal features of their effect may be crucial for the design of neural prostheses. Touching a stable surface with a fingertip reduces body sway in standing subjects eyes closed (EC, and removal of haptic cue reinstates a large sway pattern. Changes in sway occur rapidly on changing haptic conditions. Here, we describe the effects and time-course of stabilization produced by a haptic cue derived from a walking cane. We intended to confirm that cane use reduces body sway, to evaluate the effect of vision on stabilization by a cane, and to estimate the delay of the changes in body sway after addition and withdrawal of haptic input. Seventeen healthy young subjects stood in tandem position on a force platform, with eyes closed or open (EO. They gently lowered the cane onto and lifted it from a second force platform. Sixty trials per direction of haptic shift (Touch → NoTouch, T-NT; NoTouch → Touch, NT-T and visual condition (EC-EO were acquired. Traces of Center of foot Pressure (CoP and the force exerted by cane were filtered, rectified, and averaged. The position in space of a reflective marker positioned on the cane tip was also acquired by an optoelectronic device. Cross-correlation (CC analysis was performed between traces of cane tip and CoP displacement. Latencies of changes in CoP oscillation in the frontal plane EC following the T-NT and NT-T haptic shift were statistically estimated. The CoP oscillations were larger in EC than EO under both T and NT (p < 0.001 and larger during NT than T conditions (p < 0.001. Haptic-induced effect under EC (Romberg quotient NT/T ~ 1.2 was less effective than that of vision under NT condition (EC/EO ~ 1.5 (p < 0.001. With EO cane had little effect. Cane displacement lagged CoP displacement under both EC and EO. Latencies to changes in CoP oscillations were longer after addition (NT-T, about 1.6 s than withdrawal (T-NT, about 0.9 s of haptic

  2. Thermal stability and filterability of jet fuels containing PDR additives in small-scale tests and realistic rig simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauldreay, J.M.; Clark, R.H.; Heins, R.J. [Shell Research, Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Specification, small-scale and realistic fuel simulation tests have addressed concerns about the impact of pipeline drag reducer (PDR) flow modifying additives on jet fuel handling and performance. A typical PDR additive tended to block filters which were similar to those used in the specification Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) and other thermal stability test apparatus. Blockages reduced flow rates and PDR concentrations downstream of the filters. Consequently two PDR additives (A&B) were tested in JFTOT apparatus without the usual in-line pre-filters as part of a Ministry of Defense (MoD) co-ordinated Round Robin exercise. Some fuel/PDR additive combinations caused decreases in JFTOT breakpoints. Effects were additive- (type, concentration and degree of shear) and fuel-dependent; most failures were caused by filter blockages and not by a failing lacquer rating. In further work at Thornton, the thermal stability characteristics of similar fuel/additive combinations have been examined in non-specification tests. In Flask Oxidation Tests, PDR additives caused no significant increase in the liquid phase oxidation rates of the fuels. Additives were tested in the Single Tube Heat Transfer Rig (STHTR) which duplicates many of the conditions of a heat exchanger element in an engine`s fuel supply system. B produced an average two-fold decrease in thermal stability in a Merox fuel; A had no significant effect. In hydrotreated fuel, B reduced the thermal stability up to five-fold. A had little effect below 205{degrees}C, while at higher temperatures there may have been a marginal improvement in thermal stability. Again, certain jet fuel/PDR combinations were seen to reduce thermal stability.

  3. Minimum additive waste stabilization using vitreous ceramics. Progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Hahn, W.K.; Gong, M.; Gong, W.; Wang, L.; Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program to support the US Department of Energy's environmental restoration efforts. These vitreous ceramics are composed of various metal-oxide crystalline phases embedded in a silicate-glass phase. This work extends the success of vitreous ceramic waste forms to treat wastes with both high metal and high alkali contents. Two successful approaches are discussed: developing high-durability alkali-binding crystals in a durable glassy matrix, and developing water-soluble crystals in a durable and continuous glassy matrix. Nepheline-vitreous ceramics were demonstrated for the immobilization of high-alkali wastes with alkali contents up to 21 wt%. The chemical durability of the nepheline-vitreous ceramics is better than the corresponding glasses, especially in over longer times. Vitreous ceramics with Cs 2 O loading up to 35.4 wt% have been developed. Vitreous ceramic waste forms were developed from 90 and 100% Oak Ridge National Laboratory K-25 pond sludge. Heat treatment resulted in targeted crystal formation of spinels, potassium feldspar, and Ca-P phases. The K-25 pond sludge vitreous ceramics were up to 42 times more durable than high-level environmental assessments (EA) glass. The toxicity characteristics leach procedure (TCLP) concentration of LVC-6 is at least 2,000 times lower than US Environmental Protection Agency limits. Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) calcined wastes were immobilized into vitreous ceramics with calcine loading up to 88%. These ICPP-vitreous ceramics were more durable than the EA glass by factors of 5 to 30. Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed to complement, not to replace, glass waste forms

  4. Annealing of a ferritic stainless steel 409 stabilized with titanium and zirconium additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano, P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferritic stainless steel 409 stabilized with titanium and zirconium was subject to thermomechanical processing. It was heated at 1210 °C for one hour, followed by a 75 % hot reduction in three passes, this rolling schedule ended at 980 °C. Samples were cooled to 600 °C by water spraying followed by air-cooling. The alloy was pickled, and was reduced 80 % by cold rolling. The alloy was annealed at different temperatures for 105 s. Additional annealing treatments were carried out at temperatures of 800, 850 and 900 °C for different times. Mechanical testing and texture were made to corroborate the degree of annealing and formability. Mechanical properties and Texture analyses showed that the alloy annealed at 850 °C for 14 min was both completely recrystallized and a very good formability.

    Un acero inoxidable ferrítico 409 estabilizado con titanio y zirconio fue sujeto a procesos termomecánicos. El acero fue calentado a 1210 ºC durante una hora, seguido por un laminado en caliente del 75 % en tres pases, el proceso terminó a los 980 ºC. Las muestras fueron enfriadas hasta 600 ºC por agua atomizada seguido de enfriamiento al aire. La aleación fue decapada y laminada en frío un 80 %. Posteriormente de desarrollaron tratamientos térmicos de recocido a diferentes temperaturas por un tiempo de 105 s. Adicionalmente se desarrollaron tratamientos de recocido a temperaturas de 800, 850 y 900 ºC a diferentes tiempos. Pruebas mecánicas y textura fueron realizadas para corroborar el grado de recocido y su formalidad. El análisis de las propiedades mecánicas y la Textura mostraron que la aleación recocida a 850 ºC por 14 min (840 s fue completamente recristalizada obteniendo la mejor formabilidad.

  5. The Critical Choice of PEDOT: PSS Additives for Long Term Stability of Roll‐to‐Roll Processed OPVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Bérenger; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Corazza, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The impact of additives mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the stability of organic photovoltaic modules is investigated for fully ambient roll-to-roll (R2R) processed indium tin oxide free modules. Four different PEDOT:PSS inks from two different...... on organic photovoltaic stability (ISOS). For the harsh indoor test (ISOS-L-3) only a slight difference in stability is observed between the different modules. During both ISOS-L-3 and ISOS-D-3 one new failure mode is observed as a result of tiny air inclusions in the barrier foil and a R2R method...

  6. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  7. Sensory and chemical stability in coated peanuts with the addition of essential oils and synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedo, R. H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of essential oils on the oxidative stability of coated peanuts. Untreated coated peanuts (CP and treated coated peanuts with the addition of rosemary (CP-R, oregano (CP-O and laurel (CP-L essential oils and BHT (CPBHT were prepared. Peroxide values (PV and p-anisidine values (AV and the intensity ratings of sensory attributes by descriptive analysis were measured during 112 days of storage at room temperature (23°C. CP-BHT exhibited the lowest PV and AV increase. CP-R, CP-O and CP-L showed lower rates of increase in PV and AV than CP. The oxidized and cardboard flavor intensity ratings increased much more in CP during storage than the other studied products. CPBHT also showed the lowest increase in the intensity ratings of these sensory attributes. Three essential oils, namely, laurel, oregano and rosemary showed antioxidant activity and increased the shelf life of coated peanuts.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto antioxidante de aceites esenciales sobre la estabilidad oxidativa en maní recubiertos. Se prepararon maníes recubiertos sin agregados (CP, y con el agregado de aceites esenciales de romero (CP-R, orégano (CP-O y laurel (CP-L y BHT (CPBHT. Se midieron, durante 112 días de almacenamiento, los valores de peróxidos (PV y p-anisidina (AV, y las intensidades de atributos sensoriales mediante análisis descriptivo. CP-BHT presentó el menor valor de PV y AV. CP-R, CP-O y CP-L tuvieron mayor PV y AV respecto a CP. Los valores de intensidad del sabor oxidado y cartón tuvieron un mayor incremento en CP durante el almacenamiento con respecto a los otros productos estudiados. La muestra CP-BHT también mostró los menores valores de intensidad de estos atributos sensoriales. Los aceites esenciales de laurel, orégano y romero presentaron actividad antioxidante e incrementaron la vida útil del maní recubierto.

  8. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test on stabilization of clay with lime addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuty, I. P.; Roesyanto; Limbong, M. N.; Oberlyn, S. J.

    2018-02-01

    Clay is a type of soil with particles of certain minerals giving plastic properties when mixed with water. Soil has an important role in a construction, besides as a building material in a wide variety of civil engineering works, soil is also used as supporting foundation of the building. Basic properties of clay are rock-solid in dry and plastic with medium water content. In high water content, clay becomes sticky like (cohesive) and soften. Therefore, clay stabilization is necessary to repair soil’s mechanical properties. In this research, lime is use as a stabilizer that contains the Ca+ element to bond bigger particles. Lime used is slaked lime Ca(OH)2. Clay used has liquid limitation (LL) value of 47.33%, plasticity index of 29.88% and CBR value 6.29. The results explain about 10% lime mixture variation gives the optimum stabilized clay with CBR value of 8.75%.

  9. Poly(vinylbenzylchloride) Based Anion-Exchange Blend Membranes (AEBMs): Influence of PEG Additive on Conductivity and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerres, Jochen A; Krieg, Henning M

    2017-06-16

    In view of the many possible applications such as fuel cells and electrolysers, recent interest in novel anion exchange membranes (AEMs) has increased significantly. However, their low conductivity and chemical stability limits their current suitability. In this study, the synthesis and characterization of several three- and four-component anion exchange blend membranes (AEBMs) is described, where the compositions have been systematically varied to study the influence of the AEBM's composition on the anion conductivities as well as chemical and thermal stabilities under strongly alkaline conditions. It was shown that the epoxide-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s that were introduced into the four-component AEBMs resulted in increased conductivity as well as a marked improvement in the stability of the AEBMs in an alkaline environment. In addition, the thermal stability of the novel AEBMs was excellent showing the suitability of these membranes for several electrochemical applications.

  10. Assessment of additional impacts to environment during Ukryttya object stabilization works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Batij, V.G.; Sizov, A.A.; Khavrus', V.G.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of impact levels onto environment were made when implementing stabilization works of unstable building structures of Ukryttya object. The impact were evaluated to air water medium, as well to ground cover, social and technogenic environments. It was demonstrated, that impact levels to above environmental components under normal conditions of work implementation are negligible, and radioactive substance amount, which will penetrate into the environment, will make parts of percents to existing contamination of exclusion zone area. Estimates are also made of accident impacts onto environment, whose origination is probable during the stabilization works of Ukryttya object

  11. The Importance of Sensory-Motor Control in Providing Core Stability Implications for Measurement and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghuis, Jan; Hof, At L.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Although the hip musculature is found to be very important in connecting the core to the lower extremities and in transferring forces from and to the core, it is proposed to leave the hip musculature out of consideration when talking about the concept of core stability. A low level of co-contraction

  12. Improvement of high voltage cycling performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion cells by use of a thiophene additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Kim, Dong-Won [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Noh, Jaegeun [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Song, Kwang Soup [Advanced Medical Device Center, Korea Electrotechnology, Research Institute, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-170 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    This study demonstrates that the addition of thiophene improves the cycle life of lithium-ion cells at high voltage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that addition of thiophene significantly suppresses the increase of the charge transfer resistance that occurs during cycling up to high voltage. Differential scanning calorimetric studies showed that the thermal stability of fully charged LiCoO{sub 2} cathode was also enhanced in the presence of thiophene. (author)

  13. Metal-mediated aminocatalysis provides mild conditions: Enantioselective Michael addition mediated by primary amino catalysts and alkali-metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Leven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four catalysts based on new amides of chiral 1,2-diamines and 2-sulfobenzoic acid have been developed. The alkali-metal salts of these betaine-like amides are able to form imines with enones, which are activated by Lewis acid interaction for nucleophilic attack by 4-hydroxycoumarin. The addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to enones gives ee’s up to 83% and almost quantitative yields in many cases. This novel type of catalysis provides an effective alternative to conventional primary amino catalysis were strong acid additives are essential components.

  14. Improving oxidative stability of virgin olive oil by addition of microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nasireh; Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant activity of Chlorella ( Chlorella vulgaris ) was evaluated in virgin olive oil (VOO) at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/w) under accelerated storage conditions. Antioxidant activity of Chlorella was compared with those of BHT and β-carotene. Chlorella samples significantly retarded the formation of primary, secondary, and total oxidation products in comparison with those of the control. The stability increased as concentrations of Chlorella increased. Samples containing 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% Chlorella significantly improved VOO stability by 19.99, 28.83, and 33.14%, respectively. Observed effects can be related to the release in the assortment of bioactive compounds from Chlorella algae to the VOO. Among the different antioxidants evaluatedy, BHT exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. On the contrary, β-carotene had no preventive effect against the oxidation of VOO. It also proved incapable of limiting the progress of VOO oxidation and played role as pro-oxidant. In conclusion, Chlorella enhanced VOO oxidative stability. Thus it can be considered as a promising source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Co-evaporation of fluoropolymer additives for improved thermal stability of organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Wang, Baomin; Grede, Alex J.; Shen, Yufei; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Reliability remains an ongoing challenge for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as they expand in the marketplace. The ability to withstand operation and storage at elevated temperature is particularly important in this context, not only because of the inverse dependence of OLED lifetime on temperature, but also because high thermal stability is fundamentally important for high power/brightness operation as well as applications such as automotive lighting, where interior car temperatures often exceed the ambient by 50 °C or more. Here, we present a strategy to significantly increase the thermal stability of small molecule OLEDs by co-depositing an amorphous fluoropolymer, Teflon AF, to prevent catastrophic failure at elevated temperatures. Using this approach, we demonstrate that the thermal breakdown limit of common hole transport materials can be increased from typical temperatures of ˜100 °C to more than 200 °C while simultaneously improving their electrical transport properties. Similar thermal stability enhancements are demonstrated in simple bilayer OLEDs. These results point toward a general approach to engineer morphologically-stable organic electronic devices that are capable of operating or being stored in extreme thermal environments.

  16. Microstructure and thermal stability of nickel layers electrodeposited from an additive-free sulphamate-based electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Møller, Per; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction; the Vickers hardness was measured in cross sections. The present is meant as a reference for forthcoming articles on the investigation of various strengthening mechanisms on the microstructure, hardness and thermal stability of Ni (alloys) electrodeposits.......The influences of the current density and the temperature on the microstructure and hardness of Ni layers electrodeposited from an additive-free sulphamate bath were investigated. The microstructure and thermal stability of the electrodeposits was investigated with a combination of transmission...

  17. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  18. Providing Spark and Stability: The Role of Intermediary Organizations in Establishing School-Based Youth-Adult Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dana L.; Sanders, Felicia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The term "youth-adult partnership" increasingly is being used to define a relationship in which both youth and adults have the potential to contribute to decision making processes, to learn from one another, and to promote change. Establishing a relationship with an "intermediary organization" can provide much needed stability and sustainability…

  19. Effect of yttria addition on the stability of porous chromium oxide ceramics in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ziqiang; Chen Weixing; Zheng Wenyue; Guzonas, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Porous chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) ceramics were prepared by oxidizing highly porous chromium carbides that were obtained by a reactive sintering method, and were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 375 °C to 625 °C in supercritical water (SCW) environments with a fixed pressure of 25–30 MPa. Reactive element yttrium was introduced to the porous oxide ceramic by adding various amounts of yttria of 5, 10 and 20 wt.%, respectively, prior to reactive sintering. The exposure in SCW shows that the porous chromium oxide is quite stable in SCW at 375 °C. However, the stability decreased with increasing temperature. It is well known that chromium oxide can be oxidized to soluble chromium (VI) species in SCW when oxygen is present. Adding yttria increases the stability of chromium oxide in SCW environments. However, adding yttria higher than 5 wt.% increased the weight loss of porous chromium oxide samples because of the direct dissociation of Y 2 O 3 in SCW.

  20. Stabilizing the strengthening precipitates in aluminum-manganese alloys by the addition of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yangyang; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M., E-mail: mmm@wpi.edu

    2017-04-13

    The Al-Mn-W system has considerable potential as a basis for lightweight aluminum alloys that are intended for use at temperatures approaching 350 °C (623 K). In this ternary system, aluminum, manganese, and tungsten co-precipitate to form the meta-stable Al{sub 12}(Mn{sub (1-x)}W{sub x}) phase, which is thermally stable and will not coarsen when held at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time. This enhanced thermal stability of the Al{sub 12}(Mn{sub (1-x)}W{sub x}) phase in comparison to the Al{sub 12}Mn phase which forms in binary Al-Mn alloys is explained in terms of the Gibbs free energy of the two phases. It is shown that co-precipitating tungsten with aluminum and manganese lowers the Gibbs free energy of the precipitated phase and by so doing, it slows down its coarsening rate and enhances its thermal stability.

  1. Stabilization of supported platinum nanoparticles on γ-alumina catalysts by addition of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, Jose L.; Fuentes, Gustavo A.; Zeifert, Beatriz; Salmones, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stabilization of Al 2 O 3 using W 6+ ions has been found useful to the synthesis of Pt/Al 2 O 3 catalysts. The simultaneous and sequential methods were used to study the effect of W 6+ upon Pt/γ-Al 2 O 3 reducibility, Pt dispersion, and benzene hydrogenation. The W/Pt atomic ratios were from 0.49 to 12.4. In the first method we found that the W 6+ ions delayed reduction of a fraction of Pt 4+ atoms beyond 773 K. At the same time, W 6+ inhibited sintering of the metallic crystallites once they were formed on the surface. For the sequential sample with a W/Pt atomic ratio of 3.28 W 6+ did not inhibit the H 2 reduction of Pt oxides even below of 773 K, the Pt oxides were reduced completely. After reduction at 1073 K, sequential samples impregnating Pt on WO x -γ-Al 2 O 3 were more active and stable during benzene hydrogenation. TOF of the reaction did not change when the W/Pt atomic ratio, preparation technique and reduction temperature changed and its value was of 1.1 s -1 . W 6+ ions promoted high thermal stability of Pt crystallites when sequential catalysts were reduced at 1073 K and decreased their Lewis acidity.

  2. Lanthanum Nitrate As Electrolyte Additive To Stabilize the Surface Morphology of Lithium Anode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as one of the most promising candidates beyond conventional lithium ion batteries. However, the instability of the metallic lithium anode during lithium electrochemical dissolution/deposition is still a major barrier for the practical application of Li-S battery. In this work, lanthanum nitrate, as electrolyte additive, is introduced into Li-S battery to stabilize the surface of lithium anode. By introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte, a composite passivation film of lanthanum/lithium sulfides can be formed on metallic lithium anode, which is beneficial to decrease the reducibility of metallic lithium and slow down the electrochemical dissolution/deposition reaction on lithium anode for stabilizing the surface morphology of metallic Li anode in lithium-sulfur battery. Meanwhile, the cycle stability of the fabricated Li-S cell is improved by introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte. Apparently, lanthanum nitrate is an effective additive for the protection of lithium anode and the cycling stability of Li-S battery.

  3. Terrestrial exposure of oilfield flowline additives diminish soil structural stability and remediative microbial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.J.; Sherbone, J.; Hinz, C.; Tibbett, M.

    2011-01-01

    Onshore oil production pipelines are major installations in the petroleum industry, stretching many thousands of kilometres worldwide which also contain flowline additives. The current study focuses on the effect of the flowline additives on soil physico-chemical and biological properties and quantified the impact using resilience and resistance indices. Our findings are the first to highlight deleterious effect of flowline additives by altering some fundamental soil properties, including a complete loss of structural integrity of the impacted soil and a reduced capacity to degrade hydrocarbons mainly due to: (i) phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) prevented accumulation of scale in pipelines but also disrupted soil physical structure; (ii) glutaraldehyde (in biocides) which repressed microbial activity in the pipeline and reduced hydrocarbon degradation in soil upon environmental exposure; (iii) the combinatory effects of these two chemicals synergistically caused severe soil structural collapse and disruption of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. - Highlights: → Effects of flowline additives on soil structure and microbial function highlighted. → Phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) were found to disrupt soil physical structure. → Glutaraldehyde (in biocides) caused significant reduction of hydrocarbon degradation in soil. → Flowline additive chemicals synergistically affects soil structure and remediative microbial function. - Scale inhibitor and biocide oilfield flowline additives interactively affect soil physical and microbial properties

  4. Acoustically enhanced microfluidic mixer to synthesize highly uniform nanodrugs without the addition of stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen Hoai An; Van Phan, Hoang; Yu, Jiaqi; Chan, Hak-Kim; Neild, Adrian; Alan, Tuncay

    2018-01-01

    This article presents an acoustically enhanced microfluidic mixer to generate highly uniform and ultra-fine nanoparticles, offering significant advantages over conventional liquid antisolvent techniques. The method employed a 3D microfluidic geometry whereby two different phases - solvent and antisolvent - were introduced at either side of a 1 μm thick resonating membrane, which contained a through-hole. The vibration of the membrane rapidly and efficiently mixed the two phases, at the location of the hole, leading to the formation of nanoparticles. The versatility of the device was demonstrated by synthesizing budesonide (a common asthma drug) with a mean diameter of 135.7 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.044. The method offers a 40-fold reduction in the size of synthesized particles combined with a substantial improvement in uniformity, achieved without the need of stabilizers.

  5. Oxidative stability of pullulan nanofibers loaded with fish oil: effect of oil content and antioxidants addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, C.; Stephansen, K.

    Electrospinning processing is a promising technique for the encapsulation of thermolabile bioactive compounds (e.g. fish oil) since it does not require the use of heat. Furthermore, the nano-microfibers (NMF) obtained present a reduced size, which makes them easier to disperse in food matrices...... compared to traditional encapsulates (e.g. microcapsules produced by spray-drying). Biopolymers such as proteins and polysaccharides are required for the production of food-grade NMF. In this sense, pullulan, which is a food-approved polysaccharide, is an interesting encapsulating material due to its high...... electrospinnability and low oxygen permeability. In light of the above, the aim of this work was to investigate the oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched pullulan NMF. First, the influence of fish oil content (10-20-30 %) on the properties of the electrospinning solutions (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface...

  6. Stabilization of supported platinum nanoparticles on gamma-alumina catalysts by addition of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Jose L., E-mail: jlcl@correo.azc.uam.m [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco. Energia, CBI, Av. Sn. Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa Depto. Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, A.P. 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Fuentes, Gustavo A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa Depto. Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, A.P. 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Zeifert, Beatriz; Salmones, Jose [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Av. IPN s/n Edif. 8, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2009-08-26

    The thermal stabilization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using W{sup 6+} ions has been found useful to the synthesis of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. The simultaneous and sequential methods were used to study the effect of W{sup 6+} upon Pt/gamma-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reducibility, Pt dispersion, and benzene hydrogenation. The W/Pt atomic ratios were from 0.49 to 12.4. In the first method we found that the W{sup 6+} ions delayed reduction of a fraction of Pt{sup 4+} atoms beyond 773 K. At the same time, W{sup 6+}inhibited sintering of the metallic crystallites once they were formed on the surface. For the sequential sample with a W/Pt atomic ratio of 3.28 W{sup 6+} did not inhibit the H{sub 2} reduction of Pt oxides even below of 773 K, the Pt oxides were reduced completely. After reduction at 1073 K, sequential samples impregnating Pt on WO{sub x}-gamma-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were more active and stable during benzene hydrogenation. TOF of the reaction did not change when the W/Pt atomic ratio, preparation technique and reduction temperature changed and its value was of 1.1 s{sup -1}. W{sup 6+} ions promoted high thermal stability of Pt crystallites when sequential catalysts were reduced at 1073 K and decreased their Lewis acidity.

  7. Effect of the addition of Na2O on the thermal stability of alumino silicated glasses rich in rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassalle-Herraud, Olivier; Matecki, Marc; Glorieux, Benoit; Sadiki, Najim; Montoullout, Valerie; Dussossoy, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Alumino silicated glasses rich in rare earths have been prepared by concentrated solar way. Their recrystallization, the structural and microstructural properties as well as the mechanical and thermal properties of these glasses have been studied. The results show the effect of sodium addition on the thermal stability of the materials, the vitreous transition temperature and the recrystallization temperature. A heat treatment has allowed to reveal the formation of sodium apatite micro-crystallites and of lanthanum silicate in the glasses. (O.M.)

  8. Influence of scandium addition on the high-temperature grain size stabilization of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lulu, E-mail: lli18@ncsu.edu; Xu, Weizong; Saber, Mostafa; Zhu, Yuntian; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2015-06-11

    The influence of 1–4 at% Sc addition on the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed ODS ferritic alloy was studied in this work. Sc addition was found to significantly stabilize grain size and microhardness at high temperatures. Grain sizes of samples with 1 and 4 at% Sc was found maintained in the nanoscale range at temperatures up to 1000 °C with hardness maintained at 5.6 and 6.7 GPa, respectively. The detailed microstructure was also investigated from EDS elemental mapping, where nanofeatures [ScTiO] were observed, while nanosized [YTiO] particles were rarely seen. This is probably due to the concentration difference between Sc and Y, leading to the formation of [ScTiO] favoring that of [YTiO]. Precipitation was considered as the major source for the observed high temperature stabilization. In addition, 14YT–Sc alloys without large second phases such as Ti-oxide can exhibit better performance compared to conventional ODS materials.

  9. Statistical mechanics provides novel insights into microtubule stability and mechanism of shrinkage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishutesh Jain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are nano-machines that grow and shrink stochastically, making use of the coupling between chemical kinetics and mechanics of its constituent protofilaments (PFs. We investigate the stability and shrinkage of microtubules taking into account inter-protofilament interactions and bending interactions of intrinsically curved PFs. Computing the free energy as a function of PF tip position, we show that the competition between curvature energy, inter-PF interaction energy and entropy leads to a rich landscape with a series of minima that repeat over a length-scale determined by the intrinsic curvature. Computing Langevin dynamics of the tip through the landscape and accounting for depolymerization, we calculate the average unzippering and shrinkage velocities of GDP protofilaments and compare them with the experimentally known results. Our analysis predicts that the strength of the inter-PF interaction (E(s(m has to be comparable to the strength of the curvature energy (E(b(m such that E(s(m - E(b(m ≈ 1kBT, and questions the prevalent notion that unzippering results from the domination of bending energy of curved GDP PFs. Our work demonstrates how the shape of the free energy landscape is crucial in explaining the mechanism of MT shrinkage where the unzippered PFs will fluctuate in a set of partially peeled off states and subunit dissociation will reduce the length.

  10. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging provides additional information as compared to anatomical imaging for decision-making in vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijwegt, M.C.; Mey, A.G.L. van der; Wiggers-deBruine, F.T.; Malessy, M.J.A; Osch, M.J.P. van

    2016-01-01

    •DSC/ASL-MRI can be acquired in growing VS with sufficient image quality.•In most patients DSC and ASL techniques provide similar qualitative scores.•These techniques can be of importance in future decision-making. DSC/ASL-MRI can be acquired in growing VS with sufficient image quality. In most patients DSC and ASL techniques provide similar qualitative scores. These techniques can be of importance in future decision-making. The added value of perfusion MRI for decision-making in vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients is unknown. MRI offers two perfusion methods: the first employing contrast agent (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI) that provides information on cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), the second by magnetic labeling of blood (arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI), providing CBF-images. The goal of the current study is to investigate whether DSC and ASL perfusion MRI provides complimentary information to current anatomical imaging in treatment selection process of VS. Nine patients with growing VS with extrameatal diameter >9 mm were included (>2 mm/year and 20% volume expansion/year) and one patient with 23 mm extrameatal VS without growth. DSC and ASL perfusion MRI were obtained on 3 T MRI. Perfusion in VS was scored as hyperintense, hypointense or isointense compared to the contralateral region. Seven patients showed hyperintense signal on DSC and ASL sequences. Three patients showed iso- or hypointense signal on at least one perfusion map (1 patient hypointense on both DSC-MRI and ASL; 1 patient isointense on DSC-CBF; 1 patient isointense on ASL). All patients showed enhancement on post-contrast T1 anatomical scan. Perfusion MR provides additional information compared to anatomical imaging for decision-making in VS

  11. Additional Tension Screws Improve Stability in Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing: Biomechanical Analysis of a Femur Spiral Fracture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachert, Gregor; Rapp, Marion; Eggert, Rebecca; Schulze-Hessing, Maaike; Gros, Nina; Stratmann, Christina; Wendlandt, Robert; Kaiser, Martin M

    2015-08-01

    For pediatric femoral shaft fractures, elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is an accepted method of treatment. But problems regarding stability with shortening or axial deviation are well known in complex fracture types and heavier children. Biomechanical in vitro testing was performed to determine whether two modified osteosyntheses with an additional tension screw fixation or screw fixation alone without nails could significantly improve the stability in comparison to classical ESIN. A total of 24 synthetic adolescent-sized femoral bone models (Sawbones, 4th generation; Vashon, Washington, United States) with an identical spiral fracture (length 100 mm) were used. All grafts underwent retrograde fixation with two C-shaped steel nails (2C). Of the 24, 8 osteosyntheses were supported by one additional tension screw (2C1S) and another 8 by two screws (2S) in which the intramedullary nails were removed before testing. Each configuration underwent biomechanical testing in 4-point bending, external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR). Furthermore, the modifications were tested in axial physiological 9 degrees position for shifting and dynamic compression as well as dynamic load. Both screw configurations (2C1S and 2S) demonstrated a significantly higher stability in comparison to the 2C configuration in 4-point bending (anterior-posterior, 0.95 Nm/mm [2C] spiral fracture model, the stability of ESIN could be significantly improved by two modifications with additional tension screws. If transferred in clinical practice, these modifications might offer earlier weight bearing and less problems of shortening or axial deviation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D., E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, FS-PE group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-01-14

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO{sub 2} at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds.

  14. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D.; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J.

    2015-01-01

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O 2 atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al 2 O 3 formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO 2 at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al 2 O 3 with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds

  15. Effects of Some Chemical Food Additives on the Shelf-Life Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: The iodine value (101.5mg/100g), saponification (189.70mg/g), free fatty acid (0.25%), acid value (0.50mg/NaOH/g) and specific gravity (0.91) of the oil indicated that the oil was suitable for chips production. Samples treated with additives and their combinations retained their nutrient compositions, except for ...

  16. Study of the stabilization of a loamy soil with addition of cement

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Alexandre; Maria da Glória Alves; Thiago Vicente Lima

    2010-01-01

    The use of soil-cement bricks is considered a cheaper constructive method than the conventional (ceramic block or concrete), because one of the raw materials is abundant (the soil). The objective of the present work was to identify the soil of the “Codin” area, in the municipality of Campos of Goytacazes - RJ. After this identification, it was possible to determine the best line for the production of soil-cement, in the 9,5x 10x5 cm format, with lines containing the addition of 5% and 10% of ...

  17. Study of the stabilization of a loamy soil with addition of cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Alexandre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil-cement bricks is considered a cheaper constructive method than the conventional (ceramic block or concrete, because one of the raw materials is abundant (the soil. The objective of the present work was to identify the soil of the “Codin” area, in the municipality of Campos of Goytacazes - RJ. After this identification, it was possible to determine the best line for the production of soil-cement, in the 9,5x 10x5 cm format, with lines containing the addition of 5% and 10% of cement in volume.

  18. Evaluation method of radiation stability of hardened cement paste with chemical additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, Vyacheslav; Pustovgar, Andrey [National Research Univ. ' Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering' (MSUCE), Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Univ. ' Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering' (MSUCE), Moscow (Russian Federation). Scientific Research Inst. of Constructional Materials and Technologies; Denisov, Alexander; Soloviev, Vitaly [National Research Univ. ' Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering' (MSUCE), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The influence of additives on the radiation resistance of the concrete will occur through the influence of radiation changes of hardened cement paste on radiation changes of concrete and can be quite significant. The test sequence was produced according to the modified method. The samples were prepared in the form of prisms with the following dimensions: 10 mm x 10 mm, 30 mm long. Measurement series were produced after each heating and cooling sequence. Then the difference between the values before and after heating was calculated. (orig.)

  19. Hepatitis B virus vaccination booster does not provide additional protection in adolescents: a cross-sectional school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Chieh; Wang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Jun-Song; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-09-23

    Current consensus does not support the use of a universal booster of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine because there is an anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant HBV vaccination. We aimed to provide a booster strategy among adolescents as a result of their changes in lifestyle and sexual activity. This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in four age groups between 2004 and 2012. The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its reciprocal antibody (anti-HBs) for each age group were collected. There were two parts to this study; age-specific HBV seroepidemiology and subgroup analysis, including effects of different vaccine types, booster response for immunogenicity at 15 years of age, and longitudinal follow-up to identify possible additional protection by HBV booster. Within the study period, data on serum anti-HBs and HBsAg in a total of 6950 students from four age groups were collected. The overall anti-HBs and HBsAg seropositivity rates were 44.3% and 1.2%, respectively. The anti-HBs seropositivity rate in the plasma-derived subgroup was significantly higher in both 15- and 18-year age groups. Overall response rate in the double-seronegative recipients at 15 years of age was 92.5% at 6 weeks following one recombinant HBV booster dose. Among the 24 recipients showing anti-HBs seroconversion at 6 weeks after booster, seven subjects (29.2%) had lost their anti-HBs seropositivity again within 3 years. Increased seropositivity rates and titers of anti-HBs did not provide additional protective effects among subjects comprehensively vaccinated against HBV in infancy. HBV booster strategy at 15 years of age was the main contributor to the unique age-related phenomenon of anti-HBs seropositivity rate and titer. No increase in HBsAg seropositivity rates within different age groups was observed. Vaccination with plasma-derived HBV vaccines in infancy provided higher

  20. Can voter-approved tax levies provide fiscal advantages and stability for local public health agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzried, Hans D; Fallon, L Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Major funding cuts have occurred throughout the United States public health system during the past several years. Funding for local public health agency (LPHA) services and programs is obtained through a patchwork of sources that vary both within and among states. Even though local city and county sources provide a significant proportion of funding for LPHAs, information available in the literature about these revenues is sparse and is not clearly described. This study focused on a single specific revenue stream included in the local sources (local city and county) category: funds voted on directly by the public. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether this type of funding source provided fiscal advantages for LPHAs. Specifically, we wanted to see how sensitive levy votes were to changing general economic conditions. A questionnaire to collect LPHA levy data was developed, approved, and mailed to county boards of elections in Ohio (n = 88). Elections officials were asked to provide voting results for all LPHA levy ballot attempts since 1994 regardless of outcome. In the study period (1994 through 2011), 250 LPHA property tax levies were placed on election ballots in Ohio. LPHAs were successful in 155 (62.0%) and unsuccessful in 95 (38.0%) attempts. Over the 18-year period, the most noteworthy outcome was a 94.6% pass rate for renewal levies. Our study demonstrated that voter-approved tax levies provide some fiscal advantages for LPHAs: higher per capita revenues than those who have to rely on other sources of income and predictable revenue streams. This translates into more funds being available for public health programs and services. Property tax levies allow citizens to make direct investments in their local health departments.

  1. Influence of Al addition on phase transformation and thermal stability of nickel silicides on Si(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shih-Hsien; Twan, Sheng-Chen; Cheng, Shao-Liang; Lee, Tu; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai; Lee, Sheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► The presence of Al slows down the Ni 2 Si–NiSi phase transformation but significantly promotes the NiSi 2−x Al x formation. ► The behavior of phase transformation strongly depends on the Al concentration of the initial Ni 1−x Al x alloys. ► The Ni 0.91 Al 0.09 /Si system exhibits remarkably improved thermal stability, even after high temperature annealing for 1000 s. ► The relationship between microstructures, electrical property, and thermal stability of Ni(Al) silicides is discussed. -- Abstract: The influence of Al addition on the phase transformation and thermal stability of Ni silicides on (0 0 1)Si has been systematically investigated. The presence of Al atoms is found to slow down the Ni 2 Si–NiSi phase transformation but significantly promote the NiSi 2−x Al x formation during annealing. The behavior of phase transformation strongly depends on the Al concentration of the initial Ni 1−x Al x alloys. Compared to the Ni 0.95 Pt 0.05 /Si and Ni 0.95 Al 0.05 /Si system, the Ni 0.91 Al 0.09 /Si sample exhibits remarkably enhanced thermal stability, even after high temperature annealing for 1000 s. The relationship between microstructures, electrical property, and thermal stability of Ni silicides is discussed to elucidate the role of Al during the Ni 1−x Al x alloy silicidation. This work demonstrated that thermally stable Ni 1−x Al x alloy silicides would be a promising candidate as source/drain (S/D) contacts in advanced complementary metal–oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on stability of vitamins A and E in feed additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulova, M.; Pisarikova, B.; Herzig, I.; Hampl, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Selasan milk feed mix was sterilized with gamma radiation with a dose of 25 kGy. The decrease in vitamin A after irradiation (by order of %) is graphically compared with non-irradiated mixes. As compared with thermal sterilization of feeds the vitamin A losses are smaller. The loss is influenced by the oxidation products of fats whose amount increases upon the irradiation of the high fat diet. The irradiation of the 33% E vitamin concentrate did not affect its concentration. The vitamin E content of the bio additive dropped by 3.19% after irradiation. Technological measures are suggested for reducing oxidation processes in the fat component of the feed during irradiation. (E.F.)

  3. Crystal structure and stability of LiAlD4 with TiF3 additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinks, H.W.; Fossdal, A.; Fonnelop, J.E.; Hauback, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    LiAlD 4 samples with TiF 3 additives have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and a Sieverts-type apparatus. Directly after ball milling there are no signs of any Ti-containing phases, and the unit-cell of LiAlD 4 and Al give no indication of any solid solutions. Hence it is concluded that the Ti is in an amorphous state directly after ball milling. Furthermore, no LiF was observed in the samples. Based on Sieverts-type measurements the plateau pressure at 80 deg C has been proved to be higher than 85 bar. Samples stored in a glove box are slowly desorbed, and after 6 months for a LiAlD 4 + TiF 3 sample, the reaction to LiD + Al is nearly finished

  4. Mechanistic Study of Electrolyte Additives to Stabilize High-Voltage Cathode–Electrolyte Interface in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Han [Chemical; Maglia, Filippo [BMW Group, Munich 80788, Germany; Lamp, Peter [BMW Group, Munich 80788, Germany; Amine, Khalil [Chemical; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical

    2017-12-13

    Current developments of electrolyte additives to stabilize electrode-electrolyte interface in Li-ion batteries highly rely on a trial-and-error search, which involves repetitive testing and intensive amount of resources. The lack of understandings on the fundamental protection mechanisms of the additives significantly increases the difficulty for the transformational development of new additives. In this study, we investigated two types of individual protection routes to build a robust cathode-electrolyte interphase at high potentials: (i) a direct reduction in the catalytic decomposition of the electrolyte solvent; and (ii) formation of a “corrosion inhibitor film” that prevents severely attack and passivation from protons that generated from the solvent oxidation, even the decomposition of solvent cannot not mitigated. Effect of three exemplary electrolyte additives: (i) lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB); (ii) 3-hexylthiophene (3HT); and (iii) tris(hexafluoro-iso-propyl)phosphate (HFiP), on LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC 622) cathode were investigated to validate our hypothesis. It is demonstrated that understandings of both electrolyte additives and solvent are essential and careful balance between the cathode protection mechanism of additives and their side effects is critical to obtain optimum results. More importantly, this study opens up new directions of rational design of functional electrolyte additives for the next generation high-energy density lithium-ion chemistries.

  5. The influence of ethanol addition on the spatial emission distribution of traces in a vertical argon stabilized DC arc plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA TODOROVIC

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The plasma of a vertical argon stabilized DC arc at atmospheric pressure is applied as a spectrochemical source. The lateral distributions of relative spectral line intensities of some trace elements (Zn, Pt, Cd, Mg, Ca and Al introduced into the plasma in the form of aqueous and ethanol–aqueous solutions were experimentally determined. These distributions were correlated with the calculated equilibrium plasma composition of the arc plasma. On the basis of the obtained results, an explanation of the influence of ethanol addition on the radiation densities from an arc plasma is given.

  6. Effects of trace element addition on process stability during anaerobic co-digestion of OFMSW and slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestedt, J; Nordell, E; Shakeri Yekta, S; Lundgren, J; Martí, M; Sundberg, C; Ejlertsson, J; Svensson, B H; Björn, A

    2016-01-01

    This study used semi-continuous laboratory scale biogas reactors to simulate the effects of trace-element addition in different combinations, while degrading the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and slaughterhouse waste. The results show that the combined addition of Fe, Co and Ni was superior to the addition of only Fe, Fe and Co or Fe and Ni. However, the addition of only Fe resulted in a more stable process than the combined addition of Fe and Co, perhaps indicating a too efficient acidogenesis and/or homoacetogenesis in relation to a Ni-deprived methanogenic population. The results were observed in terms of higher biogas production (+9%), biogas production rates (+35%) and reduced VFA concentration for combined addition compared to only Fe and Ni. The higher stability was supported by observations of differences in viscosity, intraday VFA- and biogas kinetics as well as by the 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA of the methanogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  8. Impact of silage additives on aerobic stability and characteristics of high-moisture maize during exposure to air, and on fermented liquid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2014-01-01

    during aeration- and impact of additives on the aerobic stability of HMM depended on the characteristics of the samples. No blooming of Enterobacteriaceae was observed in FLF containing c. 20 g HMM 100 g−1. Significance and Impact of the Study The impact of silage additives on aerobic stability of HMM...

  9. Dose Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography provide more information additive to contrast enhanced MRI in highly suspected breast cancer patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Bae, Young Tae

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography (SMM) provide more information than contrast enhanced MRI in highly suspected breast cancer patients. This study included 32 breast lesions of 29 highly suspected patients having breast cancer. All patients were performed SMM and contrast enhanced MRI. The SMMs and contrast enhanced MRI were correlated with histopathologic results. Thirty breast lesions were diagnosed malignant diseases and 2 were diagnosed benign diseases. SMM showed 29 true positives (TP), 1 true negative (TN), 1 false positive (FP), and 1 false negative (FN). The sensitivity was 96.6%. Contrast enhanced MRI revealed 24 TP, 0 TN, 1 FP, 3 FN and 4 indeterminate cases. The sensitivity was 88.8%. In the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis, SMM showed 9 TP, 10 TN, 0 FP, and 3 FN. The sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 100%. Contrast enhanced MRI revealed 6 TP, 9 TN, 1 FP, and 6 FN. The sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 90%. Among 4 indeterminate cases with MRI findings, SMM correctly diagnosed malignant breast diseases in 3 lesions. However, SMM showed false positive in 1 lesion. SMM could correctly diagnosed malignant breast diseases more 5 lesions than contrast enhanced MRI. SMM revealed higher sensitivity in detection of primary breast cancer and axillary LN metastasis than contrast enhanced MRI. SMMs could correctly diagnosed malignant breast diseases even if the MRI showed indeterminate findings. In highly suspected patients having breast cancer, SMM may provide additive information in detection of breast cancer if contrast enhanced MRI showed indeterminate findings but this is to be determined later by large population based study

  10. Example-based learning: comparing the effects of additionally providing three different integrative learning activities on physiotherapy intervention knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Hudon, Anne; Montpetit-Tourangeau, Katherine; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; van Gog, Tamara

    2015-03-07

    Example-based learning using worked examples can foster clinical reasoning. Worked examples are instructional tools that learners can use to study the steps needed to solve a problem. Studying worked examples paired with completion examples promotes acquisition of problem-solving skills more than studying worked examples alone. Completion examples are worked examples in which some of the solution steps remain unsolved for learners to complete. Providing learners engaged in example-based learning with self-explanation prompts has been shown to foster increased meaningful learning compared to providing no self-explanation prompts. Concept mapping and concept map study are other instructional activities known to promote meaningful learning. This study compares the effects of self-explaining, completing a concept map and studying a concept map on conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills among novice learners engaged in example-based learning. Ninety-one physiotherapy students were randomized into three conditions. They performed a pre-test and a post-test to evaluate their gains in conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills (transfer performance) in intervention selection. They studied three pairs of worked/completion examples in a digital learning environment. Worked examples consisted of a written reasoning process for selecting an optimal physiotherapy intervention for a patient. The completion examples were partially worked out, with the last few problem-solving steps left blank for students to complete. The students then had to engage in additional self-explanation, concept map completion or model concept map study in order to synthesize and deepen their knowledge of the key concepts and problem-solving steps. Pre-test performance did not differ among conditions. Post-test conceptual knowledge was higher (P example and completion example strategies to foster intervention selection.

  11. Impact of adding additional providers to resident workload and the resident experience on a medical consultation rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Michele; Linson, Eric; Suneja, Manish; Kuperman, Ethan F

    2017-02-22

    Excellence in Graduate Medical Education requires the right clinical environment with an appropriate workload where residents have enough patients to gain proficiency in medicine with optimal time for reflection. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has focused more on work hours rather than workload; however, high resident workload has been associated with lower resident participation in education and fatigue-related errors. Recognizing the potential risks associated with high resident workload and being mindful of the costs of reducing resident workload, we sought to reduce residents' workload by adding an advanced practice provider (APP) to the surgical comanagement service (SCM) and study its effect on resident satisfaction and perceived educational value of the rotation. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 and 2015, an additional faculty member was added to the SCM rotation. In FY 2014, the faculty member was a staff physician, and in FY 2015, the faculty member was an APP.. Resident workload was assessed using billing data. We measured residents' perceptions of the rotation using an anonymous electronic survey tool. We compared FY2014-2015 data to the baseline FY2013. The number of patients seen per resident per day decreased from 8.0(SD 3.3) in FY2013 to 5.0(SD 1.9) in FY2014 (p value of the rotation (40.0%, 72.2%, 72.6% in FY2013, 2014, 2015 respectively, p perceived educational value and clinical experience of a medical consultation rotation.

  12. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  13. Selection for Protein Kinetic Stability Connects Denaturation Temperatures to Organismal Temperatures and Provides Clues to Archaean Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Luisa Romero-Romero

    Full Text Available The relationship between the denaturation temperatures of proteins (Tm values and the living temperatures of their host organisms (environmental temperatures: TENV values is poorly understood. Since different proteins in the same organism may show widely different Tm's, no simple universal relationship between Tm and TENV should hold, other than Tm≥TENV. Yet, when analyzing a set of homologous proteins from different hosts, Tm's are oftentimes found to correlate with TENV's but this correlation is shifted upward on the Tm axis. Supporting this trend, we recently reported Tm's for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins that mirror a proposed environmental cooling over long geological time, while remaining a shocking ~50°C above the proposed ancestral ocean temperatures. Here, we show that natural selection for protein kinetic stability (denaturation rate can produce a Tm↔TENV correlation with a large upward shift in Tm. A model for protein stability evolution suggests a link between the Tm shift and the in vivo lifetime of a protein and, more specifically, allows us to estimate ancestral environmental temperatures from experimental denaturation rates for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins. The TENV values thus obtained match the proposed ancestral ocean cooling, support comparatively high Archaean temperatures, and are consistent with a recent proposal for the environmental temperature (above 75°C that hosted the last universal common ancestor. More generally, this work provides a framework for understanding how features of protein stability reflect the environmental temperatures of the host organisms.

  14. Stabilization, Rolling, and Addition of Other Extracellular Matrix Proteins to Collagen Hydrogels Improve Regeneration in Chitosan Guides for Long Peripheral Nerve Gaps in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Cobianchi, Stefano; Heimann, Claudia; Phillips, James B; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    Autograft is still the gold standard technique for the repair of long peripheral nerve injuries. The addition of biologically active scaffolds into the lumen of conduits to mimic the endoneurium of peripheral nerves may increase the final outcome of artificial nerve devices. Furthermore, the control of the orientation of the collagen fibers may provide some longitudinal guidance architecture providing a higher level of mesoscale tissue structure. To evaluate the regenerative capabilities of chitosan conduits enriched with extracellular matrix-based scaffolds to bridge a critical gap of 15 mm in the rat sciatic nerve. The right sciatic nerve of female Wistar Hannover rats was repaired with chitosan tubes functionalized with extracellular matrix-based scaffolds fully hydrated or stabilized and rolled to bridge a 15 mm nerve gap. Recovery was evaluated by means of electrophysiology and algesimetry tests and histological analysis 4 months after injury. Stabilized constructs enhanced the success of regeneration compared with fully hydrated scaffolds. Moreover, fibronectin-enriched scaffolds increased muscle reinnervation and number of myelinated fibers compared with laminin-enriched constructs. A mixed combination of collagen and fibronectin may be a promising internal filler for neural conduits for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, and their stabilization may increase the quality of regeneration over long gaps. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  15. Influence of additive L-phenylalanine on stabilization of metastable α-form of L-glutamic acid in cooling crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Khuu Chau; Nhan, Le Thi Hong; Huyen, Trinh Thi Thanh; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2017-09-01

    The influence of additive amino acid L-phenylalanine on stabilization of metastable α-form of L-glutamic acid was investigated in cooling crystallization. The present study found that the additive L-phenylalanine could be used to stabilize the pure metastable α-form in L-glutamic acid crystallization, where the additive concentration of 0.05-0.1 (g/L) was sufficient to stabilize the 100% wt metastable α-form in solid product at L-glutamic acid concentration of 30-45 (g/L). Additionally, the present results indicated that the adsorption of additive L-phenylalanine on the (001) surface of α-form was more favorable than that of the β-form molecular, so the nucleation sites of stable β-form was occupied by additive molecular, which resulted in inhibition of nucleation and growth of β-form, allowing stabilization of metastable α-form.

  16. Influences of ignition improver additive on ternary (diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohol) blends thermal stability and diesel engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Zulkifli, N.W.M.; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Rashed, M.M.; Ashraful, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition improver additives makes the biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. • Density and cetane number improved significantly with EHN mixing. • BP and BSFC improved by adding ignition improver additives. • Nitric oxides and smoke of the EHN treated blends decreased. • CO and HC increased slightly with EHN addition. - Abstract: Pentanol is a long chain alcohol produced from renewable sources and considered as a promising biofuel as a blending component with diesel or biodiesel blends. However, the lower cetane number of alcohols is a limitation, and it is important to increase the overall cetane number of biodiesel fuel blends for efficient combustion and lower emission. In this consideration, ignition improver additive 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were used at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder; water-cooled DI diesel engine operated at full throttle and varying speed condition. The thermal stability of the modified ternary fuel blends was evaluated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and the physic-chemical properties of the fuel as well as engine characteristics were studied and compared. The addition of EHN to ternary fuel blends enhanced the cetane number significantly without any significant adverse effect on the other properties. TGA and DSC analysis reported about the improvement of thermal characteristics of the modified blends. It was found that, implementing ignition improver make the diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), nitric oxides (NO) and smoke emission reduced remarkably with the addition of EHN. Introducing EHN to diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends increased the cetane number, shorten the ignition delay by increasing the diffusion rate and improve combustion. Hence, the NO and BSFC reduced while, carbon

  17. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  18. Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in addition to Bowman-Birk inhibitor influence stability of lunasin against pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Samuel J; Pangloli, Philipus; Krishnan, Hari B; Dia, Vermont P

    2016-12-01

    Soybean contains several biologically active components and one of this belongs to the bioactive peptide group. The objectives of this study were to produce different lunasin-enriched preparations (LEP) and determine the effect of Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) concentrations on the stability of lunasin against pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis (PPH). In addition, the effect of KTI mutation on lunasin stability against PPH was determined. LEP were produced by calcium and pH precipitation methods of 30% aqueous ethanol extract from defatted soybean flour. LEP, lunasin-enriched commercially available products and KTI control and mutant flours underwent PPH and samples were taken after pepsin and pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis. The concentrations of BBI, KTI, and lunasin all decreased after hydrolysis, but they had varying results. BBI concentration ranged from 167.5 to 655.8μg/g pre-hydrolysis and 171.5 to 250.1μg/g after hydrolysis. KTI concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 122.3μg/g pre-hydrolysis and 9.0 to 18.7μg/g after hydrolysis. Lunasin concentrations ranged from 8.5 to 71.0μg/g pre-hydrolysis and 4.0 to 13.2μg/g after hydrolysis. In all products tested, lunasin concentration after PPH significantly correlated with BBI and KTI concentrations. Mutation in two KTI isoforms led to a lower concentration of lunasin after PPH. This is the first report on the potential role of KTI in lunasin stability against PPH and must be considered in designing lunasin-enriched products that could potentially survive digestion after oral ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stabilization of Nrf2 protein by D3T provides protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Dong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that maternal ethanol exposure induces a moderate increase in Nrf2 protein expression in mouse embryos. Pretreatment with the Nrf2 inducer, 3H-1, 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T, significantly increases the Nrf2 protein levels and prevents apoptosis in ethanol-exposed embryos. The present study, using PC12 cells, was designed to determine whether increased Nrf2 stability is a mechanism by which D3T enhances Nrf2 activation and subsequent antioxidant protection. Ethanol and D3T treatment resulted in a significant accumulation of Nrf2 protein in PC 12 cells. CHX chase analysis has shown that ethanol treatment delayed the degradation of Nrf2 protein in PC12 cells. A significantly greater decrease in Nrf2 protein degradation was observed in the cells treated with D3T alone or with both ethanol and D3T. In addition, D3T treatment significantly reduced ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the stabilization of Nrf2 protein by D3T confers protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis.

  20. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty. (a...

  1. Improved magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of Pr-Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by Hf addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingzheng; Lei, Weikai; Zeng, Qingwen; Quan, Qichen; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Renhui; Hu, Xianjun; He, Lunke; Qi, Zhiqi; Ju, Zhihua; Zhong, Minglong; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2018-05-01

    Nd2Fe14B-type permanent magnets have been widely applied in various fields such as wind power, voice coil motors, and medical instruments. The large temperature dependence of coercivity, however, limits their further applications. We have systematically investigated the magnetic properties, thermal stabilities and coercivity mechanisms of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx (x=0, 0.5) nanocrystalline magnets fabricated by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The results indicate that the influence of Hf addition is significant on magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of the (PrNd)2Fe14B-type sintered magnets. It is shown that the sample with x = 0.5 at 300 K has much higher coercivity and remanent magnetization than those counterparts without Hf. The temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets are improved significantly from -0.23 %/K, -0.57 %/K for the sample at x = 0 to -0.17 %/K, -0.49 %/K for the sample at x = 0.5 in the temperature range of 300-400 K. Furthermore, it is found out that the domain wall pinning mechanism is more likely responsible for enhancing the coercivity of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets.

  2. The influence of Ni additions on the relative stability of η and η′ Cu6Sn5

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2010-02-09

    We investigate how 5 at. % Ni influences the relative stability of η and η′ Cu6Sn5. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction shows that, while Cu6Sn5 exists as η′ at 25 and 150 °C and transforms to η on heating to 200 °C, Cu5.5Ni0.5Sn5 is best fit to η throughout 25–200 °C. Our first principles calculations predict that η′ is stable at T=0 K in both Cu6Sn5 and Cu5.5Ni0.5Sn5, but that the energy difference is substantially reduced from 1.21 to 0.90 eV per 22 atom cell by the Ni addition. This effect is attributed to Ni developing distinct bonding to both Cu and Sn in the η phase.

  3. Stability of Proteins in Carbohydrates and Other Additives during Freezing: The Human Growth Hormone as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto

    2017-09-21

    Molecular dynamics is here used to elucidate the mechanism of protein stabilization by carbohydrates and other additives during freezing. More specifically, we used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a quantitative estimation of the capability of various cryoprotectants to preserve a model protein, the human growth hormone, against freezing stresses. Three mechanisms were investigated, preferential exclusion, water replacement, and vitrification. Model simulations were finally validated upon experimental data in terms of the ability of excipients to prevent protein aggregation. Overall, we found that the preferential exclusion and vitrification mechanisms are important during the whole freezing process, while water replacement becomes dominant only toward the end of the cryoconcentration phase. The disaccharides were found to be the most efficient excipients, in regard to both preferential exclusion and water replacement. Moreover, sugars were in general more efficient than other excipients, such as glycine or sorbitol.

  4. Viscoelastic gels of guar and xanthan gum mixtures provide long-term stabilization of iron micro- and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Dingqi [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia-DISAT and Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Ambiente, del Territorio e delle Infrastrutture-DIATI (Italy); Sethi, Rajandrea, E-mail: rajandrea.sethi@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Ambiente, del Territorio e delle Infrastrutture-DIATI (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Iron micro- and nanoparticles used for groundwater remediation and medical applications are prone to fast aggregation and sedimentation. Diluted single biopolymer water solutions of guar gum (GG) or xanthan gum (XG) can stabilize these particles for few hours providing steric repulsion and by increasing the viscosity of the suspension. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that amending GG solutions with small amounts of XG (XG/GG weight ratio 1:19; 3 g/L of total biopolymer concentration) can significantly improve the capability of the biopolymer to stabilize highly concentrated iron micro- and nanoparticle suspensions. The synergistic effect between GG and XG generates a viscoelastic gel that can maintain 20 g/L iron particles suspended for over 24 h. This is attributed to (i) an increase in the static viscosity, (ii) a combined polymer structure the yield stress of which contrasts the downward stress exerted by the iron particles, and (iii) the adsorption of the polymers to the iron surface having an anchoring effect on the particles. The XG/GG viscoelastic gel is characterized by a marked shear thinning behavior. This property, coupled with the low biopolymer concentration, determines small viscosity values at high shear rates, facilitating the injection in porous media. Furthermore, the thermosensitivity of the soft elastic polymeric network promotes higher stability and longer storage times at low temperatures and rapid decrease of viscosity at higher temperatures. This feature can be exploited in order to improve the flowability and the delivery of the suspensions to the target as well as to effectively tune and control the release of the iron particles.

  5. Viscoelastic gels of guar and xanthan gum mixtures provide long-term stabilization of iron micro- and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Dingqi; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2012-01-01

    Iron micro- and nanoparticles used for groundwater remediation and medical applications are prone to fast aggregation and sedimentation. Diluted single biopolymer water solutions of guar gum (GG) or xanthan gum (XG) can stabilize these particles for few hours providing steric repulsion and by increasing the viscosity of the suspension. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that amending GG solutions with small amounts of XG (XG/GG weight ratio 1:19; 3 g/L of total biopolymer concentration) can significantly improve the capability of the biopolymer to stabilize highly concentrated iron micro- and nanoparticle suspensions. The synergistic effect between GG and XG generates a viscoelastic gel that can maintain 20 g/L iron particles suspended for over 24 h. This is attributed to (i) an increase in the static viscosity, (ii) a combined polymer structure the yield stress of which contrasts the downward stress exerted by the iron particles, and (iii) the adsorption of the polymers to the iron surface having an anchoring effect on the particles. The XG/GG viscoelastic gel is characterized by a marked shear thinning behavior. This property, coupled with the low biopolymer concentration, determines small viscosity values at high shear rates, facilitating the injection in porous media. Furthermore, the thermosensitivity of the soft elastic polymeric network promotes higher stability and longer storage times at low temperatures and rapid decrease of viscosity at higher temperatures. This feature can be exploited in order to improve the flowability and the delivery of the suspensions to the target as well as to effectively tune and control the release of the iron particles.

  6. 76 FR 59614 - Facilitating the Use of Microwave for Wireless Backhaul and Other Uses and Providing Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... requires ``complex electronics to coordinate the transmissions, with the additional disadvantage of... Service operators to utilize 60 and 80 megahertz channels, it will simplify the electronics, lowers costs... accordance with the Commission's ex parte rules. Persons making ex parte presentations must file a copy of...

  7. Effects of NiO addition on the densification, microstructure and electrical conductivity of Yttria fully-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Rafael Morgado

    2010-01-01

    The effects produced by NiO addition to yttria fully-stabilized zirconia were systematically investigated. Commercial zirconia-8 mol% yttria, nickel acetate, nitrate, trihydroxycarbonate and nickel oxide were used as starting materials. The NiO content varied from 0.5 to 5 mol%, and the compositions were prepared by mechanically mixing the starting materials in the stoichiometric proportions. Densification studies carried out by density and dilatometry measurements revealed that the maximum shrinkage (∼16-∼20%) depends on the type of nickel precursor. In the second sintering stage the linear shrinkage increased with increasing NiO content (precursor: nickel trihydroxy-carbonate). In the first sintering stage, the activation energy for grain boundary diffusion changed according to the additive precursor, being lower for the oxide and higher for the trihydroxy-carbonate. In the second stage, when the major part of porosity is eliminated, the maximum shrinkage rate temperatures were found to be independent on the precursor except when nickel acetate is used. The solubility limit at 1350 degree C is 1.48% as determined by X-ray diffraction. Above the solubility limit the excess NiO is retained as a second randomly distributed phase. The main effect of the additive in the ceramic microstructure is to increase the average grain size. The electrical measurements showed that the additive did not produce any significant effect in the grain conductivity irrespective of the sintering time, except when the precursor material was nickel oxide. In this case, the grain conductivity increased with increasing sintering time. This effect is attributed to the crystallite size of the nickel oxide precursor, which is higher than that of 8YSZ, slowing down the formation of solid solution. However, the grain conductivity of samples prepared with nickel trihydroxy-carbonate precursor is slightly lower than those of other samples. The samples sintered for 15 h exhibited an additional

  8. Stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking as affected by the presence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2018-03-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins of cereals worldwide, and its occurrence has been widely reported in raw wheat. The free mycotoxin form is not the only route of exposure; modified forms can also be present in cereal products. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a common DON plant conjugate. The mycotoxin concentration could be affected by food processing; here, we studied the stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking of small doughs made from white wheat flour and other ingredients. A range of common food additives and ingredients were added to assess possible interference: ascorbic acid (E300), citric acid (E330), sorbic acid (E200), calcium propionate (E282), lecithin (E322), diacetyltartaric acid esters of fatty acid mono- and diglycerides (E472a), calcium phosphate (E341), disodium diphosphate (E450i), xanthan gum (E415), polydextrose (E1200), sorbitol (E420i), sodium bicarbonate (E500i), wheat gluten and malt flour. The DON content was reduced by 40%, and the DON-3-glucoside concentration increased by >100%, after baking for 20 min at 180°C. This confirmed that DON and DON-3-glucoside concentrations can vary during heating, and DON-3-glucoside could even increase after baking. However, DON and DON-3-glucoside are not affected significantly by the presence of the food additives tested.

  9. Influence of Si and N additions on structure and phase stability of Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölpin, Helmut; Music, Denis; Laptyeva, Galyna; Ghadimi, Reza; Merget, Florian; Richter, Silvia; Mykhaylonka, Ruslàn; Mayer, Joachim; Schneider, Jochen M

    2009-10-28

    The influence of Si and N in Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) (space group [Formula: see text]) on structure and phase stability thereof was studied experimentally by thin film growth and characterization as well as theoretically by ab initio calculations. It was found that Si and N most probably accumulate in the amorphous matrix embedding Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) grains. The incorporation of Si and N in these samples causes an increase of the crystallization temperature and the formation of finer grains. N is more efficient in increasing the crystallization temperature and in reducing the grain size than Si which can be understood based on the bonding analysis. The incorporation of both Si and N in Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) is energetically unfavourable, leading to finer grains and larger crystallization temperatures. While in the case of Si additions no significant changes in bonding are observed, N additions appear to enable the formation of strong Te-N bonds in the amorphous matrix, which are shown to be almost twice as strong as the strongest bonds in unalloyed Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5).

  10. Influence of Si and N additions on structure and phase stability of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelpin, Helmut; Music, Denis; Mykhaylonka, Ruslan; Schneider, Jochen M; Laptyeva, Galyna; Ghadimi, Reza; Richter, Silvia; Mayer, Joachim; Merget, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Si and N in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (space group Fm3-barm) on structure and phase stability thereof was studied experimentally by thin film growth and characterization as well as theoretically by ab initio calculations. It was found that Si and N most probably accumulate in the amorphous matrix embedding Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 grains. The incorporation of Si and N in these samples causes an increase of the crystallization temperature and the formation of finer grains. N is more efficient in increasing the crystallization temperature and in reducing the grain size than Si which can be understood based on the bonding analysis. The incorporation of both Si and N in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 is energetically unfavourable, leading to finer grains and larger crystallization temperatures. While in the case of Si additions no significant changes in bonding are observed, N additions appear to enable the formation of strong Te-N bonds in the amorphous matrix, which are shown to be almost twice as strong as the strongest bonds in unalloyed Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 .

  11. A polarization stabilizer up to 12.6 krad/s with an additional function of stable state of polarization transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Guang, Zhang; Guang-Qing, Fang; Xin-Yuan, Zhao; Wen-Bo, Zhang; Li-Xia, Xi; Qian-Jin, Xiong; Xi-Xiang, Li; Guang-Yong, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment about a novel method of polarization stabilization. The polarization stabilizer proposed here has an additional function of polarization transformation from any state of polarization into any others. The particle swarm optimization is introduced as a control algorithm in the process of either searching or endless tracking. The tracking speed of the stabilizer is obtained up to 12.6 krad/s by using hardware we have in the laboratory, which means that we can achieve a higher speed practical polarization stabilizer if we have faster hardware. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  12. Improvement of stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing caseinate-coated droplets by addition of sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallandre, S; Decker, E A; McClements, D J

    2007-11-01

    The potential of sodium alginate for improving the stability of emulsions containing caseinate-coated droplets was investigated. One wt% corn oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic caseinate-coated droplets (0.15 wt% sodium caseinate) and anionic sodium alginate (0 to 1 wt%) were prepared at pH 7. The pH of these emulsions was then adjusted to 3.5, so that the anionic alginate molecules adsorbed to the cationic caseinate-coated droplets. Extensive droplet aggregation occurred when there was insufficient alginate to completely saturate the droplet surfaces due to bridging flocculation, and when the nonadsorbed alginate concentration was high enough to induce depletion flocculation. Emulsions with relatively small particle sizes could be formed over a range of alginate concentrations (0.1 to 0.4 wt%). The influence of pHs (3 to 7) and sodium chloride (0 to 500 mM) on the properties of primary (0 wt% alginate) and secondary (0.15 wt% alginate) emulsions was studied. Alginate adsorbed to the droplet surfaces at pHs 3, 4, and 5, but not at pHs 6 and 7, due to electrostatic attraction between anionic groups on the alginate and cationic groups on the adsorbed caseinate. Secondary emulsions had better stability than primary emulsions at pH values near caseinate's isoelectric point (pHs 4 and 5). In addition, secondary emulsions were stable up to higher ionic strengths (< 300 mM) than primary emulsions (<50 mM). The controlled electrostatic deposition method utilized in this study could be used to extend the range of application of dairy protein emulsifiers in the food industry.

  13. runjags: An R Package Providing Interface Utilities, Model Templates, Parallel Computing Methods and Additional Distributions for MCMC Models in JAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Denwood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The runjags package provides a set of interface functions to facilitate running Markov chain Monte Carlo models in JAGS from within R. Automated calculation of appropriate convergence and sample length diagnostics, user-friendly access to commonly used graphical outputs and summary statistics, and parallelized methods of running JAGS are provided. Template model specifications can be generated using a standard lme4-style formula interface to assist users less familiar with the BUGS syntax. Automated simulation study functions are implemented to facilitate model performance assessment, as well as drop-k type cross-validation studies, using high performance computing clusters such as those provided by parallel. A module extension for JAGS is also included within runjags, providing the Pareto family of distributions and a series of minimally-informative priors including the DuMouchel and half-Cauchy priors. This paper outlines the primary functions of this package, and gives an illustration of a simulation study to assess the sensitivity of two equivalent model formulations to different prior distributions.

  14. Effects of trace Be and Sc addition on the thermal stability of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Ting [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Army Academy R.O.C., Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Yang, Cheng-Hsien [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long, E-mail: shenglon@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-22

    In the present study, the effects of trace amounts of beryllium (Be, 0.05 wt%) and scandium (Sc, 0.04 wt%) addition on the microstructures and thermal stability of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys were investigated. The results show that traces of Be and Sc significantly reduce the amount of the iron-bearing phase and the interdendritic shrinkage. Be transformed the acicular iron-bearing phases into the nodular Al–Fe–Si iron-bearing phase, which is less harmful to ductility. Moreover, the addition of Be increased the Mg content of the solid solution within the matrix, prompting greater precipitation of the metastable Mg{sub 2}Si phase after T6 heat treatment and effectively enhancing the mechanical properties of the alloy. However, during the following thermal exposure at 250 °C for 100 h, the metastable Mg{sub 2}Si phase grew into the coarse β-Mg{sub 2}Si equilibrium phase, resulting in a decrease in the mechanical strength of the alloy. Meanwhile, the addition of Sc had insignificant effect on the amount of metastable Mg{sub 2}Si phase that precipitated. However, here, the iron-bearing phase was a nodular Al{sub 12}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}(Mg,Sc){sub 5} phase, which significantly enhanced the density of the castings. After the same thermal exposure procedure, it was remarkably found that the precipitation of fine Al{sub 3}Sc particles effectively inhibited grain growth and hindered the movement of dislocations. These factors led to the Sc-containing alloy having better mechanical properties (strength and ductility) than the alloys without Sc or with Be during the following thermal exposure at 250 °C.

  15. Additional electrodes on the Quartet™ LV lead provide more programmable pacing options than bipolar and tripolar equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, David; Sperzel, Johannes; Thibault, Bernard; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Pappone, Carlo; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen; Leclercq, Christopher; Razavi, Hedi; Ryu, Kyungmoo; Mcspadden, Luke C; Fischer, Avi; Tomassoni, Gery

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate any benefits to the number of viable pacing vectors and maximal spatial coverage with quadripolar left ventricular (LV) leads when compared with tripolar and bipolar equivalents in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). A meta-analysis of five previously published clinical trials involving the Quartet™ LV lead (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA) was performed to evaluate the number of viable pacing vectors defined as capture thresholds ≤2.5 V and no phrenic nerve stimulation and maximal spatial coverage of viable vectors in CRT patients at pre-discharge (n = 370) and first follow-up (n = 355). Bipolar and tripolar lead configurations were modelled by systematic elimination of two and one electrode(s), respectively, from the Quartet lead. The Quartet lead with its four pacing electrodes exhibited the greatest number of pacing vectors per patient when compared with the best bipolar and the best tripolar modelled equivalents. Similarly, the Quartet lead provided the highest spatial coverage in terms of the distance between two furthest viable pacing cathodes when compared with the best bipolar and the best tripolar configurations (P tripolar configurations, elimination of the second proximal electrode (M3) resulted in the highest number of viable pacing options per patient. There were no significant differences observed between pre-discharge and first follow-up analyses. The Quartet lead with its four electrodes and the capability to pace from four anatomical locations provided the highest number of viable pacing vectors at pre-discharge and first follow-up visits, providing more flexibility in device programming and enabling continuation of CRT in more patients when compared with bipolar and tripolar equivalents. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography: Does mammography provide additional clinical benefits or can some radiation exposure be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallenberg, Eva Maria; Dromain, Clarisse; Diekmann, Felix; Renz, Diane M; Amer, Heba; Ingold-Heppner, Barbara; Neumann, Avidan U; Winzer, Klaus J; Bick, Ulrich; Hamm, Bernd; Engelken, Florian

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) with mammography (MG) and combined CESM + MG in terms of detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers in order to assess the potential to reduce radiation exposure. A total of 118 patients underwent MG and CESM and had final histological results. CESM was performed as a bilateral examination starting 2 min after injection of iodinated contrast medium. Three independent blinded radiologists read the CESM, MG, and CESM + MG images with an interval of at least 4 weeks to avoid case memorization. Sensitivity and size measurement correlation and differences were calculated, average glandular dose (AGD) levels were compared, and breast densities were reported. Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests were performed. A total of 107 imaging pairs were available for analysis. Densities were ACR1: 2, ACR2: 45, ACR3: 42, and ACR4: 18. Mean AGD was 1.89 mGy for CESM alone, 1.78 mGy for MG, and 3.67 mGy for the combination. In very dense breasts, AGD of CESM was significantly lower than MG. Sensitivity across readers was 77.9 % for MG alone, 94.7 % for CESM, and 95 % for CESM + MG. Average tumor size measurement error compared to postsurgical pathology was -0.6 mm for MG, +0.6 mm for CESM, and +4.5 mm for CESM + MG (p < 0.001 for CESM + MG vs. both modalities). CESM alone has the same sensitivity and better size assessment as CESM + MG and was significantly better than MG with only 6.2 % increase in AGD. The combination of CESM + MG led to systematic size overestimation. When a CESM examination is planned, additional MG can be avoided, with the possibility of saving up to 61 % of radiation dose, especially in patients with dense breasts.

  17. Additional Haptic Information Provided by Anchors Reduces Postural Sway in Young Adults Less Than Does Light Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Moraes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of adding haptic information to the control of posture, as well as comparing the effect of both the “light touch” (LT and “anchor system” (AS paradigms on postural sway. Additionally, it compared the effect of location and number of points of contact to the control of posture in young adults. The location consisted of using the anchors tied to the finger and held by the hands, and, for LT, the fingertip. For the number of points of contact, participants used two hands, and then separately the dominant hand, and the non-dominant hand, for both anchor and LT paradigms. Participants stood upright with feet-together and in tandem position while performing tasks that combined the use of anchors and LT, points of contact (hand grip and finger, and number of points of contact (two hands and one hand. In this study, the anchors consist of holding in each hand a flexible cable with the other end attached to the ground. The LT consists of slightly touching a rigid surface with the tip of the index finger. The results showed, first, that the anchors improved postural control less than did the LT. Second, they revealed that holding the anchors with the hands or with them tied to the fingertip resulted in a similar reduction in postural sway only in the tandem position. For the feet-together position, the anchors tied to the fingertip were ineffective. Similarly, the use of one or two hands did not affect the contribution of the anchors. However, using two hands in the LT condition was more effective than was one hand. Third, our results showed the presence of a temporal delay between force and center-of-pressure (COP for the anchors, only in the AP direction with feet-together. In conclusion, overall, the anchors were less effective in reducing postural sway than was the LT. The anchors attached to fingertips were as effective as the hand-held anchors in the tandem position, yet ineffective during foot

  18. Titanate nanotube thin films with enhanced thermal stability and high-transparency prepared from additive-free sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroesi, Laszlo, E-mail: korosi@enviroinvest.hu [Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Aradi vertanuk tere 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertvaros utca 2, H-7632 Pecs (Hungary); Papp, Szilvia [Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Aradi vertanuk tere 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertvaros utca 2, H-7632 Pecs (Hungary); Hornok, Viktoria [Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Aradi vertanuk tere 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Oszko, Albert [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Aradi vertanuk tere 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Petrik, Peter; Patko, Daniel; Horvath, Robert [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science MFA, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Konkoly-Thege ut 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Dekany, Imre [Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Aradi vertanuk tere 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2012-08-15

    Titanate nanotubes were synthesized from TiO{sub 2} in alkaline medium by a conventional hydrothermal method (150 Degree-Sign C, 4.7 bar). To obtain hydrogen titanates, the as-prepared sodium titanates were treated with either HCl or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} aqueous solutions. A simple synthesis procedure was devised for stable titanate nanotube sols without using any additives. These highly stable ethanolic sols can readily be used to prepare transparent titanate nanotube thin films of high quality. The resulting samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption measurements, Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The comparative results of using two kinds of acids shed light on the superior thermal stability of the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated titanate nanotubes (P-TNTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that P-TNTs contains P in the near-surface region and the thermal stability was enhanced even at a low ({approx}0.5 at%) concentration of P. After calcination at 500 Degree-Sign C, the specific surface areas of the HCl- and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated samples were 153 and 244 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The effects of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatment on the structure, morphology and porosity of titanate nanotubes are discussed. - Graphical Abstract: TEM picture (left) shows P-TNTs with diameters about 5-6 nm. Inset shows a stable titanate nanotube sol illuminated by a 532 nm laser beam. Due to the presence of the nanoparticles the way of the light is visible in the sol. Cross sectional SEM picture (right) as well as ellipsometry revealed the formation of optical quality P-TNT films with thicknesses below 50 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatment led to TNTs with high surface area even after calcination at 500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated TNTs preserved their nanotube morphology up to 500

  19. Influence of Zr and nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions on thermal stability and improved hardness in mechanically alloyed Fe base ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotan, Hasan, E-mail: hkotan@konya.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Necmettin Erbakan University, Dere Aşıklar Mah. Demet Sokak, Meram, Konya 42140 (Turkey); Darling, Kris A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, RDRL-WMM-F, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Scattergood, Ronald O.; Koch, Carl C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NC State University, 911 Partners Way, Room 3078, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2014-12-05

    The motivation of this work was driven to improve the thermal stability in systems where polymorphic transformations can result in an additional driving force, upsetting the expected thermodynamic stability. In this study, Fe{sub 92}Ni{sub 8} alloys with Zr and nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions were produced by ball milling and then annealed at high temperatures. Emphasis was placed on understanding the effects of dispersed nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle additions and their effect on microstructural stability at and above the bcc-to-fcc transformation occurring at 700 °C in Fe–Ni systems. Results reveal that microstructural stability and hardness can be promoted by a combination of Zr and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions, that being mostly effective for stability before and after phase transition, respectively. The mechanical strength of these alloys is achieved by a unique microstructure comprised a ultra-fine grain Fe base matrix, which contains dispersions of both nano-scale in-situ formed Zr base intermetallics and ex-situ added Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} secondary oxide phases. Both of these were found to be essential for a combination of high thermal stability and high mechanical strength properties. - Highlights: • Polymorphic transformations can limit the processing of nanostructured powders. • It causes a rapid grain growth and impairs the improved mechanical properties. • We aim to improve the hardness and thermal stability above the phase transformation. • Thermal stability is achieved by a combination of Zr and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions. • Hardness is promoted by in-situ formed and ex-situ added secondary nano phases.

  20. Improvement of AEP Predictions Using Diurnal CFD Modelling with Site-Specific Stability Weightings Provided from Mesoscale Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Y; Oxley, G; Žagar, M

    2014-01-01

    The Bolund measurement campaign, performed by Danish Technical University (DTU) Wind Energy Department (also known as RISØ), provided significant insight into wind flow modeling over complex terrain. In the blind comparison study several modelling solutions were submitted with the vast majority being steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approaches with two equation k-ε turbulence closure. This approach yielded the most accurate results, and was identified as the state-of-the-art tool for wind turbine generator (WTG) micro-siting. Based on the findings from Bolund, further comparison between CFD and field measurement data has been deemed essential in order to improve simulation accuracy for turbine load and long-term Annual Energy Production (AEP) estimations. Vestas Wind Systems A/S is a major WTG original equipment manufacturer (OEM) with an installed base of over 60GW in over 70 countries accounting for 19% of the global installed base. The Vestas Performance and Diagnostic Centre (VPDC) provides online live data to more than 47GW of these turbines allowing a comprehensive comparison between modelled and real-world energy production data. In previous studies, multiple sites have been simulated with a steady neutral CFD formulation for the atmospheric surface layer (ASL), and wind resource (RSF) files have been generated as a base for long-term AEP predictions showing significant improvement over predictions performed with the industry standard linear WAsP tool. In this study, further improvements to the wind resource file generation with CFD are examined using an unsteady diurnal cycle approach with a full atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) formulation, with the unique stratifications throughout the cycle weighted according to mesoscale simulated sectorwise stability frequencies

  1. Does Semi-Rigid Instrumentation Using Both Flexion and Extension Dampening Spacers Truly Provide an Intermediate Level of Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional posterior dynamic stabilization devices demonstrated a tendency towards highly rigid stabilization approximating that of titanium rods in flexion. In extension, they excessively offload the index segment, making the device as the sole load-bearing structure, with concerns of device failure. The goal of this study was to compare the kinematics and intradiscal pressure of monosegmental stabilization utilizing a new device that incorporates both a flexion and extension dampening spacer to that of rigid internal fixation and a conventional posterior dynamic stabilization device. The hypothesis was the new device would minimize the overloading of adjacent levels compared to rigid and conventional devices which can only bend but not stretch. The biomechanics were compared following injury in a human cadaveric lumbosacral spine under simulated physiological loading conditions. The stabilization with the new posterior dynamic stabilization device significantly reduced motion uniformly in all loading directions, but less so than rigid fixation. The evaluation of adjacent level motion and pressure showed some benefit of the new device when compared to rigid fixation. Posterior dynamic stabilization designs which both bend and stretch showed improved kinematic and load-sharing properties when compared to rigid fixation and when indirectly compared to existing conventional devices without a bumper.

  2. Effect of Zr Additions on Thermal Stability of Al-Cu Precipitates in As-Cast and Cold Worked Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Deane

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available While Zr is frequently added to Al alloys to control grain size with the formation of large (>1 μm primary precipitates, little research has been conducted on the effect of nanoscale Al3Zr precipitates on Al alloys. By comparing the precipitation and corresponding strength evolution between Al-Cu-Zr alloys with different Zr concentrations, the effects of Zr on Al-Cu precipitation with and without primary Al3Zr precipitates can be observed. In the absence of these large precipitates, all Al3Zr phases can be formed, through high temperature aging treatments, as a dispersion of nanoprecipaites inside the Al grains. In this study, Al-Cu-Zr ternary alloys were produced and heat treated to determine whether an increase in the coarsening resistance of Al-Cu precipitate phases would be observed with a distribution of the more thermally stable Al3Zr nanoprecipitates. Generally, properly aged Al-Cu alloys will coarsen when encountering elevated temperatures higher than ~473 K (~200 °C. Diluted Al-Zr alloys (<0.07 at % Zr resist coarsening behavior until the significantly higher temperatures of ~673 K (~400 °C, but are comparatively limited in strength because of a limited solubility of Zr in the Al matrix. Hardness testing and transmission electron microscope (TEM results are discussed, in which it is found that even very small additions of Zr, when properly accounted for during heat treating, produce a finer microstructure and higher strength than in similar Al-Cu binary alloys. No significant change in the thermal stability of strengthening was observed, indicating that the finer precipitate microstructure is resultant from a higher nucleation density, as opposed to a decrease in coarsening behavior.

  3. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voglar, Grega E.; Lestan, Domen

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. → Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. → We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg -1 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm -2 achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  4. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, Grega E; Leštan, Domen

    2011-08-30

    In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085mg kg(-1) of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12N mm(-2) achieved after S/S with CAC+PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC+Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voglar, Grega E. [RDA - Regional Development Agency Celje, Kidriceva ulica 25, 3000 Celje (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.si [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. {yields} Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. {yields} We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg{sup -1} of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm{sup -2} achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  6. Effect of Nb additions on the microstructure, thermal stability and mechanical behavior of high pressure Zr phases under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilyaev, A.P.; Sabirov, I.; Gonzalez-Doncel, G.; Molina-Aldareguia, J.; Srinivasarao, B.; Perez-Prado, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We analyze the influence of Nb additions on the shear-induced α → ω → β phase transformations in pure Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT). → Nb reduces the transition pressures and increases the transformation kinetics. → High pressure phases are retained under ambient conditions due to the presence of an internal stress. → Post-HPT annealing allows to fabricate bimodal/biphase nanostructures with enhanced mechanical behavior. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the influence of Nb on the shear-induced α → ω → β transformation taking place when processing Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT) under suitable conditions of pressure and shear. With that purpose, pure Zr and Zr-2.5%Nb were processed by HPT at room temperature and at pressures ranging from 0.25 to 6 GPa using 5 anvil turns. Nb causes a further reduction of the transition pressures, which are already lower when applying shear besides pressure. Thus, the transition pressure to the β phase is reduced at least 100 times in the Zr-Nb alloy. Alloying with Nb decreases the grain size of the transformed phases, significantly enhances their thermal stability and increases their UTS and elongation to failure. Selected post-HPT annealing treatments lead to the development of very tough, multiphase Zr and Zr-Nb with bimodal grain size distributions. The retention of the high pressure phases under ambient conditions is explained by the development of a high internal stress during processing. This stress is measured by synchrotron radiation diffraction at HZB-BESSY II. It is proposed that the presence of Nb reduces the internal stress level required for the retention of the high pressure phases.

  7. Elevated CO2 and water addition enhance nitrogen turnover in grassland plants with implications for temporal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Blumenthal, Dana M; Mueller, Kevin E; LeCain, Dan R; Morgan, Jack A; Zelikova, Tamara J; Williams, David G; Follett, Ronald F; Pendall, Elise

    2018-05-01

    Temporal variation in soil nitrogen (N) availability affects growth of grassland communities that differ in their use and reuse of N. In a 7-year-long climate change experiment in a semi-arid grassland, the temporal stability of plant biomass production varied with plant N turnover (reliance on externally acquired N relative to internally recycled N). Species with high N turnover were less stable in time compared to species with low N turnover. In contrast, N turnover at the community level was positively associated with asynchrony in biomass production, which in turn increased community temporal stability. Elevated CO 2 and summer irrigation, but not warming, enhanced community N turnover and stability, possibly because treatments promoted greater abundance of species with high N turnover. Our study highlights the importance of plant N turnover for determining the temporal stability of individual species and plant communities affected by climate change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

  9. An additional role for the Brønsted acid-base catalysts of mandelate racemase in transition state stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Mitesh; Bearne, Stephen L

    2015-11-10

    Mandelate racemase (MR) catalyzes the interconversion of the enantiomers of mandelate and serves as a paradigm for understanding the enzyme-catalyzed abstraction of an α-proton from a carbon acid substrate with a high pKa. The enzyme utilizes a two-base mechanism with Lys 166 and His 297 acting as Brønsted acid and base catalysts, respectively, in the R → S reaction direction. In the S → R reaction direction, their roles are reversed. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), MR is shown to bind the intermediate/transition state (TS) analogue inhibitor benzohydroxamate (BzH) in an entropy-driven process with a value of ΔCp equal to -358 ± 3 cal mol(-1) K(-1), consistent with an increased number of hydrophobic interactions. However, MR binds BzH with an affinity that is ∼2 orders of magnitude greater than that predicted solely on the basis of hydrophobic interactions [St. Maurice, M., and Bearne, S. L. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 2524], suggesting that additional specific interactions contribute to binding. To test the hypothesis that cation-π/NH-π interactions between the side chains of Lys 166 and His 297 and the aromatic ring and/or the hydroxamate/hydroximate moiety of BzH contribute to the binding of BzH, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate the MR variants K166M, K166C, H297N, and K166M/H297N and their binding affinity for various ligands determined using ITC. Comparison of the binding affinities of these MR variants with the intermediate/TS analogues BzH and cyclohexanecarbohydroxamate revealed that cation-π/NH-π interactions between His 297 and the hydroxamate/hydroximate moiety and the phenyl ring of BzH contribute approximately 0.26 and 0.91 kcal/mol to binding, respectively, while interactions with Lys 166 contribute approximately 1.74 and 1.74 kcal/mol, respectively. Similarly, comparison of the binding affinities of these mutants with substrate analogues revealed that Lys 166 contributes >2.93 kcal/mol to the binding of (R

  10. High operational and environmental stability of high-mobility conjugated polymer field-effect transistors through the use of molecular additives

    KAUST Repository

    Nikolka, Mark; Nasrallah, Iyad; Rose, Bradley Daniel; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Broch, Katharina; Sadhanala, Aditya; Harkin, David; Charmet, Jerome; Hurhangee, Michael; Brown, Adam; Illig, Steffen; Too, Patrick; Jongman, Jan; McCulloch, Iain; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Due to their low-temperature processing properties and inherent mechanical flexibility, conjugated polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) are promising candidates for enabling flexible electronic circuits and displays. Much progress has been made on materials performance; however, there remain significant concerns about operational and environmental stability, particularly in the context of applications that require a very high level of threshold voltage stability, such as active-matrix addressing of organic light-emitting diode displays. Here, we investigate the physical mechanisms behind operational and environmental degradation of high-mobility, p-type polymer FETs and demonstrate an effective route to improve device stability. We show that water incorporated in nanometre-sized voids within the polymer microstructure is the key factor in charge trapping and device degradation. By inserting molecular additives that displace water from these voids, it is possible to increase the stability as well as uniformity to a high level sufficient for demanding industrial applications.

  11. High operational and environmental stability of high-mobility conjugated polymer field-effect transistors through the use of molecular additives

    KAUST Repository

    Nikolka, Mark

    2016-12-12

    Due to their low-temperature processing properties and inherent mechanical flexibility, conjugated polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) are promising candidates for enabling flexible electronic circuits and displays. Much progress has been made on materials performance; however, there remain significant concerns about operational and environmental stability, particularly in the context of applications that require a very high level of threshold voltage stability, such as active-matrix addressing of organic light-emitting diode displays. Here, we investigate the physical mechanisms behind operational and environmental degradation of high-mobility, p-type polymer FETs and demonstrate an effective route to improve device stability. We show that water incorporated in nanometre-sized voids within the polymer microstructure is the key factor in charge trapping and device degradation. By inserting molecular additives that displace water from these voids, it is possible to increase the stability as well as uniformity to a high level sufficient for demanding industrial applications.

  12. The Development of Mathematical Prediction Model to Predict Resilient Modulus for Natural Soil Stabilized by Pofa-Opc Additive for the Use in Unpaved Road Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamil, Y. M. R.; Bakar, I. H.

    2016-07-01

    Resilient Modulus (Mr) is considered one of the most important parameters in the design of road structure. This paper describes the development of the mathematical model to predict resilient modulus of organic soil stabilized by the mix of Palm Oil Fuel Ash - Ordinary Portland Cement (POFA-OPC) soil stabilization additives. It aims to optimize the use of the use of POFA in soil stabilization. The optimization models enable to eliminate the arbitrary selection and its associated disadvantages in determination of the optimum additive proportion. The model was developed based on Scheffe regression theory. The mix proportions of the samples in the experiment were adopted from similar studies reported in the literature Twenty five samples were designed, prepared and then characterized for each mix proportion based on the MR in 28 days curing. The results are used to develop the mathematical prediction model. The model was statistically analyzed and verified for its adequacy and validity using F-test.

  13. The influence of additions of Al and Si on the lattice stability of fcc and hcp Fe-Mn random alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, T; Music, D; Schneider, J M [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Vitos, L [Department of Materials and Engineering, Applied Materials Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Dick, A; Hickel, T; Neugebauer, J, E-mail: gebhardt@mch.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Computational Materials Design, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-06-22

    We have studied the influence of additions of Al and Si on the lattice stability of face-centred-cubic (fcc) versus hexagonal-closed-packed (hcp) Fe-Mn random alloys, considering the influence of magnetism below and above the fcc Neel temperature. Employing two different ab initio approaches with respect to basis sets and treatment of magnetic and chemical disorder, we are able to quantify the predictive power of the ab initio methods. We find that the addition of Al strongly stabilizes the fcc lattice independent of the regarded magnetic states. For Si a much stronger dependence on magnetism is observed. Compared to Al, almost no volume change is observed as Si is added to Fe-Mn, indicating that the electronic contributions are responsible for stabilization/destabilization of the fcc phase.

  14. The influence of additions of Al and Si on the lattice stability of fcc and hcp Fe-Mn random alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, T; Music, D; Schneider, J M; Ekholm, M; Abrikosov, I A; Vitos, L; Dick, A; Hickel, T; Neugebauer, J

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the influence of additions of Al and Si on the lattice stability of face-centred-cubic (fcc) versus hexagonal-closed-packed (hcp) Fe-Mn random alloys, considering the influence of magnetism below and above the fcc Neel temperature. Employing two different ab initio approaches with respect to basis sets and treatment of magnetic and chemical disorder, we are able to quantify the predictive power of the ab initio methods. We find that the addition of Al strongly stabilizes the fcc lattice independent of the regarded magnetic states. For Si a much stronger dependence on magnetism is observed. Compared to Al, almost no volume change is observed as Si is added to Fe-Mn, indicating that the electronic contributions are responsible for stabilization/destabilization of the fcc phase.

  15. Addition of Pullulan to Trehalose Glasses Improves the Stability of β-Galactosidase at High Moisture Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teekamp, Naomi; Tian, Yu; Visser, J. Carolina; Olinga, Peter; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of therapeutic proteins in a matrix of sugar glass is known to enhance protein stability, yet protection is often lost when exposed to high relative humidity (RH). We hypothesized that especially in these conditions the use of binary glasses of a polysaccharide and disaccharide might

  16. The influence of Ni additions on the relative stability of η and η′ Cu6Sn5

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Di Paola, Cono; Gourlay, C. M.; Nogita, K.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how 5 at. % Ni influences the relative stability of η and η′ Cu6Sn5. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction shows that, while Cu6Sn5 exists as η′ at 25 and 150 °C and transforms to η on heating to 200 °C, Cu5.5Ni0.5Sn5 is best fit to η

  17. Study of wine tartaric acid salt stabilization by addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC: comparison with the « protective colloids » effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gerbaud

    2010-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: The OIV-OENO 366-2009 and OIV-OENO 02/2008 resolutions recently authorized the use of CMC to prevent tartaric acid salt precipitation. With no impact on health, and stable under heating and in acid solution, CMC is an efficient candidate for tartaric stabilization. The optimal concentration of 20 mg.L-1 (2 g.hL-1 should however be adapted to local wine storage conditions and KHT crystallization risk.

  18. Impact of High-Fidelity Simulation and Pharmacist-Specific Didactic Lectures in Addition to ACLS Provider Certification on Pharmacy Resident ACLS Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Billie J

    2014-08-01

    This pilot study explored the use of multidisciplinary high-fidelity simulation and additional pharmacist-focused training methods in training postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residents to provide Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) care. Pharmacy resident confidence and comfort level were assessed after completing these training requirements. The ACLS training requirements for pharmacy residents were revised to include didactic instruction on ACLS pharmacology and rhythm recognition and participation in multidisciplinary high-fidelity simulation ACLS experiences in addition to ACLS provider certification. Surveys were administered to participating residents to assess the impact of this additional education on resident confidence and comfort level in cardiopulmonary arrest situations. The new ACLS didactic and simulation training requirements resulted in increased resident confidence and comfort level in all assessed functions. Residents felt more confident in all areas except providing recommendations for dosing and administration of medications and rhythm recognition after completing the simulation scenarios than with ACLS certification training and the didactic components alone. All residents felt the addition of lectures and simulation experiences better prepared them to function as a pharmacist in the ACLS team. Additional ACLS training requirements for pharmacy residents increased overall awareness of pharmacist roles and responsibilities and greatly improved resident confidence and comfort level in performing most essential pharmacist functions during ACLS situations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Freeze-Thaw Performance and Moisture-Induced Damage Resistance of Base Course Stabilized with Slow Setting Bitumen Emulsion-Portland Cement Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw (FT cycles and moisture susceptibility are important factors influencing the geotechnical characteristics of soil-aggregates. Given the lack of published information on the behavior of cement-bitumen emulsion-treated base (CBETB under environmental conditions, especially freezing and thawing, this study investigated the effects of these additives on the CBETB performance. The primary goal was to evaluate the resistance of CBETB to moisture damage by performing FT, Marshall conditioning, and AASHTO T-283 tests and to evaluate the long-term stripping susceptibility of CBETB while also predicting the liquid antistripping additives to assess the mixture’s durability and workability. Specimens were stabilized with Portland cement (0%–6%, bitumen emulsion (0%–5%, and Portland cement-bitumen emulsion mixtures and cured for 7 days, and their short- and long-term performances were studied. Evaluation results of both the Marshall stability ratio and the tensile strength ratio show that the additions of additives increase the resistance of the mixtures to moisture damage. Results of durability tests performed for determining the resistance of compacted specimens to repeated FT cycles indicate that the specimen with the 4% cement-3% bitumen emulsion mixture significantly improves water absorption, volume changes, and weight losses. This indicates the effectiveness of this additive as a road base stabilizer with excellent engineering properties for cold regions.

  20. New iridium complex as additive to the spiro-OMeTAD in perovskite solar cells with enhanced stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new iridium complex, IrCp*Cl(PyPyz[TFSI], has been synthesized and used as additive for the hole transporter material, spiro-OMeTAD, in perovskite solar cells. The cells prepared with this Ir additive present higher efficiency than reference cells, and similar to cells prepared with Co additive. We have determined that the presence of metal complexes as additives decreases the recombination rate, as it has been observed by impedance spectroscopy. Very interestingly, while the efficiency after 3 months decreases by 22% and 70% for reference cell and cell with Co additive, respectively, the efficiency of devices containing the Ir additive is only decreased by a 4%.

  1. Radiation-Resistant Photon-Counting Detector Package Providing Sub-ps Stability for Laser Time Transfer in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochzaka, Ivan; Kodat, Jan; Blazej, Josef; Sun, Xiaoli (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting on a design, construction and performance of photon-counting detector packages based on silicon avalanche photodiodes. These photon-counting devices have been optimized for extremely high stability of their detection delay. The detectors have been designed for future applications in fundamental metrology and optical time transfer in space. The detectors have been qualified for operation in space missions. The exceptional radiation tolerance of the detection chip itself and of all critical components of a detector package has been verified in a series of experiments.

  2. Adjusting neural additional stabilizers for damping interarea oscillations; Ajuste de estabilizadores suplementares neurais para amortecimento de oscilacoes interareas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furini, M.A.; Araujo, P.B. de; Pereira, A.L.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: mafurini@aluno.feis.unesp.br, percival@dee.feis.unesp.br, andspa@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the main operation and design of operationally robust controllers in order to damp the electromechanics oscillations type inter area. For this we used an intelligent control technique based on artificial neural networks, where a multilayer perceptron it was implemented. We used a symmetrical test system of four generators, ten bars and nine transmission lines to verify the performance of the power system stabilizers and power oscillation damping (POD) for the FACTS devices, unified power flow controller (UPFC), designed for neural networks. The results show the superiority in the operation and control of oscillations in power systems using UPFC equipped with the POD.

  3. Delayed addition of nitrogen-rich substrates during composting of municipal waste: Effects on nitrogen loss, greenhouse gas emissions and compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Municipal waste is usually composted with an N-rich substrate, such as manure, to increase the N content of the product. This means that a significant amount of nitrogen can be lost during composting. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation. The results showed that split addition of the nitrogen-rich substrate reduced nitrogen losses by 9% when sawdust was used and 20% when coffee husks were used as the bulking agent. Depending on the bulking agent used, split addition increased cumulative N 2 O emissions by 400-600% compared to single addition. In contrast, single addition increased methane emissions by up to 50% compared to split addition of the substrate. Hence, the timing of the addition of the N-rich substrate had only a marginal effect on total non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions. Split addition of the N-rich substrate resulted in compost that was just as stable and effective at completely eradicating weed seeds as single addition. These findings therefore show that split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate could be an option for increasing the fertilising value of municipal waste compost without having a significant effect on total greenhouse gas emissions or compost stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epicardial clip occlusion of the left atrial appendage during cardiac surgery provides optimal surgical results and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfirst, Vojtech; Mokrácek, Aleš; Canádyová, Júlia; Frána, Radim; Zeman, Petr

    2017-07-01

    Occlusion of the left atrial appendage (LAA) has become an integral and important part of the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Different methods of surgical occlusion of the LAA have been associated with varying levels of short- and long-term success for closure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term results of epicardial placement and endocardial occlusion in patients undergoing cardiac operative procedures. A total of 101 patients (average age 65.7 years) undergoing cardiac operative procedures with the epicardial AtriClip Exclusion System of the LAA were enrolled in the study. The AtriClip was placed via a sternotomy or a thoracotomy or from a thoracoscopic approach. Postoperative variables, such as thromboembolic events, clip stability and endocardial leakage around the device, were examined by transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and/or computed tomography. Perioperative clip implantation was achieved in 98% of patients. TEE and/or computed tomography conducted during the follow-up period, comprising 1873 patient-months with a mean duration of 18 ± 11 months, revealed no clip migration, no leakage around the device and no clot formation near the remnant cul-de-sac. During the follow-up period, 4 of the cardiac patients experienced transitory ischaemic attacks, whereas no patient experienced a cerebrovascular attack. The Epicardial AtriClip Exclusion System of the LAA appears to be a feasable and safe operative method with a high success rate. Long-term follow-up confirmed clip stability, complete occlussion of the LAA and absence of any atrial fibrilation-related thromboembolic events. These results need to be confirmed by a larger, multicentre study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon stabilization and microbial growth in acidic mine soils after addition of different amendments for soil reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, Jose; Ángeles Muñoz, María; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Faz, Ángel; Bååth, Erland

    2016-04-01

    The extreme soil conditions in metalliferous mine soils have a negative influence on soil biological activity and therefore on soil carbon estabilization. Therefore, amendments are used to increase organic carbon content and activate microbial communities. In order to elucidate some of the factors controlling soil organic carbon stabilization in reclaimed acidic mine soils and its interrelationship with microbial growth and community structure, we performed an incubation experiment with four amendments: pig slurry (PS), pig manure (PM) and biochar (BC), applied with and without marble waste (MW; CaCO3). Results showed that PM and BC (alone or together with MW) contributed to an important increment in recalcitrant organic C, C/N ratio and aggregate stability. Bacterial and fungal growths were highly dependent on pH and labile organic C. PS supported the highest microbial growth; applied alone it stimulated fungal growth, and applied with MW it stimulated bacterial growth. BC promoted the lowest microbial growth, especially for fungi, with no significant increase in fungal biomass. MW+BC increased bacterial growth up to values similar to PM and MW+PM, suggesting that part of the biochar was degraded, at least in short-term mainly by bacteria rather than fungi. PM, MW+PS and MW+PM supported the highest microbial biomass and a similar community structure, related with the presence of high organic C and high pH, with immobilization of metals and increased soil quality. BC contributed to improved soil structure, increased recalcitrant organic C, and decreased metal mobility, with low stimulation of microbial growth.

  6. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) using commercial additives; Estabilizacao radiolitica do poli(metacrilato de metila) usando aditivos comerciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterelizable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its mechanical properties. Therefore, radiolytic of PMMA is important for it to become commercially radiosterizable. In this work some commercial additives, originally used in photo-and thermo-oxidate stabilization of polymers, were tested. Only two additives, type HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer), denoted Scavenger, showed a good protective quality. The investigation of radiation-induced main scissions was carried out by viscosimetric method. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.3 w/w%, promotes a great molecular radioprotection of 93%. That means a reduction of G-value (scissions/100 eV) from 0.611 to 0.053. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (T{sub g}) of PMMA (no additive) significantly changed by radiation does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. The spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and NMR ({sup 1}H), showed that the radioprotector added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. (author)

  7. Effects of Ti and Ta addition on microstructure stability and tensile properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for nuclear fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Kyu; Lee, Ji Won; Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Chang Hoon; Hong, Hyun Uk

    2018-03-01

    The effects of Ti and Ta addition on microstructure stability and tensile properties of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel have been investigated. Ti addition of 0.06 wt% to conventional RAFM reference base steel (Fe-9.3Cr-0.93W-0.22V-0.094Ta-0.1C) was intended to promote the precipitation of nano-sized (Ti,W) carbides with a high resistance to coarsening. In addition, the Ti addition was substituted for 0.094 wt% Ta. The Ti-added RAFM steel (Ti-RAFM) exhibited a higher yield strength (ΔYS = 32 MPa) at 600 °C than the reference base steel due to additional precipitation hardening by (Ti,W)-rich MX with an average size of 6.1 nm and the area fraction of 2.39%. However, after thermal exposure at 600 °C for 1000 h, this Ti-RAFM was more susceptible to degradation than the reference base steel; the block width increased by 77.6% in Ti-RAFM after thermal exposure while the reference base steel showed only 9.1% increase. In order to suppress diffusion rate during thermal exposure, the large-sized Ta element with low activation was added to Ti-RAFM. The Ta-added Ti-RAFM steel exhibited good properties with outstanding microstructure stability. Quantitative comparison in microstructures was discussed with a consideration of Ti and Ta addition.

  8. Imprinting of metal receptors into multilayer polyelectrolyte films: fabrication and applications in marine antifouling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FTIR, NMR spectra of synthesized polymers, XPS spectra and AFM images of non-cross linked and cross linked LBLA and LBLB films, UV-Visible absorption spectra of copper complexation with PAH-His, QCM data of LBLA and LBLB films and stability of the films are provided in the electronic supplementary information. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02367f Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Go, Dewi Pitrasari; Zhu, Xiaoying; Guo, Shifeng; Ming Teo, Serena Lay; Chen Lee, Serina Siew

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric films constructed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication process were employed as a platform for metal ion immobilization and applied as a marine antifouling coating. The novel Cu2+ ion imprinting process described is based on the use of metal ion templates and LbL multilayer covalent cross-linking. Custom synthesized, peptide mimicking polycations composed of histidine grafted poly(allylamine) (PAH) to bind metal ions, and methyl ester containing polyanions for convenient cross-linking were used in the fabrication process. Two methods of LbL film formation have been investigated using alternate polyelectrolyte deposition namely non-imprinted LbLA, and imprinted LbLB. Both LbL films were cross linked at mild temperature to yield covalent bridging of the layers for improved stability in a sea water environment. A comparative study of the non-imprinted LbLA films and imprinted LbLB films for Cu2+ ion binding capacity, leaching rate and stability of the films was performed. The results reveal that the imprinted films possess enhanced affinity to retain metal ions due to the preorganization of imidazole bearing histidine receptors. As a result the binding capacity of the films for Cu2+ could be improved by seven fold. Antifouling properties of the resulting materials in a marine environment have been demonstrated against the settlement of barnacle larvae, indicating that controlled release of Cu ions was achieved. PMID:28966763

  9. Thermal stability of (AlSi)x(ZrVTi) intermetallic phases in the Al–Si–Cu–Mg cast alloy with additions of Ti, V, and Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaha, S.K.; Czerwinski, F.; Kasprzak, W.; Friedman, J.; Chen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloy was modified by introducing Zr, V, and Ti. • The chemistry of the phases was identified using SEM/EDX. • The crystal lattice parameters of the phases were characterized using EBSD. • To investigate the phase stability, XRD was performed up to 600 °C. • Thermal analysis was done to find out the possible phase transformation reactions. - Abstract: The Al–Si–Cu–Mg cast alloy was modified with additions of Ti–V–Zr to improve the thermal stability of intermetallics at increased temperatures. A combination of electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and high temperature X-ray diffraction was explored to identify phases and temperatures of their thermal stability. The micro-additions of transition metals led to formation of several (AlSi) x (TiVZr) phases with D0 22 /D0 23 tetragonal crystal structure and different lattice parameters. While Cu and Mg rich phases along with the eutectic Si dissolved at temperatures from 300 to 500 °C, the (AlSi) x (TiVZr) phases were stable up to 696–705 °C which is the beneficial to enhance the high temperature properties. Findings of this study are useful for selecting temperatures during melting and heat treatment of Al–Si alloys with additions of transition metals

  10. Improvement of the magnetic property, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Beibei; Li, Xiangbin; Liang, Xiaolin [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yan, Gaolin, E-mail: gaolinyan@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Chen, Kan; Yan, Aru [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-05-01

    To improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets simultaneously, the Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} (at%) powders with low melting point were introduced into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. Additionally, the magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of the sintered magnets with different amounts of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}, the coercivity was significantly increased from 12.72 to 21.75 kOe. As indicated by the microstructure analysis, a well-developed core-shell structure was formed in the magnets with the addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}. The improvement of magnetic properties could be attributed to the refined and uniform matrix phase, continuous grain boundaries and a (Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hardening shell surrounding the matrix phase grains. With the addition of 0–4 wt% Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powder, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the magnets could be improved from −0.117 to −0.108%/°C and −0.74 to −0.66%/°C in the range of 20–100 °C, respectively. Additionally, the irreversible loss of magnetic flux (hirr) decreased sharply as Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powder was added. The results of temperature-dependent magnetic properties suggest that, the thermal stability of the magnets was effectively improved with the intergranular addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy. Also, the corrosion resistance was found to be improved through small addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powders This was partly due to the stability enhancement of the (Pr, Nd)-rich intergranular phase by Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}. - Highlights: • We successfully introduced the Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. • The magnetic properties and thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B magnets were improved. • The corrosion resistance of the Nd-Fe-B magnets were improved.

  11. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a chemical additive based on sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Limin; Smith, Megan L; Benjamim da Silva, Erica; Windle, Michelle C; da Silva, Thiago C; Polukis, Stephanie A

    2018-04-11

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an additive comprising sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite (SSL) as active ingredients for its ability to improve the aerobic stability of corn silages made in North America. In experiment 1, treatment with SSL (1.5 and 2.0 L/t) on whole-plant corn (WPC) was compared with treatment with an additive containing buffered propionic acid and citric acid (BPA; 2 L/t) on corn harvested at 32 and 38% DM and ensiled for 120 d. Silage treated with BPA was higher in ammonia-N and propionic acid relative to other treatments. Treatments with all of the additives had numerically, but not statistically, fewer yeasts compared with untreated silage. Both application rates of SSL resulted in lower concentrations of ethanol compared with untreated and BPA silages. Treatment with BPA improved the aerobic stability of silages compared with untreated silage, but the effect from SSL was markedly greater. In experiment 2, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 or 3 L of SSL/t or a microbial inoculant containing Enterococcus faecium M74, Lactobacillus plantarum CH6072, and Lactobacillus buchneri LN1819 (final total lactic acid bacteria application rate of 150,000 cfu/g of fresh forage). Silages were air stressed for 24 h at 28 and 42 d of storage and ensiled for 49 d before opening. Inoculation had no effect on acid end products, ethanol, number of yeasts, or aerobic stability compared with other treatments. Treatment with SSL decreased the amount of ethanol, had no effect on number of yeasts, and improved aerobic stability in a dose-dependent manner compared with other treatments. In experiment 3, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 L of SSL/t and ensiled for 5, 15, and 30 d. Treatment with SSL resulted in silage with fewer yeasts and lower concentrations of ethanol after all times of ensiling compared with untreated silage. In addition, SSL improved aerobic stability after each period of ensiling, but the effect was more at 15 and 30 d

  12. Improvement of stability and carotenoids fraction of virgin olive oils by addition of microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limón, Piedad; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Acién-Fernández, F Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Cruz, Rebeca; Bermejo, Ruperto; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-05-15

    Humans are not capable of synthesizing carotenoids de novo and thus, their presence in human tissues is entirely of dietary origin. Consumption of essential carotenoids is reduced due to the lower intake of fruits and vegetables. Microalgae are a good source of carotenoids that can be exploited. In the present work, carotenoids rich extracts from Scenedesmus almeriensis were added to extra-virgin olive oils at different concentrations (0.1 and 0.21 mg/mL) in order to enhance the consumption of these bioactives. Extracts brought changes in olive oils color, turning them orange-reddish. Quality of olive oils was improved, since peroxidation was inhibited. Olive oils fatty acids and tocopherols were not affected. β-carotene and lutein contents increase considerably, as well as oxidative stability, improving olive oils shelf-life and nutritional value. Inclusion of S. almeriensis extracts is a good strategy to improve and enhance the consumption of carotenoids, since olive oil consumption is increasing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of small 4th element alloying additions on the calculated phase stability in the Fe-Cr-Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkin, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies into the void swelling of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys have revealed that the magnitude of swelling depends upon alloy constitution and this together with the fact that minor element additions also play a major role in swelling necessitate a detailed knowledge of the influence of small 4th element additions on phase stability. In this paper the effects of additions of Nb, Ti, Al, Mo, Co and C to the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary are assessed by calculation. They confirm the ferritising tendencies of Nb, Ti and Al and the strong austenitising effect of C. Confirmation is also found for the scaling factors in the equivalent Ni and Cr equations in common usage and the paper presents Fe-Cr-Ni ternary sections at 400, 550 and 700 0 C modified for 1 at.% addition of each of the above elements. (orig.) [de

  14. Investigations of the Montmorillonite and Aluminium Trihydrate Addition Effects on the Ignitability and Thermal Stability of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of limiting oxygen index (LOI, cone calorimeter, and TG-DSC tests, this paper investigated the effect of unmodified montmorillonite (MMT, organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT, and aluminium trihydrate (ATH additions on the flame retardancy for asphalt combustion. Experimental results showed that adding a small amount of montmorillonite did not significantly increase the oxygen index of the asphalt but reduced the heat release rate during asphalt combustion. TGA tests had indicated that the montmorillonite (MMT and OMMT could suppress the release of flammable volatiles and form more asphaltenes, which hence postponed the burnout time of asphalt. Furthermore, the combination of montmorillonite (MMT and OMMT and ATH had yielded a synergistic effect, which had further reduced the heat release rate and also increased the oxygen index of asphalt. In particular, after further addition of OMMT, the barrier layer showed less crack, leading to a significant decrease in the heat release rate as compared to the adding of ATH alone.

  15. The addition of a pH-sensitive gel improves microemulsion stability for the targeted removal of colonic ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wen-Jun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We prepared an oral W/O microemulsion for the removal of colonic ammonia (ME-RCA. The effect of this microemulsion was influenced by the digestion process in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, we aim to show that stability was improved by using a microemulsion-based gel for the removal of colonic ammonia (MBG-RCA. Methods MBG-RCA was prepared by adding sodium alginate to the ME-RCA. MBG-RCA and ME-RCA were passed through a simulated gastrointestinal environment, and the amount of colonic ammonia present was then determined by titration with a standard solution of hydrochloric acid. The pH of the gastrointestinal fluid was measured using a pH test paper and the size and form of the microemulsions were examined under the microscope. 18 healthy rats were randomly divided into three groups, fasted for 24 hours and allowed to drink normally. Three-way pipes were placed at the gastroduodenal junction in Group I, and at the terminal ileum in Group II. After the intragastric administration of ME-RCA, the stomach contents in Group I, the effluent from the terminal ileum in Group II and discharge from the anus in Group III were collected. The pH values of the gastrointestinal juice were measured by the pH test paper and those of the colon were determined by a universal indicator. These animal experiments were also used to test the effect of MBG-RCA. Results MBG-RCA showed a better removal rate of artificial colonic ammonia than ME-RCA (P Conclusions MBG-RCA was more stable in the gastrointestinal tract and more effective at removing colonic ammonia when a higher concentration of ammonia was present. This made it possible to achieve the targeted removal of colonic ammonia and is a promising method to prevent hepatic encephalopathy (HE in future studies.

  16. Using open source computational tools for predicting human metabolic stability and additional absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishi R; Gifford, Eric M; Liston, Ted; Waller, Chris L; Hohman, Moses; Bunin, Barry A; Ekins, Sean

    2010-11-01

    Ligand-based computational models could be more readily shared between researchers and organizations if they were generated with open source molecular descriptors [e.g., chemistry development kit (CDK)] and modeling algorithms, because this would negate the requirement for proprietary commercial software. We initially evaluated open source descriptors and model building algorithms using a training set of approximately 50,000 molecules and a test set of approximately 25,000 molecules with human liver microsomal metabolic stability data. A C5.0 decision tree model demonstrated that CDK descriptors together with a set of Smiles Arbitrary Target Specification (SMARTS) keys had good statistics [κ = 0.43, sensitivity = 0.57, specificity = 0.91, and positive predicted value (PPV) = 0.64], equivalent to those of models built with commercial Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) and the same set of SMARTS keys (κ = 0.43, sensitivity = 0.58, specificity = 0.91, and PPV = 0.63). Extending the dataset to ∼193,000 molecules and generating a continuous model using Cubist with a combination of CDK and SMARTS keys or MOE2D and SMARTS keys confirmed this observation. When the continuous predictions and actual values were binned to get a categorical score we observed a similar κ statistic (0.42). The same combination of descriptor set and modeling method was applied to passive permeability and P-glycoprotein efflux data with similar model testing statistics. In summary, open source tools demonstrated predictive results comparable to those of commercial software with attendant cost savings. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of open source descriptors and the opportunity for their use as a tool for organizations to share data precompetitively, avoiding repetition and assisting drug discovery.

  17. Enhancement of delamination strength in Cu-stabilized coated conductor tapes through additional treatments under transverse tension at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyung Seop; Bautista, Zhierwinjay [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jae Hun; Mean, Byoung Jean [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In superconducting coil applications particularly in wet wound coils, coated conductor (CC) tapes are subjected to different type of stresses that could affect its electromechanical transport property. These include hoop stress acting along the length of the CC tape and the Lorentz force acting perpendicular to the CC tape’s surface. Since the latter is commonly associated with the delamination problem of multi-layered REBCO CC tapes, more understanding and attention on the delamination phenomena induced in the case of coil applications are needed. Difference on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of each constituent layer of the CC tape, the bobbin, and the impregnating materials is the main causes of delamination in CC tapes when subjected to thermal and mechanical cycling. In the design of degradation-free superconducting coils, therefore, characterization of the delamination behaviors including mechanism and strength in the multi-layered REBCO CC tapes becomes a critical issue. Various trials to increase the delamination strength by improving interface characteristics at interlayers have been performed. In this study, in order to investigate the influences of laser cleaning and Ag annealing treated at the substrate side surface, transverse tensile tests were conducted under different sample configurations using 4.5mm x 8 mm upper anvil. The mechanical delamination strength of differently processed CC samples was examined at room temperature (RT). As a result, the Sample 1 with the additional laser cleaning and Ag annealing processes and the Sample 2 with additional Ag annealing process only showed higher mechanical delamination strength as compared to the Sample 3 without such additional treatments. Sample 3 showed quite different behavior when the loading direction is to the substrate side where the delamination strength much lower as compared to other cases.

  18. Improvement of the stability of TiSnSb anode under lithiation using SEI forming additives and room temperature ionic liquid/DMC mixed electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Ghamouss, F.; Mery, A.; Lemordant, D.; Dedryvère, R.; Monconduit, L.; Martinez, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithiation and delithiation of TiSnSb conversion anode material • Room temperature ionic liquid based electrolyte • Fluoroethylene carbonate SEI builder additives • XPS and electrochemical analysis of the anode/electrolyte interface -- Abstract: The electrochemical behavior and the stability under cycling of TiSnSb anode for Li-ion batteries were investigated in room temperature ionic liquids based electrolyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance (EIS) measurements have been performed to study the formation of surface film on the TiSnSb anode. Surface analysis was performed by a combined XPS core peaks and quantification data analysis, to establish the main components of the solid electrolyte interphase film (SEI). The key observation is that the thickness and the chemical nature of the SEI layer is strongly related to the electrolyte formulation and the addition of SEI layer forming additives. Vinylene carbonate (VC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) were applied in order to improve the anode/electrolyte interface. From XPS, EIS results and galvanostatic cycling the role of additives and ionic liquids as an effective stability improver has been highlighted

  19. Three finned press-fit cup: Does its initial fixation strength provide an adequate stability? Clinical midterm results of 685 implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Romeo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the major causes of loosening of cementless acetabular cup implants is insufficient initial stability. A technical proposal to decrease the risk of suboptimal first stability is a circumferential finned design of the cup. This design aims to improve periacetabular bone contact and prevent rotational micromotion of the cup when optimal press-fit cannot be obtained. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a group of 712 consecutive patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty from June 2006 to June 2014. In all patients, a titanium cup, characterized by three anti-rotational circumferential fins at the superior pole, was implanted. Results: Five hundred and ninety-two patients, for a total of 685 hips, were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 58 months (range 12-96 months. At 1-year follow-up, the average score increased to 82.90 (range 100-70 and at the final follow-up (58 months, range 12-96 months, it was 80.12 (range 100-66. In 22 cases (3%, screws to obtain a secure primary stability of the cup were used. Nineteen complications (2.6% needing revision surgery were observed. Survivorship at 10 years was 98.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.7-99.7% with revision for aseptic cup loosening as an endpoint and 96.7% (95% CI, 98.3-95.1% with revision for all causes of revision as the second endpoint. Discussion: In our group of patients, we did not observe the cases of very early cup loosening. The only two-cup revision, do to loosening of osteolysis, was observed 26 and 32 months before surgery. Conclusion: Our very low rate of additional screws represents an indirect sign of finned cup first stability. Three-finned cup design clinically confirmed to improve initial cup stability.

  20. Influence of the doping additives on heat stability and heat transfer of nickel coverings of cases IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosyadly S. P.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the help of modern diagnostic microanalysis tools, the regularities are established for variation of electrophysical parameters of Ni-B galvanic coating of IC packages in the process of ultrasonic welding of internal Al leads and package seal. The optimal composition of the electrolyte which provides heat resistance increase of IC packages with alloyed Ni coating is selected. This, combined with the local gilding, enables mounting of crystals through a eutectic Si-Au sublayer.

  1. Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial on additional core stability exercises training for improving dynamic sitting balance and trunk control in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda Mª; du Port de Pontcharra-Serra, Helena; German-Romero, Ana; Urrútia, Gerard

    2017-11-01

    Analyse the effect of core stability exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy training three months after the intervention ended. A randomized controlled trial. Outpatient services. Seventy-nine stroke survivors. In the intervention period, both groups underwent conventional physiotherapy performed five days/week for five weeks, and in addition the experimental group performed core stability exercises for 15 minutes/day. Afterwards, during a three-month follow-up period, both groups underwent usual care that could eventually include conventional physiotherapy or physical exercise but not in a controlled condition. Primary outcome was trunk control and dynamic sitting balance assessed by the Spanish-Version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0 and Function in Sitting Test. Secondary outcomes were standing balance and gait evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Test, Brunel Balance Assessment, Spanish-Version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke and activities of daily living using the Barthel Index. A total of 68 subjects out of 79 completed the three-month follow-up period. The mean difference (SD) between groups was 0.78 (1.51) points ( p = 0.003) for total score on the Spanish-Version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0, 2.52 (6.46) points ( p = 0.009) for Function in Sitting Test, dynamic standing balance was 3.30 (9.21) points ( p= 0.009) on the Berg Balance Scale, gait was 0.82 (1.88) points ( p = 0.002) by Brunel Balance Assessment (stepping), and 1.11 (2.94) points ( p = 0.044) by Tinetti Test (gait), all in favour of core stability exercises. Core stability exercises plus conventional physiotherapy have a positive long-term effect on improving dynamic sitting and standing balance and gait in post-stroke patients.

  2. Crystal structure and stability of LiAlD{sub 4} with TiF{sub 3} additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, H.W. [Department of Physics, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway)]. E-mail: hwbrinks@ife.no; Fossdal, A. [Department of Physics, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway); Fonnelop, J.E. [Department of Physics, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway); Hauback, B.C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway)

    2005-07-19

    LiAlD{sub 4} samples with TiF{sub 3} additives have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and a Sieverts-type apparatus. Directly after ball milling there are no signs of any Ti-containing phases, and the unit-cell of LiAlD{sub 4} and Al give no indication of any solid solutions. Hence it is concluded that the Ti is in an amorphous state directly after ball milling. Furthermore, no LiF was observed in the samples. Based on Sieverts-type measurements the plateau pressure at 80 deg C has been proved to be higher than 85 bar. Samples stored in a glove box are slowly desorbed, and after 6 months for a LiAlD{sub 4} + TiF{sub 3} sample, the reaction to LiD + Al is nearly finished.

  3. Medical Care Provided Under California's Workers' Compensation Program: Effects of the Reforms and Additional Opportunities to Improve the Quality and Efficiency of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Barbara O; Timbie, Justin W; Sorbero, Melony E

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, significant changes have been made to the California workers' compensation (WC) system. The Commission on Health and Safety and Workers' Compensation (CHSWC) asked the RAND Corporation to examine the impact that these changes have on the medical care provided to injured workers. This study synthesizes findings from interviews and available information regarding the implementation of the changes affecting WC medical care and identifies areas in which additional changes might increase the quality and efficiency of care delivered under the WC system. To improve incentives for efficiently providing medically appropriate care, California should revise its fee schedule allowances for services provided by hospitals to inpatients, freestanding ambulatory surgery centers, and physicians, create nonmonetary incentives for providing medically appropriate care in the medical provider network (MPN) context through more-selective contracting with providers and reducing medical review requirements for high-performing physicians; reduce incentives for inappropriate prescribing practices by curtailing in-office physician dispensing; and implement pharmacy benefit network regulations. To increase accountability for performance, California should revise the MPN certification process to place accountability for meeting MPN standards on the entity contracting with the physician network; strengthen Division of Workers' Compensation (DWC) authorities to provide intermediate sanctions for failure to comply with MPN requirements; and modify the Labor Code to remove payers and MPNs from the definition of individually identifiable data so that performance on key measures can be publicly available. To facilitate monitoring and oversight, California should provide DWC with more flexibility to add needed data elements to medical data reporting and provide penalties for a claim administrator failing to comply with the data-reporting requirements; require that medical cost

  4. The effect of Sn addition on phase stability and phase evolution during aging heat treatment in Ti–Mo alloys employed as biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Mariana G. de, E-mail: marianagm@fem.unicamp.br; Salvador, Camilo F., E-mail: csalvador@fem.unicamp.br; Cremasco, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra@fem.unicamp.br; Caram, Rubens, E-mail: caram@fem.unicamp.br

    2015-12-15

    Increases in life expectancy and improvements in necessary healthcare attach great importance to the development of biomaterials. Ti alloys containing β stabilizing elements are often used as biomaterials due to their high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, unusual biocompatibility and low elastic moduli, which benefit bone tissues close to an implant. This study deals with phase stability in β Ti–Mo–Sn alloys processed under different conditions and was performed according to the following steps: a study of the effect of Sn content (a) on phase stability in Ti–Mo alloys, (b) on the suppression of α″ and ω phase precipitation; (c) on α-phase precipitation during aging heat treatments and (d) on mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, as measured using tensile tests and acoustic techniques. The alloys were prepared by arc melting under a controlled atmosphere followed by homogenization heat treatment and hot rolling. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were employed for characterization purposes. Samples were also submitted to solution treatment above the β transus temperature and aging heat treatments under a controlled atmosphere. The results suggest that Sn suppresses the formation of the ω and α″ phases in Ti–Mo system. - Highlights: • Sn addition to Ti alloys decreases elastic modulus by suppressing ω phase precipitation. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of martensite decomposition. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of α phase precipitation and β transus. • Mechanical strength decreases with increasing Sn content.

  5. The effect of Sn addition on phase stability and phase evolution during aging heat treatment in Ti–Mo alloys employed as biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Mariana G. de; Salvador, Camilo F.; Cremasco, Alessandra; Caram, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Increases in life expectancy and improvements in necessary healthcare attach great importance to the development of biomaterials. Ti alloys containing β stabilizing elements are often used as biomaterials due to their high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, unusual biocompatibility and low elastic moduli, which benefit bone tissues close to an implant. This study deals with phase stability in β Ti–Mo–Sn alloys processed under different conditions and was performed according to the following steps: a study of the effect of Sn content (a) on phase stability in Ti–Mo alloys, (b) on the suppression of α″ and ω phase precipitation; (c) on α-phase precipitation during aging heat treatments and (d) on mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, as measured using tensile tests and acoustic techniques. The alloys were prepared by arc melting under a controlled atmosphere followed by homogenization heat treatment and hot rolling. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were employed for characterization purposes. Samples were also submitted to solution treatment above the β transus temperature and aging heat treatments under a controlled atmosphere. The results suggest that Sn suppresses the formation of the ω and α″ phases in Ti–Mo system. - Highlights: • Sn addition to Ti alloys decreases elastic modulus by suppressing ω phase precipitation. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of martensite decomposition. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of α phase precipitation and β transus. • Mechanical strength decreases with increasing Sn content.

  6. Dimethylacetamide as a film-forming additive for improving the cyclic stability of high voltage lithium-rich cathode at room and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Wenqiang; Xing, Lidan; Xia, Pan; Xu, Mengqing; Liao, Youhao; Li, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of 1% DMAc improves the cyclic performances of LLO at room and elevated temperature. • DMAc oxidizes previously to the STD electrolyte and generates a protective film on the LLO surface. • The protective film is thin and uniform. - Abstract: In this work, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) was investigated as an electrolyte film-forming additive to improve the cyclic stability of high voltage Lithium-rich layered nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LLO) cathode at room (25 °C) and elevated (55 °C) temperature. At 0.5C rate, addition of 1% DMAc slightly decreases the initial discharge capacity of LLO from 187 to 179 mAh g −1 at room temperature and 255 to 246 mAh g −1 at elevated temperature, while significantly improves the capacity retention of LLO from 65.8% to 80.2% after 200 cycles at room temperature and from 21.1% to 66.7% after 150 cycles at elevated temperature. The mechanism of DMAc improving the cyclic stability of LLO was investigated via theoretical calculation and experimental characterizations, which demonstrated that DMAc oxidized preferential to the STD (1.0 M LiPF 6 in a mixed solvent of ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate/diethyl carbonate) electrolyte, generating a thin and uniform film on the LLO surface. This film effectively suppresses the subsequent decomposition of STD electrolyte and further degradation of spinel phase converted from the layered structure of LLO, resulting in improved cyclic stability of LLO at room and elevated temperature.

  7. Improving cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode for high voltage lithium ion battery by modifying electrode/electrolyte interface with electrolyte additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Yaqiong; Tu, Wenqiang; Wang, Zaisheng; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cyclic stability of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 is improved significantly by using PES as additive. • A protective SEI is formed on LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 due to the preferential oxidation of PES. • The SEI suppresses electrolyte decomposition and structure destruction of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 . - Abstract: We report a new approach to improve the cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 ) cathode, in which the cathode/electrolyte interface is modified by using prop-1-ene-1, 3-sultone (PES) as an electrolyte additive. The interfacial properties of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 cathode in PES-containing electrolyte have been investigated by scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammometry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and constant current charge/discharge test. It is found that the application of PES improves significantly the cyclic stability of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 . After 400 cycles at 1C rate (1C=147 mA g −1 ), the capacity retention of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 is 90% for the cell using 1.0 wt% PES, while only 49% for the cell without the additive. The characterizations from SEM, TEM, TG, XRD, and XPS confirm that the LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 /electrolyte interface is modified and a protective solid electrolyte interface film is formed on LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 particles, which prevents LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 from destruction and suppresses the electrolyte decomposition

  8. Service provider perceptions of telerehabilitation as an additional service delivery option within an Australian neurosurgical and orthopaedic physiotherapy screening clinic: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Michelle A; Hill, Anne J; O'Leary, Shaun P; Raymer, Maree E; Russell, Trevor G

    2017-12-01

    The Neurosurgical & Orthopaedic Physiotherapy Screening Clinic and Multidisciplinary Service (N/OPSC&MDS) originated as a complementary, non-surgical pathway for patients referred to public neurosurgical and orthopaedic specialist services. Patient access to the N/OPSC&MDS could potentially be improved with the implementation of telerehabilitation as an additional method of service delivery. To evaluate service provider's views on (1) current barriers to patients' accessing N/OPSC & MD services, and (2) the implementation of telerehabilitation within the N/OPSC&MDS. Qualitative descriptive study design. Healthcare providers (n = 26) were recruited from six N/OPSC&MD services located throughout Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore service providers' views with respect to existing barriers to patients accessing the N/OPSC&MDS, and if telerehabilitation could be feasibly adopted to address current barriers. Template analysis resulted in six themes: (1) barriers to some patients' accessing current N/OPSC&MD services are complex & multifaceted; (2) telerehabilitation could improve patient access to appropriate management for their musculoskeletal condition; (3) telerehabilitation may have limitations when compared to face-to-face healthcare; (4) the delivery of telerehabilitation needs to be flexible; (5) perceived barriers, and (6) facilitators to the successful implementation of telerehabilitation within the N/OPSC&MDS. This study represents a critical step in determining the readiness of service providers for the implementation of telerehabilitation within the N/OPSC&MDS. Although cautious, service providers are overall accepting of the implementation of telerehabilitation, acknowledging that it could eliminate several current barriers, subsequently achieving more equitable access to the service. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL HYDROPHILIC VERSUS HYDROPHOBIC COAT ON THE QUALITY OF DENTINAL SEALING PROVIDED BY TWO-STEP ETCH-AND-RINSE ADHESIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Safira Marques de Andrade; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira; Marquezini, Luiz; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel; Manso, Adriana Pigozzo; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; de Carvalho, Ricardo Marins

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the quality of the dentinal sealing provided by two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives cannot be altered by the addition of an extra layer of the respective adhesive or the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated resin. Material and Methods: full-crown preparations were acid-etched with phosphoric acid for 15 s and bonded with Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE), Excite DSC (Ivoclar/Vivadent) or Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply). The adhesives were used according to the manufacturers' instructions (control groups) or after application to dentin they were a) covered with an extra coat of each respective system or b) coated with a non-solvated bonding agent (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive, 3M ESPE). Fluid flow rate was measured before and after dentin surfaces were acid-etched and bonded with adhesives. Results: None of the adhesives or experimental treatments was capable to block completely the fluid transudation across the treated dentin. Application of an extra coat of the adhesive did not reduce the fluid flow rate of adhesive-bonded dentin (p>0.05). Conversely, the application of a more hydrophobic non-solvated resin resulted in significant reductions in the fluid flow rate (padhesives. Conclusions: The quality of the dentinal sealing provided by etch-and-rinse adhesives can be significantly improved by the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated bonding agent. PMID:19466248

  10. Addition of Zinc Improves the Physical Stability of Insulin in the Primary Emulsification Step of the Poly(lactide-co-glycolide Microsphere Preparation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekar Manoharan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of zinc on insulin stability during the primary emulsification step of poly(lactide-co-glycolide microspheres preparation by the water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation technique was evaluated. Insulin was emulsified at homogenization speeds of 5000 and 10,000 rpm. Insulin was extracted from the primary w/o emulsion by a method previously reported from our laboratory and analyzed by comprehensive analytical techniques. The differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of insulin with zinc showed a single peak around 83 °C with calorimetric enthalpy values similar to native insulin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of extracted insulin showed a single intense band around 6 kDa, demonstrating the preservation of primary structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis revealed that no degradation products were formed during the homogenization process. Insulin aggregates residing at the w/o interfaces were found to be of non-covalent nature. In addition, observation of a single characteristic peak for insulin at m/z 5808 in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirmed the absence of insulin degradation products and covalent dimers. Presence of zinc preserved the secondary structure of insulin as indicated by circular dichroism. In conclusion, these results show that with the addition of zinc, insulin stability can be improved during the primary emulsification step.

  11. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, B.W.W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels. - Highlights: • Storage of papaya extended to 28 days whilst retaining commercial quality. • Additive effect of low gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min) and hot-water treatment. • Significant reduction in surface fungal lesions. • No significant impact on colour change or flesh quality during storage

  12. Ultrahigh sensitivity endoscopic camera using a new CMOS image sensor: providing with clear images under low illumination in addition to fluorescent images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hisae; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshiyuki; Fukuyo, Tsuneo; Chiba, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    We developed a new ultrahigh-sensitive CMOS camera using a specific sensor that has a wide range of spectral sensitivity characteristics. The objective of this study is to present our updated endoscopic technology that has successfully integrated two innovative functions; ultrasensitive imaging as well as advanced fluorescent viewing. Two different experiments were conducted. One was carried out to evaluate the function of the ultrahigh-sensitive camera. The other was to test the availability of the newly developed sensor and its performance as a fluorescence endoscope. In both studies, the distance from the endoscopic tip to the target was varied and those endoscopic images in each setting were taken for further comparison. In the first experiment, the 3-CCD camera failed to display the clear images under low illumination, and the target was hardly seen. In contrast, the CMOS camera was able to display the targets regardless of the camera-target distance under low illumination. Under high illumination, imaging quality given by both cameras was quite alike. In the second experiment as a fluorescence endoscope, the CMOS camera was capable of clearly showing the fluorescent-activated organs. The ultrahigh sensitivity CMOS HD endoscopic camera is expected to provide us with clear images under low illumination in addition to the fluorescent images under high illumination in the field of laparoscopic surgery.

  13. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains. PMID:28338088

  14. SAS-4 is recruited to a dynamic structure in newly forming centrioles that is stabilized by the gamma-tubulin-mediated addition of centriolar microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammermann, Alexander; Maddox, Paul S; Desai, Arshad; Oegema, Karen

    2008-02-25

    Centrioles are surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM), which is proposed to promote new centriole assembly by concentrating gamma-tubulin. Here, we quantitatively monitor new centriole assembly in living Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, focusing on the conserved components SAS-4 and SAS-6. We show that SAS-4 and SAS-6 are coordinately recruited to the site of new centriole assembly and reach their maximum levels during S phase. Centriolar SAS-6 is subsequently reduced by a mechanism intrinsic to the early assembly pathway that does not require progression into mitosis. Centriolar SAS-4 remains in dynamic equilibrium with the cytoplasmic pool until late prophase, when it is stably incorporated in a step that requires gamma-tubulin and microtubule assembly. These results indicate that gamma-tubulin in the PCM stabilizes the nascent daughter centriole by promoting microtubule addition to its outer wall. Such a mechanism may help restrict new centriole assembly to the vicinity of preexisting parent centrioles that recruit PCM.

  15. The Effects of Egg and Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides Addition on Storage Stability, Texture, and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Sorghum Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Magali; Smith, Brennan M; Aramouni, Fadi M; Bean, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    The impact of whole egg addition (as is) at 20%, 25%, or 30% (flour basis) on sorghum bread quality was evaluated. The use of the antistaling agent diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM) at 0.5% (flour basis) at each of the egg addition levels was also studied. Evaluated quality factors included color, specific volume, and crumb structure. Texture analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of quality loss based on changes in crumb hardness values over time. A trained sensory panel evaluated bread quality attributes by descriptive analysis. Sorghum breads with egg had larger specific volumes than the control, while DATEM had a negative effect on the volume of sorghum gluten-free bread. Inclusion of egg in the bread formula improved cell structure and produced darker crust (P bread hardness and slowed the rate of quality loss over a 12-d storage period. Descriptive analysis confirmed the findings of texture analysis. Control breads were significantly harder (P bread at days 0 and 4. This research demonstrates that addition of eggs to a gluten-free sorghum bread formulation results in improved storage stability and better overall quality and acceptability of the product. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Cable Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottura, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  17. Influence of Si and N additions on structure and phase stability of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelpin, Helmut; Music, Denis; Mykhaylonka, Ruslan; Schneider, Jochen M [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Laptyeva, Galyna; Ghadimi, Reza; Richter, Silvia; Mayer, Joachim [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, Ahornstrasse 55, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Merget, Florian [Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstrasse 24, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2009-10-28

    The influence of Si and N in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (space group Fm3-barm) on structure and phase stability thereof was studied experimentally by thin film growth and characterization as well as theoretically by ab initio calculations. It was found that Si and N most probably accumulate in the amorphous matrix embedding Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} grains. The incorporation of Si and N in these samples causes an increase of the crystallization temperature and the formation of finer grains. N is more efficient in increasing the crystallization temperature and in reducing the grain size than Si which can be understood based on the bonding analysis. The incorporation of both Si and N in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} is energetically unfavourable, leading to finer grains and larger crystallization temperatures. While in the case of Si additions no significant changes in bonding are observed, N additions appear to enable the formation of strong Te-N bonds in the amorphous matrix, which are shown to be almost twice as strong as the strongest bonds in unalloyed Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}.

  18. Stabilization effect of Zr and Ti additions on the ageing characteristics of Al-1 wt% Si alloy through a creep study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaf, G.H.; Beshai, M.H.N.; Abd El Khalek, A.M.; Graiss, G. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Kenawy, M.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Womens Coll.

    1997-12-31

    Al-1 wt% Si and Al-1 wt% Si-0.1 wt% Zr-0.1 wt% Ti alloys were used to trace the effect of Zr and Ti additions on the behaviour of the steady state creep. After solid solution treatment specimens of both alloys were aged at 623, 673, 723 and 773 K and creep tests were performed at room temperature by applying stresses of 60.0, 62.4, 64.7 and 67.1 MPa. The results showed a sound stabilization effect of Zr and Ti on the ageing characteristics of binary Al-1 wt% Si alloy. Values of the applied stress sensitivity parameter, m, obtained were in the range of (20-34) for Al-Si alloy and (14-19) for Al-Si-Zr-Ti alloy. Time to rupture was found to be strongly increased by Zr and Ti additions. The activation energies of the precipitation process involved were found to be 81.9 kJ/mole and 33.7 kJ/mole of the Al-Si and Al-Si-Zr-Ti alloys respectively. (orig.) 17 refs.

  19. Dye stability and performances of dye-sensitized solar cells with different nitrogen additives at elevated temperatures - Can sterically hindered pyridines prevent dye degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyet Nguyen, Phuong; Lund, Torben [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rand Andersen, Anders [University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sensors, Signals and Electrotechnics (SENSE), Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Danish Technological Institute, Plastics Technology, Gregersensvej 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Morten Skou, Eivind [University of Southern Denmark, Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Enviromental Technology, Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    The homogeneous kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reactions between the ruthenium dye N719 and eight pyridines and 1-methylbenzimidazole have been investigated in 3-methoxypropionitrile at 100 C. The half lives of N719 with the additives 4-tert-butylpyridine (0.5 M) and 1-methylbenzimidazole (0.5 M) were 57 and 160 h, respectively. Sterically hindered pyridines like 2,6-lutidine did not react with N719. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC, area=8.0 cm{sup 2}) prepared with 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI), 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP), 2,6-lutidine and without any additive were 7.1%, 6.2%, 6.0% and 4.8%, respectively. The cells were stored in dark at 85 C and their I-V curves and impedance spectra were measured at regular time intervals. The N719 dye degradation in the cells were monitored by a new dye extraction protocol combined with analysis of the dye extract by HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. After 300 h storage in dark at 85 C 40% of the initial amount of N719 dye was degraded in DSC cells prepared with MBI and the efficiency was decreased to 40% of its initial value. DSC cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additives showed smaller thermal dye and efficiency stability at elevated temperatures than DSC cells prepared with the none sterically hindered additives MBI and 4-TBP. In the cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additive higher contents of the iodo products [RuL{sub 2}(NCS)(iodide)]{sup +} and [RuL{sub 2}(3-MPN)(iodide)]{sup +} were found than in cells prepared with 4-TBP and MBI. It is suggested that sterically hindered pyridines have smaller complexation constants with I{sub 3}{sup -} than unsterically hindered additives. This may explain the observed faster nucleophilic substitution rates of uncomplexed I{sub 3}{sup -} with N719 in DSC cells prepared with sterically hindered pyridines. The EIS analysis showed that the lifetime of the injected electrons in the TiO{sub 2}{tau}{sub eff} is reduced by a thermally induced change

  20. Stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. Application to the construction of a stabilizer; Stabilisation des spectres fournis par un spectrometre a rayons gamma. Application a la realisation d'un stabilisateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detourne, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    This research is concerned with the stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. It is required to hold the calibration straight line of the spectrometer in a position which is fixed initially to better than 5x10{sup -5} channel. A prototype numerical stabilizer has been constructed : the SPECTROSTAB; it is made up of two independent control loops; one of these makes the spectrometer gain depend on the derivatives of a reference peak at high energies; the other makes the origin of the energy scale depend on the derivatives of a second reference peak at low energies A theoretical study of the behaviour of a control loop shows that a direct action stabilizer gives the most accurate stabilization; the loss in resolving power on the theoretical peaks of the spectra attains about 1 % with a scintillation detector, and 10 % with a semi-conductor detector. Various tests show that the expected results are obtained and that the displacement of the spectral peaks produced by the derivatives are hidden by errors in the calculation of the peak abscissae. (author) [French] Cette etude a pour objet la stabilisation des spectres fournis par un spectrometre a rayons gamma. On veut maintenir la droite d'etalonnage du spectrometre dans une position fixee initialement a mieux de 6.10{sup -5} canal pres. On realise un prototype de stabilisateur numerique, le SPECTROSTAB; il comprend deux boucles d'asservissement independantes; l'une d'elles asservit le gain du spectrometre aux derives d'un pic de reference aux hautes energies; l'autre asservit l'origine de l'echelle des energies aux derives d'un second pic de reference aux basses energies. Une etude theorique du comportement d'une boucle d'asservissement montre qu'un stabilisateur a action directe permet la stabilisation la plus precise; la perte en resolution sur les pics theoriques des spectres atteint environ 1 % avec un detecteur a scintillateur et 10 % avec un detecteur a semi-conducteur. Divers essais montrent

  1. The effect of CuAl addition on the magnetic property, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the sintered NdFeB magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Liang, J.; He, Y. Ch.; Li, Y. F.; Wang, G. F.; Ma, Q.; Liu, F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X. F.

    2018-05-01

    To improve the coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets, the Cu29.8Al70.2 (at.%) powders with low melting point were introduced into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. The magnetic properties, microstructure, thermal stability and corrosion behavior of the sintered magnets with different amount of Cu29.8Al70.2 (0,0.25,0.50,0.75,1.0 wt.%) were investigated. When the amount of doped Cu29.8Al70.2 was less than 0.75 wt.%, the coercivity was improved, especially that of the magnets with 0.25 wt.% Cu29.8Al70.2, markedly increased to 13.97 kOe from 12.67 kOe (without CuAl). The improvement of magnetic properties could be attributed to enhanced wettability between Nd2Fe14B phase and Nd-rich phase and decreased exchange coupling between grains, which depended on the optimization of grain boundary microstructure and their distribution by codoping Cu and Al. With the addition of 0-1.0 wt.% Cu29.8Al70.2 powders, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence and coercivity of the magnets could be also improved. The corrosion resistances was also found to be improved through small addition of Cu29.8Al70.2 powder in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical and immersion tests, which could be due to the enhancement of the Nd-rich intergranular phase by addition Cu29.8Al70.2.

  2. Limits on normal cochlear 'third' windows provided by previous investigations of additional sound paths into and out of the cat inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowski, John J; Bowers, Peter; Nakajima, Hideko H

    2018-03-01

    While most models of cochlear function assume the presence of only two windows into the mammalian cochlea (the oval and round windows), a position that is generally supported by several lines of data, there is evidence for additional sound paths into and out of the inner ear in normal mammals. In this report we review the existing evidence for and against the 'two-window' hypothesis. We then determine how existing data and inner-ear anatomy restrict transmission of sound through these additional sound pathways in cat by utilizing a well-tested model of the cat inner ear, together with anatomical descriptions of the cat cochlear and vestibular aqueducts (potential additional windows to the cochlea). We conclude: (1) The existing data place limits on the size of the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts in cat and are consistent with small volume-velocities through these ducts during ossicular stimulation of the cochlea, (2) the predicted volume velocities produced by aqueducts with diameters half the size of the bony diameters match the functional data within ±10 dB, and (3) these additional volume velocity paths contribute to the inner ear's response to non-acoustic stimulation and conductive pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Al and Ti Additions on the Structural Stability, Mechanical and Electronic Properties of D8m-Structured Ta5Si3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of substitutional elements (Ti and Al on the structural stability, mechanical properties, electronic properties and Debye temperature of Ta5Si3 with a D8m structure were investigated by first principle calculations. The Ta5Si3 alloyed with Ti and Al shows negative values of formation enthalpies, indicating that these compounds are energetically stable. Based on the values of formation enthalpies, Ti exhibits a preferential occupying the Ta4b site and Al has a strong site preference for the Si8h site. From the values of the bulk modulus (B, shear modulus (G and Young’s modulus (E, we determined that both Ti and Al additions decrease both the shear deformation resistance and the elastic stiffness of D8m structured Ta5Si3. Using the shear modulus/bulk modulus ratio (G/B, Poisson’s ratio (υ and Cauchy’s pressure, the effect of Ti and Al additions on the ductility of D8m-structured Ta5Si3 are explored. The results show that Ti and Al additions reduce the hardness, resulting in solid solution softening, but improve the ductility of D8m-structured Ta5Si3. The electronic calculations reveal that Ti and Al additions change hybridization between Ta-Si and Si-Si atoms for the binary D8m-structured Ta5Si3. The new Ta-Al bond is weaker than the Ta-Si covalent bonds, reducing the covalent property of bonding in D8m-structured Ta5Si3, while the new strong Ti4b-Ti4b anti-bonding enhances the metallic behavior of the binary D8m-structured Ta5Si3. The change in the nature of bonding can well explain the improved ductility of D8m-structured Ta5Si3 doped by Ti and Al. Moreover, the Debye temperatures, ΘD, of D8m-structured Ta5Si3 alloying with Ti and Al are decreased as compared to the binary Ta5Si3.

  4. Determination of Polymer Additives-Antioxidants, Ultraviolet Stabilizers, Plasticizers and Photoinitiators in Plastic Food Package by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying; Su, Qi-Zhi; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method for the quantitative determination of 4 antioxidants, 9 ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers, 12 phthalate plasticizers and 2 photoinitiators in plastic food package using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) has been developed. Parameters affecting the efficiency in the process such as extraction and chromatographic conditions were studied in order to determine operating conditions. The analytical method of ASE-HPLC showed good linearity with good correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9833). The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.03 and 0.30 µg mL(-1) and between 0.10 and 1.00 µg mL(-1) for 27 analytes. Average spiked recoveries for most analytes in samples were >70.4% at 10, 20 and 40 µg g(-1) spiked levels, except UV-9 and Irganox 1010 (58.6 and 64.0% spiked at 10 µg g(-1), respectively), the relative standard deviations were in the range from 0.4 to 15.4%. The methodology has been proposed for the analysis of 27 polymer additives in plastic food package. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. On the role of resonantly stabilized radicals in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation: pyrene and fluoranthene formation from benzyl-indenyl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Rahman, Ramees K; Raj, Abhijeet

    2017-07-26

    Resonantly stabilized radicals, such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl, benzyl, and indenyl, play a vital role in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are soot precursors in engines and flames. Pyrene is considered to be an important PAH, as it is thought to nucleate soot particles, but its formation pathways are not well known. This paper presents a reaction mechanism for the formation of four-ring aromatics, pyrene and fluoranthene, through the combination of benzyl and indenyl radicals. The intermediate species and transition structures involved in the elementary reactions of the mechanism were studied using density functional theory, and the reaction kinetics were evaluated using transition state theory. The barrierless addition of benzyl and indenyl to form the adduct, 1-benzyl-1H-indene, was found to be exothermic with a reaction energy of 204.2 kJ mol -1 . The decomposition of this adduct through H-abstraction and H 2 -loss was studied to determine the possible products. The rate-of-production analysis was conducted to determine the most favourable reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation. The premixed laminar flames of toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were simulated using a well-validated hydrocarbon fuel mechanism with detailed PAH chemistry after adding the proposed reactions to it. The computed and experimentally observed species profiles were compared to determine the effect of the new reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation on their concentration profiles. The role of benzyl and indenyl combination in PAH formation and growth is highlighted.

  6. Freeze-dried formulation for direct {sup 99m}Tc-labeling ior-egf/r3 MAb: additives, biodistribution, and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alejo A. Morales; Nunez-Gandolff, Gilda; Perez, Niuvis Perez; Veliz, Belkis Chico; Caballero-Torres, Idania; Duconge, Jorge; Fernandez, Eduardo; Crespo, Francisco Zayas; Veloso, Ana; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando E-mail: normando@ict.sld.cu

    1999-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been useful for immunoscintigraphic applications in clinical diagnosis since they were introduced in nuclear medicine practice. The MAb ior egf/r3 developed at the Center of Molecular Immunology (Havana, Cuba) is a murine antibody that recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and has been used widely in the radioimmunodiagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. Based on the direct Schwarz method, the present report describes the preparation of a freeze-dried formulation for radiolabeling the MAb ior egf/r3 with {sup 99m}Tc for immunoscintigraphic applications. Radiolabeling efficiency, effects on immunoreactivity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and stability of the formulation are reported. The study demonstrated that the freeze-dried formulation can be labeled with {sup 99m}Tc at high yield. The resulting {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ior egf/r3 MAb can be used to visualize in vivo human tumors of epithelial origin by immunoscintigraphy studies. The kit does not need any other addition or purification at the time of tagging other than the requisite amount of pertechnetate (40-50 mCi). Because the contents of the kit are lyophilized, no special storage or transportation is required.

  7. Freeze-dried formulation for direct 99mTc-labeling ior-egf/r3 MAb: additives, biodistribution, and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Alejo A. Morales; Nunez-Gandolff, Gilda; Perez, Niuvis Perez; Veliz, Belkis Chico; Caballero-Torres, Idania; Duconge, Jorge; Fernandez, Eduardo; Crespo, Francisco Zayas; Veloso, Ana; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando

    1999-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been useful for immunoscintigraphic applications in clinical diagnosis since they were introduced in nuclear medicine practice. The MAb ior egf/r3 developed at the Center of Molecular Immunology (Havana, Cuba) is a murine antibody that recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and has been used widely in the radioimmunodiagnosis of tumors of epithelial origin. Based on the direct Schwarz method, the present report describes the preparation of a freeze-dried formulation for radiolabeling the MAb ior egf/r3 with 99m Tc for immunoscintigraphic applications. Radiolabeling efficiency, effects on immunoreactivity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and stability of the formulation are reported. The study demonstrated that the freeze-dried formulation can be labeled with 99m Tc at high yield. The resulting 99m Tc-labeled ior egf/r3 MAb can be used to visualize in vivo human tumors of epithelial origin by immunoscintigraphy studies. The kit does not need any other addition or purification at the time of tagging other than the requisite amount of pertechnetate (40-50 mCi). Because the contents of the kit are lyophilized, no special storage or transportation is required

  8. Pomegranate extract and exercise provide additive benefits on improvement of immune function by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Pang, Wentao; Zhang, Ziyi; Zhao, Jialong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ye; Wang, Xun; Feng, Zhihui; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Wenyan; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is reported to be associated with immune dysfunction and a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation. Either pomegranate extract (PomE) or exercise (Ex) has been shown to have antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Nevertheless, no study has addressed the additive benefits of PomE and Ex on the restoration of obesity-induced immune defects. The present work aims to study the effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention on immune function and the underlying mechanism involved in inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the combination of PomE and Ex showed additive benefits on inhibition of HFD-induced body weight increase and improvement of HFD-induced immune dysfunction, including (a) attenuating the abnormality of histomorphology of the spleen, (b) increasing the ratio of the CD4+:CD8+ T cell subpopulations in splenocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), (c) inhibition of apoptosis in splenocytes and PBMC, (d) normalizing peritoneal macrophage phenotypes and (e) restoring immunomodulating factors in serum. We also find that immune dysfunction in HFD-fed rats was associated with increased inflammatory cytokine secretion and oxidative stress biomarkers, and that the combination of PomE and Ex effectively inhibited the inflammatory response and decreased oxidative damage. The effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention is greater than the effect of either PomE or Ex alone, showing that PomE and Ex may be additively effective in improving immune function in HFD-fed rats by inhibiting inflammation and decreasing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The RooPfs study to assess whether improved housing provides additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice in The Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, Margeret; Conteh, Lesong; Jeffries, David

    2016-01-01

    ) and prompt treatment in The Gambia, determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and analyze the housing market in The Gambia. Methods/design A two-armed, household, cluster-randomized, controlled study will be conducted to assess whether improved housing and LLINs combine to provide...

  10. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin. The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  11. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  12. Does additional support provided through e-mail or SMS in a Web-based Social Marketing program improve children's food consumption? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelov, Natalie; Della Bella, Sara; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2018-02-16

    The FAN Social Marketing program was developed to improve dietary and physical activity habits of families with children in Ticino, Switzerland. The aim of this study was to examine if the effects of the program on children's food intake differed by intervention group. Effects of the FAN program were tested through a Randomized Controlled Trial. The program lasted 8 weeks, during which participants received tailored communication about nutrition and physical activity. Families were randomly allocated to one of three groups, where the parent received the intervention by the Web (G1), Web + e-mail (G2) or Web + SMS (G3). Children in all groups received tailored print letters by post. Children's food consumption was assessed at baseline and immediate post intervention using a 7-day food diary. Generalized linear mixed models with child as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects were used to test the impact of the intervention. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 608 children. After participating in FAN the marginal means of daily consumption of fruit changed from 0.95 to 1.12 in G1, from 0.82 to 0.94 in G2, and from 0.93 to 1.18 in G3. The margins of the daily consumption of sweets decreased in each group (1.67 to 1.56 in G1, 1.71 to 1.49 in G2, and 1.72 to 1.62 in G3). The change in vegetable consumption observed from pre to post intervention in G3 (from 1.13 to 1.21) was significantly different from that observed in G1 (from 1.21 to 1.17). A well-designed Web-based Social Marketing intervention complemented with print letters can help improve children's consumption of water, fruit, soft drinks, and sweets. The use of SMS to support greater behavior change, in addition to Web-based communication, resulted only in a small significant positive change for vegetables, while the use of e-mail in addition to Web did not result in any significant difference. The trial was retrospectively registered in the

  13. Do wood-based panels made with agro-industrial residues provide environmentally benign alternatives? An LCA case study of sugarcane bagasse addition to particle board manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Diogo Aparecido Lopes; Lahr, Francisco Antonio Rocco; Pavan, Ana Laura Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    environmental impacts? Could it substitute wood as raw material? Accordingly, this paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of particle board manufactured with sugarcane bagasse residues.The cradle-to-gate assessment of 1 m3 of particle board made with sugarcane bagasse (PSB) considered three main...... subsystem was 9.08 % (economic base). The potential environmental impact phase was assessed by applying the CML and USEtox methods. PSB was compared with the conventional particle board manufactured in Brazil by the categories of the CML and USETox, and including land use indicators. Finally, two scenarios......, it is suggested that the sugarcane bagasse be mixed up to 75 % during particle board manufacturing so that good quality properties and environmental performance of panels can be provided....

  14. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local an....... The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels....... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...... and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability...

  15. Combined parecoxib and I.V. paracetamol provides additional analgesic effect with better postoperative satisfaction in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ahmed Elseify

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adequacy of postoperative analgesia is one of the most important factors that determine early hospital discharge and patients′ ability to resume their normal activities postoperatively. The optimal non-opioid analgesic technique for postoperative pain management would reduce pain and enhance patient satisfaction, and it also facilitates earlier mobilization and rehabilitation by reducing pain-related complications after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib when used alone, or in combination. Methods : Sixty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA physical status I and II adult patients who were scheduled for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included in this study. Patients were allocated into three groups: group I patients received 1g intravenous paracetamol after induction and another 1 g 4 h later, group II received 40 mg parecoxib after induction, while group III received combination of both drugs (paracetamol 1 g and parecoxib 40 mg. Pain during rest and mobility was assessed in the immediate postoperative period, 2 h and 8 h successively using visual analog scale (VAS. Patient satisfaction was rated according to satisfaction score. Results : Total morphine requirements were lower in group III patients (6.9±2.7 mg in comparison to group I patients (12.6±3.6 mg or group II patients (9.8±2.8 mg. The least VAS scores were recorded during knee movement (3.8±1.1 in group III patients compared to group I (6.0±1.8 and group II patients (4.8±1.9. Eight hours postoperatively, group III patients were more satisfied regarding the postoperative pain management. Conclusion : Combination of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib provided better analgesia and higher patient satisfaction than each drug when used separately.

  16. Phosphorylation- and nucleotide-binding-induced changes to the stability and hydrogen exchange patterns of JNK1ß1 provide insight into its mechanisms of activation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Owen, GR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available –deuterium exchange (HX) mass spectrometry were used to investigate the changes to the stability and conformation/conformational dynamics of JNK1ß1 induced by phosphorylative activation. Equivalent studies were also employed to determine the effects of nucleotide...

  17. The role of phosphate additive in stabilization of sulphuric-acid-based vanadium(V) electrolyte for all-vanadium redox-flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznyatovskaya, Nataliya V.; Roznyatovsky, Vitaly A.; Höhne, Carl-Christoph; Fühl, Matthias; Gerber, Tobias; Küttinger, Michael; Noack, Jens; Fischer, Peter; Pinkwart, Karsten; Tübke, Jens

    2017-09-01

    Catholyte in all-vanadium redox-flow battery (VRFB) which consists of vanadium salts dissolved in sulphuric acid is known to be stabilized by phosphoric acid to slow down the thermal aging at temperatures higher than 40 °C. To reveal the role of phosphoric acid, the thermally-induced aggregation is investigated using variable-temperature 51V, 31P, 17O, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results indicate that the thermal stabilization of vanadium(V) electrolyte is attained by the involvement of monomeric and dimeric vanadium(V) species in the reaction with phosphoric acid which is concurrent to the formation of neutral hydroxo-aqua vanadium(V) precipitation precursor. The dimers are stabilized by counter ions due to association reaction or if such stabilization is not possible, precipitation of vanadium pentoxide is favored. The evolution of particles size distributions at 50 °C in electrolyte samples containing 1.6 M vanadium and 4.0 M total sulphate and the pathways of precipitate formation are discussed. The optimal total phosphate concentration is found to be of 0.15 M. However, the induction time is assumed to be dependent not only on the total phosphate concentrations, but also on the ratio of total vanadium(V) to sulphate concentrations.

  18. Thermal stability and oxidizing properties of mixed alkaline earth-alkali molten carbonates: A focus on the lithium-sodium carbonate eutectic system with magnesium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangini, Stefano; Scaccia, Silvera

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TG/DSC analysis was conducted on magnesium-containing eutectic Li/Na eutectic carbonates. • Magnesium influence on the oxygen solubility properties of carbonate was also experimentally determined at 600 °C and 650 °C. • A reproducible partial decarbonation process in premelting region caused formation of magnesium oxycarbonate-like phases. • The acidobase buffering action of magnesium oxycarbonate species could explain the high basic/oxidizing properties of such carbonate melts. • A general correlation between thermal instability in premelting region and basic/oxidizing melt properties was established. - Abstract: A comparative study on thermal behavior and oxygen solubility properties of eutectic 52/48 lithium/sodium carbonate salt containing minor additions of magnesium up to 10 mol% has been made in order to determine whether a general correlation between these two properties can be found or not. Consecutive TG/DSC heating/cooling thermal cycles carried out under alternating CO 2 and N 2 gas flows allowed to assign thermal events observed in the premelting region to a partial decarbonation process of the magnesium-alkali mixed carbonates. The observed decarbonation process at 460 °C is believed to come from initial stage of thermal decomposition of magnesium carbonate resulting in the metastable formation of magnesium oxycarbonate-like phases MgO·2MgCO 3 , in a similar manner as previously reported for lanthanum. Reversible formation and decomposition of the magnesium carbonate phase has been observed under a CO 2 gas atmosphere. The intensity of the decomposition process shows a maximum for a 3 mol% MgO addition that gives also the highest oxygen solubility, suggesting therefore that instability thermal analysis in the premelting region can be considered as providing an effective measure of the basicity/oxidizing properties of alkali carbonate melts with magnesium or, in more general terms, with cations that are strong modifiers of

  19. Dynamic posterior stabilization for degenerative lumbar spine disease: a large consecutive case series with long-term follow-up by additional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner-Perth, R; Sellhast, N; Perler, G; Dietrich, D; Staub, L P; Röder, C

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic stabilization of the degenerated spine was invented to overcome the negative side effects of fusion surgery like adjacent segment degeneration. Amongst various different implants DSS(®) is a pedicle-based dynamic device for stabilizing the spine and preserving motion. Nearly no clinical data of the implant have been reported so far. The current analysis presents results from a single spine surgeon who has been using DSS(®) for the past 5 years and recorded all treatment and outcome data in the international Spine Tango registry. From the prospectively documented overall patient pool 436 cases treated with DSS(®) could be identified. The analysis was enhanced with a mailing of COMI patient questionnaires for generating longer-term follow-ups up to 4 years. 387 patients (189 male, 198 female; mean age 67.3 years) with degenerative lumbar spinal disease including degenerative spondylolisthesis (6.1 %) could be evaluated. The type of degeneration was mainly spinal stenosis (89.9 %). After a mean follow-up of 1.94 years, the COMI score and NRS back and leg pain improved significantly and to a clinically relevant extent. The postoperative trend analysis could not determine a relevant deterioration of these outcomes until 4 years postoperative. 10 patients were revised (2.6 %) and the implant was removed; in most cases, a fusion was performed. Another 5 cases (1.3 %) had an extension of the dynamic stabilization system to the adjacent level. 84.2 % of patients rated that the surgery had helped a lot or had helped. The results of this large consecutive series with a follow-up up to 4 years could demonstrate a good and stable clinical outcome after posterior dynamic stabilization with DSS(®). For degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine, this treatment seems to be a valid alternative to fusion surgery.

  20. Effect of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition in Yttria-stabilized zirconia properties; Efeito da adicao de Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nas propriedades da zirconia estabilizada com itria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Pedro de Freitas Castro; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Santos, Heraldo Elias Salomao dos, E-mail: elias@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais. Laboratorio de Biomateriais

    2017-04-15

    The zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) polycrystalline partially stabilized by yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at 3mol%, 3Y-TZP, has its use been increased as a biomaterial. However, as dental prosthetics, its indication is still limited because of its white color and high opacity. Seeking improvements regarding aesthetics without compromising its functional performance, oxides such as iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been added to the microstructure of zirconia in order to provide a yellow-brownish color similar to natural teeth. This study evaluated the effect of adding Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the microstructure and mechanical and optical properties of 3Y-TZP. Five groups were investigated containing different concentrations of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Firstly, a chemical characterization of each group was carried out through X-ray fluorescence test (XRF). Microstructural characterization was performed by density and average grain size measurements. Mechanical properties were evaluated by performing hardness and four points flexural strength tests. Quantitative analysis of phase transformation was done using the Rietveld method, for each group submitted to the test of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fractography by SEM analysis were also made on the fracture surface of the samples from tensile test. The results showed that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition influenced the phase transformation process, and proportionally increased the samples hardness and flexural strength when their concentrations varied from 0.02% to 0.17% of the total weight. Above this range, the samples showed losses in their mechanical performance. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions showed no significant changes in the density and average grain size of 3Y-TZP. (author)

  1. Stability of cracked naphthas from thermal and catalytic processes and their additive response. Part II. Composition and effect of olefinic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Joshi, G.C.; Rastogi, S.N. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    1995-05-01

    Olefinic concentrates were separated from two naphthas, one from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and one thermal crackate, using column chromatography. The composition and structure of the olefins were determined by a combination of analytical techniques. FCC naphthas contain relatively higher levels of conjugated dienes. The monoolefins are highly branched. The thermal crackates have higher levels of {alpha}-olefins and abound in mono-, di-, tri- and conjugated cyclic olefins. Stability tests on these olefinic concentrates blended in low-S,N straight-run naphtha showed that cyclic olefins are very active gum formers. Representative commercial antioxidants (hindered phenols and phenylenediamines) both gave good responses to different olefin concentrate test blends. Hindered phenols had a marginally better effect. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Thermal stability of (AlSi){sub x}(ZrVTi) intermetallic phases in the Al–Si–Cu–Mg cast alloy with additions of Ti, V, and Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaha, S.K. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Czerwinski, F., E-mail: Frank.Czerwinski@nrcan.gc.ca [CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, 183 Longwood Road South, Hamilton, Ontario L8P 0A5 (Canada); Kasprzak, W. [CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, 183 Longwood Road South, Hamilton, Ontario L8P 0A5 (Canada); Friedman, J.; Chen, D.L. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-11-10

    Highlights: • Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloy was modified by introducing Zr, V, and Ti. • The chemistry of the phases was identified using SEM/EDX. • The crystal lattice parameters of the phases were characterized using EBSD. • To investigate the phase stability, XRD was performed up to 600 °C. • Thermal analysis was done to find out the possible phase transformation reactions. - Abstract: The Al–Si–Cu–Mg cast alloy was modified with additions of Ti–V–Zr to improve the thermal stability of intermetallics at increased temperatures. A combination of electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and high temperature X-ray diffraction was explored to identify phases and temperatures of their thermal stability. The micro-additions of transition metals led to formation of several (AlSi){sub x}(TiVZr) phases with D0{sub 22}/D0{sub 23} tetragonal crystal structure and different lattice parameters. While Cu and Mg rich phases along with the eutectic Si dissolved at temperatures from 300 to 500 °C, the (AlSi){sub x}(TiVZr) phases were stable up to 696–705 °C which is the beneficial to enhance the high temperature properties. Findings of this study are useful for selecting temperatures during melting and heat treatment of Al–Si alloys with additions of transition metals.

  3. Basic functions and bilateral estimatesin the stability problems of elastic non-uniformly compressed rods expressed in terms of bending moments with additional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupavtsev Vladimir Vladimirovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of two-sided evaluations is extended to the problems of stability of an elastic non-uniformly compressed rod, the variation formulations of which may be presented in terms of internal bending moments with uniform integral conditions. The problems are considered, in which one rod end is fixed and the other rod end is either restraint or pivoted, or embedded into a support which may be shifted in a transversal direction.For the substantiation of the lower evaluations determination, a sequence of functionals is constructed, the minimum values of which are the lower evaluations for the minimum critical value of the loading parameter of the rod, and the calculation process is reduced to the determination of the maximum eigenvalues of modular matrices. The matrix elements are expressed in terms of integrals of basic functions depending on the type of fixation of the rod ends. The basic functions, with the accuracy up to a linear polynomial, are the same as the bending moments arising with the bifurcation of the equilibrium of a rod with a constant cross-section compressed by longitudinal forces at the rod ends. The calculation of the upper evaluation is reduced to the determination of the maximum eigenvalue of the matrix, which almost coincides with one of the elements of the modular matrices. It is noted that the obtained upper bound evaluation is not worse thanthe evaluation obtained by the Ritz method with the use of the same basic functions.

  4. Impact of pozzolanic binder addition on stabilization of polluted dredged sediments on its potential reuse as a new material resource for road construction in Basse Normandie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, E.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments (MDS) and the cost of managing the disposal site is very high, a reutilization of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The primary goal of this research is to find a domain for reuse of MDS materials as a new material regarding the environmental issues, and other requirement needed. In this study, the MDS was used as replacement material in road construction. Hence, various tests need to be realized to identify if MDS could achieve the requirement needed in this domain. The secondary objective is to enhance the geotechnical characteristic and to reduce the pollution content of the MDS, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the geotechnical characteristic. The geotechnical test result shows that the stabilization by hydraulics binders improve the geotechnical characteristic and could fulfil the requirement needed. The present of Fly Ash and Silica Fume in this study is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shows as expected then the study to identify the chemical characteristic was realized. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts, leaching test was performed. The Leaching test result shows that with 7% of Silica Fume and 10% of Fly Ash capable to fulfil the criteria needed, hence, the use of MDS is consider safe in term of geotechnical and environmental impact, as a new material in road construction

  5. Combined action of time-delay and colored cross-associated multiplicative and additive noises on stability and stochastic resonance for a stochastic metapopulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Zong, De-Cai; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the transition between the stable state of a big density and the extinction state and stochastic resonance (SR) for a time-delayed metapopulation system disturbed by colored cross-correlated noises are investigated. By applying the fast descent method, the small time-delay approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld's SR theory, we investigate the impacts of time-delay, the multiplicative, additive noises and colored cross-correlated noise on the SNR and the shift between the two states of the system. Numerical results show that the multiplicative, additive noises and time-delay can all speed up the transition from the stable state to the extinction state, while the correlation noise and its correlation time can slow down the extinction process of the population system. With respect to SNR, the multiplicative noise always weakens the SR effect, while noise correlation time plays a dual role in motivating the SR phenomenon. Meanwhile, time-delay mainly plays a negative role in stimulating the SR phenomenon. Conversely, it could motivate the SR effect to increase the strength of the cross-correlation noise in the SNR-β plot, while the increase of additive noise intensity will firstly excite SR, and then suppress the SR effect.

  6. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL; Vissers, Donald R [Naperville, IL; Lu, Wenquan [Darien, IL

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  7. Effects of blanching, acidification, or addition of EDTA on vitamin C and β-carotene stability during mango purée preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    The impact of acidification with citric acid, addition of EDTA or water blanching at high temperature, and short time (HTST) conducted at 90°C for 4 min, on the retention of vitamin C (L-AA and DHAA) and β-carotene was studied in mango purée 30 min after crushing. HTST blanching prior to matrix disruption into purée resulted in complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and minor residual activity (8%) of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO). The retention of total vitamin C was 100% in blanched purées and in purée with EDTA and about 90% in purées at pH 3.9 and 5.0. Acidification, blanching, and addition of EDTA preserved vitamin C mainly as L-AA, while complete conversion into DHAA was observed in purée at pH 5.0. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene was between 65 and 72%, with the highest value in purée with EDTA and the lowest value in purée of blanched mango. The ratio of 13-cis-β-carotene in fresh mango was 8.2 ± 0.5% that increased significantly after blanching and in purée at pH 5.0.

  8. Promoting Effect of CeO2 Addition on Activity and Catalytic Stability in Steam Reforming of Methane over Ni/Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakib, A.; Gennequin, C.; Ringot, S.; Aboukais, A.; Abi-Aad, E.; Dhainaut, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production by steam reforming of methane was studied over Ni catalysts supported on CeO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CeO 2 -Al 2 O 3 . These catalysts were prepared using the impregnation method and characterized by XRD. The effect of CeO2 promoter on the catalytic performance of Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst for methane steam reforming reaction was investigated. In fact, CeO 2 had a positive effect on the catalytic activity in this reaction. Experimental results demonstrated that Ni/CeO 2 -Al 2 O 3 catalyst showed excellent catalytic activity and high reaction performance. In addition, the effects of reaction temperature and metal content on the conversion of CH 4 and H 2 /CO ratio were also investigated. Results indicated that CH4 conversion increased significantly with the increase of the reaction temperature and metal content. (author)

  9. Biphasic DC measurement approach for enhanced measurement stability and multi-channel sampling of self-sensing multi-functional structural materials doped with carbon-based additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Ubertini, Filippo; Laflamme, Simon; Geiger, Randall

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of multi-functional carbon-based self-sensing structural materials for structural health monitoring applications is a topic of growing interest. These materials are self-sensing in the sense that they can provide measurable electrical outputs corresponding to physical changes such as strain or induced damage. Nevertheless, the development of an appropriate measurement technique for such materials is yet to be achieved, as many results in the literature suggest that these materials exhibit a drift in their output when measured with direct current (DC) methods. In most of the cases, the electrical output is a resistance and the reported drift is an increase in resistance from the time the measurement starts due to material polarization. Alternating current methods seem more appropriate at eliminating the time drift. However, published results show they are not immune to drift. Moreover, the use of multiple impedance measurement devices (LCR meters) does not allow for the simultaneous multi-channel sampling of multi-sectioned self-sensing materials due to signal crosstalk. The capability to simultaneously monitor multiple sections of self-sensing structural materials is needed to deploy these multi-functional materials for structural health monitoring. Here, a biphasic DC measurement approach with a periodic measure/discharge cycle in the form of a square wave sensing current is used to provide consistent, stable resistance measurements for self-sensing structural materials. DC measurements are made during the measurement region of the square wave while material depolarization is obtained during the discharge region of the periodic signal. The proposed technique is experimentally shown to remove the signal drift in a carbon-based self-sensing cementitious material while providing simultaneous multi-channel measurements of a multi-sectioned self-sensing material. The application of the proposed electrical measurement technique appears promising for real

  10. LiFSI vs. LiPF6 electrolytes in contact with lithiated graphite: Comparing thermal stabilities and identification of specific SEI-reinforcing additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Grugeon, Sylvie; Gachot, Grégory; Mathiron, David; Armand, Michel; Laruelle, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (LiFSI) is regarded as an alternative to the classical LiPF 6 salt in today's LiFePO 4 /graphite-based Li-ion batteries electrolyte owing to its slightly higher conductivity and lower fluorine content. In an attempt to better evaluate the safety issues, here we report the comparative study of the LiFSI and LiPF 6 based electrolyte/lithiated graphite interface thermal behavior. DSC measurements with LiFSI-based electrolyte reveal a sharp exotherm with large heat release though at higher onset and peak temperatures compared to LiPF 6 -based electrolyte. With the help of GC/MS, 19 F NMR and ESI-HRMS analyses, we assume that this highly energetic peak around 200 °C, which is dependant upon the lithium content, is mainly related to electrochemical reduction of FSI − anion. In a strategy to limit the probability and damage of thermal runaway event, electrolyte additives such as vinylene carbonate (VC), fluoro ethylene carbonate (FEC), di-isocyanato hexane (DIH) and toluene di-isocyanate (TDI) have been investigated and shown to significantly lower the energy associated with the exothermic phenomenon

  11. Improvement of the stability of basic mixed oxides used as catalysts for aldol condensation of bio-derived compounds by palladium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faba, Laura; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous-phase aldol condensation of biomass-derived ketones and aldehydes is a key step in the preparation of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. Furfural–acetone aldol condensation yielding C 8 and C 13 adducts was studied at 323 K and 1 MPa in a stirred batch reactor. We propose a new strategy for minimizing catalytic deactivation, consisting of modifying catalysts (MgO–ZrO 2 and MgO–Al 2 O 3 ) by Pd addition (2%). This modification slightly changes the morphology and surface chemistry of the supports, leading to changes on the catalysts performance but not reaction mechanism modifications. If condensation is performed in hydrogen atmosphere, the partial hydrogenation of the condensation adducts increases its water solubility, minimizing catalyst deactivation. In that way, the selectivity for C13 adduct decreases only 25% between two successive reaction cycles using Pd/MgO–ZrO 2 catalyst, whereas this decrease is of 90% for the un-doped mixed oxides. These effects are less marked for the MgO–Al 2 O 3 catalyst. Highlights: •Furfural and acetone aldolization on Pd/MgO–ZrO 2 and Pd/MgO–Al 2 O 3 . •Conversion and selectivity towards C8 and C13 low and unstable catalysts. •Aldolization in H 2 decreases coke formation: higher reusability of the catalysts

  12. Effect of addition of erbium stabilized bismuth oxide on the conductivity of lanthanum doped ceria solid electrolyte for IT-SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Nandini; Gupta, Brijesh; Kumar, Devendra; Parkash, Om, E-mail: oprakash.cer@itbhu.ac.in

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} doped Ce{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}O{sub 1.925} system has been studied for the first time. • Composition 0.5ECLO has maximum conductivity. • Its conductivity is almost equal to that of SDC and GDC. • This makes 0.5ECLO is a potential candidate as a solid electrolyte for ITSOFCs. - Abstract: Nanosized powders of compositions, Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} (ESB) and Ce{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}O{sub 1.925} (CLO) have been prepared using citrate–nitrate auto combustion method. ESB added CLO (ECLO) samples have been prepared by mixing nanosized CLO powder with 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 wt.% of ESB. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that all the samples are single phase having cubic fluorite structure similar to CeO{sub 2}. Density of Ce{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}O{sub 1.925} increases with increasing ESB content. All the samples have been sintered at 1350 °C. All the ECLO samples have density more than 97% of the theoretical value. Field emission scanning electron microscope images show dense microstructure with distinct grains and grain boundaries. Impedance measurements have been made in the temperature range 200–700 °C in air. Addition of ESB increases the conductivity of the bulk as well as of grain boundaries. Ce{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}O{sub 1.925} with 0.5 wt.% of ESB exhibits the maximum conductivity 1.41 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 600 °C of all the compositions. This value is one order of magnitude higher than the conductivity of Ce{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}O{sub 1.925} (1.99 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1})

  13. Iron addition to soil specifically stabilized lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Hall; Whendee L. Silver; Vitaliy I. Timokhin; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2016-01-01

    The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical...

  14. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  15. A manual on using additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hoon

    1991-10-01

    This book consists of five chapters, which describe plasticizer ; summary, synthesis of plasticizer, basic notion, analysis and test on plasticizer, stabilizer ; stabilizer for plastic, an antioxidant, phosphorous acid estelle, ultraviolet ray absorbent, performance of stabilizer, influence on another additives, mix case of PVC production and analysis method for stabilizer, ultraviolet ray absorbent ; basic property and ultraviolet ray absorbent maker, anti-static agent ; basics, anti-static agent of a high molecule and analysis of anti-static agent, flame retardant of plastic.

  16. Influence of Al addition on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of Fe76.5-xCu1Si13.5b9Alx amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper fabricated Fe76.5-xCu1Si13.5B9Alx (x=0,1,2,3,5,7 at.% amorphous ribbons using singleroller melt-spinning method. The effect of Al content on the thermal stability and mechanical properties was investigated. The results indicated that Al addition have little effect on the amorphous formation ability of the alloys. On the other hand, increasing the Al content can substantially increase Tx2, which corresponds to the crystallization of Fe borides. Nanoindentation tests indicated that hardness of the alloys increase slightly with increasing the Al content, and Young’s modulus has a complicated relationship with the Al content.

  17. First-Principles Study on the Structural Stability and Segregation Behavior of γ-Fe/Cr2N Interface with Alloying Additives M (M = Mn, V, Ti, Mo, and Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the structural stability and electrochemical properties of alloying additives M (M = Mn, V, Ti, Mo, or Ni at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface by the first-principles method. Results indicated that V and Ti were easily segregated at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface and enhanced interfacial adhesive strength. By contrast, Ni and Mo were difficult to segregate at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface. Moreover, the results of the work function demonstrated that alloying additives Mn reduced local electrochemical corrosion behavior of the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface by cutting down Volta potential difference (VPD between clean γ-Fe(111 and Cr2N(0001, while alloying additives V, Ti, Mo, and Ni at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface magnified VPD between clean γ-Fe(111 and Cr2N(0001, which were low-potential sites that usually serve as local attack initiation points.

  18. Improvement of photoluminescence properties and thermal stability of Y2.9Ce0.1Al5−xSixO12 phosphors with Si3N4 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fangfang; Song, Kaixin; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Song; Zheng, Peng; Huang, Qingming; Xu, Junming; Qin, Huibin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Y 2.9 Ce 0.1 Al 5−x Si x O 12 phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction in reduced air ambience. • Si 4+ could be incorporated into the host lattice of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 through partial occupation of the Al 3+ sites. • Si 3 N 4 addition can improve photoluminescence efficiency and thermal stability of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce. - Abstract: A series of Si 3 N 4 doping Y 2.9 Ce 0.1 Al 5−x Si x O 12−3x/2 N 4x/3 phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction in 95%N 2 –5%H 2 reduced air ambience. The XRD characteristics plus Rietveld refinement results shows that the as-sintered powders are unique crystal phase with the same crystal structure of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (PDF No. 79-1891). The N element was not detected by the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS). The photoluminescence spectra (PL and PLE) tests show that the exciting and emitting intensity of PLE and PL gradually increase due to the increase of Si 3 N 4 concentration. Meanwhile, the phosphorescence decay times are prolonged from 45 ns (x = 0) to 78 ns (x = 0.3), under the monitor of 530 nm wavelength. The thermoluminescence tests (TL) confirm the thermal stability of as-phosphors with Si 3 N 4 addition is much better than that of the pristine Y 2.9 Ce 0.1 Al 5 O 12 phosphors

  19. The Nature of Stability in Replicating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addy Pross

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of dynamic kinetic stability, a type of stability associated specifically with replicating entities, and show how it differs from the well-known and established (static kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities associated with regular chemical systems. In the process we demonstrate how the concept can help bridge the conceptual chasm that continues to separate the physical and biological sciences by relating the nature of stability in the animate and inanimate worlds, and by providing additional insights into the physicochemical nature of abiogenesis.

  20. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events; O drone como fator adicional de risco decorrente de condicoes nao previstas na seguranca radiologica em grandes eventos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT studies of a Zinc(II) complex of 1,3-diaminopropane (Dap), [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n. The additional stabilizing role of S⋯π chalcogen bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mshari A.; Alharthi, Abdulrahman I.; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Akhtar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mazhar, Muhammad; Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Ahmad, Saeed

    2017-04-01

    A zinc(II) complex of 1,3-diaminopropane (Dap), [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n (1) has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H &13C NMR spectroscopy, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of 1 consists of two types of molecules, a discrete monomer and a polymeric one. In the monomeric unit, the zinc atom is bound to one terminal Dap molecule and to two N-bound thiocyanate ions, while in the polymeric unit, Dap acts as a bridging ligand forming a linear chain. The Zn(II) ions in both assume a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The structures of two systems: the [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]3 complex as a model of 1 and [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]4 as a simple polymeric structure were optimized with the B3LYP-D3 method. The DFT results support that the experimentally determined structure (1) is more stable in comparison to a simple polymeric structure, [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n (2). The interaction energies (ΔE) for NCS anions obtained by B3LYP-D3 method are about -145 kcal mol-1, while the calculated ΔE values for neutral organic ligands are about twice smaller. The X-ray structure of 1 shows that the complex is stabilized mainly by hydrogen bonds. We also found that weak chalcogen bonds play an additional role in stabilization of compound 1. Some of the intermolecular S⋯N distances are smaller than the sum of the van der Waals radii of the corresponding atoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the structure where the trivalent sulfur is involved in formation of a S⋯π chalcogen bond. The NBO and NCI analyses confirm the existence of this kind of interactions.

  2. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  3. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  4. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  5. Stabilization of mixed carbides of uranium-plutonium by zirconium. Part 1.: uranium carbide with small additions of zirconium; Etude de la stabilisation des carbures mixtes d'uranium et de plutonium par addition de zirconium. 1. partie: etude des carbures d'uranium avec de faibles additions de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocker, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Cast carbide samples, being of a high density and purity, are preferable for research purposes, to samples produced by powder metallurgy methods. Samples of uranium carbide with small additions of zirconium (1 to 5 per cent) were cast, as rods, in an arc furnace. A single phase carbide with interesting qualities was produced. As cast, a dendrite structure is observed, which does not disappear, after a treatment at 1900 deg. C during 110 hours. In comparison with uranium monocarbide the compatibility with stainless steel is much improved. The specific heat (between room temperature and 2500 deg. C) is similar to the specific heat of uranium monocarbide. A study of these mixed carbides, but having a part of the uranium replaced by plutonium is under way. (author) [French] Les echantillons de monocarbures obtenus par coulee sont tres interessants pour les recherches experimentales a cause de leur grande purete, de leur densite tres elevee et de la facilite d'obtention des lingots de forme et dimensions variees. On a prepare et coule dans un four a arc des echantillons de carbures d'uranium avec de faibles additions de zirconium (1 a 5 at. pour cent). On obtient ainsi des carbures monophases presentant de meilleures proprietes que le monocarbure d'uranium. A l'etat brut de coulee on observe une structure dendritique qui n'est pas detruite par un traitement thermique de 110 heures a 1900 deg. C. La compatibilite avec l'acier inoxydable 316 (a 925 deg. C pendant 500 heures) est nettement amelioree par rapport a UC. La chaleur specifique (entre la temperature ordinaire et 2500 deg. C) et la densite sont tres peu differentes de celles du monocarbure d'uranium. Une etude concernant les composes U-Pu-Zr-C est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  6. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  7. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-03-17

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  8. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Liebrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  9. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  10. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  11. Stability indicators in network reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filosi

    Full Text Available The number of available algorithms to infer a biological network from a dataset of high-throughput measurements is overwhelming and keeps growing. However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a 'gold standard' is available to measure how close the reconstructed network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes, from 2 to 10 modules, and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC and False Discovery Rate (FDR strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects, and we

  12. Stability of parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Betchov, R

    2012-01-01

    Stability of Parallel Flows provides information pertinent to hydrodynamical stability. This book explores the stability problems that occur in various fields, including electronics, mechanics, oceanography, administration, economics, as well as naval and aeronautical engineering. Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the general equations of a two-dimensional incompressible flow. This text then explores the stability of a laminar boundary layer and presents the equation of the inviscid approximation. Other chapters present the general equation

  13. Early hCG addition to rFSH for ovarian stimulation in IVF provides better results and the cDNA copies of the hCG receptor may be an indicator of successful stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevis Dimitris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple, safe and cost-effective treatment protocol in ovarian stimulation is of great importance in IVF practice, especially in the case of previous unsuccessful attempts. hCG has been used as a substitute of LH because of the degree of homology between the two hormones. The main aim of this prospective randomized study was to determine, for the first time, whether low dose hCG added to rFSH for ovarian stimulation could produce better results compared to the addition of rLH in women entering IVF-ET, especially in those women that had previous IVF failures. An additional aim was to find an indicator that would allow us to follow-up ovarian stimulation and, possibly, modify it in order to achieve a better IVF outcome; and that indicator may be the cDNA copies of the LH/hCG receptor. Group A patients (n = 58 were administered hCG and Group B rLH (n = 56 in addition to rFSH in the first days of ovarian stimulation. The number of follicles and oocytes and, most importantly, implantation and pregnancy rates were shown to be statistically significantly higher in the hCG group. This study has also determined, for the first time to our best knowledge, m-RNA for LH/hCG receptors in the lymphocytes of peripheral blood 40 h before ovum pick-up. cDNA levels of the hCG receptor after ovarian stimulation were significantly higher among women receiving hCG compared to those receiving LH. In addition, higher levels were encountered among women with pregnancy compared to those without, although this was not statistically significant due to the small number of pregnancies. It seems that hCG permits a highly effective and more stable occupancy of rLH/hCG receptors and gives more follicles and more oocytes. The determination of cDNA copies could be, in the future, a marker during ovulation induction protocols and of course a predictor for the outcome of ART in the special subgroup of patients with previous failures.

  14. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  15. Quantifying Stability in Complex Networks: From Linear to Basin Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    The human brain, power grids, arrays of coupled lasers and the Amazon rainforest are all characterized by multistability. The likelihood that these systems will remain in the most desirable of their many stable states depends on their stability against significant perturbations, particularly in a state space populated by undesirable states. Here we claim that the traditional linearization-based approach to stability is in several cases too local to adequately assess how stable a state is. Instead, we quantify it in terms of basin stability, a new measure related to the volume of the basin of attraction. Basin stability is non-local, nonlinear and easily applicable, even to high-dimensional systems. It provides a long-sought-after explanation for the surprisingly regular topologies of neural networks and power grids, which have eluded theoretical description based solely on linear stability. Specifically, we employ a component-wise version of basin stability, a nonlinear inspection scheme, to investigate how a grid's degree of stability is influenced by certain patterns in the wiring topology. Various statistics from our ensemble simulations all support one main finding: The widespread and cheapest of all connection schemes, namely dead ends and dead trees, strongly diminish stability. For the Northern European power system we demonstrate that the inverse is also true: `Healing' dead ends by addition of transmission lines substantially enhances stability. This indicates a crucial smart-design principle for tomorrow's sustainable power grids: add just a few more lines to avoid dead ends. Further, we analyse the particular function of certain network motifs to promote the stability of the system. Here we uncover the impact of so-called detour motifs on the appearance of nodes with a poor stability score and discuss the implications for power grid design. Moreover, it will be shown that basin stability enables uncovering the mechanism for explosive synchronization and

  16. Radiolytic degradation and stability of polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.S. de.

    1993-01-01

    The radiolytic stability of polycarbonate was studied using national commercial additives, employed in the photo and thermo-oxidative stabilization of polymers. Among several additives tested only two showed the efficiency to radiolytic protection: one quencher and one radical scavenger. It was derived a linear relation that provides by slope of the straight line the degree of degradation (scissions), G, and the factors of radiolytic protection P (degree of protection) and CE (capture of energy) conferred by radioprotector additive easily. Therefore the method developed in this work (viscosity) to study the molecular degradation and stability of polymers is a simply and precise method. The synergic mixture of two additives (1% of weight total) confers at polycarbonate excellent radiolytic protection of 98% (20 - 40 kGy) reducing the G value of 16.7 to only 0.4. (author). 69 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

  17. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  18. Use of soil stabilizers on highway shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated soil additives as stabilizers for aggregate and topsoil shoulders. Its purpose was to determine (1) the effect soil stabilizers have on the strength and stability of soil shoulders, and (2) the costs and benefits of using stabili...

  19. Do prehospital discharge pacemaker checks provide any additional clinical benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelan, Kevin R; Legge, Darlene M; Sakowski, Brent C; Bruce, Susan S; Roberts, David C; Johnston, L Murphy; Moore, B Jane; Beveridge, Thomas P; Wells, Peter J; Vallabahn, Ravi; Donsky, Michael S; Franklin, Jay O

    2005-08-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 250 records of consecutive, newly implanted, pacemaker patients from a single center to determine the rate of postimplant complications and observations discovered before and during the prehospital discharge evaluation. No observations occurred in 246 of 250 patients (98.4%) (1-sided 95% confidence interval 96.4%). Of the 250 patients, 4 had observations that were discovered at the prehospital discharge check and required reprogramming to increase the sensitivity safety margin (3 atrial and 1 ventricular). We documented only 1 complication that was discovered before the predischarge evaluation through telemetry and resulted in an atrial lead revision.

  20. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2014-01-01

    Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

  1. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 demonstrates that group I cations are particularly effective in providing structure and stability to this halophilic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Reed

    Full Text Available Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1, which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general.

  2. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) are believed to provide more advantages than fish oil from the same source. They are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic...... acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume...

  3. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  4. The influence of additives on the morphology and stability of roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells studied through ex situ and in situ X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2014-01-01

    -Vis Spectroscopy and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) for cells prepared with 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and 1,3-dimethyl-barbituric acid (BARB) as processing additives. The studies suggested that the use of these additives resulted in films with improved morphology and electrical...

  5. Fosfato e micorriza na estabilidade de agregados em amostras de latossolos cultivados e não-cultivados Aggregate stability in two cropped and no-cropped Oxisols as affected by phosphate addition and mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Azevedo Nóbrega

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Nos trópicos, existe escassez de informação quanto à contribuição de espécies fúngicas do solo na formação e estabilização de agregados. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do histórico de uso, níveis de P, de inoculação micorrízica e cultivo com braquiária e soja em casa de vegetação, sobre o diâmetro médio geométrico dos agregados (DMG, o índice de floculação das partículas, a matéria seca das raízes, a colonização micorrízica e o comprimento total de hifas, em amostras de Latossolo Vermelho distrófico e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Amostras dos dois solos, previamente cultivados por longos períodos, e de solos não-cultivados, foram trazidas para casa de vegetação, submetidas a inoculação, e a dois níveis de P, e então cultivadas com braquiária e soja, em dois cultivos sucessivos. Os resultados mostraram que o solo previamente cultivado apresentou menor comprimento total de hifas, menor estabilidade de agregados (menor diâmetro médio de agregados e menor índice de floculação. A inoculação propiciou maior estabilidade dos agregados, e este efeito é condicionado ao nível de P do solo e ao histórico de uso. A presença de P promoveu, indiretamente, maior agregação, por propiciar maior comprimento total das hifas e matéria seca de raízes.In the tropics there is little information on the contribution of soil microorganisms on aggregate stability in the soils. Soil management, crop and fertilization can affect the fungi specie in soil, and also affect aggregate stability. This study attempted to evaluate the effect of earlier cropping, phosphate, inoculation with AMF, and brachiaria and soybean on the geometric mean diameter (GMD, particle flocculation index, root dry matter, and total hyphal length, in dystrophic Red Latosol and dystroferric Red Latosol (both Oxisols. Samples of both soils under natural condition and previously cultivated were brought to the green house and

  6. Oxidative stability of marine phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (MPL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). The objective...... of this study is to investigate the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of chemical composition of MPL and Maillard reaction (interaction between lipids oxidation products with the residue of amino acids) on MPL emulsions’ stability. Firstly, MPL were...... was further investigated through measurement of secondary volatile compounds by Solid Phase Microextraction at several time intervals. On the other hand, the Maillard reaction was investigated through the measurement of color changes and pyrrole content before and after 32 days storage. Preliminary result...

  7. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  8. Development of oxygen scavenger additives for jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, B.D.; Demunshi, R.; Sharief, V.; Tian, D.; Teng, Y. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Our current research program is in response to the US Air Force`s FY93 New Initiative entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Fuel Composition and Use.{close_quotes} The critical goal of this initiative is to develop aircraft fuels which can operate at supercritical conditions. This is a vital objective since future aircraft designs will transfer much higher heat loads into the fuel as compared with current heat loads. In this paper it is argued that the thermal stability of most jet fuels would be dramatically improved by the efficient in flight-removal of a fuel`s dissolved oxygen. It is proposed herein to stabilize the bulk fuel by the addition of an additive which will be judiciously designed and programmed to react with oxygen and produce an innocuous product. It is envisioned that a thermally activated reaction will occur, between the oxygen scavenging additive and dissolved oxygen, in a controlled and directed manner. Consequently formation of insoluble thermal degradation products will be limited. It is believed that successful completion of this project will result in the development of a new type of jet fuel additive which will enable current conventional jet fuels to obtain sufficient thermal stability to function in significantly higher temperature regimes. In addition, it is postulated that the successful development of thermally activated oxygen scavengers will also provide the sub-critical thermal stability necessary for future development of endothermic fuels.

  9. Effects of Ecohydraulic Bank Stabilization Structures on Bank Stability and Macroinvertebrate Community in Surabaya River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Setyo Rini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There were 18 accelerated erosion sites identified along 7 km of Surabaya River Fishery Sanctuary Area. A model of ecohydraulic bank stabilization was applied to reduce bank erosion in Surabaya River at Gresik Regency Indonesia. The model is combination of reprofiled and revegetated bank with rock toe reinforcement and  addition of log groynes. Various native plant species were planted and naturally grown to establish multi-strata littoral vegetation structure. This study assessed effects of ecohydraulic bank stabilization on bank morphology, near bank velocity and littoral macroinvertebrate community during September 2014 to August 2016. The study found that rock toe enforcement, log groynes and reprofiled bank slope could stabilized the eroded bank, and littoral vegetation formation reduced near bank velocity at restored sites. There were 31 families of macroinvertebrate found in Surabaya River with high abundance of moderately pollution sensitive taxa Atyidae and pollution tolerant taxa Corixidae, Chironomidae and Tubificidae. The taxa richness, diversity index and abundance of sensitive and moderately sensitive macroinvertebrate group were increased after application of ecohydraulic bank stabilization at restored area. The results shown that ecohydraulic bank stabilization structure provides multi-benefits in improving bank stabilization against erosion and providing new micro-habitats for biotic community. Keywords:  ecohydraulic bank stabilization, macroinvertebrates, riparian restoration

  10. Effect of some ultraviolet light absorbers on photo-stabilization of azadirachtin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deota, P T; Upadhyay, P R; Patel, K B; Mehta, K J; Varshney, A K; Mehta, M H

    2002-10-01

    The effect of photo-stabilization of Azadirachtin-A (Aza-A) was examined when exposed to sunlight and ultraviolet light in the presence of four structurally different ultraviolet stabilizers namely 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and phenyl salicylate. The percentages of Aza-A recovered at different time intervals from slides exposed to different light conditions with and without UV stabilizers as well as kinetic studies indicated that the addition of phenyl salicylate in methanolic solution of Aza-A (in 1:1 mole ratio) provides the best photo-stabilization of Aza-A molecule among the four UV stabilizers studied.

  11. Develop guidelines for the design of pillar systems for shallow and intermediate depth, tabular, hard rock mines and provide methodology for assessing hangingwall stability and support requirements for the panels between pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haile, AT

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall view of the research being conducted at Impala platinum was to improve pillar design techniques through a rock testing programme, underground instrumentation and back analysis. The laboratory rock testing programme has provided a useful...

  12. Wear Behavior of an Unstable Knee: Stabilization via Implant Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background. Wear-related failures and instabilities are frequent failure mechanisms of total knee replacements. High-conforming designs may provide additional stability for the joint. This study analyzes the effects of a ligamentous insufficiency on the stability and the wear behavior of a high-conforming knee design. Methods. Two simulator wear tests were performed on a high-conforming total knee replacement design. In the first, a ligamentous-stable knee replacement with a sacrificed anteri...

  13. Microgrid Stability Controller Based on Adaptive Robust Total SMC

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xiaoling; Han, Minxiao; Guerrero, Josep M.; Sun, Hai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a microgrid stability controller (MSC) in order to provide existing distributed generation units (DGs) the additional functionality of working in islanding mode without changing their control strategies in grid-connected mode and to enhance the stability of the microgrid. Microgrid operating characteristics and mathematical models of the MSC indicate that the system is inherently nonlinear and time-variable. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive robust total sliding...

  14. Study of the stability of sugar Ester and its application potential with additives in the drilling fluids; Estudo da estabilidade do ester de acucar e sua potencial aplicacao como aditivo em fluido de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Suzan I.G.; Costa, Marta; Macedo, Sinara P.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work describe the enzymatic synthesis of the glucose ester starting from fatty acid, using protease Bacillus subtilis as biologic catalyst. The efficiency of ester has determined through the surface tension analyses in different pH (2-12), temperature (25-100 deg C) and salinity (50-115 g/L of NaCl). For a better understanding as for the applicability of the ester of sugar in drilling fluids, it was done necessary to know the values of interfacial tension of the oil/water; in that analysis, the mineral oil was investigated as oily phase and, as aqueous phase, biosurfactant solution. The results of interfacial tension of the water/oil and biosurfactant /oil they allowed to quantify us the influence of the benefactor's front to an organic phase, because the same made a significant reduction the interfacial tension of 26,0725 mN/m (water/oil) or 1,7527 mN/m (biosurfactant aqueous solution/oil). D-glucose ester was shown stable in different concentrations of NaCl, pH and temperature, and efficient in the reduction of the superficial tension of the water (of 72 mN/m for 28 mN/m). Preliminary test reveal that the ricinoleoil of D-glucose presents functionality as lubricant for drilling fluids to the base water. In the studied formulations, the obtained composition reduces the coefficient of lubricity of 0,20 for 0,04 and it stabilizes the fluid, reducing the volume of the filtrate of 5,0 mL for 3,4 mL. (author)

  15. Managing water addition to a degraded core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Hanson, D.J.; Odar, F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors present information that can be used in severe accident management by providing an improved understanding of the effects of water addition to a degraded core. This improved understanding is developed using a diagram showing a sequence of core damage states. Whenever possible, a temperature and a time after accident initiation are estimated for each damage state in the sequence diagram. This diagram can be used to anticipate the evolution of events during an accident. Possible responses of plant instruments are described to identify these damage states and the effects of water addition. The rate and amount of water addition needed (a) to remove energy from the core, (b) to stabilize the core or (c) to not adversely affect the damage progression, are estimated. Analysis of the capability to remove energy from large cohesive and particulate debris beds indicates that these beds may not be stabilized in the core region and they may partially relocate to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel

  16. Food Fortification Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10

  17. Life raft stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An improved life raft stabilizer for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The stabilizer may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the stabilizer in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.

  18. Stabilizing Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    international intervention in Niger. Their main objective is to secure their own strategic, economic and political interests by strengthening the Nigerien authorities through direct intervention and capacity building activities. For western states reinforcing state security institutions and stabilizing elite...

  19. Electrostatically driven resonance energy transfer in ?cationic? biocompatible indium phosphide quantum dots? ?Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental methods, the synthesis and characterization of QDs, bioimaging, stability studies, control experiments, and the calculation of various parameters involved in the resonance energy transfer process etc. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00592j Click here for additional data file.

    OpenAIRE

    Devatha, Gayathri; Roy, Soumendu; Rao, Anish; Mallick, Abhik; Basu, Sudipta; Pillai, Pramod P.

    2017-01-01

    Indium Phosphide Quantum Dots (InP QDs) have emerged as an alternative to toxic metal ion based QDs in nanobiotechnology. The ability to generate cationic surface charge, without compromising stability and biocompatibility, is essential in realizing the full potential of InP QDs in biological applications. We have addressed this challenge by developing a place exchange protocol for the preparation of cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The quaternary ammonium group provides the much required permanent posi...

  20. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Linear stability analysis of supersonic axisymmetric jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilities of supersonic jets are examined with different velocities, momentum thicknesses, and core temperatures. Amplification rates of instability waves at inlet are evaluated by linear stability theory (LST. It is found that increased velocity and core temperature would increase amplification rates substantially and such influence varies for different azimuthal wavenumbers. The most unstable modes in thin momentum thickness cases usually have higher frequencies and azimuthal wavenumbers. Mode switching is observed for low azimuthal wavenumbers, but it appears merely in high velocity cases. In addition, the results provided by linear parabolized stability equations show that the mean-flow divergence affects the spatial evolution of instability waves greatly. The most amplified instability waves globally are sometimes found to be different from that given by LST.

  2. Adsorption of molecular additive onto lead halide perovskite surfaces: A computational study on Lewis base thiophene additive passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Fengxi; Chen, Lihong; Li, Jingfa

    2018-06-01

    Organic additives, such as the Lewis base thiophene, have been successfully applied to passivate halide perovskite surfaces, improving the stability and properties of perovskite devices based on CH3NH3PbI3. Yet, the detailed nanostructure of the perovskite surface passivated by additives and the mechanisms of such passivation are not well understood. This study presents a nanoscopic view on the interfacial structure of an additive/perovskite interface, consisting of a Lewis base thiophene molecular additive and a lead halide perovskite surface substrate, providing insights on the mechanisms that molecular additives can passivate the halide perovskite surfaces and enhance the perovskite-based device performance. Molecular dynamics study on the interactions between water molecules and the perovskite surfaces passivated by the investigated additive reveal the effectiveness of employing the molecular additives to improve the stability of the halide perovskite materials. The additive/perovskite surface system is further probed via molecular engineering the perovskite surfaces. This study reveals the nanoscopic structure-property relationships of the halide perovskite surface passivated by molecular additives, which helps the fundamental understanding of the surface/interface engineering strategies for the development of halide perovskite based devices.

  3. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  4. Trust Trust Me (The Additivity)

    OpenAIRE

    Mano , Ken; Sakurada , Hideki; Tsukada , Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Part 4: Trust Metrics; International audience; We present a mathematical formulation of a trust metric using a quality and quantity pair. Under a certain assumption, we regard trust as an additive value and define the soundness of a trust computation as not to exceed the total sum. Moreover, we point out the importance of not only soundness of each computed trust but also the stability of the trust computation procedure against changes in trust value assignment. In this setting, we define tru...

  5. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  6. Polycarbonate radiolytic degradation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.S. de

    1994-01-01

    Polycarbonate Durolon, useful for medical supplies fabrication, is submitted to gamma radiation for sterilization purposes. Scissions in main chain occur, in carbonyl groups, producing molecular degradations and yellowness. The radiolytic stabilization is obtained through additive to the polymer. In this work some degradation and stabilization aspects are presented. (L.C.J.A.). 7 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  8. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  9. Stabilized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.

    1975-01-01

    The stable, high field, high current composite wire comprises multiple filaments in a depleted bronze matrix, each filament comprising a type II superconducting, beta-tungsten structure, intermetallic compound layer jacketing and metallurgically bonded to a stabilizing copper core, directly or via an intermediate layer of refractory metal

  10. Cervical stability training with and without core stability training for patients with cervical disc herniation: A randomized, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukturan, B; Guclu-Gunduz, A; Buyukturan, O; Dadali, Y; Bilgin, S; Kurt, E E

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at evaluating and comparing the effects of cervical stability training to combined cervical and core stability training in patients with neck pain and cervical disc herniation. Fifty patients with neck pain and cervical disc herniation were included in the study, randomly divided into two groups as cervical stability and cervical-core stability. Training was applied three times a week in three phases, and lasted for a total duration of 8 weeks. Pain, activation and static endurance of deep cervical flexor muscles, static endurance of neck muscles, cross-sectional diameter of M. Longus Colli, static endurance of trunk muscles, disability and kinesiophobia were assessed. Pain, activation and static endurance of deep cervical flexors, static endurance of neck muscles, cross-sectional diameter of M. Longus Colli, static endurance of trunk muscles, disability and kinesiophobia improved in both groups following the training sessions (p training methods revealed that the cervical stability group produced a greater increase in the right transverse diameter of M. Longus Colli (p training provided benefit to patients with cervical disc herniation. The addition of core stability training did not provide any additional significant benefit. Further research is required to investigate the efficacy of combining other techniques with cervical stability training in patients with cervical disc herniation. Both cervical stability training and its combination with core stability training were significantly and similarly effective on neck pain and neck muscle endurance in patients with cervical disc herniation. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  11. A Decision Support Tool for Transient Stability Preventive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a decision support tool for transient stability preventive control contributing to increased situation awareness of control room operators by providing additional information about the state of the power system in terms of transient stability. A time-domain approach is used...... a predefined minimum critical clearing time for faults at all buses is proposed, while costs are minimized. The results of the assessment are presented to the control room operator, who decides to accept the suggested dispatch or to repeat the assessment considering additional user-specific constraints...

  12. Linear stability analysis of a levitated nanomagnet in a static magnetic field: Quantum spin stabilized magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically study the levitation of a single magnetic domain nanosphere in an external static magnetic field. We show that, apart from the stability provided by the mechanical rotation of the nanomagnet (as in the classical Levitron), the quantum spin origin of its magnetization provides two additional mechanisms to stably levitate the system. Despite the Earnshaw theorem, such stable phases are present even in the absence of mechanical rotation. For large magnetic fields, the Larmor precession of the quantum magnetic moment stabilizes the system in full analogy with magnetic trapping of a neutral atom. For low magnetic fields, the magnetic anisotropy stabilizes the system via the Einstein-de Haas effect. These results are obtained with a linear stability analysis of a single magnetic domain rigid nanosphere with uniaxial anisotropy in a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field.

  13. Test Room Stability Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This plan documents the combination of designs, installations, programs, and activities that ensures that the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in which transuranic (TRU) waste may be emplaced during the Test Phase, will remain sufficiently stable and safe during that time. The current ground support systems installed at the WIPP are the result of over ten years of data collection from hundreds of geomechanical instruments and thousands of hours of direct observation of the changing conditions of the openings. In addition, some of the world's most respected experts on salt rock mechanics have provided input in the design process and concurrence on the suitability of the final design. The general mine rockbolt pattern and the ground support system for the test rooms are designed to specifically address the fracture and deformation geometries observed today at the WIPP. After an introductory chapter, this plan describes the general underground design, then proceeds to an account of general ground support performance, and finally focuses on the details of the special test room ground support systems. One such system already installed in Room 1, Panel 1, is described in comprehensive detail. Other test rooms in Panel 1, whether full-size or smaller, will be equipped with systems that ensure stability to the same or equivalent extent. They will benefit from the experience gained in the first test room, which in turn benefitted from the data and knowledge accumulated during previous stages (e.g., the Site and Preliminary Design Validation program) of the project

  14. Thermal Decomposition of RP-2 with Stabilizing Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    sealed on one end with a 316L stainless steel plug welded by a clean tungsten-inert-gas ( TIG ) process . The other end of each cell was connected to a...valve with a 3.5 cm length of narrow-diameter 316 stainless steel tubing that was TIG - welded to the larger diameter tube. The valves were appropriate...carries heat away from the wall and maintains a safe wall temperature. This process , commonly referred to as regenerative cooling, exposes the fuel

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Magnetic field stabilization in THe-Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    THe-Trap is a Penning trap mass spectrometer dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio aiming to a relative mass uncertainty better than 10{sup -11}. The most vital prerequisite for this measurement is a stable magnetic field: The relative temporal fluctuations during a measurement cycle of typically 1 hour, should be better than 10{sup -11}. The 5.26 T field is provided by a superconducting magnet. Unfortunately, the materials within the cryostat have a temperature-dependent susceptibility which necessitates a temperature stabilization. The stabilization is achieved by controlling the liquid helium level above the traps, and by keeping the pressure of the liquid helium constant. An important part of the system is the pressure reference, which is stable at a 0.04 Pa level. In addition to the stabilization of the field fluctuations within the cryostat itself, a system to cancel external fluctuations is set up consisting of a passive coil with a shielding factor of up to 180 build into the cryostat. Furthermore, a Helmholtz coil pair is placed around the cryostat. The compensation signal is provided by a custom-built flux-gate magnetometer. Technical details about the stabilization systems are given.

  17. Stability of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Xiaoxin; Yu, P 0

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of developing stability theory is to examine dynamic responses of a system to disturbances as the time approaches infinity. It has been and still is the object of intense investigations due to its intrinsic interest and its relevance to all practical systems in engineering, finance, natural science and social science. This monograph provides some state-of-the-art expositions of major advances in fundamental stability theories and methods for dynamic systems of ODE and DDE types and in limit cycle, normal form and Hopf bifurcation control of nonlinear dynamic systems.ʺ Presents

  18. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  19. Advanced Tokamak Stability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Linjin

    2015-03-01

    The intention of this book is to introduce advanced tokamak stability theory. We start with the derivation of the Grad-Shafranov equation and the construction of various toroidal flux coordinates. An analytical tokamak equilibrium theory is presented to demonstrate the Shafranov shift and how the toroidal hoop force can be balanced by the application of a vertical magnetic field in tokamaks. In addition to advanced theories, this book also discusses the intuitive physics pictures for various experimentally observed phenomena.

  20. Stability of Randomly Switched Diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef; Gholami, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a sufficient criterion for ε-moment stability (boundedness) and ergodicity for a class of systems comprising a finite set of diffusions among which switching is governed by a continuous time Markov chain. Stability/instability properties for each separate subsystem are assumed...

  1. Before Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja

    2013-01-01

    of the communication about innovations in information and communication technology (ICT), and to contribute to an understanding of how different visions promise particular future configurations of workflows, communication processes, politics, economic models and social relations. Hereby, the paper adds...... to the literature on the relationship between ICTs and organizing, but with a distinct focus on innovation communication and distributed innovation processes taking place before ICTs are stabilized, issues which cannot be captured by studies of diffusion and adaptation of new ICTs within single organizations....

  2. Energy implications of CO{sub 2} stabilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffert, M.I.; Caldeira, K.; Jain, A.K. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of carbon emissions paths stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the 350--750 ppmv range reveals that implementing the UN Climate Convention will become increasingly difficult as the stabilization target decreases because of increasing dependence on carbon-free energy sources. Even the central Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenario (IS92a) requires carbon-free primary power by 2050 equal to the humankind`s present fossil-fuel-based primary power consumption {approximately}10 TW (1 TW = 10{sup 12} W). The authors describe and critique the assumptions on which this projection is based, and extend the analysis to scenarios in which atmospheric CO{sub 2} stabilizes. For continued economic growth with CO{sub 2} stabilization, new, cost-effective, carbon-free technologies that can provide primary power of order 10 TW will be needed in the coming decades, and certainly by mid-century, in addition to improved economic productivity of primary energy.

  3. Silage review: Recent advances and future uses of silage additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, R E; Nadeau, E M G; McAllister, T A; Contreras-Govea, F E; Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2018-05-01

    Additives have been available for enhancing silage preservation for decades. This review covers research studies published since 2000 that have investigated the efficacy of silage additives. The review has been divided into 6 categories of additives: homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB), obligate heterofermentative LAB, combination inoculants containing obligate heterofermentative LAB plus homofermentative LAB, other inoculants, chemicals, and enzymes. The homofermentative LAB rapidly decrease pH and increase lactic acid relative to other fermentation products, although a meta-analysis indicated no reduction in pH in corn, sorghum, and sugarcane silages relative to untreated silages. These additives resulted in higher milk production according to the meta-analysis by mechanisms that are still unclear. Lactobacillus buchneri is the dominant species used in obligate heterofermentative LAB silage additives. It slowly converts lactic acid to acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol during silo storage, improving aerobic stability while having no effect on animal productivity. Current research is focused on finding other species in the Lb. buchneri group capable of producing more rapid improvements in aerobic stability. Combination inoculants aim to provide the aerobic stability benefits of Lb. buchneri with the silage fermentation efficiency and animal productivity benefits of homofermentative LAB. Research indicates that these products are improving aerobic stability, but feeding studies are not yet sufficient to make conclusions about effects on animal performance. Novel non-LAB species have been studied as potential silage inoculants. Streptococcus bovis is a potential starter species within a homofermentative LAB inoculant. Propionibacterium and Bacillus species offer improved aerobic stability in some cases. Some yeast research has focused on inhibiting molds and other detrimental silage microorganisms, whereas other yeast research suggests that it may be possible

  4. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deller, Marc C.; Kong, Leopold; Rupp, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification and crystallization of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed

  5. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deller, Marc C., E-mail: mdeller@stanford.edu [Stanford University, Shriram Center, 443 Via Ortega, Room 097, MC5082, Stanford, CA 94305-4125 (United States); Kong, Leopold [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Building 8, Room 1A03, 8 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Rupp, Bernhard [k.-k. Hofkristallamt, 91 Audrey Place, Vista, CA 92084 (United States); Medical University of Innsbruck, Schöpfstrasse 41, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-01-26

    An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification and crystallization of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed.

  6. Compact fiber optic gyroscopes for platform stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, William C.; Yee, Ting K.; Coward, James F.; McClaren, Andrew; Pechner, David A.

    2013-09-01

    SA Photonics has developed a family of compact Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for platform stabilization applications. The use of short fiber coils enables the high update rates required for stabilization applications but presents challenges to maintain high performance. We are able to match the performance of much larger FOGs by utilizing several innovative technologies. These technologies include source noise reduction to minimize Angular Random Walk (ARW), advanced digital signal processing that minimizes bias drift at high update rates, and advanced passive thermal packaging that minimizes temperature induced bias drift while not significantly affecting size, weight, or power. In addition, SA Photonics has developed unique distributed FOG packaging technologies allowing the FOG electronics and photonics to be packaged remotely from the sensor head or independent axis heads to minimize size, weight, and power at the sensing location(s). The use of these technologies has resulted in high performance, including ARW less than 0.001 deg/rt-hr and bias drift less than 0.004 deg/hr at an update rate of 10 kHz, and total packaged volume less than 30 cu. in. for a 6 degree of freedom FOG-based IMU. Specific applications include optical beam stabilization for LIDAR and LADAR, beam stabilization for long-range free-space optical communication, Optical Inertial Reference Units for HEL stabilization, and Ka band antenna pedestal pointing and stabilization. The high performance of our FOGs also enables their use in traditional navigation and positioning applications. This paper will review the technologies enabling our high-performance compact FOGs, and will provide performance test results.

  7. Supercapacitor to Provide Ancillary Services: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Luo, Yusheng [Idaho National Laboratory; Mohanpurkar, M. [Idaho National Laboratory; Hovsapian, R. [Idaho National Laboratory; Koritarov, V. [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-10-09

    Supercapacitor technology has reached a level of maturity as a viable energy storage option available to support a modern electric power system grid; however, its application is still limited because of its energy capacity and the cost of the commercial product. In this paper, we demonstrate transient models of supercapacitor energy storage plants operating in coordination with run-of-the-river (ROR), doubly-fed induction generator hydropower plants (HPP) using a system control concept and architecture developed. A detailed transient model of a supercapacitor energy storage device is coupled with the grid via a three-phase inverter/rectifier and bidirectional DC-DC converter. In addition, we use a version of a 14-bus IEEE test case that includes the models of the supercapacitor energy storage device, ROR HPPs, and synchronous condensers that use the rotating synchronous generators of retired coal-powered plants. The purpose of the synchronous condensers is to enhance the system stability by providing voltage and reactive power control, provide power system oscillations damping, and maintain system inertia at secure levels. The control layer provides coordinated, decentralized operation of distributed ROR HPPs and energy storage as aggregate support to power system operations.

  8. AECL's excavation stability study - summary of observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.; Chandler, N.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Excavation Stability Study (ESS) was conducted at the 420 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) to evaluate stability and the extent of excavation damage in tunnels as a function of tunnel geometry and orientation, geology, and excavation method. A series of ovaloid and circular openings were used to achieve different boundary stress levels and near-field stress distributions to assess the effect of tunnel geometry on damage development. Several of these openings had sections in both granite and granodiorite lithology, providing a comparison of damage in rock types with different strength characteristics. Damage around circular tunnels (one excavated by drill-and-blast, the other by mechanical means) was also investigated. The study.showed that mechanically stable openings can be excavated in the most adverse stress conditions at the 420 Level of the URL. In addition, it was shown that tunnel stability is sensitive to tunnel shape, variations in geology, and to some extent, the excavation method. Findings of the study are relevant in developing design criteria, and in assessing the feasibility of constructing large ovaloid openings in adverse stress conditions. This report summarizes the preliminary observations related to tunnel stability and excavation damage. (author). 8 refs., 7 tabs., 23 figs

  9. Slope stability radar for monitoring mine walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Bryan; Noon, David A.; Stickley, Glen F.; Longstaff, Dennis

    2001-11-01

    Determining slope stability in a mining operation is an important task. This is especially true when the mine workings are close to a potentially unstable slope. A common technique to determine slope stability is to monitor the small precursory movements, which occur prior to collapse. The slope stability radar has been developed to remotely scan a rock slope to continuously monitor the spatial deformation of the face. Using differential radar interferometry, the system can detect deformation movements of a rough wall with sub-millimeter accuracy, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. The effects of atmospheric variations and spurious signals can be reduced via signal processing means. The advantage of radar over other monitoring techniques is that it provides full area coverage without the need for mounted reflectors or equipment on the wall. In addition, the radar waves adequately penetrate through rain, dust and smoke to give reliable measurements, twenty-four hours a day. The system has been trialed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia, which demonstrated the potential for real-time monitoring of slope stability during active mining operations.

  10. Interval stability for complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir V.; Kirillov, Sergey; Kurths, Jürgen; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2018-04-01

    Stability of dynamical systems against strong perturbations is an important problem of nonlinear dynamics relevant to many applications in various areas. Here, we develop a novel concept of interval stability, referring to the behavior of the perturbed system during a finite time interval. Based on this concept, we suggest new measures of stability, namely interval basin stability (IBS) and interval stability threshold (IST). IBS characterizes the likelihood that the perturbed system returns to the stable regime (attractor) in a given time. IST provides the minimal magnitude of the perturbation capable to disrupt the stable regime for a given interval of time. The suggested measures provide important information about the system susceptibility to external perturbations which may be useful for practical applications. Moreover, from a theoretical viewpoint the interval stability measures are shown to bridge the gap between linear and asymptotic stability. We also suggest numerical algorithms for quantification of the interval stability characteristics and demonstrate their potential for several dynamical systems of various nature, such as power grids and neural networks.

  11. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(hydroxybutyrate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Renata F.S.; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2007-01-01

    Poly(hydroxybutyrate), PHB, is a thermoplastic polyester synthesized by many types of bacteria. PHB is of special interest in the manufacture of medical devices sterilizable by gamma radiation, because of remarkable characteristics like its great biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, ionizing radiation causes main chain scissions of PHB followed by the reduction in its molar mass. Then, the purpose of this study was to investigate the radiolytic stabilization of the structure and properties of Brazilian PHB by commercial additives used in photo and thermo-oxidative stabilization of polymers. Initially, casting solvent films were prepared adding 0.5 wt% of five different additives to the polymer system. These films were irradiated at 25 kGy and investigated viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) changes in order to select the best stabilizer. Among the tested additives only one, antioxidant type, provided a good radiostabilization. New polymeric films were prepared with the antioxidant, whose concentrations (wt%) were 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0. In this case, the samples were submitted to doses that varied from 15 to 50 kGy. Viscometric analysis was performed in order to assess the radiation-induced main chain scissions. The G value (scissions/100eV of energy transferred to the system) was also obtained by the viscosity technique. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.5 wt%, promotes a decrease of 8.6 to 1.5 in G value at a dose range of 0 - 35 kGy. In addition, (FT-IR, NMR-1H) spectroscopic analyses on polymer system were also performed. (author)

  12. Energy implications of future stabilization of atmospheric CO2 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffert, M.I.; Jain, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for ''stabilization of greenhouse-gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system...''. A standard baseline scenario that assumes no policy intervention to limit greenhouse-gas emissions has 10 TW (10 x 10 12 watts) of carbon-emission-free power being produced by the year 2050, equivalent to the power provided by all today's energy sources combined. Here we employ a carbon-cycle/energy model to estimate the carbon-emission-free power needed for various atmospheric CO 2 stabilization scenarios. We find that CO 2 stabilization with continued economic growth will require innovative, cost-effective and carbon-emission-free technologies that can provide additional tens of terawatts of primary power in the coming decades, and certainly by the middle of the twenty-first century, even with sustained improvement in the economic productivity of primary energy. (author)

  13. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  14. Efeito da lavagem e da adição de aditivos sobre a estabilidade de carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus durante estocagem a -18 ºC Effect of washing and increase of additives on minced stability of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during storage under -18 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da lavagem e da adição de eritorbato de sódio e tripolifosfato de sódio na estabilidade de Carne Mecanicamente Separada (CMS de tilápia de Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus durante 6 meses de armazenamento a -18 ºC. A CMS obtida por meio de máquina separadora de carne e ossos foi dividida em quatro tratamentos (CMS lavada com e sem aditivos, e CMS não lavada com e sem aditivos e mantida sob congelamento a -18 ºC, por 180 dias. A estabilidade foi avaliada por meio de análises microbiológicas e determinações de nitrogênio não proteico (NNP, bases nitrogenadas voláteis (BNV, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, pH e drip (perda de água no descongelamento. O processo de lavagem causou redução de aproximadamente 41, 44 e 66% nos teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas, respectivamente, reduzindo também os valores iniciais de NNP, BNV e TBARS. Durante o armazenamento, foram observados aumentos (p 0,05 os teores de TBARS. Os parâmetros microbiológicos avaliados não ultrapassaram os limites permitidos pela legislação. As CMS permaneceram estáveis e em boas condições de utilização, independentemente da inclusão de aditivo, sendo viável sua estocagem a -18 ºC por 180 dias.This study evaluates the influence of washing and adding sodium erythorbate and sodium tripolyphosphate on the stability of minced Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during 6 months of storage under -18 ºC. The minced fish was obtained using a meat bone separator and was divided into four treatments (washed minced fish with or without additives and non-washed minced fish with or without additives and kept at -18 ºC for 180 days. The stability of the minced fish was evaluated by microbiological analyses and the following parameters non-proteic nitrogen (NNP, total nitrogen volatile bases (BNV, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, pH, and Drip (loss of water in thaw

  15. Global Asymptotic Stability of Switched Neural Networks with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the global asymptotic stability of a class of switched neural networks with delays. Several new criteria ensuring global asymptotic stability in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs are obtained via Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. And here, we adopt the quadratic convex approach, which is different from the linear and reciprocal convex combinations that are extensively used in recent literature. In addition, the proposed results here are very easy to be verified and complemented. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  16. Stable Blind Deconvolution over the Reals from Additional Autocorrelations

    KAUST Repository

    Walk, Philipp

    2017-10-22

    Recently the one-dimensional time-discrete blind deconvolution problem was shown to be solvable uniquely, up to a global phase, by a semi-definite program for almost any signal, provided its autocorrelation is known. We will show in this work that under a sufficient zero separation of the corresponding signal in the $z-$domain, a stable reconstruction against additive noise is possible. Moreover, the stability constant depends on the signal dimension and on the signals magnitude of the first and last coefficients. We give an analytical expression for this constant by using spectral bounds of Vandermonde matrices.

  17. Additive lattice kirigami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  18. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  19. Improvement of photoluminescence properties and thermal stability of Y{sub 2.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Al{sub 5−x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12} phosphors with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fangfang [College of Electronic Information and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Song, Kaixin, E-mail: kxsong@hdu.edu.cn [College of Electronic Information and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Jiang, Jun [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technologies and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wu, Song; Zheng, Peng [College of Electronic Information and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Huang, Qingming [Instrument Analysis and Testing Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Xu, Junming; Qin, Huibin [College of Electronic Information and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Y{sub 2.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Al{sub 5−x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12} phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction in reduced air ambience. • Si{sup 4+} could be incorporated into the host lattice of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} through partial occupation of the Al{sup 3+} sites. • Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} addition can improve photoluminescence efficiency and thermal stability of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce. - Abstract: A series of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} doping Y{sub 2.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Al{sub 5−x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12−3x/2}N{sub 4x/3} phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction in 95%N{sub 2}–5%H{sub 2} reduced air ambience. The XRD characteristics plus Rietveld refinement results shows that the as-sintered powders are unique crystal phase with the same crystal structure of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (PDF No. 79-1891). The N element was not detected by the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS). The photoluminescence spectra (PL and PLE) tests show that the exciting and emitting intensity of PLE and PL gradually increase due to the increase of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} concentration. Meanwhile, the phosphorescence decay times are prolonged from 45 ns (x = 0) to 78 ns (x = 0.3), under the monitor of 530 nm wavelength. The thermoluminescence tests (TL) confirm the thermal stability of as-phosphors with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} addition is much better than that of the pristine Y{sub 2.9}Ce{sub 0.1}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} phosphors.

  20. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  1. Global exponential stability of mixed discrete and distributively delayed cellular neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hong-Xing; Zhou Jia-Yan

    2011-01-01

    This paper concernes analysis for the global exponential stability of a class of recurrent neural networks with mixed discrete and distributed delays. It first proves the existence and uniqueness of the balance point, then by employing the Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional and Young inequality, it gives the sufficient condition of global exponential stability of cellular neural network with mixed discrete and distributed delays, in addition, the example is provided to illustrate the applicability of the result. (general)

  2. Handbook of functional equations stability theory

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This  handbook consists of seventeen chapters written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community, who present important research works in the field of mathematical analysis and related subjects, particularly in the Ulam stability theory of functional equations. The book provides an insight into a large domain of research with emphasis to the discussion of several theories, methods and problems in approximation theory, analytic inequalities, functional analysis, computational algebra and applications.                           The notion of stability of functional equations has its origins with S. M. Ulam, who posed the fundamental problem for approximate homomorphisms in 1940 and with D. H. Hyers, Th. M. Rassias, who provided the first significant solutions for additive and linear mappings in 1941 and 1978, respectively. During the last decade the notion of stability of functional equations has evolved into a very active domain of mathematical research with...

  3. Phase stabilities at a glance: Stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachhuber, F.; Rothballer, J.; Weihrich, R.; Söhnel, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn 2 (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb 2 , and the NiAs 2 types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB 2 structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases

  4. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  5. Identification and stabilization methods for problematic silt soils : a laboratory evaluation of modification and stabilization additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The instability and pumping response of non-plastic, high silt (and fine sand) soils was investigated. Common reagents, i.e., lime, lime-fly ash, Portland cement, and slag cement were included as admixtures with three high silt (and fine sand) soils....

  6. Fermentation, losses, and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages treated with chemical or bacterial additives Fermentação, perdas e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos químicos ou bacterianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L. silage is increasing in Brazil but intensive ethanol production during fermentation reduces forage quality. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of additives on fermentation and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages produced in minisilos. Treatments were (fresh basis: untreated silage (control, urea (5.0 g kg-1, sodium benzoate (1.0 g kg-1, potassium sorbate (0.3 g kg-1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 cfu g-1, and Lactobacillus buchneri (3.64 x 10(5 cfu g-1. At the 94th day after ensilage, ethanol concentration was lower in urea, benzoate, sorbate and L. buchneri supplemented silages and higher in L. plantarum inoculated silage, as compared to control. Urea and benzoate treated silages showed the highest and L. plantarum treated silage the lowest in vitro dry matter digestibility. Effluent production was higher in the urea treated silage. Inoculation with L. buchneri reduced 50% ethanol production as compared to control. Urea and L. buchneri reduced yeast count. Aerobic stability was enhanced by L. buchneri and benzoate. Sodium benzoate and L. buchneri were the most promising additives, improving both silage fermentation and aerobic stability; inoculants containing L. plantarum can be deleterious to fermentation and conservation of sugarcane silages.A utilização de silagem de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. está aumentando no Brasil, mas a intensa produção de etanol durante a fermentação reduz a qualidade da forragem. Este experimento visou avaliar os efeitos de aditivos na fermentação e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar produzidas em minisilos. Os tratamentos foram (base matéria verde: silagem sem tratamento (controle, uréia (5,0 g kg-1, benzoato de sódio (1,0 g kg-1, sorbato de potássio (0,3 g kg-1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 ufc g-1 e Lactobacillus buchneri (3,64 x 10(5 ufc g-1. Aos 94 dias após a ensilagem, a concentração de

  7. Improved roof stabilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities require that personnel have access to all areas of structures, some of which are more than 40 years old. In many cases, these structures have remained in a standby condition for up to 10 years; few preventative maintenance activities have been performed on them because of lack of funding or a defined future plan of action. This situation has led to deteriorated building conditions, resulting in potential personnel safety hazards. In addition, leaky roofs allow water to enter the buildings, which can cause the spread of contamination and increase building deterioration, worsening the already unsafe working conditions. To ensure worker safety and facilitate building dismantlement, the assessment of roof stabilization techniques applicable to US Department of Energy (DOE) structures has become an important issue. During Fiscal year 1997 (FY97), a comprehensive reliability-based model for the structural stabilization analysis of roof system in complex structures was developed. The model consists of three major components: a material testing method, a deterministic structural computer model, and a reliability-based optimization, and probabilistic analyses of roof structures can be implemented. Given site-specific needs, this model recommends the most appropriate roof stabilization system. This model will give not only an accurate evaluation of the existing roof system in complex structures, but it will also be a reliable method to aid the decision-making process. This final report includes in its appendix a Users' Manual for the Program of Deterministic and Reliability Analysis of Roof Structures

  8. Hillslope hydrology and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  9. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  10. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D

    2017-08-01

    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Feedback stabilization of plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cap, F.F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental aspects of feedback stabilization. After giving an outline of a general theoretical model for electrostatic instabilities the author provides a theoretical analysis of the suppression of various types of instability. Experiments which have been carried out on the feedback stabilization of various types of plasma instability are reported. An extensive list of references is given. (B.R.H.)

  12. Market liquidity and financial stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Crockett, A.

    2008-01-01

    Stability in financial institutions and in financial markets are closely intertwined. Banks and other financial institutions need liquid markets through which to conduct risk management. And markets need the back-up liquidity lines provided by financial institutions. Market liquidity depends not only on objective, exogenous factors, but also on endogenous market dynamics. Central banks responsible for systemic stability need to consider how far their traditional responsibility for the health ...

  13. Ecosystem stability in space: α, β and γ variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopeng; Loreau, Michel

    2014-08-01

    The past two decades have seen great progress in understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem stability in local ecological systems. There is, however, an urgent need to extend existing knowledge to larger spatial scales to match the scale of management and conservation. Here, we develop a general theoretical framework to study the stability and variability of ecosystems at multiple scales. Analogously to the partitioning of biodiversity, we propose the concepts of alpha, beta and gamma variability. Gamma variability at regional (metacommunity) scale can be partitioned into local alpha variability and spatial beta variability, either multiplicatively or additively. On average, variability decreases from local to regional scales, which creates a negative variability-area relationship. Our partitioning framework suggests that mechanisms of regional ecosystem stability can be understood by investigating the influence of ecological factors on alpha and beta variability. Diversity can provide insurance effects at the various levels of variability, thus generating alpha, beta and gamma diversity-stability relationships. As a consequence, the loss of biodiversity and habitat impairs ecosystem stability at the regional scale. Overall, our framework enables a synthetic understanding of ecosystem stability at multiple scales and has practical implications for landscape management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. The effect of nanoparticle aggregation on surfactant foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlYousef, Zuhair A; Almobarky, Mohammed A; Schechter, David S

    2018-02-01

    The combination of nanoparticles (NPs) and surfactant may offer a novel technique of generating stronger foams for gas mobility control. This study evaluates the potential of silica NPs to enhance the foam stability of three nonionic surfactants. Results showed that the concentration of surfactant and NPs is a crucial parameter for foam stability and that there is certain concentrations for strong foam generation. A balance in concentration between the nonionic surfactants and the NPs can enhance the foam stability as a result of forming flocs in solutions. At fixed surfactant concentration, the addition of NPs at low to intermediate concentrations can produce a more stable foam compared to the surfactant. The production of small population of flocs as a result of mixing the surfactant and NPs can enhance the foam stability by providing a barrier between the gas bubbles and delaying the coalescence of bubbles. Moreover, these flocs can increase the solution viscosity and, therefore, slow the drainage rate of thin aqueous film (lamellae). The measurements of foam half-life, bubble size, and mobility tests confirmed this conclusion. However, the addition of more solid particles or surfactant might have a negative impact on foam stability and reduce the maximum capillary pressure of coalescence as a result of forming extensive aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estabilidade aeróbia da ração total e de silagens de capim-marandu tratadas com aditivos químicos e bacterianos Aerobic stability of total mixed ration and marandugrass silage using microbial or chemical additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de determinar o efeito da inclusão de aditivo químico e da inoculação de bactérias homo e heterofermentativas sobre a estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de capim-marandu e da ração total. Foram conduzidos três experimentos para avaliação do benzoato de sódio e de dois inoculantes, um contendo Lactobacillus plantarum + Propionibacterium e o segundo Lactobacillus buchneri. Após 60 dias de fermentação, os silos foram abertos e as silagens e a ração total (RT contendo silagens de capim-marandu foram colocadas em caixas de isopor e transferidas para câmara climática, a 25 ± 1ºC, para determinação das variações de temperatura na ração total e na silagem, das recuperações de MS e das alterações no pH da silagem. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Houve perdas de MS e elevação dos teores de pH quando as silagens foram colocadas em condições de aerobiose. A temperatura das silagens e da RT teve discreto aumento durante os seis dias de aeração. O uso de bactérias ou de benzoato de sódio não influenciou a estabilidade aeróbia das silagens.This research evaluated the inclusion of chemical additive and the inoculation with homo and heterofermentative bacteria on the aerobic stability of the Marandu grass silages and on the total mixed ration (TMR. It was conducted three experiments to evaluate sodium benzoate and two inoculants: 1. Lactobacillus plantarum + Propionibacterium and; 2. Lactobacillus buchneri. The silos were opened after 60 days of fermentation; the silages and the TMR containing the silages were placed in a polystyrene box, and transferred to a climatic chamber kept at 25 ± 1ºC to determine the temperature changes, dry matter recovery, and pH values. The data were analyzed according to a complete randomized design, in a split plot arrangement. The silages showed DM losses and increasing pH during the

  16. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  18. Power system stabilizers based on distributed energy resources for damping of inter-area oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanov Predrag Č.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with inter-area power oscillations damping enhancement by distributed energy resources contained in typical micro grid. Main idea behind this work is to use distributed generation and distributed storage, such as battery energy storage to mimic conventional power system stabilizer, but with regulating active power output, rather than reactive power, as in standard power system stabilizer realization. The analysis of the small signal stability is established for four-machine, two-area system, with inverter based micro grids in each area. Dynamic simulation results are included in this work and they show that proposed controller provides additional damping effect to this test system.

  19. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  20. Heterotic moduli stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, M.; De Alwis, S.; Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO; Westphal, A.

    2013-04-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of moduli stabilization for weakly coupled heterotic string theory compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds. We focus on both supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking vacua of generic (0,2) compactifications obtained by minimising the total (F+D)-term scalar potential. After reviewing how to stabilise all the geometric moduli in a supersymmetric way by including fractional fluxes, non-perturbative and threshold effects, we show that the inclusion of α' corrections leads to new de Sitter or nearly Minkowski vacua which break supersymmetry spontaneously. The minimum lies at moderately large volumes of all the geometric moduli, at perturbative values of the string coupling and at the right phenomenological value of the GUT gauge coupling. However the structure of the heterotic 3-form flux used for complex structure moduli stabilization does not contain enough freedom to tune the superpotential. This results in the generic prediction of high-scale supersymmetry breaking around the GUT scale. We finally provide a dynamical derivation of anisotropic compactifications with stabilized moduli which allow for perturbative gauge coupling unification around 10 16 GeV.

  1. Heterotic moduli stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, M. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. Fisica ed Astronomia; INFN, Bologna (Italy); Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); De Alwis, S. [Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). UCB 390 Physics Dept.; Westphal, A. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2013-04-15

    We perform a systematic analysis of moduli stabilization for weakly coupled heterotic string theory compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds. We focus on both supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking vacua of generic (0,2) compactifications obtained by minimising the total (F+D)-term scalar potential. After reviewing how to stabilise all the geometric moduli in a supersymmetric way by including fractional fluxes, non-perturbative and threshold effects, we show that the inclusion of {alpha}' corrections leads to new de Sitter or nearly Minkowski vacua which break supersymmetry spontaneously. The minimum lies at moderately large volumes of all the geometric moduli, at perturbative values of the string coupling and at the right phenomenological value of the GUT gauge coupling. However the structure of the heterotic 3-form flux used for complex structure moduli stabilization does not contain enough freedom to tune the superpotential. This results in the generic prediction of high-scale supersymmetry breaking around the GUT scale. We finally provide a dynamical derivation of anisotropic compactifications with stabilized moduli which allow for perturbative gauge coupling unification around 10{sup 16} GeV.

  2. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  3. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  4. Mutation of exposed hydrophobic amino acids to arginine to increase protein stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicki Jerzy

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One strategy to increase the stability of proteins is to reduce the area of water-accessible hydrophobic surface. Results In order to test it, we replaced 14 solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues of acetylcholinesterase by arginine. The stabilities of the resulting proteins were tested using denaturation by high temperature, organic solvents, urea and by proteolytic digestion. Conclusion Altough the mutational effects were rather small, this strategy proved to be successful since half of the mutants showed an increased stability. This stability may originate from the suppression of unfavorable interactions of nonpolar residues with water or from addition of new hydrogen bonds with the solvent. Other mechanisms may also contribute to the increased stability observed with some mutants. For example, introduction of a charge at the surface of the protein may provide a new coulombic interaction on the protein surface.

  5. Radiation curable Michael addition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.W.; Friedlander, C.B.; McDonald, W.H.; Dowbenko, R.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable acrylyloxy-containing reaction products are provided from Michael addition reaction of an amide containing at least two acrylate groups with a primary or secondary amine. The resulting amine adducts of the amide, which contain at least one acrylate group per molecule, possesses high cure rates in air and are useful in compositions for forming coatings. (author)

  6. Numerical Computation of Detonation Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    Then we investigate the Fickett’s detonation analogue coupled with a particular reaction-rate expression. In addition to the linear stability analysis of this model, we demonstrate that it exhibits rich nonlinear dynamics with multiple bifurcations and chaotic behavior.

  7. Medical service provider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2018-05-17

    In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null. Although all providers join the network under any-willing-provider contracting in the absence of third-party payment, an asymmetric equilibrium may exist when this billing arrangement is implemented. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  9. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  10. Groups – Additive Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  11. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  12. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Marc C.; Kong, Leopold; Rupp, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed. PMID:26841758

  13. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  14. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  15. Trapped particle stability for the kinetic stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, H. L.; Pratt, J.

    2011-08-01

    A kinetically stabilized axially symmetric tandem mirror (KSTM) uses the momentum flux of low-energy, unconfined particles that sample only the outer end-regions of the mirror plugs, where large favourable field-line curvature exists. The window of operation is determined for achieving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability with tolerable energy drain from the kinetic stabilizer. Then MHD stable systems are analysed for stability of the trapped particle mode. This mode is characterized by the detachment of the central-cell plasma from the kinetic-stabilizer region without inducing field-line bending. Stability of the trapped particle mode is sensitive to the electron connection between the stabilizer and the end plug. It is found that the stability condition for the trapped particle mode is more constraining than the stability condition for the MHD mode, and it is challenging to satisfy the required power constraint. Furthermore, a severe power drain may arise from the necessary connection of low-energy electrons in the kinetic stabilizer to the central region.

  16. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  17. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  18. Radiochemical stability of radiopharmaceutical preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Silva, Jose L. da; Ramos, Marcelo P.S.; Oliveira, Ideli M. de; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Herrerias, Rosana; Zapparoli Junior, Carlos L.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.

    2011-01-01

    The 'in vitro' stability studies of the radiopharmaceutical preparations are an essential requirement for routine practice in nuclear medicine and are an important parameter for evaluating the quality, safety and efficacy required for the sanitary registration of pharmaceutical products. Several countries have published guidelines for the evaluation of pharmaceutical stability. In Brazil, the stability studies should be conducted according to the Guide for Conducting Stability Studies published in the Resolution-RE n. 1, of 29th July 2005. There are also for radiopharmaceutical products, two specific resolutions: RDC-63 regulates the Good Manufacturing Practices for Radiopharmaceuticals and RDC-64 provides the Registration of Radiopharmaceuticals, both published on the 18th December 2009. The radiopharmaceutical stability is defined as the time during which the radioisotope can be safely used for the intended purpose. The radiochemical stability can be affected by a variety of factors, including storage temperature, amount of radioactivity, radioactive concentration, presence or absence of antioxidants or other stabilizing agents. The radiochemical stability studies must be established under controlled conditions determined by the effective use of the product. The aim of this work was to evaluate the radiochemical stability of labeled molecules with 131 I, 123 I, 153 Sm, 18 F, 51 Cr, 177 Lu and 111 In as well as 67 Ga and 201 Tl radiopharmaceuticals. Radiochemical purity was evaluated after production and in the validity period, with the maximum activity and in the recommended storage conditions. The analyses were carried out by thin-layer silica gel plate, paper chromatography and gel chromatography. The experimental results showed to be in accordance with the specified limits for all the analysed products. (author)

  19. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  20. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  2. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  3. Credential Service Provider (CSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides a VA operated Level 1 and Level 2 credential for individuals who require access to VA applications, yet cannot obtain a credential from another VA accepted...

  4. MAX Provider Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MAX Provider Characteristics (PC) File Implementation Report describes the design, implementation, and results of the MAXPC prototype, which was based on three...

  5. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document summarizes progress made on the research of high beta and second region transport and stability. In the area second stability region studies we report on an investigation of the possibility of second region access in the center of TFTR ''supershots.'' The instabilities found may coincide with experimental observation. Significant progress has been made on the resistive stability properties of high beta poloidal ''supershot'' discharges. For these studies profiles were taken from the TRANSP transport analysis code which analyzes experimental data. Invoking flattening of the pressure profile on mode rational surfaces causes tearing modes to persist into the experimental range of interest. Further, the experimental observation of the modes seems to be consistent with the predictions of the MHD model. In addition, code development in several areas has proceeded

  6. A study of the components of an active substance of high alkaline alkylsalicylate oil additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, G G; Glavati, O L; Glavati, Ye V; Zhurba, A S

    1981-01-01

    The active substance of aklylsalicylate additives (Pr) MACK, dispersal-1 and AS-6OC (from Shell Oil) is isolated and studied. It is shown that the Pr is provided by the presence of both a neutral salicylate, as well as that of a high alkaline component (colloid CaCtheta/sub 3/, stabilized by salicylate). The free alkylphenols present in the Pr do not deteriorate its quality.

  7. Microbial stability of worm castings and sugarcane filter mud compost blended with biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic amendments such as worm castings and filter mud compost can provide nutrient rich substrates for enhanced plant growth. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of these substrates might be enhanced with the addition of biochar. A series of experiments was carried out to determine the stab...

  8. On the hydrothermal stability of MCM-41. Evidence of capillary tension-induced effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Lidia Lopez; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    MCM-41's limited hydrothermal stability has been often related to the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds due to the low degree of condensation, its thin walls or a combination of them. In this work, evidence for an additional factor is provided; a physical effect that occurs during the drying of the

  9. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft sections to investigate several alternative...

  10. Subjective and objective outcome after revision arthroscopic stabilization for recurrent anterior instability versus initial shoulder stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, David; Kraus, Natascha; Pauly, Stephan; Chen, Jianhai; Scheibel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The value of arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization after failed instability repair is still a matter of debate. Arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization using suture anchors provides equivalent subjective and objective results compared with initial arthroscopic instability repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization using suture anchors (group 2) were matched for age, gender, and handedness (dominant or nondominant) with 20 patients who had initial arthroscopic instability repair using the same technique (group 1). At the time of follow-up, a complete physical examination of both shoulders and evaluation with the Rowe score, Walch-Duplay score, Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, and the Subjective Shoulder Value were performed. In addition, standard radiographs (true AP and axillary views) were taken to evaluate signs of osteoarthritis. After a minimum follow-up of 24 months, no recurrent dislocations were observed in either group. The apprehension sign was positive in 2 cases of revision surgery (0 vs 2; P > .05). No significant differences in the Rowe score (89 vs 81.8 points) were found between groups 1 and 2 (P > .05). However, group 2 revealed significantly lower scores in the Walch-Duplay score (85.3 vs 75.5 points), Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score (90.2 vs 73.7 points), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (89.8% vs 68.9%), and Subjective Shoulder Value (91.8% vs 69.2%) (P instability arthropathy were found more often in patients with arthroscopic revision surgery (2 vs 5; P > .05). Arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization is associated with a lower subjective outcome compared with initial arthroscopic stabilization. The objective results found in this study may overestimate the clinical outcome in this patient population.

  11. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  12. Provider software buyer's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    To help long term care providers find new ways to improve quality of care and efficiency, Provider magazine presents the fourth annual listing of software firms marketing computer programs for all areas of nursing facility operations. On the following five pages, more than 80 software firms display their wares, with programs such as minimum data set and care planning, dietary, accounting and financials, case mix, and medication administration records. The guide also charts compatible hardware, integration ability, telephone numbers, company contacts, and easy-to-use reader service numbers.

  13. Stable Blind Deconvolution over the Reals from Additional Autocorrelations

    KAUST Repository

    Walk, Philipp; Hassibi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    that under a sufficient zero separation of the corresponding signal in the $z-$domain, a stable reconstruction against additive noise is possible. Moreover, the stability constant depends on the signal dimension and on the signals magnitude of the first

  14. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  15. What HERA may provide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hannes; De Roeck, Albert; Bartles, Jochen

    2008-09-01

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  16. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  17. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang [PolarOnyx, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa. (orig.)

  18. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C

  19. Stability of Functional Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lemm, Jeffrey M

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the structure and stability properties of solutions of functional differential equations. Numerous examples of applications (such as feedback systrems with aftereffect, two-reflector antennae, nuclear reactors, mathematical models in immunology, viscoelastic bodies, aeroautoelastic phenomena and so on) are considered in detail. The development is illustrated by numerous figures and tables.

  20. Assessment of Nutrient Stability in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Perchonok, M.; Braby, L. A.; Kloeris, V. A.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health and safety. Early polar expeditions and exploration expeditions by sailing vessels have taught us that a deficiency, or excess, of even a single vitamin in the food supply can be catastrophic. Evidence from ground-based research indicates that some vitamins are destroyed and fatty acids are oxidized (and therefore rendered dangerous or useless) by different types of radiation and by conditions of long-term storage. We hypothesize that radiation and long-term storage in the space-flight environment will affect the stability of vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids in the space food system. The research objectives of our ongoing stability studies are to determine the stability of water- and fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, and amino acids in the space food supply before and after space flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Foods were analyzed after 2 weeks (a flight control), 11, 19, and 28 months of flight. Along with the space-flown foods, ground-based controls matched for time, light, and temperature are analyzed. The flight studies complement planned ground-based studies of the effects of radiation on vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids. Flight studies are needed because a model based on ground-based data cannot predict all of the effects of the space-flight environment. Flight studies provide a more accurate test system to determine the effects on these nutrients of the temperature, and radiation conditions in the space-flight environment. Ground studies are required to evaluate longer missions and higher radiation levels expected outside low-Earth orbit. In addition to providing information about nutrient stability in space, the results of these studies will help NASA determine if a need exists to develop special packaging that can ensure stability of foods and nutrients in space, or if further studies of nutrient

  1. Stabilizing Effects of Bacterial Biofilms: EPS Penetration and Redistribution of Bed Stability Down the Sediment Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. D.; Zhang, C. K.; Zhou, Z.; Gong, Z.; Zhou, J. J.; Tao, J. F.; Paterson, D. M.; Feng, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Biofilms, consisting of microorganisms and their secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), serve as "ecosystem engineers" stabilizing sedimentary environments. Natural sediment bed provides an excellent substratum for biofilm growth. The porous structure and rich nutrients allow the EPS matrix to spread deeper into the bed. A series of laboratory-controlled experiments were conducted to investigate sediment colonization of Bacillus subtilis and the penetration of EPS into the sediment bed with incubation time. In addition to EPS accumulation on the bed surface, EPS also penetrated downward. However, EPS distribution developed strong vertical heterogeneity with a much higher content in the surface layer than in the bottom layer. Scanning electron microscope images of vertical layers also displayed different micromorphological properties of sediment-EPS matrix. In addition, colloidal and bound EPSs exhibited distinctive distribution patterns. After the full incubation, the biosedimentary beds were eroded to test the variation of bed stability induced by biological effects. This research provides an important reference for the prediction of sediment transport and hence deepens the understanding of the biologically mediated sediment system and broadens the scope of the burgeoning research field of "biomorphodynamics."

  2. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  3. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  4. Microgrid Stability Controller Based on Adaptive Robust Total SMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Xiaoling; Han, Minxiao; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a microgrid stability controller (MSC) in order to provide existing DGs the additional functionality of working in islanding mode without changing their control strategies in grid-connected mode and to enhance the stability of the microgrid. Microgrid operating characteristics....... The MSC provides fast dynamic response and robustness to the microgrid. When the system is operating in grid-connected mode, it is able to improve the controllability of the exchanged power between the microgrid and the utility grid, while smoothing DG’s output power. When the microgrid is operating...... and mathematical models of the MSC indicate that the system is inherently nonlinear and time-variable. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive robust total sliding-mode control (ARTSMC) system for the MSC. It is proved that the ARTSMC system is insensitive to parametric uncertainties and external disturbances...

  5. Stability of cascade search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomenko, Tatiana N [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-22

    We find sufficient conditions on a searching multi-cascade for a modification of the set of limit points of the cascade that satisfy an assessing inequality for the distance from each of these points to the initial point to be small, provided that the modifications of the initial point and the initial set-valued functionals or maps used to construct the multi-cascade are small. Using this result, we prove the stability (in the above sense) of the cascade search for the set of common pre-images of a closed subspace under the action of n set-valued maps, n{>=}1 (in particular, for the set of common roots of these maps and for the set of their coincidences). For n=2 we obtain generalizations of some results of A. V. Arutyunov; the very statement of the problem comes from a recent paper of his devoted to the study of the stability of the subset of coincidences of a Lipschitz map and a covering map.

  6. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  7. Why healthcare providers merge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur

    2016-04-01

    In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare providers merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare providers faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare providers predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities.

  8. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  9. Studies of alumina additions in zirconia - magnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ionic conductivity measurements have been carried out in the 500 0 C - 1000 0 C temperature range in Mg - PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia) with 0.5 to 10 mol % alumina additions. All specimens were prepared by pressing followed by pre - and sintering at 1000 0 C/2h and1450 0 C/4h, respectively. Thermal histerysis of the ionic conductivity have been detected, probably due to phase changes in the Mg-PSZ samples. The results show that alumina additions up to 2.1% enhances densification with no major variations in electrical resistivity values. (Author) [pt

  10. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF PRICE STABILITY AS PART OF THE FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RĂDULESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many authors who consider that the only objective of the central bank should be the price stability and between the respective objective and financial stability there is incompatibility. As far we are concerned, we subscribe the idea that between price stability and financial stability there are complementarities. And a strong argument in the favour of this position is also historical. Actually, many older or newer facts show that banking crises were often caused by the unfavourable macroeconomic situation coupled with the bad macroeconomic policies carried by the authorities. But, a monetary policy that aims the price stability reduces this risk. The truth is that the central banks have a series of tools that allow them to act for achieving both the objective of price stability, and that of the stability of financial sector. Although the financial stability is not, usually, an explicit objective for the modern central bank, the systematic financial instability can cancel their performances in achieving their major final objective: the price stability. Being that, because of the need that it creates to inject additional liquidity into the banking system, a crisis of the banking sector may directly affect the monetary stability. Here the mentioned complementarities arise between price stability and financial stability, although the achievement of the first does not necessarily involve the assurance of the last.

  11. Triphenylamine - a 'new' stabilizer for nitrocellulose based propellants. Pt. 1: chemical stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilker, Stephan; Heeb, Gerhard [WIWEB ASt Heimerzheim, Grosses Cent, 53913 Swisttal (Germany); Vogelsanger, Beat [Nitrochemie Wimmis AG, Niesenstr. 44, 3752 Wimmis (Switzerland); Petrzilek, Jan; Skladal, Jan [Explosia a.s. - Research Institute of Industrial Chemistry (VUPCH), 532 17 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2007-04-15

    Triphenylamine (TPA) was used for the first time in France in 1937 as a stabilizer for propellants. The stability of those samples was described as 'good'. Around 1950 an American group produced TPA stabilized propellants and investigated the decomposition mechanism. Apart from one single experiment in the 1970s no further attempts were made to take TPA as a stabilizer for propellants. With the background of an increasingly critical discussion about nitrosamines in propellants and their declaration of being carcinogenic, TPA revealed a renaissance since the year 2000. To achieve the goal of nitrosamine free propellants several TPA stabilized propellants were produced. Their processability, stability and ballistic properties were investigated. This publication summarizes the most important results of stability tests on more than 30 different TPA stabilized propellants including the decomposition mechanism, the synthesis of the consecutive products and their stabilizing properties. In addition, the internal compatibility of TPA with the most important propellant ingredients is discussed and its relative decomposition rate is compared with that of other stabilizers. In summary TPA is a suitable stabilizer for propellants. It has nevertheless two disadvantages. It is relatively rapidly consumed in double base formulations (which makes it difficult to pass the criteria of AOP-48, Ed. 2) and the stabilizing activity of the two major consecutive products 4-NO{sub 2}-TPA and especially 4,4{sup '}-di-NO{sub 2}-TPA is low. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Stability of Dolos Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael; Burcharth, Hans F.; Larsen, Torben

    The stability of dolos armour blocks against wave attack has been investigated in wave model studies.......The stability of dolos armour blocks against wave attack has been investigated in wave model studies....

  13. Compressible stability of growing boundary layers using parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The parabolized stability equation (PSE) approach is employed to study linear and nonlinear compressible stability with an eye to providing a capability for boundary-layer transition prediction in both 'quiet' and 'disturbed' environments. The governing compressible stability equations are solved by a rational parabolizing approximation in the streamwise direction. Nonparallel flow effects are studied for both the first- and second-mode disturbances. For oblique waves of the first-mode type, the departure from the parallel results is more pronounced as compared to that for the two-dimensional waves. Results for the Mach 4.5 case show that flow nonparallelism has more influence on the first mode than on the second. The disturbance growth rate is shown to be a strong function of the wall-normal distance due to either flow nonparallelism or nonlinear interactions. The subharmonic and fundamental types of breakdown are found to be similar to the ones in incompressible boundary layers.

  14. Dynamic respiration index as a descriptor of the biological stability of organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Fabrizio; Confalonieri, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia

    2004-01-01

    Analytical methods applicable to different organic wastes are needed to establish the extent to which readily biodegradable organic matter has decomposed (i.e., biological stability). The objective of this study was to test a new respirometric method for biological stability determination of organic wastes. Dynamic respiration index (DRI) measurements were performed on 16 organic wastes of different origin, composition, and biological stability degree to validate the test method and result expression, and to propose biological stability limits. In addition, theoretical DRI trends were obtained by using a mathematical model. Each test lasted 96 h in a 148-L-capacity respirometer apparatus, and DRI was monitored every hour. The biological stability was expressed as both single and cumulative DRI values. Results obtained indicated that DRI described biological stability in relation to waste typology and age well, revealing lower-stability waste characterized by a well-pronounced DRI profile (a marked peak was evident) that became practically flat for samples with higher biological stability. Fitting indices showed good model prediction compared with the experimental data, indicating that the method was able to reproduce the aerobic process, providing a reliable indication of the biological stability. The DRI can therefore be proposed as a useful method to measure the biological stability of organic wastes, and DRI values, calculated as a mean of 24 h of the highest microbial activity, of 1000 and 500 mg O(2) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) h(-1) are proposed to indicate medium (e.g., fresh compost) and high (e.g., mature compost) biological stabilities, respectively.

  15. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  16. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  17. The effect of betaine on the foam stability: Molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fengfeng [Chemistry Engineering Department, Zibo Vocational Institute, Zibo 255314 (China); Key laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Guokui [Key laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yuan, Shiling, E-mail: shilingyuan@sdu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The reasons of betaine to enhance the stability of foam films are investigated by molecular simulation. • An electrostatic structure is formed at the air/water interface due to the electrostatic interaction. • The electrostatic structure becomes denser with the increasing concentration of betaine. - Abstract: Zwitterionic betaines are widely used as foam boosters due to these can enhance the stability of foam films. In this paper, mechanistic insights of betaine to improve the stability of alkyl-polyoxyethylene carboxylate (AEC) foam are provided by molecular simulation. In the simulation, we observe the electropositive nitrogen atoms in betaine interact with the electronegative sulfur atoms, an electrostatic structure is formed at the air/water interface. Interaction energies of the mixed surfactants are calculated by the quantum chemistry methods. The calculations show betaine-AEC and betaine–betaine possess attractive interaction, and that AEC–AEC has repulsion to each other. In the other words, the repulsion between the headgroups of anionic surfactants is relaxed by betaine. Additionally, the influence of concentration of betaine on the stability of foam films is also simulated. The RDF and coordination numbers show that the electrostatic structures become denser with the increasing concentration of betaine. Therefore, entry barrier is enhanced accordingly. The SMD simulation also demonstrates the same variation tendency of entry barrier. The simulation details provide vital supplements to experiments.

  18. Stability Analysis of Receiver ISB for BDS/GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Hao, J. M.; Tian, Y. G.; Yu, H. L.; Zhou, Y. L.

    2017-07-01

    Stability analysis of receiver ISB (Inter-System Bias) is essential for understanding the feature of ISB as well as the ISB modeling and prediction. In order to analyze the long-term stability of ISB, the data from MGEX (Multi-GNSS Experiment) covering 3 weeks, which are from 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively, are processed with the precise satellite clock and orbit products provided by Wuhan University and GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ). Using the ISB calculated by BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System)/GPS (Global Positioning System) combined PPP (Precise Point Positioning), the daily stability and weekly stability of ISB are investigated. The experimental results show that the diurnal variation of ISB is stable, and the average of daily standard deviation is about 0.5 ns. The weekly averages and standard deviations of ISB vary greatly in different years. The weekly averages of ISB are relevant to receiver types. There is a system bias between ISB calculated from the precise products provided by Wuhan University and GFZ. In addition, the system bias of the weekly average ISB of different stations is consistent with each other.

  19. The BWR Stability Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to supply general information about Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) stability. The main concerned topics are: phenomenological aspects, experimental database, modelling features and capabilities, numerical models, three-dimensional modelling, BWR system performance during stability, stability monitoring and licensing aspects.

  20. IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner

  1. IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

  2. From Crisis to Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Cornel; Seabrooke, Leonard

    governance institution, and makes a number of concrete recommendations. To make the ESM accountable, more transparency is in order, about where decisions are taken and who calls the shots. Is it the ESM, the Eurogroup, the Commission, or a coalition of Member States? Our report launch attempts to answer......The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) was created to save the euro from collapse. But the Eurozone’s bailout fund is not actually an EU institution. This has a series of knock-on effects, making it difficult to hold the ESM to EU standards as regards transparency, legal review by the CJEU......, but also access to documents regulation and accountability vis-à-vis the European Parliament, the Court of Auditors and Anti-Fraud Office. Transparency International EU’s in-depth study of the governance and accountability of the ESM provides the first comprehensive analysis of the newest European economic...

  3. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  4. Nanoporous silica membranes with high hydrothermal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giualiana; Yue, Yuanzheng

    to improve the stability of nanoporous silica structure. This work is a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the microporous structure and stability of amorphous silica-based membranes, which provides information on how to design chemical compositions...

  5. Stability and equilibrium in quantum statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, Daniel.

    1975-01-01

    A derivation of the Gibbs Ansatz, base of the equilibrium statistical mechanics is provided from a stability requirements, in technical connection with the harmonic analysis of non-commutative dynamical systems. By the same token a relation is established between stability and the positivity of Hamiltonian in the zero temperature case [fr

  6. Power system stability modelling, analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, Abdelhay A

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject from both a physical and mathematical perspective and covers a range of topics including modelling, computation of load flow in the transmission grid, stability analysis under both steady-state and disturbed conditions, and appropriate controls to enhance stability.

  7. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  8. Food Fortification Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five-year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermo-stabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exceptions were Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appeareddegrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appeared to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at

  9. Laser Beam Melting of Alumina: Effect of Absorber Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniz, Liliana; Colin, Christophe; Bartout, Jean-Dominique; Terki, Karim; Berger, Marie-Hélène

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic laser beam melting offers new manufacturing possibilities for complex refractory structures. Poor absorptivity in near infra-red wavelengths of oxide ceramics is overcome with absorber addition to ceramic powders. Absorbers affect powder bed densities and geometrical stability of melted tracks. Optimum absorber content is defined for Al2O3 by minimizing powder bed porosity, maximizing melting pool geometrical stability and limiting shrinkage. Widest stability fields are obtained with addition of 0.1 wt.% C and 0.5 wt.% β-SiC. Absorption coefficient values of Beer-Lambert law follow stability trends: they increase with C additions, whereas with β-SiC, a maximum is reached for 0.5 wt.%. Powder particle ejections are also identified. Compared to metallic materials, this ejection phenomenon can no longer be neglected when establishing a three-dimensional manufacturing strategy.

  10. System design description PFP thermal stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing P1ant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The sources of material for this project are residues scraped from glovebox floors and materials already stored in vault storage that need further stabilizing to meet the 3013 storage requirements. Stabilizing this material will promote long term storage and reduced worker exposure. This document addresses: function design, equipment, and safety requirements for thermal stabilization of plutonium residues and oxides

  11. Radioimmunoassay procedure using a stabilized complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanian, I.V.; Irani, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay procedure involves the use of a stabilized complex of labelled antigen and antibody which has an extended shelf life as compared to the same complex absent the stabilizers. Since the time needed to incubate the mixture of labelled antigen and antibody is eliminated, the time for completing the assay is considerably shortened and simplified. The components for carrying out the procedure are packaged in a kit basically including standard antigen for generation of a standard curve, a stabilized labelled antigen-antibody complex and reference serum, if used. A plurality of stabilizers are used in the complex to provide a shelf life of six weeks or more. 10 claims

  12. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  13. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  14. RCRA facility stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The RCRA Facility Stabilization Initiative was developed as a means of implementing the Corrective Action Program's management goals recommended by the RIS for stabilizing actual or imminent releases from solid waste management units that threaten human health and the environment. The overall goal of stabilization is to, as situations warrant, control or abate threats to human health and/or the environment from releases at RCRA facilities, and/or to prevent or minimize the further spread of contamination while long-term remedies are pursued. The Stabilization initiative is a management philosophy and should not be confused with stabilization technologies

  15. Delay-Dependent Stability Analysis of Uncertain Fuzzy Systems with State and Input Delays under Imperfect Premise Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejian Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the stability and stabilization problem for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with time-varying state and input delays. A new augmented Lyapunov function with an additional triple-integral term and different membership functions of the fuzzy models and fuzzy controllers are introduced to derive the stability criterion, which is less conservative than the existing results. Moreover, a new flexibility design method is also provided. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed method.

  16. Energy principles for linear dissipative systems with application to resistive MHD stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.

    1997-04-01

    A formalism for the construction of energy principles for dissipative systems is presented. It is shown that dissipative systems satisfy a conservation law for the bilinear Hamiltonian provided the Lagrangian is time invariant. The energy on the other hand, differs from the Hamiltonian by being quadratic and by having a negative definite time derivative (positive power dissipation). The energy is a Lyapunov functional whose definiteness yields necessary and sufficient stability criteria. The stability problem of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) is addressed: the energy principle for ideal MHD is generalized and the stability criterion by Tasso is shown to be necessary in addition to sufficient for real growth rates. An energy principle is found for the inner layer equations that yields the resistive stability criterion D R <0 in the incompressible limit, whereas the tearing mode criterion Δ'<0 is shown to result from the conservation law of the bilinear concomitant in the resistive layer. (author) 1 fig., 25 refs

  17. Fixed-time stabilization of impulsive Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Zhang, Wanli

    2018-02-01

    This article is concerned with the fixed-time stabilization for impulsive Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks via two different controllers. By using a novel constructive approach based on some comparison techniques for differential inequalities, an improvement theorem of fixed-time stability for impulsive dynamical systems is established. In addition, based on the fixed-time stability theorem of impulsive dynamical systems, two different control protocols are designed to ensure the fixed-time stabilization of impulsive Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks, which include and extend the earlier works. Finally, two simulations examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  19. Slope stabilization guide for Minnesota local government engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This user guide provides simple, costeffective methods for stabilizing locally maintained slopes along roadways in Minnesota. Eight slope stabilization techniques are presented that local government engineers can undertake using locally available ...

  20. Nonlinear stability of ideal fluid equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyapunov method for establishing stability is related to well- known energy principles for nondissipative dynamical systems. A development of the Lyapunov method for Hamiltonian systems due to Arnold establishes sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability by using the energy plus other conserved quantities, together with second variations and convexity estimates. When treating the stability of ideal fluid dynamics within the Hamiltonian framework, a useful class of these conserved quantities consists of the Casimir functionals, which Poisson-commute with all functionals of the dynamical fluid variables. Such conserved quantities, when added to the energy, help to provide convexity estimates that bound the growth of perturbations. These convexity estimates, in turn, provide norms necessary for establishing Lyapunov stability under the nonlinear evolution. In contrast, the commonly used second variation or spectral stability arguments only prove linearized stability. As ideal fluid examples, in these lectures we discuss planar barotropic compressible fluid dynamics, the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq model, and a new set of shallow water equations with nonlinear dispersion due to Basdenkov, Morosov, and Pogutse[1985]. Remarkably, all three of these samples have the same Hamiltonian structure and, thus, possess the same Casimir functionals upon which their stability analyses are based. We also treat stability of modified quasigeostrophic flow, a problem whose Hamiltonian structure and Casimirs closely resemble Arnold's original example. Finally, we discuss some aspects of conditional stability and the applicability of Arnold's development of the Lyapunov technique. 100 refs

  1. Dynamic remedial action scheme using online transient stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Arun

    Economic pressure and environmental factors have forced the modern power systems to operate closer to their stability limits. However, maintaining transient stability is a fundamental requirement for the operation of interconnected power systems. In North America, power systems are planned and operated to withstand the loss of any single or multiple elements without violating North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) system performance criteria. For a contingency resulting in the loss of multiple elements (Category C), emergency transient stability controls may be necessary to stabilize the power system. Emergency control is designed to sense abnormal conditions and subsequently take pre-determined remedial actions to prevent instability. Commonly known as either Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) or as Special/System Protection Schemes (SPS), these emergency control approaches have been extensively adopted by utilities. RAS are designed to address specific problems, e.g. to increase power transfer, to provide reactive support, to address generator instability, to limit thermal overloads, etc. Possible remedial actions include generator tripping, load shedding, capacitor and reactor switching, static VAR control, etc. Among various RAS types, generation shedding is the most effective and widely used emergency control means for maintaining system stability. In this dissertation, an optimal power flow (OPF)-based generation-shedding RAS is proposed. This scheme uses online transient stability calculation and generator cost function to determine appropriate remedial actions. For transient stability calculation, SIngle Machine Equivalent (SIME) technique is used, which reduces the multimachine power system model to a One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) equivalent and identifies critical machines. Unlike conventional RAS, which are designed using offline simulations, online stability calculations make the proposed RAS dynamic and adapting to any power system

  2. Stability of the line preserving flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Przemysław

    2017-11-01

    We examine the equations that are used to describe flows which preserve field lines. We study what happens if we introduce perturbations to the governing equations. The stability of the line preserving flows in the case of the magneto-fluids permeated by magnetic fields is strictly connected to the non-null magnetic reconnection processes. In most of our study we use the Euler potential representation of the external magnetic field. We provide general expressions for the perturbations of the Euler potentials that describe the magnetic field. Similarly, we provide expressions for the case of steady flow as well as we obtain certain conditions required for the stability of the flow. In addition, for steady flows we formulate conditions under which the perturbations of the external field are negligible and the field may be described by its initial unperturbed form. Then we consider the flow equation that transforms quantities from the laboratory coordinate system to the related external field coordinate system. We introduce perturbations to the equation and obtain its simplified versions for the case of a steady flow. For a given system, use of this method allows us to simplify the considerations provided that some part of the system may be described as a perturbation. Next, to study regions favourable for the magnetic reconnection to occur we introduce a deviation vector to the basic line preserving flows condition equation. We provide expressions of the vector for some simplifying cases. This method allows us to examine if given perturbations either stabilise the system or induce magnetic reconnection. To illustrate some of our results we study two examples, namely a simple laboratory plasma flow and a simple planetary magnetosphere model.

  3. Association of Stability Parameters and Yield Stability of Sesame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of Stability Parameters and Yield Stability of Sesame ( Sesamum ... Information on phenotypic stability is useful for the selection of crop varieties as well as for ... as an alternative to parametric stability measurements is important.

  4. Toroidal field effects on the stability of Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Lynch, V.E.

    1986-02-01

    The addition of a small toroidal field to the Heliotron E configuration improves the stability of the n = 1 mode and increases the value of the stability beta critical. Total stabilization of this mode can be achieved with added toroidal fields between 5 and 15% of the total field. In this situation, the plasma can have direct access to the second stability regime. For the Heliotron E configuration, the self-stabilization effect is due to the shear, not to the magnetic well. The toroidal field threshold value for stability depends strongly on the pressure profile and the plasma radius. 21 refs., 15 figs

  5. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW STABILIZERS WITH OPTIMAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-qing Pan

    2001-01-01

    Over 2 × l08 tons of polymers are produced every year, and a large portion of polymers faces the degradation problem. There are many effective methods to protect polymers against degradation and the addition of stabilizers to polymer remains the most convenient and effective way of enhancing polymer life and performance. In this article, a series of effective stabilizers with optimal molecular weight (MW), including common, monomeric and polymeric stabilizers (antioxidant and light stabilizer) were synthesized using isocyanation, controlled isocyanation, hydrosilylation, epoxide addition, macroreaction of stabilizing functional compounds and polymerization of monomeric stabilizers. The sructure and performance of these new stabilizers were characterized by using IR, NMR, MS, UV-spectra, XPS and elemental analysis. The current development of stabilizer synthesis was also reviewed.``

  6. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Soil Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qasim; Aroj Bashir; Mubashar Tanvir; Malik Muhammad Anees

    2015-01-01

    The soil frequently is fragile and has low stability in heavy loading. The objective of this study is to review the stabilization of soil using sustainable methods. Some strengthening approaches are available for stabilization of expansive soils. These methods consist of stabilization with soil replacement, chemical additives, moisture control, rewetting, surcharge loading, compaction control and thermal methods. The disadvantages may be associated with all these methods due to ineffectivenes...

  7. Peat soils stabilization using Effective Microorganisms (EM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N. Z.; Samsuddin, N. S.; Hanif, M. F.; Syed Osman, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    Peat soil is known as geotechnical problematic soil since it is the softest soil having highly organic and moisture content which led to high compressibility, low shear strength and long-term settlement. The aim of this study was to obtain the stabilized peat soils using the Effective Microorganisms (EM). The volume of EM added and mixed with peat soils varied with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% and then were cured for 7, 14 and 21 days. The experiment was done for uncontrolled and controlled moisture content. Prior conducting the main experiments, the physical properties such as moisture content, liquid limit, specific gravity, and plastic limit etc. were measure for raw peat samples. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test was performed followed by regression analysis to check the effect of EM on the soil strength. Obtained results have shown that the mix design for controlled moisture contents showed the promising improvement in their compressive strength. The peat soil samples with 10% of EM shows the highest increment in UCS value and the percentage of increments are in the range of 44% to 65% after curing for 21 days. The regression analysis of the EM with the soil compressive strength showed that in controlled moisture conditions, EM significantly improved the soil stability as the value of R2 ranged between 0.97 – 0.78. The results have indicated that the addition of EM in peat soils provides significant improving in the strength of the soil as well as the other engineering properties.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Centrifugal Compressor Stabilization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2003-01-01

    Results from a series of experiments to investigate techniques for extending the stable flow range of a centrifugal compressor are reported. The research was conducted in a high-speed centrifugal compressor at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The stabilizing effect of steadily flowing air-streams injected into the vaneless region of a vane-island diffuser through the shroud surface is described. Parametric variations of injection angle, injection flow rate, number of injectors, injector spacing, and injection versus bleed were investigated for a range of impeller speeds and tip clearances. Both the compressor discharge and an external source were used for the injection air supply. The stabilizing effect of flow obstructions created by tubes that were inserted into the diffuser vaneless space through the shroud was also investigated. Tube immersion into the vaneless space was varied in the flow obstruction experiments. Results from testing done at impeller design speed and tip clearance are presented. Surge margin improved by 1.7 points using injection air that was supplied from within the compressor. Externally supplied injection air was used to return the compressor to stable operation after being throttled into surge. The tubes, which were capped to prevent mass flux, provided 9.3 points of additional surge margin over the baseline surge margin of 11.7 points.

  9. Numerical Computation of Detonation Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Kabanov, Dmitry

    2018-06-03

    Detonation is a supersonic mode of combustion that is modeled by a system of conservation laws of compressible fluid mechanics coupled with the equations describing thermodynamic and chemical properties of the fluid. Mathematically, these governing equations admit steady-state travelling-wave solutions consisting of a leading shock wave followed by a reaction zone. However, such solutions are often unstable to perturbations and rarely observed in laboratory experiments. The goal of this work is to study the stability of travelling-wave solutions of detonation models by the following novel approach. We linearize the governing equations about a base travelling-wave solution and solve the resultant linearized problem using high-order numerical methods. The results of these computations are postprocessed using dynamic mode decomposition to extract growth rates and frequencies of the perturbations and predict stability of travelling-wave solutions to infinitesimal perturbations. We apply this approach to two models based on the reactive Euler equations for perfect gases. For the first model with a one-step reaction mechanism, we find agreement of our results with the results of normal-mode analysis. For the second model with a two-step mechanism, we find that both types of admissible travelling-wave solutions exhibit the same stability spectra. Then we investigate the Fickett’s detonation analogue coupled with a particular reaction-rate expression. In addition to the linear stability analysis of this model, we demonstrate that it exhibits rich nonlinear dynamics with multiple bifurcations and chaotic behavior.

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA PATRICIA AMALIA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available International economic conditions are projected to have a favorable path in 2018. Thus, accelerating investment in infrastructure and real estate in China, as well as expectations of fiscal loosening in the United States, lead to an increased expectation for enhancement of global trade flows and to strengthen investor confidence. Instead, Britain's decision to leave the European Union, as well as political uncertainty in some euro-zone countries, may cause temporary distortions but also implications for economies in the european region. On the other hand, the divergence of the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank's monetary policies, as the US expects further increases in interest rates, can be reflected in the activity of the government bond market as a result of the reorientation of investors to assets with higher yield, a trend amplified by the context of the economic environment with low interest rates. Recent developments in the field of financial technology innovation are an important challenge for conventional financial market (payment and settlement infrastructures, especially in the context of multiple public and private initiatives and projects developed over the last few years. The digitization of financial services is an international concern due to the complexity of this phenomenon, and the lack of harmonized regulations and / or standards in the field. On the one hand, technological innovation in the field of payment systems has the potential to create a number of social benefits by improving access to financial services (financial inclusion. On the other hand, the integration of new technologies in the financial and banking field may imply additional information security risks, especially on payment and settlement systems. Financial technology innovation projects have also been developed by central banks in Europe, but also in America and Asia (for example in the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Canada, China and India. They

  11. Parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Thorwald

    1994-01-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are a new approach to analyze the streamwise evolution of single or interacting Fourier modes in weakly nonparallel flows such as boundary layers. The concept rests on the decomposition of every mode into a slowly varying amplitude function and a wave function with slowly varying wave number. The neglect of the small second derivatives of the slowly varying functions with respect to the streamwise variable leads to an initial boundary-value problem that can be solved by numerical marching procedures. The PSE approach is valid in convectively unstable flows. The equations for a single mode are closely related to those of the traditional eigenvalue problems for linear stability analysis. However, the PSE approach does not exploit the homogeneity of the problem and, therefore, can be utilized to analyze forced modes and the nonlinear growth and interaction of an initial disturbance field. In contrast to the traditional patching of local solutions, the PSE provide the spatial evolution of modes with proper account for their history. The PSE approach allows studies of secondary instabilities without the constraints of the Floquet analysis and reproduces the established experimental, theoretical, and computational benchmark results on transition up to the breakdown stage. The method matches or exceeds the demonstrated capabilities of current spatial Navier-Stokes solvers at a small fraction of their computational cost. Recent applications include studies on localized or distributed receptivity and prediction of transition in model environments for realistic engineering problems. This report describes the basis, intricacies, and some applications of the PSE methodology.

  12. Jet Fuel Thermal Stability Investigations Using Ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Leigh; Vasu, Subith S.; Klettlinger, Jennifer Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Jet fuels are typically used for endothermic cooling in practical engines where their thermal stability is very important. In this work the thermal stability of Sasol IPK (a synthetic jet fuel) with varying levels of naphthalene has been studied on stainless steel substrates using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the temperature range 385-400 K. Ellipsometry is an optical technique that measures the changes in a light beam’s polarization and intensity after it reflects off of a thin film to determine the film’s thickness and optical properties. All of the tubes used were rated as thermally unstable by the color standard portion of the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test, and this was confirmed by the deposit thicknesses observed using ellipsometry. A new amorphous model on a stainless steel substrate was used to model the data and obtain the results. It was observed that, as would be expected, increasing the temperature of the tube increased the overall deposit amount for a constant concentration of naphthalene. The repeatability of these measurements was assessed using multiple trials of the same fuel at 385 K. Lastly, the effect of increasing the naphthalene concentration in the fuel at a constant temperature was found to increase the deposit thickness.In conclusion, ellipsometry was used to investigate the thermal stability of jet fuels on stainless steel substrate. The effects of increasing temperature and addition of naphthalene on stainless steel tubes with Sasol IPK fuel were investigated. It was found, as expected, that increasing temperature lead to an increase in deposit thickness. It wasAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics6also found that increasing amounts of naphthalene increased the maximum deposit thickness. The repeatability of these measurements was investigated using multiple tests at the same conditions. The present work provides as a better quantitative tool compared to the widely used JFTOT technique. Future work will expand on the

  13. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  14. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP1 (Statewide)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  15. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  16. Delay-dependent asymptotic stability of mobile ad-hoc networks: A descriptor system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Juan; Yang Dan; Zhang Xiao-Hong; Huang Bin; Luo Jian-Lu

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the capacity stability of the time-varying-propagation and delay-dependent of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), in this paper, a novel approach is proposed to explore the capacity asymptotic stability for the delay-dependent of MANETs based on non-cooperative game theory, where the delay-dependent conditions are explicitly taken into consideration. This approach is based on the Lyapunov—Krasovskii stability theory for functional differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. A corresponding Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional is introduced for the stability analysis of this system with use of the descriptor and “neutral-type” model transformation without producing any additional dynamics. The delay-dependent stability criteria are derived for this system. Conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and for the first time referred to neutral systems with the time-varying propagation and delay-dependent stability for capacity analysis of MANETs. The proposed criteria are less conservative since they are based on an equivalent model transformation. Furthermore, we also provide an effective and efficient iterative algorithm to solve the constrained stability control model. Simulation experiments have verified the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm. (general)

  17. Stability of Hyperthermophilic Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiefler-Jensen, Daniel

    stability by randomly generate mutants and lengthy screening processes to identify the best new mutants. However, with the increase in available genomic sequences of thermophilic or hyperthermophilic organisms a world of enzymes with intrinsic high stability are now available. As these organisms are adapted...... to life at high temperatures so are their enzymes, as a result the high stability is accompanied by low activity at moderate temperatures. Thus, much effort had been put into decoding the mechanisms behind the high stability of the thermophilic enzymes. The hope is to enable scientist to design enzymes...... in the high stability of hyperthermophilic enzymes. The thesis starts with an introduction to the field of protein and enzyme stability with special focus on the thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes and proteins. After the introduction three original research manuscripts present the experimental data...

  18. Improvement of Expansive Soils Using Chemical Stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizler, S. B.; Senol, A.; Khosrowshahi, S. K.; Hatipoğlu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of two chemical stabilizers on the swelling potential of expansive soil. A high plasticity sodium bentonite was used as the expansive soil. The additive materials including fly ash (FA) and lime (L) were evaluated as potential stabilizers to decrease the swelling pressure of bentonite. Depending on the type of additive materials, they were blended with bentonite in different percentages to assess the optimum state and approch the maximum swell pressure reduction. According to the results of swell pressure test, both fly ash and lime reduce the swelling potential of bentonite but the maximum improvement occurs using bentonite-lime mixture while the swelling pressure reduction approaches to 49%. The results reveal a significant reduction of swelling potential of expansive soil using chemical stabilizers. Keywords: Expansive soil; swell pressure; chemical stabilization; fly ash; lime

  19. Characterization of the Tribological Behavior of Graphene-Based Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, Robert

    2014-09-01

    XG-supplied nanocrystalline additives were extensively tested for friction and wear behavior. A technique for investigating the stability of additives was developed, and a report covered filtration and centrifugation methods for settling and filterable content. Friction and wear trends in partially and fully formulated oils were reported. Particle size analysis was performed and reported.

  20. Are Stabilization Programs Expansionary?

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Echenique; Alvaro Forteza

    1997-01-01

    The empirical evidence presented in this paper casts serious doubts on the by now widely accepted "stylized facts" of the exchange rate based stabilization programs (ERBS) as they are stated in Kiguel and Liviatan (1992) and in Végh (1992). Even though the ERBS programs were associated with output booms, no evidence of booms provoked by the stabilization programs is found. Rather, exogenous capital inflows to Latin America seem to have caused both the output booms and the stabilization progra...

  1. Sea surface stability parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.; Suich, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    A number of studies dealing with climatology of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean have been published in the last ten years. These published studies have dealt with directly measured meteorological parameters, e.g., wind speed, temperature, etc. This information has been useful because of the increased focus on the near coastal zone where man's activities are increasing in magnitude and scope, e.g., offshore power plants, petroleum production, and the subsequent environmental impacts of these activities. Atmospheric transport of passive or nonpassive material is significantly influenced by the turbulence structure of the atmosphere in the region of the atmosphere-ocean interface. This research entails identification of the suitability of standard atmospheric stability parameters which can be used to determine turbulence structure; the calculation of these parameters for the near-shore and continental shelf regions of the U.S. east coast from Cape Hatteras to Miami, Florida; and the preparation of a climatology of these parameters. In addition, a climatology for average surface stress for the same geographical region is being prepared

  2. Robust stabilization of nonlinear systems: The LMI approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šiljak D. D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to robust quadratic stabilization of nonlinear systems within the framework of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI. The systems are composed of a linear constant part perturbed by an additive nonlinearity which depends discontinuously on both time and state. The only information about the nonlinearity is that it satisfies a quadratic constraint. Our major objective is to show how linear constant feedback laws can be formulated to stabilize this type of systems and, at the same time, maximize the bounds on the nonlinearity which the system can tolerate without going unstable. We shall broaden the new setting to include design of decentralized control laws for robust stabilization of interconnected systems. Again, the LMI methods will be used to maximize the class of uncertain interconnections which leave the overall system connectively stable. It is useful to learn that the proposed LMI formulation “recognizes” the matching conditions by returning a feedback gain matrix for any prescribed bound on the interconnection terms. More importantly, the new formulation provides a suitable setting for robust stabilization of nonlinear systems where the nonlinear perturbations satisfy the generalized matching conditions.

  3. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  4. Atmospheric stability modelling for nuclear emergency response systems using fuzzy set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, B. van de; Ruan, D.; Govaerts, P.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach to Pasquill stability classification is developed using fuzzy set theory, taking into account the natural continuity of the atmospheric stability and providing means to analyse the obtained stability classes. (2 figs.)

  5. Local stability of galactic discs in modified dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenavar, Hossein; Ghafourian, Neda

    2018-04-01

    The local stability of stellar and fluid discs, under a new modified dynamical model, is surveyed by using WKB approximation. The exact form of the modified Toomre criterion is derived for both types of systems and it is shown that the new model is, in all situations, more locally stable than Newtonian model. In addition, it has been proved that the central surface density of the galaxies plays an important role in the local stability in the sense that low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are more stable than high surface brightness (HSBs). Furthermore, the growth rate in the new model is found to be lower than the Newtonian one. We found that, according to this model, the local instability is related to the ratio of surface density of the disc to a critical surface density Σcrit. We provide observational evidence to support this result based on star formation rate in HSBs and LSBs.

  6. Low-Back Biomechanics and Static Stability During Isometric Pushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Kevin P.; Bennett, Bradford C.

    2006-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are increasingly prevalent in industrial workplaces. Few studies have investigated low-back biomechanical risk factors associated with pushing, and we are aware of none that has quantified spinal stability during pushing exertions. Data recorded from 11 healthy participants performing isometric pushing exertions demonstrated that trunk posture, vector force direction of the applied load, and trunk moment were influenced (p pushing task, and foot position. A biomechanical model was used to analyze the posture and hand force data gathered from the pushing exertions. Model results indicate that pushing exertions provide significantly (p pushing exertions. If one maintains stability by means of cocontraction, additional spinal load is thereby created, increasing the risk of overload injury. Thus it is important to consider muscle cocontraction when evaluating the biomechanics of pushing exertions. Potential applications of this research include improved assessment of biomechanical risk factors for the design of industrial pushing tasks. PMID:16435695

  7. Comprehensive review on additives of topical dosage forms for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-12-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body and plays the most important role in protecting against pathogen and foreign matter. Three important modes such as topical, regional and transdermal are widely used for delivery of various dosage forms. Among these modes, the topical dosage forms are preferred because it provides local therapeutic activity when applied to the skin or mucous membranes. Additives or pharmaceutical excipients (non-drug component of dosage form) are used as inactive ingredients in dosage form or tools for structuring dosage forms. The main use of topical dosage form additives are controling the extent of absorption, maintaining the viscosity, improving the stability as well as organoleptic property and increasing the bulk of the formulation. The overall goal of this article is to provide the clinician with information related to the topical dosage form additives and their current major applications against various diseases.

  8. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly

  9. The linearization method in hydrodynamical stability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yudovich, V I

    1989-01-01

    This book presents the theory of the linearization method as applied to the problem of steady-state and periodic motions of continuous media. The author proves infinite-dimensional analogues of Lyapunov's theorems on stability, instability, and conditional stability for a large class of continuous media. In addition, semigroup properties for the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in the case of an incompressible fluid are studied, and coercivity inequalities and completeness of a system of small oscillations are proved.

  10. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  11. Study of the 137Cs Stabilizer Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Yan;WANG Yan-ling;XU Zhi-jian;XU Liang;REN Chun-xia;TAN Xiao-ming;CUI Hong-qi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The attenuation laws of the Cesium -137 γ-ray penetrating the ceramic core、stainless steel and tungsten steel were studied. The radioactivity of the 137Cs stabilizer source was determined through the surface dose rate of 137Cs stabilizer sources. In addition, the adsorption properties of the ceramic core were studied to improve the stability of the output rate, and established a production line. The application results showed that the output rate of ray source was accurate and was of a good consistency. At present, the source had been used in logging lithology, and achieved the realization of domestic product.

  12. Long-term stabilization considerations for decommissioned and reclaimed uranium sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.; Johnson, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term stabilization of decommissioned uranium mill sites and of reclaimed uranium mill tailings sites encompass a broad spectrum of design capabilities. This paper presents a few of the quantitative methodologies recently developed or refined to evaluate physical factors (i.e. precipitation, fluvial geomorphology, stable slope, slope stabilization with riprap and riprap selection) that influence long-term stabilization of uranium mill and mill tailings sites. It is acknowledged that the degree of refinement of these methodologies are in their infancy and that extensive research and development are warranted to increase the level of assurance. However, these methodologies provide an initial guideline for evaluating long-term stabilization that has not been previously existed. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of currently available state-of-the-art engineering techniques and methodologies for the evaluation of reclamation plans designed to provide long-term stability against potential failure modes. In some cases, evaluative techniques have been developed for long-term stabilization where methodologies have not previously existed. Each methodology to be presented represents a starting point upon which additional research and/or development may be warranted

  13. Electrostatically driven resonance energy transfer in “cationic” biocompatible indium phosphide quantum dots† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental methods, the synthesis and characterization of QDs, bioimaging, stability studies, control experiments, and the calculation of various parameters involved in the resonance energy transfer process etc. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00592j Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatha, Gayathri; Roy, Soumendu; Rao, Anish; Mallick, Abhik; Basu, Sudipta

    2017-01-01

    Indium Phosphide Quantum Dots (InP QDs) have emerged as an alternative to toxic metal ion based QDs in nanobiotechnology. The ability to generate cationic surface charge, without compromising stability and biocompatibility, is essential in realizing the full potential of InP QDs in biological applications. We have addressed this challenge by developing a place exchange protocol for the preparation of cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The quaternary ammonium group provides the much required permanent positive charge and stability to InP/ZnS QDs in biofluids. The two important properties of QDs, namely bioimaging and light induced resonance energy transfer, are successfully demonstrated in cationic InP/ZnS QDs. The low cytotoxicity and stable photoluminescence of cationic InP/ZnS QDs inside cells make them ideal candidates as optical probes for cellular imaging. An efficient resonance energy transfer (E ∼ 60%) is observed, under physiological conditions, between the cationic InP/ZnS QD donor and anionic dye acceptor. A large bimolecular quenching constant along with a linear Stern–Volmer plot confirms the formation of a strong ground state complex between the cationic InP/ZnS QDs and the anionic dye. Control experiments prove the role of electrostatic attraction in driving the light induced interactions, which can rightfully form the basis for future nano-bio studies between cationic InP/ZnS QDs and anionic biomolecules. PMID:28626557

  14. Enzyme stabilization for pesticide degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivers, D.B.; Frazer, F.R. III; Mason, D.W.; Tice, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymes offer inherent advantages and limitations as active components of formulations used to decontaminate soil and equipment contaminated with toxic materials such as pesticides. Because of the catalytic nature of enzymes, each molecule of enzyme has the potential to destroy countless molecules of a contaminating toxic compound. This degradation takes place under mild environmental conditions of pH, temperature, pressure, and solvent. The basic limitation of enzymes is their degree of stability during storage and application conditions. Stabilizing methods such as the use of additives, covalent crosslinking, covalent attachment, gel entrapment, and microencapsulation have been directed developing an enzyme preparation that is stable under extremes of pH, temperature, and exposure to organic solvents. Initial studies were conducted using the model enzymes subtilisin and horseradish peroxidase.

  15. Morocco; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The Financial System Stability Assessment of Morocco reviews the reform program that is aimed at establishing a modern, market-oriented financial system that optimizes the mobilization of savings and the allocation of financial resources. It reviews the modernization of the banking sector and the development of competition within the sector, development of financial markets, and removal of constraints on financial system activity. It also provides reports on the Observance of Standards and Co...

  16. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  17. An input-to-state stability approach to verify almost global stability of a synchronous-machine-infinite-bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Johannes; Efimov, Denis; Ortega, Romeo; Barabanov, Nikita

    2017-08-13

    Conditions for almost global stability of an operating point of a realistic model of a synchronous generator with constant field current connected to an infinite bus are derived. The analysis is conducted by employing the recently proposed concept of input-to-state stability (ISS)-Leonov functions, which is an extension of the powerful cell structure principle developed by Leonov and Noldus to the ISS framework. Compared with the original ideas of Leonov and Noldus, the ISS-Leonov approach has the advantage of providing additional robustness guarantees. The efficiency of the derived sufficient conditions is illustrated via numerical experiments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Kinesthetic Imagery Provides Additive Benefits to Internal Visual Imagery on Slalom Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nichola; Jiang, Dan; Roberts, Ross; Edwards, Martin G

    2017-02-01

    Recent brain imaging research demonstrates that the use of internal visual imagery (IVI) or kinesthetic imagery (KIN) activates common and distinct brain areas. In this paper, we argue that combining the imagery modalities (IVI and KIN) will lead to a greater cognitive representation (with more brain areas activated), and this will cause a greater slalom-based motor performance compared with using IVI alone. To examine this assertion, we randomly allocated 56 participants to one of the three groups: IVI, IVI and KIN, or a math control group. Participants performed a slalom-based driving task in a driving simulator, with average lap time used as a measure of performance. Results revealed that the IVI and KIN group achieved significantly quicker lap times than the IVI and the control groups. The discussion includes a theoretical advancement on why the combination of imagery modalities might facilitate performance, with links made to the cognitive neuroscience literature and applied practice.

  19. Translation Initiation from Conserved Non-AUG Codons Provides Additional Layers of Regulation and Coding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo P. Ivanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa cpc-1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN4 are homologs specifying transcription activators that drive the transcriptional response to amino acid limitation. The cpc-1 mRNA contains two upstream open reading frames (uORFs in its >700-nucleotide (nt 5′ leader, and its expression is controlled at the level of translation in response to amino acid starvation. We used N. crassa cell extracts and obtained data indicating that cpc-1 uORF1 and uORF2 are functionally analogous to GCN4 uORF1 and uORF4, respectively, in controlling translation. We also found that the 5′ region upstream of the main coding sequence of the cpc-1 mRNA extends for more than 700 nucleotides without any in-frame stop codon. For 100 cpc-1 homologs from Pezizomycotina and from selected Basidiomycota, 5′ conserved extensions of the CPC1 reading frame are also observed. Multiple non-AUG near-cognate codons (NCCs in the CPC1 reading frame upstream of uORF2, some deeply conserved, could potentially initiate translation. At least four NCCs initiated translation in vitro. In vivo data were consistent with initiation at NCCs to produce N-terminally extended N. crassa CPC1 isoforms. The pivotal role played by CPC1, combined with its translational regulation by uORFs and NCC utilization, underscores the emerging significance of noncanonical initiation events in controlling gene expression.

  20. Epiphyseal injuries of the distal tibia. Does MRI provide useful additional information?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwinska-Zelder, J.; Schmidt, S.; Ishaque, N.; Klose, K.J.; Hoppe, M.; Schmitt, J.; Gotzen, L.

    1999-01-01

    Plain film radiography often underestimates the extent of injury in children with epiphyseal fracture. Especially Salter-Harris V fractures (crush fracture of the epiphyseal plate) are often primarily not detected. MRI of the ankle was performed in 10 children aged 9-17 (mean 14) years with suspected epiphyseal injury using 1.0-T Magnetom Expert. The fractures were classified according to the Salter-Harris-Rang-Odgen classification and compared with the results of plain radiography. In one case MRI could exclude epiphyseal injury; in four cases the MRI findings changed the therapeutic management. The visualisation of the fracture in three orthogonal planes and the possibility of detection of cartilage and ligamentous injury in MR imaging makes this method superior to conventional radiography and CT. With respect to radiation exposure MRI instead of CT should be used for the diagnosis of epiphyseal injuries in children. (orig.) [de