WorldWideScience

Sample records for provide additional input

  1. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. 76 FR 11980 - Stakeholder Input: Listening Session to Provide Information and Solicit Suggestions for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I [Docket EPA-HQ-OW-2011-0119; FRL-9275-4] Stakeholder Input: Listening Session to Provide Information and Solicit Suggestions for Regulations... stakeholders. DATES: The listening sessions will be held at 210 Holiday Court, Annapolis, Maryland 21401, on...

  3. Build platform that provides mechanical engagement with additive manufacturing prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amelia M.

    2018-03-06

    A build platform and methods of fabricating an article with such a platform in an extrusion-type additive manufacturing machine are provided. A platform body 202 includes features 204 that extend outward from the body 202. The features 204 define protrusive areas 206 and recessive areas 208 that cooperate to mechanically engage the extruded material that forms the initial layers 220 of an article when the article is being fabricated by a nozzle 12 of the additive manufacturing machine 10.

  4. JNC's experience of complementary accesses provided by the additional protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) examined problems on implementation of the Additional Protocol to Japan/IAEA Safeguards Agreement with the Government of Japan and International Atomic Energy Agency through trials performed at Oarai Engineering Center before it entered into force. On December 16th 1999, the Additional Protocol entered into force, and in last January JNC provided the first JNC site information to STA. Then our Government provided it of all Japan to IAEA in last June. Also in this January, we sent the additional information changed from old one to MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). The first Complementary Access of not only JNC but also Japan was implemented on JNC Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center on the end of last November. Since then, we have had over 10 times experience of Complementary Accesses for about one year especially on Tokai works and Ningyo-Toge. JNC's experience of Complementary Accesses will be introduced. (author)

  5. PROVIDING ENGLISH LANGUAGE INPUT: DECREASING STUDENTS’ ANXIETY IN READING COMPREHENSION PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Yohana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary condition for successful in second or foreign language learning is providing an adequate environment. It is as a medium of increasing the students’ language exposure in order to be able to success in acquiring second or foreign language profciency. This study was designed to propose the adequate English language input that can decrease the students’ anxiety in reading comprehension performance. Of the four skills, somehow reading can be regarded as especially important because reading is assumed to be the central means for learning new information. Some students, however, still encounter many problems in reading. It is because of their anxiety when they are reading. Providing and creating an interesting-contextual reading material and gratifed teachers can make out this problem which occurs mostly in Indonesian’s classrooms. It revealed that the younger learners of English there do not received adequate amount of the target language input in their learning of English. Hence, it suggested the adoption of extensive reading programs as the most effective means in the creation of an input-rich environment in EFL learning contexts. Besides they also give suggestion to book writers and publisher to provide myriad books that appropriate and readable for their students.

  6. Nuclear Facility Isotopic Content (NFIC) Waste Management System to provide input for safety envelope definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is aggressively applying environmental remediation and radioactive waste management activities at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to ensure compliance with today's challenging governmental laws and regulatory requirements. This report discusses a computer-based Nuclear Facility Isotopic Content (NFIC) Waste Management System developed to provide input for the safety envelope definition and assessment of site-wide facilities. Information was formulated describing the SRS ''Nuclear Facilities'' and their respective bounding inventories of nuclear materials and radioactive waste using the NFIC Waste Management System

  7. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L.

    1995-01-01

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the open-quotes ins and outsclose quotes of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board's successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites' on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions

  8. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L. [Rocky Flats Citizen Advisory Board, Westminster, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the {open_quotes}ins and outs{close_quotes} of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board`s successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites` on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions.

  9. Use of microinterrupts to provide an instrument oriented input/output structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaky, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a bit-slice based computer, which has been developed for use in data acquisition and control applications. The main design goals have been to provide fast response to external events, and sufficient processing capability to perform data reduction in real time. The initial application of this computer has been in airborne, geophysical surveying, where such instruments as Gamma-ray spectrometers, magnetometers and navigation equipment are involved. In order to meet the response requirement mentioned above, a microinterrupt facility has been incorporated. Microinterrupts are serviced in microcodes routines which can be initiated within a maximum of two microinstruction cycle times from an external event. This facility makes it possible to implement powerful input/output control functions without the need for complex and specialized hardware interfaces for each instrument. (orig.)

  10. Providing disabled persons in developing countries access to computer games through a novel gaming input device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel input device is presented for use with a personal computer by persons with physical disabilities who would otherwise not be able to enjoy computer gaming. This device is simple to manufacture and low in cost. A gaming application...

  11. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion. Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the Camus data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  12. Estimations of additional delays for mobile application data from Comparative Output-Input throughput Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wac, K.E.; Fiedler, Markus; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices with ever increasing functionality are an important driving force behind innovative mobile applications that enrich our daily life. The ubiquitous availability of wireless data communication networks is an additional driving force. Their ability to support application data flows is

  13. TRANSIT: model for providing generic transportation input for preliminary siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, G.W.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    To assist the US Department of Energy's efforts in potential facility site screening in the nuclear waste management program, a computerized model, TRANSIT, is being developed. Utilizing existing data on the location and inventory characteristics of spent nuclear fuel at reactor sites, TRANSIT derives isopleths of transportation mileage, costs, risks and fleet requirements for shipments to storage sites and/or repository sites. This technique provides a graphic, first-order method for use by the Department in future site screening efforts. 2 refs

  14. The role of additive neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in a hippocampal memory model with grid-cell like input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Appleby

    Full Text Available Recently, we presented a study of adult neurogenesis in a simplified hippocampal memory model. The network was required to encode and decode memory patterns despite changing input statistics. We showed that additive neurogenesis was a more effective adaptation strategy compared to neuronal turnover and conventional synaptic plasticity as it allowed the network to respond to changes in the input statistics while preserving representations of earlier environments. Here we extend our model to include realistic, spatially driven input firing patterns in the form of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex. We compare network performance across a sequence of spatial environments using three distinct adaptation strategies: conventional synaptic plasticity, where the network is of fixed size but the connectivity is plastic; neuronal turnover, where the network is of fixed size but units in the network may die and be replaced; and additive neurogenesis, where the network starts out with fewer initial units but grows over time. We confirm that additive neurogenesis is a superior adaptation strategy when using realistic, spatially structured input patterns. We then show that a more biologically plausible neurogenesis rule that incorporates cell death and enhanced plasticity of new granule cells has an overall performance significantly better than any one of the three individual strategies operating alone. This adaptation rule can be tailored to maximise performance of the network when operating as either a short- or long-term memory store. We also examine the time course of adult neurogenesis over the lifetime of an animal raised under different hypothetical rearing conditions. These growth profiles have several distinct features that form a theoretical prediction that could be tested experimentally. Finally, we show that place cells can emerge and refine in a realistic manner in our model as a direct result of the sparsification performed by the dentate gyrus

  15. Expert panel on additional cross subsidisation. Considering arguments and providing expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Lowe, S.; Mason, A.

    2007-10-01

    market share on markets where they compete directly with EU based airlines by undercutting fares on these markets, subsidising potential losses on these markets by increased prices on routes at which they do not compete with EU airlines, and thus increase their total profits. As part of the project, a panel of experts will be contacted to provide input to the study. This note elaborates the input that we ask for. But first, it provides an analytical background on the study

  16. Using additional external inputs to forecast water quality with an artificial neural network for contamination event detection in source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Source water quality plays an important role for the safety of drinking water and early detection of its contamination is vital to taking appropriate countermeasures. However, compared to drinking water, it is more difficult to detect contamination events because its environment is less controlled and numerous natural causes contribute to a high variability of the background values. In this project, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a Contamination Event Detection Process (CED Process) were used to identify events in river water. The ANN models the response of basic water quality sensors obtained in laboratory experiments in an off-line learning stage and continuously forecasts future values of the time line in an on-line forecasting step. During this second stage, the CED Process compares the forecast to the measured value and classifies it as regular background or event value, which modifies the ANN's continuous learning and influences its forecasts. In addition to this basic setup, external information is fed to the CED Process: A so-called Operator Input (OI) is provided to inform about unusual water quality levels that are unrelated to the presence of contamination, for example due to cooling water discharge from a nearby power plant. This study's primary goal is to evaluate how well the OI fits into the design of the combined forecasting ANN and CED Process and to understand its effects on the online forecasting stage. To test this, data from laboratory experiments conducted previously at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, have been used to perform simulations highlighting features and drawbacks of this method. Applying the OI has been shown to have a positive influence on the ANN's ability to handle a sudden change in background values, which is unrelated to contamination. However, it might also mask the presence of an event, an issue that underlines the necessity to have several instances of the algorithm run in parallel. Other difficulties

  17. A study for providing additional storage spaces to ET-RR-1 spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, A.; Ashoub, N.; Saleh, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    The ET-RR-1 reactor spent fuel storage pool is a trapezoidal aluminum tank concrete shield and of capacity 10 m 3 . It can hold up to 60 fuel assemblies. The long operation history of the ET-RR-1 reactor resulted in a partially filled spent fuel storage with the remaining spaces not enough to host a complete load from the reactor. This work have been initiated to evaluate possible alternative solutions for providing additional storage spaces to host the available EK-10 fuel elements after irradiation and any foreseen fuel in case of reactor upgrading. Several alternate solutions have been reviewed and decision on the most suitable one is under study. These studies include criticality calculation of some suggested alternatives like reracking the present spent fuel storage pool and double tiering by the addition of a second level storage rack above the existing rack. The two levels may have different factor. Criticality calculation of the double tiering possible accident was also studied. (author)

  18. Carvacrol, a food-additive, provides neuroprotection on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Yu

    Full Text Available Carvacrol (CAR, a naturally occurring monoterpenic phenol and food additive, has been shown to have antimicrobials, antitumor, and antidepressant-like activities. A previous study demonstrated that CAR has the ability to protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of CAR on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We found that CAR (50 mg/kg significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. This neuroprotection was in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with CAR still provided protection on infarct volume when it was administered intraperitoneally at 2 h after reperfusion; however, intracerebroventricular post-treatment reduced infarct volume even when the mice were treated with CAR at 6 h after reperfusion. These findings indicated that CAR has an extended therapeutic window, but delivery strategies may affect the protective effects of CAR. Further, we found that CAR significantly decreased the level of cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, suggesting the anti-apoptotic activity of CAR. Finally, our data indicated that CAR treatment increased the level of phosphorylated Akt and the neuroprotection of CAR was reversed by a PI3K inhibitor LY-294002, demonstrating the involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of CAR. Due to its safety and wide use in the food industry, CAR is a promising agent to be translated into clinical trials.

  19. Prey-predator dynamics with prey refuge providing additional food to predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Joydev; Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of interplay between prey refugia and additional food are reported. • Hopf bifurcation conditions are derived analytically. • Existence of unique limit cycle is shown analytically. • Predator extinction may be possible at very high prey refuge ecological systems. - Abstract: The impacts of additional food for predator on the dynamics of a prey-predator model with prey refuge are investigated. The equilibrium points and their stability behaviours are determined. Hopf bifurcation conditions are derived analytically. Most significantly, existence conditions for unique stable limit cycle in the phase plane are shown analytically. The analytical results are in well agreement with the numerical simulation results. Effects of variation of refuge level as well as the variation of quality and quantity of additional food on the dynamics are reported with the help of bifurcation diagrams. It is found that high quality and high quantity of additional food supports oscillatory coexistence of species. It is observed that predator extinction possibility in high prey refuge ecological systems may be removed by supplying additional food to predator population. The reported theoretical results may be useful to conservation biologist for species conservation in real world ecological systems.

  20. Decision support system of e-book provider selection for library using Simple Additive Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptayani, P. I.; Dewi, K. C.

    2018-01-01

    Each library has its own criteria and differences in the importance of each criterion in choosing an e-book provider for them. The large number of providers and the different importance levels of each criterion make the problem of determining the e-book provider to be complex and take a considerable time in decision making. The aim of this study was to implement Decision support system (DSS) to assist the library in selecting the best e-book provider based on their preferences. The way of DSS works is by comparing the importance of each criterion and the condition of each alternative decision. SAW is one of DSS method that is quite simple, fast and widely used. This study used 9 criteria and 18 provider to demonstrate how SAW work in this study. With the DSS, then the decision-making time can be shortened and the calculation results can be more accurate than manual calculations.

  1. Biliary complications following orthotopic liver transplantation: May contrast-enhanced MR Cholangiography provide additional information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Boraschi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR Cholangiography may improve the level of diagnostic confidence provided by conventional T2-weighted MR Cholangiography in the evaluation of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  2. Effect of Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Aluminide Alloy Fabricated by the Additive Manufacturing Process of Electron Beam Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ashfaq; Alahmari, Abdulrahman M; Mohammed, Muneer Khan; Renganayagalu, Ravi Kottan; Moiduddin, Khaja

    2017-02-21

    Titanium aluminides qualify adequately for advanced aero-engine applications in place of conventional nickel based superalloys. The combination of high temperature properties and lower density gives an edge to the titanium aluminide alloys. Nevertheless, challenges remain on how to process these essentially intermetallic alloys in to an actual product. Electron Beam Melting (EBM), an Additive Manufacturing Method, can build complex shaped solid parts from a given feedstock powder, thus overcoming the shortcomings of the conventional processing techniques such as machining and forging. The amount of energy supplied by the electron beam has considerable influence on the final build quality in the EBM process. Energy input is decided by the beam voltage, beam scan speed, beam current, and track offset distance. In the current work, beam current and track offset were varied to reflect three levels of energy input. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated for these samples. The microstructure gradually coarsened from top to bottom along the build direction. Whereas higher energy favored lath microstructure, lower energy tended toward equiaxed grains. Computed tomography analysis revealed a greater amount of porosity in low energy samples. In addition, the lack of bonding defects led to premature failure in the tension test of low energy samples. Increase in energy to a medium level largely cancelled out the porosity, thereby increasing the strength. However, this trend did not continue with the high energy samples. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out to understand this non-linear behavior of the strength in the three samples. Overall, the results of this work suggest that the input energy should be considered primarily whenever any new alloy system has to be processed through the EBM route.

  3. Effect of Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Aluminide Alloy Fabricated by the Additive Manufacturing Process of Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Titanium aluminides qualify adequately for advanced aero-engine applications in place of conventional nickel based superalloys. The combination of high temperature properties and lower density gives an edge to the titanium aluminide alloys. Nevertheless, challenges remain on how to process these essentially intermetallic alloys in to an actual product. Electron Beam Melting (EBM, an Additive Manufacturing Method, can build complex shaped solid parts from a given feedstock powder, thus overcoming the shortcomings of the conventional processing techniques such as machining and forging. The amount of energy supplied by the electron beam has considerable influence on the final build quality in the EBM process. Energy input is decided by the beam voltage, beam scan speed, beam current, and track offset distance. In the current work, beam current and track offset were varied to reflect three levels of energy input. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated for these samples. The microstructure gradually coarsened from top to bottom along the build direction. Whereas higher energy favored lath microstructure, lower energy tended toward equiaxed grains. Computed tomography analysis revealed a greater amount of porosity in low energy samples. In addition, the lack of bonding defects led to premature failure in the tension test of low energy samples. Increase in energy to a medium level largely cancelled out the porosity, thereby increasing the strength. However, this trend did not continue with the high energy samples. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out to understand this non-linear behavior of the strength in the three samples. Overall, the results of this work suggest that the input energy should be considered primarily whenever any new alloy system has to be processed through the EBM route.

  4. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on the type of services or supplies the provider or supplier type will furnish and bill Medicare. (3... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... documentation includes written and electronic documents (including the NPI of the physician who ordered the home...

  6. Evaluation of input and process components of quality of child health services provided at 24 × 7 primary health centers of a district in Central Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paragkumar Chavda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With the critical Indian challenge on child survival and health, time is ripe to initiate focus on quality of services apart from measuring coverage, to bring about improvements. Aims: To assess the quality of child health services provided at 24 × 7 Primary Health Centers of Vadodara District in Gujarat in terms of Input and Process Indicators. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in 12 randomly chosen 24 × 7 Primary Health Centers (PHCs of Vadodara district using a modified quality assessment checklist of the Program on District Quality Assurance for Reproductive and Child Health (RCH services with use of scores from May 2010 to June 2011. Subjects and Methods: Inputs assessment was done by facility survey. Process assessment for the four child health service components used actual observation of service, review of records and interview of service providers and clients. Results: The mean obtained score for facilities in Input section was 65%. Highest score was obtained for Drugs and Consumables (86% followed by Equipments and Supplies (74%. The score obtained for Infrastructure facility was 65%, Personnel and training was 56% and Essential protocols and guidelines scored 43%. The mean obtained score in the process section was 55%. Highest scores were obtained for immunization at 76%. This was followed by newborn care (52%, growth monitoring (52%. management of sick child (41%. Conclusion: Quality improvement efforts should focus not only on resource-intensive structural improvements, but also on cost-effective measures at improving service delivery process, especially adherence to service guidelines by providers.

  7. A genomic island provides Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 additional copper resistance: a possible competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Luis H; Jerez, Carlos A

    2011-11-01

    There is great interest in understanding how extremophilic biomining bacteria adapt to exceptionally high copper concentrations in their environment. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 genome possesses the same copper resistance determinants as strain ATCC 23270. However, the former strain contains in its genome a 160-kb genomic island (GI), which is absent in ATCC 23270. This GI contains, amongst other genes, several genes coding for an additional putative copper ATPase and a Cus system. A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 showed a much higher resistance to CuSO(4) (>100 mM) than that of strain ATCC 23270 (<25 mM). When a similar number of bacteria from each strain were mixed and allowed to grow in the absence of copper, their respective final numbers remained approximately equal. However, in the presence of copper, there was a clear overgrowth of strain ATCC 53993 compared to ATCC 23270. This behavior is most likely explained by the presence of the additional copper-resistance genes in the GI of strain ATCC 53993. As determined by qRT-PCR, it was demonstrated that these genes are upregulated when A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 is grown in the presence of copper and were shown to be functional when expressed in copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutants. Thus, the reason for resistance to copper of two strains of the same acidophilic microorganism could be determined by slight differences in their genomes, which may not only lead to changes in their capacities to adapt to their environment, but may also help to select the more fit microorganisms for industrial biomining operations. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  8. Computerized analysis of isometric tension studies provides important additional information about vasomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration-response curves of isometric tension studies on isolated blood vessels are obtained traditionally. Although parameters such as Imax, EC50 and pA2 may be readily calculated, this method does not provide information on the temporal profile of the responses or the actual nature of the reaction curves. Computerized data acquisition systems can be used to obtain average data that represent a new source of otherwise inaccessible information, since early and late responses may be observed separately in detail

  9. 34 CFR 645.13 - What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are they...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional services do Upward Bound Math and... Program? § 645.13 What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are... provided under § 645.11(b), an Upward Bound Math and Science Center must provide— (1) Intensive instruction...

  10. Network Physics - the only company to provide physics-based network management - secures additional funding and new executives

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Network Physics, the only provider of physics-based network management products, today announced an additional venture round of $6 million in funding, as well as the addition of David Jones as president and CEO and Tom Dunn as vice president of sales and business development" (1 page).

  11. Comparing in-service multi-input loads applied on non-stiff components submitted to vibration fatigue to provide specifications for robust design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Corre Gwenaëlle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on applications from the automotive industry, on mechanical components submitted to vibration loads. On one hand, the characterization of loading for dimensioning new structures in fatigue is enriched and updated by customer data analysis. On the other hand, the loads characterization also aims to provide robust specifications for simulation or physical tests. These specifications are needed early in the project, in order to perform the first durability verification activities. At this time, detailed information about the geometry and the material is rare. Vibration specifications need to be adapted to a calculation time or physical test durations in accordance with the pace imposed by the projects timeframe. In the trucks industry, the dynamic behaviour can vary significantly from one configuration of truck to another, as the trucks architecture impacts the load environment of the components. The vibration specifications need to be robust by taking care of the diversity of vehicles and markets considered in the scope of the projects. For non-stiff structures, the lifetime depends, among other things, on the frequency content of the loads, as well as the interactions between the components of the multi-input loads. In this context, this paper proposes an approach to compare sets of variable amplitude multi-input loads applied on non-stiff structures. The comparison is done in terms of damage, with limited information on the structure where the loads sets are applied on. The methodology is presented, as well as an application. Activities planned to validate the methodology are also exposed.

  12. Metal-mediated aminocatalysis provides mild conditions: Enantioselective Michael addition mediated by primary amino catalysts and alkali-metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Leven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four catalysts based on new amides of chiral 1,2-diamines and 2-sulfobenzoic acid have been developed. The alkali-metal salts of these betaine-like amides are able to form imines with enones, which are activated by Lewis acid interaction for nucleophilic attack by 4-hydroxycoumarin. The addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to enones gives ee’s up to 83% and almost quantitative yields in many cases. This novel type of catalysis provides an effective alternative to conventional primary amino catalysis were strong acid additives are essential components.

  13. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each...

  14. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging provides additional information as compared to anatomical imaging for decision-making in vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijwegt, M.C.; Mey, A.G.L. van der; Wiggers-deBruine, F.T.; Malessy, M.J.A; Osch, M.J.P. van

    2016-01-01

    •DSC/ASL-MRI can be acquired in growing VS with sufficient image quality.•In most patients DSC and ASL techniques provide similar qualitative scores.•These techniques can be of importance in future decision-making. DSC/ASL-MRI can be acquired in growing VS with sufficient image quality. In most patients DSC and ASL techniques provide similar qualitative scores. These techniques can be of importance in future decision-making. The added value of perfusion MRI for decision-making in vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients is unknown. MRI offers two perfusion methods: the first employing contrast agent (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI) that provides information on cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), the second by magnetic labeling of blood (arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI), providing CBF-images. The goal of the current study is to investigate whether DSC and ASL perfusion MRI provides complimentary information to current anatomical imaging in treatment selection process of VS. Nine patients with growing VS with extrameatal diameter >9 mm were included (>2 mm/year and 20% volume expansion/year) and one patient with 23 mm extrameatal VS without growth. DSC and ASL perfusion MRI were obtained on 3 T MRI. Perfusion in VS was scored as hyperintense, hypointense or isointense compared to the contralateral region. Seven patients showed hyperintense signal on DSC and ASL sequences. Three patients showed iso- or hypointense signal on at least one perfusion map (1 patient hypointense on both DSC-MRI and ASL; 1 patient isointense on DSC-CBF; 1 patient isointense on ASL). All patients showed enhancement on post-contrast T1 anatomical scan. Perfusion MR provides additional information compared to anatomical imaging for decision-making in VS

  15. Hepatitis B virus vaccination booster does not provide additional protection in adolescents: a cross-sectional school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Chieh; Wang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Jun-Song; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-09-23

    Current consensus does not support the use of a universal booster of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine because there is an anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant HBV vaccination. We aimed to provide a booster strategy among adolescents as a result of their changes in lifestyle and sexual activity. This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in four age groups between 2004 and 2012. The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its reciprocal antibody (anti-HBs) for each age group were collected. There were two parts to this study; age-specific HBV seroepidemiology and subgroup analysis, including effects of different vaccine types, booster response for immunogenicity at 15 years of age, and longitudinal follow-up to identify possible additional protection by HBV booster. Within the study period, data on serum anti-HBs and HBsAg in a total of 6950 students from four age groups were collected. The overall anti-HBs and HBsAg seropositivity rates were 44.3% and 1.2%, respectively. The anti-HBs seropositivity rate in the plasma-derived subgroup was significantly higher in both 15- and 18-year age groups. Overall response rate in the double-seronegative recipients at 15 years of age was 92.5% at 6 weeks following one recombinant HBV booster dose. Among the 24 recipients showing anti-HBs seroconversion at 6 weeks after booster, seven subjects (29.2%) had lost their anti-HBs seropositivity again within 3 years. Increased seropositivity rates and titers of anti-HBs did not provide additional protective effects among subjects comprehensively vaccinated against HBV in infancy. HBV booster strategy at 15 years of age was the main contributor to the unique age-related phenomenon of anti-HBs seropositivity rate and titer. No increase in HBsAg seropositivity rates within different age groups was observed. Vaccination with plasma-derived HBV vaccines in infancy provided higher

  16. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  17. Influence of iron powder addition onto heat inputs, at stainless steels welds; Influencia da adicao do po de ferro no insumo de calor e na ZAC, em soldas de aco ARBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Samuel I.N.; Spinelli, Dirceu [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Magalhaes B Goncalves, Gilberto de; Souza, Paulo C.R.D. de

    1992-12-31

    In this work, welding with or without iron powder addition in stainless steels were produced. The welds obtained in only one pass with three different angles of grooves and several welding condition. The results showed that the heat input changes with and without iron powder addition that were found out by the cooling rates changes in weld pool. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Dose Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography provide more information additive to contrast enhanced MRI in highly suspected breast cancer patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Bae, Young Tae

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography (SMM) provide more information than contrast enhanced MRI in highly suspected breast cancer patients. This study included 32 breast lesions of 29 highly suspected patients having breast cancer. All patients were performed SMM and contrast enhanced MRI. The SMMs and contrast enhanced MRI were correlated with histopathologic results. Thirty breast lesions were diagnosed malignant diseases and 2 were diagnosed benign diseases. SMM showed 29 true positives (TP), 1 true negative (TN), 1 false positive (FP), and 1 false negative (FN). The sensitivity was 96.6%. Contrast enhanced MRI revealed 24 TP, 0 TN, 1 FP, 3 FN and 4 indeterminate cases. The sensitivity was 88.8%. In the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis, SMM showed 9 TP, 10 TN, 0 FP, and 3 FN. The sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 100%. Contrast enhanced MRI revealed 6 TP, 9 TN, 1 FP, and 6 FN. The sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 90%. Among 4 indeterminate cases with MRI findings, SMM correctly diagnosed malignant breast diseases in 3 lesions. However, SMM showed false positive in 1 lesion. SMM could correctly diagnosed malignant breast diseases more 5 lesions than contrast enhanced MRI. SMM revealed higher sensitivity in detection of primary breast cancer and axillary LN metastasis than contrast enhanced MRI. SMMs could correctly diagnosed malignant breast diseases even if the MRI showed indeterminate findings. In highly suspected patients having breast cancer, SMM may provide additive information in detection of breast cancer if contrast enhanced MRI showed indeterminate findings but this is to be determined later by large population based study

  19. Example-based learning: comparing the effects of additionally providing three different integrative learning activities on physiotherapy intervention knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Hudon, Anne; Montpetit-Tourangeau, Katherine; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; van Gog, Tamara

    2015-03-07

    Example-based learning using worked examples can foster clinical reasoning. Worked examples are instructional tools that learners can use to study the steps needed to solve a problem. Studying worked examples paired with completion examples promotes acquisition of problem-solving skills more than studying worked examples alone. Completion examples are worked examples in which some of the solution steps remain unsolved for learners to complete. Providing learners engaged in example-based learning with self-explanation prompts has been shown to foster increased meaningful learning compared to providing no self-explanation prompts. Concept mapping and concept map study are other instructional activities known to promote meaningful learning. This study compares the effects of self-explaining, completing a concept map and studying a concept map on conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills among novice learners engaged in example-based learning. Ninety-one physiotherapy students were randomized into three conditions. They performed a pre-test and a post-test to evaluate their gains in conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills (transfer performance) in intervention selection. They studied three pairs of worked/completion examples in a digital learning environment. Worked examples consisted of a written reasoning process for selecting an optimal physiotherapy intervention for a patient. The completion examples were partially worked out, with the last few problem-solving steps left blank for students to complete. The students then had to engage in additional self-explanation, concept map completion or model concept map study in order to synthesize and deepen their knowledge of the key concepts and problem-solving steps. Pre-test performance did not differ among conditions. Post-test conceptual knowledge was higher (P example and completion example strategies to foster intervention selection.

  20. Impact of adding additional providers to resident workload and the resident experience on a medical consultation rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Michele; Linson, Eric; Suneja, Manish; Kuperman, Ethan F

    2017-02-22

    Excellence in Graduate Medical Education requires the right clinical environment with an appropriate workload where residents have enough patients to gain proficiency in medicine with optimal time for reflection. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has focused more on work hours rather than workload; however, high resident workload has been associated with lower resident participation in education and fatigue-related errors. Recognizing the potential risks associated with high resident workload and being mindful of the costs of reducing resident workload, we sought to reduce residents' workload by adding an advanced practice provider (APP) to the surgical comanagement service (SCM) and study its effect on resident satisfaction and perceived educational value of the rotation. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 and 2015, an additional faculty member was added to the SCM rotation. In FY 2014, the faculty member was a staff physician, and in FY 2015, the faculty member was an APP.. Resident workload was assessed using billing data. We measured residents' perceptions of the rotation using an anonymous electronic survey tool. We compared FY2014-2015 data to the baseline FY2013. The number of patients seen per resident per day decreased from 8.0(SD 3.3) in FY2013 to 5.0(SD 1.9) in FY2014 (p value of the rotation (40.0%, 72.2%, 72.6% in FY2013, 2014, 2015 respectively, p perceived educational value and clinical experience of a medical consultation rotation.

  1. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  2. When do anterior external or internal fixators provide additional stability in an unstable (Tile C) pelvic fracture? A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, E; Theologis, A A; Horst, P; Kandemir, U; Pekmezci, M

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the additional stability that is provided by anterior external and internal fixators in an unstable pelvic fracture model (OTA 61-C). An unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C) was created in 27 synthetic pelves by making a 5-mm gap through the sacral foramina (posterior injury) and an ipsilateral pubic rami fracture (anterior injury). The posterior injury was fixed with either a single iliosacral (IS) screw, a single trans-iliac, trans-sacral (TS) screw, or two iliosacral screws (S1S2). Two anterior fixation techniques were utilized: external fixation (Ex-Fix) and supra-acetabular external fixation and internal fixation (In-Fix); supra-acetabular pedicle screws connected with a single subcutaneous spinal rod. The specimens were tested using a nondestructive single-leg stance model. Peak-to-peak (P2P) displacement and rotation and conditioning displacement (CD) were calculated. The Ex-Fix group failed in 83.3 % of specimens with concomitant single-level posterior fixation (Total: 15/18-7 of 9 IS fixation, 8 of 9 TS fixation), and 0 % (0/9) of specimens with concomitant two-level (S1S2) posterior fixation. All specimens with the In-Fix survived testing except for two specimens treated with In-Fix combined with IS fixation. Trans-sacral fixation had higher pubic rotation and greater sacral and pubic displacement than S1S2 (p < 0.05). Rotation of the pubis and sacrum was not different between In-Fix constructs combined with single-level IS and TS fixation. In this model of an unstable pelvic fracture (OTA 61-C), anterior fixation with an In-Fix was biomechanically superior to an anterior Ex-Fix in the setting of single-level posterior fixation. There was no biomechanical difference between the In-Fix and Ex-Fix when each was combined with two levels of posterior sacral fixation.

  3. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  4. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  5. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty. (a...

  6. 76 FR 59614 - Facilitating the Use of Microwave for Wireless Backhaul and Other Uses and Providing Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... requires ``complex electronics to coordinate the transmissions, with the additional disadvantage of... Service operators to utilize 60 and 80 megahertz channels, it will simplify the electronics, lowers costs... accordance with the Commission's ex parte rules. Persons making ex parte presentations must file a copy of...

  7. runjags: An R Package Providing Interface Utilities, Model Templates, Parallel Computing Methods and Additional Distributions for MCMC Models in JAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Denwood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The runjags package provides a set of interface functions to facilitate running Markov chain Monte Carlo models in JAGS from within R. Automated calculation of appropriate convergence and sample length diagnostics, user-friendly access to commonly used graphical outputs and summary statistics, and parallelized methods of running JAGS are provided. Template model specifications can be generated using a standard lme4-style formula interface to assist users less familiar with the BUGS syntax. Automated simulation study functions are implemented to facilitate model performance assessment, as well as drop-k type cross-validation studies, using high performance computing clusters such as those provided by parallel. A module extension for JAGS is also included within runjags, providing the Pareto family of distributions and a series of minimally-informative priors including the DuMouchel and half-Cauchy priors. This paper outlines the primary functions of this package, and gives an illustration of a simulation study to assess the sensitivity of two equivalent model formulations to different prior distributions.

  8. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  9. Additional electrodes on the Quartet™ LV lead provide more programmable pacing options than bipolar and tripolar equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, David; Sperzel, Johannes; Thibault, Bernard; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Pappone, Carlo; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen; Leclercq, Christopher; Razavi, Hedi; Ryu, Kyungmoo; Mcspadden, Luke C; Fischer, Avi; Tomassoni, Gery

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate any benefits to the number of viable pacing vectors and maximal spatial coverage with quadripolar left ventricular (LV) leads when compared with tripolar and bipolar equivalents in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). A meta-analysis of five previously published clinical trials involving the Quartet™ LV lead (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA) was performed to evaluate the number of viable pacing vectors defined as capture thresholds ≤2.5 V and no phrenic nerve stimulation and maximal spatial coverage of viable vectors in CRT patients at pre-discharge (n = 370) and first follow-up (n = 355). Bipolar and tripolar lead configurations were modelled by systematic elimination of two and one electrode(s), respectively, from the Quartet lead. The Quartet lead with its four pacing electrodes exhibited the greatest number of pacing vectors per patient when compared with the best bipolar and the best tripolar modelled equivalents. Similarly, the Quartet lead provided the highest spatial coverage in terms of the distance between two furthest viable pacing cathodes when compared with the best bipolar and the best tripolar configurations (P tripolar configurations, elimination of the second proximal electrode (M3) resulted in the highest number of viable pacing options per patient. There were no significant differences observed between pre-discharge and first follow-up analyses. The Quartet lead with its four electrodes and the capability to pace from four anatomical locations provided the highest number of viable pacing vectors at pre-discharge and first follow-up visits, providing more flexibility in device programming and enabling continuation of CRT in more patients when compared with bipolar and tripolar equivalents. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Modeling and generating input processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  11. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography: Does mammography provide additional clinical benefits or can some radiation exposure be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallenberg, Eva Maria; Dromain, Clarisse; Diekmann, Felix; Renz, Diane M; Amer, Heba; Ingold-Heppner, Barbara; Neumann, Avidan U; Winzer, Klaus J; Bick, Ulrich; Hamm, Bernd; Engelken, Florian

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) with mammography (MG) and combined CESM + MG in terms of detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers in order to assess the potential to reduce radiation exposure. A total of 118 patients underwent MG and CESM and had final histological results. CESM was performed as a bilateral examination starting 2 min after injection of iodinated contrast medium. Three independent blinded radiologists read the CESM, MG, and CESM + MG images with an interval of at least 4 weeks to avoid case memorization. Sensitivity and size measurement correlation and differences were calculated, average glandular dose (AGD) levels were compared, and breast densities were reported. Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests were performed. A total of 107 imaging pairs were available for analysis. Densities were ACR1: 2, ACR2: 45, ACR3: 42, and ACR4: 18. Mean AGD was 1.89 mGy for CESM alone, 1.78 mGy for MG, and 3.67 mGy for the combination. In very dense breasts, AGD of CESM was significantly lower than MG. Sensitivity across readers was 77.9 % for MG alone, 94.7 % for CESM, and 95 % for CESM + MG. Average tumor size measurement error compared to postsurgical pathology was -0.6 mm for MG, +0.6 mm for CESM, and +4.5 mm for CESM + MG (p < 0.001 for CESM + MG vs. both modalities). CESM alone has the same sensitivity and better size assessment as CESM + MG and was significantly better than MG with only 6.2 % increase in AGD. The combination of CESM + MG led to systematic size overestimation. When a CESM examination is planned, additional MG can be avoided, with the possibility of saving up to 61 % of radiation dose, especially in patients with dense breasts.

  12. Additional Haptic Information Provided by Anchors Reduces Postural Sway in Young Adults Less Than Does Light Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Moraes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of adding haptic information to the control of posture, as well as comparing the effect of both the “light touch” (LT and “anchor system” (AS paradigms on postural sway. Additionally, it compared the effect of location and number of points of contact to the control of posture in young adults. The location consisted of using the anchors tied to the finger and held by the hands, and, for LT, the fingertip. For the number of points of contact, participants used two hands, and then separately the dominant hand, and the non-dominant hand, for both anchor and LT paradigms. Participants stood upright with feet-together and in tandem position while performing tasks that combined the use of anchors and LT, points of contact (hand grip and finger, and number of points of contact (two hands and one hand. In this study, the anchors consist of holding in each hand a flexible cable with the other end attached to the ground. The LT consists of slightly touching a rigid surface with the tip of the index finger. The results showed, first, that the anchors improved postural control less than did the LT. Second, they revealed that holding the anchors with the hands or with them tied to the fingertip resulted in a similar reduction in postural sway only in the tandem position. For the feet-together position, the anchors tied to the fingertip were ineffective. Similarly, the use of one or two hands did not affect the contribution of the anchors. However, using two hands in the LT condition was more effective than was one hand. Third, our results showed the presence of a temporal delay between force and center-of-pressure (COP for the anchors, only in the AP direction with feet-together. In conclusion, overall, the anchors were less effective in reducing postural sway than was the LT. The anchors attached to fingertips were as effective as the hand-held anchors in the tandem position, yet ineffective during foot

  13. Input and execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.; Lane, G.; Rowling, G.

    1986-11-01

    This document describes the input procedures, input data files and operating instructions for the SYVAC A/C 1.03 computer program. SYVAC A/C 1.03 simulates the groundwater mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. (author)

  14. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

  15. Determination of the mean aerosol residence times in the atmosphere and additional 210Po input on the base of simultaneous determination of 7Be, 22Na, 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdalena Dlugosz-Lisiecka; Henryk Bem

    2012-01-01

    The significant differences in the activities of 210 Pb, 210 Bi, 210 Po and cosmogenic 7 Be and 22 Na radionuclides in the urban aerosol samples collected in the summers 2010 and 2011 in the Lodz city of Poland were observed. Simultaneous measurement of these radionuclides, after a simple modification of the one compartment model, allows us to calculate both: the corrected aerosol residence times in the troposphere (1 / 25 days) and in the lower stratosphere (103 / 205 days). The relative input of the additional sources (beside of the 222 Rn decay in the air) to the total activity concentrations of 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po radionuclides in the urban air, plays a substantial role (up to 97% of the total activity) only in the case of 210 Po. (author)

  16. Impact of High-Fidelity Simulation and Pharmacist-Specific Didactic Lectures in Addition to ACLS Provider Certification on Pharmacy Resident ACLS Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Billie J

    2014-08-01

    This pilot study explored the use of multidisciplinary high-fidelity simulation and additional pharmacist-focused training methods in training postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residents to provide Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) care. Pharmacy resident confidence and comfort level were assessed after completing these training requirements. The ACLS training requirements for pharmacy residents were revised to include didactic instruction on ACLS pharmacology and rhythm recognition and participation in multidisciplinary high-fidelity simulation ACLS experiences in addition to ACLS provider certification. Surveys were administered to participating residents to assess the impact of this additional education on resident confidence and comfort level in cardiopulmonary arrest situations. The new ACLS didactic and simulation training requirements resulted in increased resident confidence and comfort level in all assessed functions. Residents felt more confident in all areas except providing recommendations for dosing and administration of medications and rhythm recognition after completing the simulation scenarios than with ACLS certification training and the didactic components alone. All residents felt the addition of lectures and simulation experiences better prepared them to function as a pharmacist in the ACLS team. Additional ACLS training requirements for pharmacy residents increased overall awareness of pharmacist roles and responsibilities and greatly improved resident confidence and comfort level in performing most essential pharmacist functions during ACLS situations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. MARS code manual volume II: input requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Kyung Doo; Bae, Sung Won; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Seung Wook; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This input manual provides a complete list of input required to run MARS. The manual is divided largely into two parts, namely, the one-dimensional part and the multi-dimensional part. The inputs for auxiliary parts such as minor edit requests and graph formatting inputs are shared by the two parts and as such mixed input is possible. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  18. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  19. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  20. Medical Care Provided Under California's Workers' Compensation Program: Effects of the Reforms and Additional Opportunities to Improve the Quality and Efficiency of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Barbara O; Timbie, Justin W; Sorbero, Melony E

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, significant changes have been made to the California workers' compensation (WC) system. The Commission on Health and Safety and Workers' Compensation (CHSWC) asked the RAND Corporation to examine the impact that these changes have on the medical care provided to injured workers. This study synthesizes findings from interviews and available information regarding the implementation of the changes affecting WC medical care and identifies areas in which additional changes might increase the quality and efficiency of care delivered under the WC system. To improve incentives for efficiently providing medically appropriate care, California should revise its fee schedule allowances for services provided by hospitals to inpatients, freestanding ambulatory surgery centers, and physicians, create nonmonetary incentives for providing medically appropriate care in the medical provider network (MPN) context through more-selective contracting with providers and reducing medical review requirements for high-performing physicians; reduce incentives for inappropriate prescribing practices by curtailing in-office physician dispensing; and implement pharmacy benefit network regulations. To increase accountability for performance, California should revise the MPN certification process to place accountability for meeting MPN standards on the entity contracting with the physician network; strengthen Division of Workers' Compensation (DWC) authorities to provide intermediate sanctions for failure to comply with MPN requirements; and modify the Labor Code to remove payers and MPNs from the definition of individually identifiable data so that performance on key measures can be publicly available. To facilitate monitoring and oversight, California should provide DWC with more flexibility to add needed data elements to medical data reporting and provide penalties for a claim administrator failing to comply with the data-reporting requirements; require that medical cost

  1. Service provider perceptions of telerehabilitation as an additional service delivery option within an Australian neurosurgical and orthopaedic physiotherapy screening clinic: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Michelle A; Hill, Anne J; O'Leary, Shaun P; Raymer, Maree E; Russell, Trevor G

    2017-12-01

    The Neurosurgical & Orthopaedic Physiotherapy Screening Clinic and Multidisciplinary Service (N/OPSC&MDS) originated as a complementary, non-surgical pathway for patients referred to public neurosurgical and orthopaedic specialist services. Patient access to the N/OPSC&MDS could potentially be improved with the implementation of telerehabilitation as an additional method of service delivery. To evaluate service provider's views on (1) current barriers to patients' accessing N/OPSC & MD services, and (2) the implementation of telerehabilitation within the N/OPSC&MDS. Qualitative descriptive study design. Healthcare providers (n = 26) were recruited from six N/OPSC&MD services located throughout Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore service providers' views with respect to existing barriers to patients accessing the N/OPSC&MDS, and if telerehabilitation could be feasibly adopted to address current barriers. Template analysis resulted in six themes: (1) barriers to some patients' accessing current N/OPSC&MD services are complex & multifaceted; (2) telerehabilitation could improve patient access to appropriate management for their musculoskeletal condition; (3) telerehabilitation may have limitations when compared to face-to-face healthcare; (4) the delivery of telerehabilitation needs to be flexible; (5) perceived barriers, and (6) facilitators to the successful implementation of telerehabilitation within the N/OPSC&MDS. This study represents a critical step in determining the readiness of service providers for the implementation of telerehabilitation within the N/OPSC&MDS. Although cautious, service providers are overall accepting of the implementation of telerehabilitation, acknowledging that it could eliminate several current barriers, subsequently achieving more equitable access to the service. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL HYDROPHILIC VERSUS HYDROPHOBIC COAT ON THE QUALITY OF DENTINAL SEALING PROVIDED BY TWO-STEP ETCH-AND-RINSE ADHESIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Safira Marques de Andrade; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira; Marquezini, Luiz; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel; Manso, Adriana Pigozzo; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; de Carvalho, Ricardo Marins

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the quality of the dentinal sealing provided by two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives cannot be altered by the addition of an extra layer of the respective adhesive or the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated resin. Material and Methods: full-crown preparations were acid-etched with phosphoric acid for 15 s and bonded with Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE), Excite DSC (Ivoclar/Vivadent) or Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply). The adhesives were used according to the manufacturers' instructions (control groups) or after application to dentin they were a) covered with an extra coat of each respective system or b) coated with a non-solvated bonding agent (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive, 3M ESPE). Fluid flow rate was measured before and after dentin surfaces were acid-etched and bonded with adhesives. Results: None of the adhesives or experimental treatments was capable to block completely the fluid transudation across the treated dentin. Application of an extra coat of the adhesive did not reduce the fluid flow rate of adhesive-bonded dentin (p>0.05). Conversely, the application of a more hydrophobic non-solvated resin resulted in significant reductions in the fluid flow rate (padhesives. Conclusions: The quality of the dentinal sealing provided by etch-and-rinse adhesives can be significantly improved by the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated bonding agent. PMID:19466248

  3. Robust Fault Detection for Switched Fuzzy Systems With Unknown Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Xun

    2017-10-03

    This paper investigates the fault detection problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems in the T-S fuzzy framework. The unknown input is considered in the systems. A novel fault detection unknown input observer design method is proposed. Based on the proposed observer, the unknown input can be removed from the fault detection residual. The weighted H∞ performance level is considered to ensure the robustness. In addition, the weighted H₋ performance level is introduced, which can increase the sensibility of the proposed detection method. To verify the proposed scheme, a numerical simulation example and an electromechanical system simulation example are provided at the end of this paper.

  4. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, B.W.W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels. - Highlights: • Storage of papaya extended to 28 days whilst retaining commercial quality. • Additive effect of low gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min) and hot-water treatment. • Significant reduction in surface fungal lesions. • No significant impact on colour change or flesh quality during storage

  5. Ultrahigh sensitivity endoscopic camera using a new CMOS image sensor: providing with clear images under low illumination in addition to fluorescent images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hisae; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshiyuki; Fukuyo, Tsuneo; Chiba, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    We developed a new ultrahigh-sensitive CMOS camera using a specific sensor that has a wide range of spectral sensitivity characteristics. The objective of this study is to present our updated endoscopic technology that has successfully integrated two innovative functions; ultrasensitive imaging as well as advanced fluorescent viewing. Two different experiments were conducted. One was carried out to evaluate the function of the ultrahigh-sensitive camera. The other was to test the availability of the newly developed sensor and its performance as a fluorescence endoscope. In both studies, the distance from the endoscopic tip to the target was varied and those endoscopic images in each setting were taken for further comparison. In the first experiment, the 3-CCD camera failed to display the clear images under low illumination, and the target was hardly seen. In contrast, the CMOS camera was able to display the targets regardless of the camera-target distance under low illumination. Under high illumination, imaging quality given by both cameras was quite alike. In the second experiment as a fluorescence endoscope, the CMOS camera was capable of clearly showing the fluorescent-activated organs. The ultrahigh sensitivity CMOS HD endoscopic camera is expected to provide us with clear images under low illumination in addition to the fluorescent images under high illumination in the field of laparoscopic surgery.

  6. TART input manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given

  7. FLUTAN input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Baumann, W.; Willerding, G.

    1991-05-01

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.) [de

  8. Input or intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Navracsics

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.

  9. Smart mobility solution with multiple input Output interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Aartika; Deb, Sujay; Ranjan, Prabhat; Sardar, Arghya

    2017-07-01

    Smart wheelchairs are commonly used to provide solution for mobility impairment. However their usage is limited primarily due to high cost owing from sensors required for giving input, lack of adaptability for different categories of input and limited functionality. In this paper we propose a smart mobility solution using smartphone with inbuilt sensors (accelerometer, camera and speaker) as an input interface. An Emotiv EPOC+ is also used for motor imagery based input control synced with facial expressions in cases of extreme disability. Apart from traction, additional functions like home security and automation are provided using Internet of Things (IoT) and web interfaces. Although preliminary, our results suggest that this system can be used as an integrated and efficient solution for people suffering from mobility impairment. The results also indicate a decent accuracy is obtained for the overall system.

  10. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15... Stakeholder input. Section 103(c)(2) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998... RFAs for competitive programs. CSREES will provide instructions for submission of stakeholder input in...

  11. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  12. Limits on normal cochlear 'third' windows provided by previous investigations of additional sound paths into and out of the cat inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowski, John J; Bowers, Peter; Nakajima, Hideko H

    2018-03-01

    While most models of cochlear function assume the presence of only two windows into the mammalian cochlea (the oval and round windows), a position that is generally supported by several lines of data, there is evidence for additional sound paths into and out of the inner ear in normal mammals. In this report we review the existing evidence for and against the 'two-window' hypothesis. We then determine how existing data and inner-ear anatomy restrict transmission of sound through these additional sound pathways in cat by utilizing a well-tested model of the cat inner ear, together with anatomical descriptions of the cat cochlear and vestibular aqueducts (potential additional windows to the cochlea). We conclude: (1) The existing data place limits on the size of the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts in cat and are consistent with small volume-velocities through these ducts during ossicular stimulation of the cochlea, (2) the predicted volume velocities produced by aqueducts with diameters half the size of the bony diameters match the functional data within ±10 dB, and (3) these additional volume velocity paths contribute to the inner ear's response to non-acoustic stimulation and conductive pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. SSYST-3. Input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyder, R.

    1983-12-01

    The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)

  14. Pomegranate extract and exercise provide additive benefits on improvement of immune function by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Pang, Wentao; Zhang, Ziyi; Zhao, Jialong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ye; Wang, Xun; Feng, Zhihui; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Wenyan; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is reported to be associated with immune dysfunction and a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation. Either pomegranate extract (PomE) or exercise (Ex) has been shown to have antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Nevertheless, no study has addressed the additive benefits of PomE and Ex on the restoration of obesity-induced immune defects. The present work aims to study the effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention on immune function and the underlying mechanism involved in inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the combination of PomE and Ex showed additive benefits on inhibition of HFD-induced body weight increase and improvement of HFD-induced immune dysfunction, including (a) attenuating the abnormality of histomorphology of the spleen, (b) increasing the ratio of the CD4+:CD8+ T cell subpopulations in splenocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), (c) inhibition of apoptosis in splenocytes and PBMC, (d) normalizing peritoneal macrophage phenotypes and (e) restoring immunomodulating factors in serum. We also find that immune dysfunction in HFD-fed rats was associated with increased inflammatory cytokine secretion and oxidative stress biomarkers, and that the combination of PomE and Ex effectively inhibited the inflammatory response and decreased oxidative damage. The effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention is greater than the effect of either PomE or Ex alone, showing that PomE and Ex may be additively effective in improving immune function in HFD-fed rats by inhibiting inflammation and decreasing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The RooPfs study to assess whether improved housing provides additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice in The Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, Margeret; Conteh, Lesong; Jeffries, David

    2016-01-01

    ) and prompt treatment in The Gambia, determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and analyze the housing market in The Gambia. Methods/design A two-armed, household, cluster-randomized, controlled study will be conducted to assess whether improved housing and LLINs combine to provide...

  16. Reprocessing input data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  17. PLEXOS Input Data Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.

  18. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....

  19. Does additional support provided through e-mail or SMS in a Web-based Social Marketing program improve children's food consumption? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelov, Natalie; Della Bella, Sara; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2018-02-16

    The FAN Social Marketing program was developed to improve dietary and physical activity habits of families with children in Ticino, Switzerland. The aim of this study was to examine if the effects of the program on children's food intake differed by intervention group. Effects of the FAN program were tested through a Randomized Controlled Trial. The program lasted 8 weeks, during which participants received tailored communication about nutrition and physical activity. Families were randomly allocated to one of three groups, where the parent received the intervention by the Web (G1), Web + e-mail (G2) or Web + SMS (G3). Children in all groups received tailored print letters by post. Children's food consumption was assessed at baseline and immediate post intervention using a 7-day food diary. Generalized linear mixed models with child as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects were used to test the impact of the intervention. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 608 children. After participating in FAN the marginal means of daily consumption of fruit changed from 0.95 to 1.12 in G1, from 0.82 to 0.94 in G2, and from 0.93 to 1.18 in G3. The margins of the daily consumption of sweets decreased in each group (1.67 to 1.56 in G1, 1.71 to 1.49 in G2, and 1.72 to 1.62 in G3). The change in vegetable consumption observed from pre to post intervention in G3 (from 1.13 to 1.21) was significantly different from that observed in G1 (from 1.21 to 1.17). A well-designed Web-based Social Marketing intervention complemented with print letters can help improve children's consumption of water, fruit, soft drinks, and sweets. The use of SMS to support greater behavior change, in addition to Web-based communication, resulted only in a small significant positive change for vegetables, while the use of e-mail in addition to Web did not result in any significant difference. The trial was retrospectively registered in the

  20. Input description for BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)

  1. Gestures and multimodal input

    OpenAIRE

    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  2. Do wood-based panels made with agro-industrial residues provide environmentally benign alternatives? An LCA case study of sugarcane bagasse addition to particle board manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Diogo Aparecido Lopes; Lahr, Francisco Antonio Rocco; Pavan, Ana Laura Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    environmental impacts? Could it substitute wood as raw material? Accordingly, this paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of particle board manufactured with sugarcane bagasse residues.The cradle-to-gate assessment of 1 m3 of particle board made with sugarcane bagasse (PSB) considered three main...... subsystem was 9.08 % (economic base). The potential environmental impact phase was assessed by applying the CML and USEtox methods. PSB was compared with the conventional particle board manufactured in Brazil by the categories of the CML and USETox, and including land use indicators. Finally, two scenarios......, it is suggested that the sugarcane bagasse be mixed up to 75 % during particle board manufacturing so that good quality properties and environmental performance of panels can be provided....

  3. Enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes in water-ethanol mixtures: negatively charged groups artificially introduced into alpha-chymotrypsin provide additional activation and stabilization effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, E V; Gladilin, A K; Vakurov, A V; Heitz, F; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1997-07-20

    Formation of noncovalent complexes between alpha-chymotrypsin (CT) and a polyelectrolyte, polybrene (PB), has been shown to produce two major effects on enzymatic reactions in binary mixtures of polar organic cosolvents with water. (i) At moderate concentrations of organic cosolvents (10% to 30% v/v), enzymatic activity of CT is higher than in aqueous solutions, and this activation effect is more significant for CT in complex with PB (5- to 7-fold) than for free enzyme (1.5- to 2.5-fold). (ii) The range of cosolvent concentrations that the enzyme tolerates without complete loss of catalytic activity is much broader. For enhancement of enzyme stability in the complex with the polycation, the number of negatively charged groups in the protein has been artificially increased by using chemical modification with pyromellitic and succinic anhydrides. Additional activation effect at moderate concentrations of ethanol and enhanced resistance of the enzyme toward inactivation at high concentrations of the organic solvent have been observed for the modified preparations of CT in the complex with PB as compared with an analogous complex of the native enzyme. Structural changes behind alterations in enzyme activity in water-ethanol mixtures have been studied by the method of circular dichroism (CD). Protein conformation of all CT preparations has not changed significantly up to 30% v/v of ethanol where activation effects in enzymatic catalysis were most pronounced. At higher concentrations of ethanol, structural changes in the protein have been observed for different forms of CT that were well correlated with a decrease in enzymatic activity. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 267-277, 1997.

  4. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local an....... The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels....... and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green...... and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability...

  5. Combined parecoxib and I.V. paracetamol provides additional analgesic effect with better postoperative satisfaction in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ahmed Elseify

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adequacy of postoperative analgesia is one of the most important factors that determine early hospital discharge and patients′ ability to resume their normal activities postoperatively. The optimal non-opioid analgesic technique for postoperative pain management would reduce pain and enhance patient satisfaction, and it also facilitates earlier mobilization and rehabilitation by reducing pain-related complications after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib when used alone, or in combination. Methods : Sixty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA physical status I and II adult patients who were scheduled for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included in this study. Patients were allocated into three groups: group I patients received 1g intravenous paracetamol after induction and another 1 g 4 h later, group II received 40 mg parecoxib after induction, while group III received combination of both drugs (paracetamol 1 g and parecoxib 40 mg. Pain during rest and mobility was assessed in the immediate postoperative period, 2 h and 8 h successively using visual analog scale (VAS. Patient satisfaction was rated according to satisfaction score. Results : Total morphine requirements were lower in group III patients (6.9±2.7 mg in comparison to group I patients (12.6±3.6 mg or group II patients (9.8±2.8 mg. The least VAS scores were recorded during knee movement (3.8±1.1 in group III patients compared to group I (6.0±1.8 and group II patients (4.8±1.9. Eight hours postoperatively, group III patients were more satisfied regarding the postoperative pain management. Conclusion : Combination of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib provided better analgesia and higher patient satisfaction than each drug when used separately.

  6. Mars 2.2 code manual: input requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kyung Doo; Lee, Seung Wook; Bae, Sung Won

    2003-07-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This input manual provides a complete list of input required to run MARS. The manual is divided largely into two parts, namely, the one-dimensional part and the multi-dimensional part. The inputs for auxiliary parts such as minor edit requests and graph formatting inputs are shared by the two parts and as such mixed input is possible. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS. MARS development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  7. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  8. Input measurements in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trincherini, P.R.; Facchetti, S.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to give a review of the methods and the problems encountered in measurements in 'input accountability tanks' of irradiated fuel treatment plants. This study was prompted by the conviction that more and more precise techniques and methods should be at the service of safeguards organizations and that ever greater efforts should be directed towards promoting knowledge of them among operators and all those general area of interest includes the nuclear fuel cycle. The overall intent is to show the necessity of selecting methods which produce measurements which are not only more precise but are absolutely reliable both for routine plant operation and for safety checks in the input area. A description and a critical evaluation of the most common physical and chemical methods are provided, together with an estimate of the precision and accuracy obtained in real operating conditions

  9. Discrete Input Signaling for MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine; Rezki, Zouheir; Ghrayeb, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication (VLC) links for discrete input distributions. We consider single user single eavesdropper multiple-input single-output (MISO) links. In addition, both beamforming

  10. Usability Improvement for Data Input into the Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool (FAST)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, James C

    2005-01-01

    ...) data input mode than using the graphic schedule input mode. The Grid input mode provided both a statistically and an operationally significant reduction in data input time, compared to the Graphic mode for both novice...

  11. FLUTAN 2.0. Input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willerding, G.; Baumann, W.

    1996-05-01

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in Cartesian or cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA, and particularly to COMMIX-1A and COMMIX-1B, which were made available to FZK in the frame of cooperation contracts within the fast reactor safety field. FLUTAN 2.0 is an improved version of the FLUTAN code released in 1992. It offers some additional innovations, e.g. the QUICK-LECUSSO-FRAM techniques for reducing numerical diffusion in the k-ε turbulence model equations; a higher sophisticated wall model for specifying a mass flow outside the surface walls together with its flow path and its associated inlet and outlet flow temperatures; and a revised and upgraded pressure boundary condition to fully include the outlet cells in the solution process of the conservation equations. Last but not least, a so-called visualization option based on VISART standards has been provided. This report contains detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains how to use the code by means of comprehensive sample input. (orig.) [de

  12. GARFEM input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.

  13. GAROS input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollan, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the input for the programs GAROS1 and GAROS2, version 5.8 and later, February 1988. The GAROS system, developed by Arne Vollan, Omega GmbH, is used for the analysis of the mechanical and aeroelastic properties for general rotating systems. It has been specially designed to meet the requirements of aeroelastic stability and dynamic response of horizontal axis wind energy converters. Some of the special characteristics are: * The rotor may have one or more blades. * The blades may be rigidly attached to the hub, or they may be fully articulated. * The full elastic properties of the blades, the hub, the machine house and the tower are taken into account. * With the same basic model, a number of different analyses can be performed: Snap-shot analysis, Floquet method, transient response analysis, frequency response analysis etc.

  14. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...

  15. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....

  16. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  17. Intraglomerular inhibition maintains mitral cell response contrast across input frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Shipley, Michael T

    2013-11-01

    Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs); ETCs provide additional feed-forward excitation to MTCs. Both are strongly regulated by intraglomerular inhibition that can last up to 1 s and, when blocked, dramatically increases ON-evoked MC spiking. Intraglomerular inhibition thus limits the magnitude and duration of MC spike responses to sensory input. In vivo, sensory input is repetitive, dictated by sniffing rates from 1 to 8 Hz, potentially summing intraglomerular inhibition. To investigate this, we recorded MTC responses to 1- to 8-Hz ON stimulation in slices. Inhibitory postsynaptic current area (charge) following each ON stimulation was unchanged from 1 to 5 Hz and modestly paired-pulse attenuated at 8 Hz, suggesting there is no summation and only limited decrement at the highest input frequencies. Next, we investigated frequency independence of intraglomerular inhibition on MC spiking. MCs respond to single ON shocks with an initial spike burst followed by reduced spiking decaying to baseline. Upon repetitive ON stimulation peak spiking is identical across input frequencies but the ratio of peak-to-minimum rate before the stimulus (max-min) diminishes from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 15:1 at 8 Hz. When intraglomerular inhibition is selectively blocked, peak spike rate is unchanged but trough spiking increases markedly decreasing max-min firing ratios from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 2:1 at 8 Hz. Together, these results suggest intraglomerular inhibition is relatively frequency independent and can "sharpen" MC responses to input across the range of frequencies. This suggests that glomerular circuits can maintain "contrast" in MC encoding during sniff-sampled inputs.

  18. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops

  19. CBM First-level Event Selector Input Interface Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Dirk; de Cuveland, Jan; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2017-10-01

    CBM is a heavy-ion experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Featuring self-triggered front-end electronics and free-streaming read-out, event selection will exclusively be done by the First Level Event Selector (FLES). Designed as an HPC cluster with several hundred nodes its task is an online analysis and selection of the physics data at a total input data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. To allow efficient event selection, the FLES performs timeslice building, which combines the data from all given input links to self-contained, potentially overlapping processing intervals and distributes them to compute nodes. Partitioning the input data streams into specialized containers allows performing this task very efficiently. The FLES Input Interface defines the linkage between the FEE and the FLES data transport framework. A custom FPGA PCIe board, the FLES Interface Board (FLIB), is used to receive data via optical links and transfer them via DMA to the host’s memory. The current prototype of the FLIB features a Kintex-7 FPGA and provides up to eight 10 GBit/s optical links. A custom FPGA design has been developed for this board. DMA transfers and data structures are optimized for subsequent timeslice building. Index tables generated by the FPGA enable fast random access to the written data containers. In addition the DMA target buffers can directly serve as InfiniBand RDMA source buffers without copying the data. The usage of POSIX shared memory for these buffers allows data access from multiple processes. An accompanying HDL module has been developed to integrate the FLES link into the front-end FPGA designs. It implements the front-end logic interface as well as the link protocol. Prototypes of all Input Interface components have been implemented and integrated into the FLES test framework. This allows the implementation and evaluation of the foreseen CBM read-out chain.

  20. Atmospheric Inputs of Nitrogen, Carbon, and Phosphorus across an Urban Area: Unaccounted Fluxes and Canopy Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, Stephen M.; Templer, Pamela H.; Hutyra, Lucy R.

    2018-02-01

    Rates of atmospheric deposition are declining across the United States, yet urban areas remain hotspots of atmospheric deposition. While past studies show elevated rates of inorganic nitrogen (N) deposition in cities, less is known about atmospheric inputs of organic N, organic carbon (C), and organic and inorganic phosphorus (P), all of which can affect ecosystem processes, water quality, and air quality. Further, the effect of the tree canopy on amounts and forms of nutrients reaching urban ground surfaces is not well-characterized. We measured growing season rates of total N, organic C, and total P in bulk atmospheric inputs, throughfall, and soil solution around the greater Boston area. We found that organic N constitutes a third of total N inputs, organic C inputs are comparable to rural inputs, and inorganic P inputs are 1.2 times higher than those in sewage effluent. Atmospheric inputs are enhanced two-to-eight times in late spring and are elevated beneath tree canopies, suggesting that trees augment atmospheric inputs to ground surfaces. Additionally, throughfall inputs may directly enter runoff when trees extend above impervious surfaces, as is the case with 26.1% of Boston's tree canopy. Our results indicate that the urban atmosphere is a significant source of elemental inputs that may impact urban ecosystems and efforts to improve water quality, particularly in terms of P. Further, as cities create policies encouraging tree planting to provide ecosystem services, locating trees above permeable surfaces to reduce runoff nutrient loads may be essential to managing urban biogeochemical cycling and water quality.

  1. Responses of tree and insect herbivores to elevated nitrogen inputs: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furong; Dudley, Tom L.; Chen, Baoming; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liang, Liyin; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs have the potential to alter terrestrial ecosystem function through impacts on plant-herbivore interactions. The goal of our study is to search for a general pattern in responses of tree characteristics important for herbivores and insect herbivorous performance to elevated N inputs. We conducted a meta-analysis based on 109 papers describing impacts of nitrogen inputs on tree characteristics and 16 papers on insect performance. The differences in plant characteristics and insect performance between broadleaves and conifers were also explored. Tree aboveground biomass, leaf biomass and leaf N concentration significantly increased under elevated N inputs. Elevated N inputs had no significantly overall effect on concentrations of phenolic compounds and lignin but adversely affected tannin, as defensive chemicals for insect herbivores. Additionally, the overall effect of insect herbivore performance (including development time, insect biomass, relative growth rate, and so on) was significantly increased by elevated N inputs. According to the inconsistent responses between broadleaves and conifers, broadleaves would be more likely to increase growth by light interception and photosynthesis rather than producing more defensive chemicals to elevated N inputs by comparison with conifers. Moreover, the overall carbohydrate concentration was significantly reduced by 13.12% in broadleaves while increased slightly in conifers. The overall tannin concentration decreased significantly by 39.21% in broadleaves but a 5.8% decrease in conifers was not significant. The results of the analysis indicated that elevated N inputs would provide more food sources and ameliorate tree palatability for insects, while the resistance of trees against their insect herbivores was weakened, especially for broadleaves. Thus, global forest insect pest problems would be aggravated by elevated N inputs. As N inputs continue to rise in the future, forest

  2. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  3. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  4. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  5. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  6. Phasing Out a Polluting Input

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Clas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores economic policies related to the potential conflict between economic growth and the environment. It applies a model with directed technological change and focuses on the case with low elasticity of substitution between clean and dirty inputs in production. New technology is substituted for the polluting input, which results in a gradual decline in pollution along the optimal long-run growth path. In contrast to some recent work, the era of pollution and environmental polic...

  7. A Three-Phase Dual-Input Matrix Converter for Grid Integration of Two AC Type Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Chiang Loh, Poh

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel dual-input matrix converter (DIMC) to integrate two three-phase ac type energy resources to a power grid. The proposed matrix converter is developed based on the traditional indirect matrix converter under reverse power flow operation mode, but with its six......-to-output voltage boost capability since power flows from the converter’s voltage source side to its current source side. Commanded currents can be extracted from the two input sources to the grid. The proposed control and modulation schemes guarantee sinusoidal input and output waveforms as well as unity input......-switch voltage source converter replaced by a nine-switch configuration. With the additional three switches, the proposed DIMC can provide six in put terminals, which make it possible to integrate two independent ac sources into a single grid-tied power electronics interface. The proposed converter has input...

  8. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events; O drone como fator adicional de risco decorrente de condicoes nao previstas na seguranca radiologica em grandes eventos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  9. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  10. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  11. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  12. Parameter setting and input reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; van Kampen, N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126439737

    2008-01-01

    The language acquisition procedure identifies certain properties of the target grammar before others. The evidence from the input is processed in a stepwise order. Section 1 equates that order and its typical effects with an order of parameter setting. The question is how the acquisition procedure

  13. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  14. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  15. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  16. Accountability Requirements in the Cloud Provider Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gilje Jaatun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to be responsible stewards of other people’s data, cloud providers must be accountable for their data handling practices. The potential long provider chains in cloud computing introduce additional accountability challenges, with many stakeholders involved. Symmetry is very important in any requirements’ elicitation activity, since input from diverse stakeholders needs to be balanced. This article ventures to answer the question “How can one create an accountable cloud service?” by examining requirements which must be fulfilled to achieve an accountability-based approach, based on interaction with over 300 stakeholders.

  17. INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS : THE NEXT 25 YEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lenzen, Manfred; Los, Bart; Guan, Dabo; Lahr, Michael L.; Sancho, Ferran; Suh, Sangwon; Yang, Cuihong; Sancho, S.

    2013-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Input-Output Association and the 25th volume of Economic Systems Research. To celebrate this anniversary, a group of eight experts provide their views on the future of input-output. Looking forward, they foresee progress in terms of data

  18. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  19. Mobile gaze input system for pervasive interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    feedback to the user in response to the received command input. The unit provides feedback to the user on how to position the mobile unit in front of his eyes. The gaze tracking unit interacts with one or more controlled devices via wireless or wired communications. Example devices include a lock......, a thermostat, a light or a TV. The connection between the gaze tracking unit may be temporary or longer-lasting. The gaze tracking unit may detect features of the eye that provide information about the identity of the user....

  20. High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.

  1. High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.

  2. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  3. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  4. Discretizing LTI Descriptor (Regular Differential Input Systems with Consistent Initial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios D. Karageorgos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for discretizing efficiently the solution of a Linear descriptor (regular differential input system with consistent initial conditions, and Time-Invariant coefficients (LTI is introduced and fully discussed. Additionally, an upper bound for the error ‖x¯(kT−x¯k‖ that derives from the procedure of discretization is also provided. Practically speaking, we are interested in such kind of systems, since they are inherent in many physical, economical and engineering phenomena.

  5. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  6. Early hCG addition to rFSH for ovarian stimulation in IVF provides better results and the cDNA copies of the hCG receptor may be an indicator of successful stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevis Dimitris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple, safe and cost-effective treatment protocol in ovarian stimulation is of great importance in IVF practice, especially in the case of previous unsuccessful attempts. hCG has been used as a substitute of LH because of the degree of homology between the two hormones. The main aim of this prospective randomized study was to determine, for the first time, whether low dose hCG added to rFSH for ovarian stimulation could produce better results compared to the addition of rLH in women entering IVF-ET, especially in those women that had previous IVF failures. An additional aim was to find an indicator that would allow us to follow-up ovarian stimulation and, possibly, modify it in order to achieve a better IVF outcome; and that indicator may be the cDNA copies of the LH/hCG receptor. Group A patients (n = 58 were administered hCG and Group B rLH (n = 56 in addition to rFSH in the first days of ovarian stimulation. The number of follicles and oocytes and, most importantly, implantation and pregnancy rates were shown to be statistically significantly higher in the hCG group. This study has also determined, for the first time to our best knowledge, m-RNA for LH/hCG receptors in the lymphocytes of peripheral blood 40 h before ovum pick-up. cDNA levels of the hCG receptor after ovarian stimulation were significantly higher among women receiving hCG compared to those receiving LH. In addition, higher levels were encountered among women with pregnancy compared to those without, although this was not statistically significant due to the small number of pregnancies. It seems that hCG permits a highly effective and more stable occupancy of rLH/hCG receptors and gives more follicles and more oocytes. The determination of cDNA copies could be, in the future, a marker during ovulation induction protocols and of course a predictor for the outcome of ART in the special subgroup of patients with previous failures.

  7. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  8. Optimal Input Strategy for Plug and Play Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of optimal operation of a plant, which goal is to maintain production at minimum cost. The system considered in this work consists of a joined plant and redundant input systems. It is assumed that each input system contributes to a flow of goods into the joined pa...... the performance of the plant. The results are applied to a coal fired power plant where an additional new fuel system, gas, becomes available....

  9. Response of spiking neurons to correlated inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Ruben; Rocha, Jaime de la; Renart, Alfonso; Parga, Nestor

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a temporally correlated afferent current on the firing rate of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron is studied. This current is characterized in terms of rates, autocorrelations, and cross correlations, and correlation time scale τ c of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. The output rate ν out is calculated in the Fokker-Planck formalism in the limit of both small and large τ c compared to the membrane time constant τ of the neuron. By simulations we check the analytical results, provide an interpolation valid for all τ c , and study the neuron's response to rapid changes in the correlation magnitude

  10. On Optimal Input Design and Model Selection for Communication Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal model (structure) selection and input design which minimize the worst case identification error for communication systems are provided. The problem is formulated using metric complexity theory in a Hilbert space setting. It is pointed out that model selection and input design can be handled independently. Kolmogorov n-width is used to characterize the representation error introduced by model selection, while Gel fand and Time n-widths are used to represent the inherent error introduced by input design. After the model is selected, an optimal input which minimizes the worst case identification error is shown to exist. In particular, it is proven that the optimal model for reducing the representation error is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) model, and the optimal input is an impulse at the start of the observation interval. FIR models are widely popular in communication systems, such as, in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems.

  11. Spatiotemporal coding of inputs for a system of globally coupled phase oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, John; Ashwin, Peter

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal coding of low amplitude inputs to a simple system of globally coupled phase oscillators with coupling function g(ϕ)=-sin(ϕ+α)+rsin(2ϕ+β) that has robust heteroclinic cycles (slow switching between cluster states). The inputs correspond to detuning of the oscillators. It was recently noted that globally coupled phase oscillators can encode their frequencies in the form of spatiotemporal codes of a sequence of cluster states [P. Ashwin, G. Orosz, J. Wordsworth, and S. Townley, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst. 6, 728 (2007)]. Concentrating on the case of N=5 oscillators we show in detail how the spatiotemporal coding can be used to resolve all of the information that relates the individual inputs to each other, providing that a long enough time series is considered. We investigate robustness to the addition of noise and find a remarkable stability, especially of the temporal coding, to the addition of noise even for noise of a comparable magnitude to the inputs.

  12. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  13. Chemical sensors are hybrid-input memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, V. I.; Arkhipov, V. E.; Okotrub, A. V.; Pershin, Y. V.

    2018-04-01

    Memristors are two-terminal electronic devices whose resistance depends on the history of input signal (voltage or current). Here we demonstrate that the chemical gas sensors can be considered as memristors with a generalized (hybrid) input, namely, with the input consisting of the voltage, analyte concentrations and applied temperature. The concept of hybrid-input memristors is demonstrated experimentally using a single-walled carbon nanotubes chemical sensor. It is shown that with respect to the hybrid input, the sensor exhibits some features common with memristors such as the hysteretic input-output characteristics. This different perspective on chemical gas sensors may open new possibilities for smart sensor applications.

  14. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants

  15. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  16. Input Shaping to Reduce Solar Array Structural Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael J.; Tolson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural vibrations induced by actuators can be minimized using input shaping. Input shaping is a feedforward method in which actuator commands are convolved with shaping functions to yield a shaped set of commands. These commands are designed to perform the maneuver while minimizing the residual structural vibration. In this report, input shaping is extended to stepper motor actuators. As a demonstration, an input-shaping technique based on pole-zero cancellation was used to modify the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) actuator commands for the Lewis satellite. A series of impulses were calculated as the ideal SADA output for vibration control. These impulses were then discretized for use by the SADA stepper motor actuator and simulated actuator outputs were used to calculate the structural response. The effectiveness of input shaping is limited by the accuracy of the knowledge of the modal frequencies. Assuming perfect knowledge resulted in significant vibration reduction. Errors of 10% in the modal frequencies caused notably higher levels of vibration. Controller robustness was improved by incorporating additional zeros in the shaping function. The additional zeros did not require increased performance from the actuator. Despite the identification errors, the resulting feedforward controller reduced residual vibrations to the level of the exactly modeled input shaper and well below the baseline cases. These results could be easily applied to many other vibration-sensitive applications involving stepper motor actuators.

  17. User input verification and test driven development in the NJOY21 nuclear data processing code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, Amelia Jo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCartney, Austin Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-21

    Before physically-meaningful data can be used in nuclear simulation codes, the data must be interpreted and manipulated by a nuclear data processing code so as to extract the relevant quantities (e.g. cross sections and angular distributions). Perhaps the most popular and widely-trusted of these processing codes is NJOY, which has been developed and improved over the course of 10 major releases since its creation at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970’s. The current phase of NJOY development is the creation of NJOY21, which will be a vast improvement from its predecessor, NJOY2016. Designed to be fast, intuitive, accessible, and capable of handling both established and modern formats of nuclear data, NJOY21 will address many issues that many NJOY users face, while remaining functional for those who prefer the existing format. Although early in its development, NJOY21 is quickly providing input validation to check user input. By providing rapid and helpful responses to users while writing input files, NJOY21 will prove to be more intuitive and easy to use than any of its predecessors. Furthermore, during its development, NJOY21 is subject to regular testing, such that its test coverage must strictly increase with the addition of any production code. This thorough testing will allow developers and NJOY users to establish confidence in NJOY21 as it gains functionality. This document serves as a discussion regarding the current state input checking and testing practices of NJOY21.

  18. Sound effects: Multimodal input helps infants find displaced objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinskey, Jeanne L

    2017-09-01

    Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark. Infants succeeded more at B with audible than silent objects and, unexpectedly, more after delays in the light than dark. Experiment 2 presented both the delay and search phases in darkness. The unexpected light-dark difference disappeared. Across experiments, the presence of auditory input helped infants find displaced objects, whereas the absence of visual input did not. Sound might help by strengthening object representation, reducing memory load, or focusing attention. This work provides new evidence on when bimodal input aids object processing, corroborates claims that audiovisual processing improves over the first year of life, and contributes to multisensory approaches to studying cognition. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion. This suggests they find auditory input more salient in the absence of visual input in simple search tasks. After 9 months, infants' object processing appears more sensitive to multimodal (e.g., audiovisual) input. What does this study add? This study tested how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for an object displaced in an AB task. Sound helped infants find displaced objects in both the presence and absence of visual input. Object processing becomes more

  19. Changes in Soil Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in Response to Altered Above- and Belowground Vegetation Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Schuetze, C.; Cuntz, M.; García-Quirós, I.; Dienstbach, L.; Schrumpf, M.; Rebmann, C.

    2016-12-01

    The stimulation of vegetation productivity in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can potentially compensate climate change feedbacks. However, this will depend on the allocation of C resources of vegetation into biomass production versus root exudates and on the feedbacks with soil microorganisms. These dynamic adjustments of vegetation will result on changes in above- and belowground productivity and on the amount of C exported to root exudates. Consequent alteration of litter and rhizosphere detritus inputs to the soil and their interaction on controlling soil C sequestration capacity has been, however, rarely assessed. We hypothesize that above- and belowground vegetation exert a synergistic control of soil CO2 emissions, and that the activation of soil organic matter mineralization by the addition of labile organic substrates (i.e.: the priming effect) is altered by changes in the amount and in the quality of the carbon inputs. In order to elucidate these questions, different levels of litter addition were implemented on trenched (root exclusion) and non-trenched plots (with roots) in a temperate deciduous forest. Changes in the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture were detected by measuring CO2 fluxes continuously at high temporal resolution with automatic chambers, whereas the spatial and seasonal variability was determined using portable chambers. Annual changes in soil carbon and nitrogen stocks provide additional information on the soil carbon sequestration in response to above- and belowground inputs. Both roots and litter inputs significantly enhanced soil CO2 effluxes soon after the implementation of the experiment. We detected synergistic effects between roots and litter inputs on soil CO2 emissions: When roots were present, carbon mineralized in response to litter addition was much higher than the total amount of carbon added in litter (ca. 170 g C m-2 y-1). Preliminary results of this study suggest that labile

  20. Measuring the Efficiency of Financial Inputs for Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan

    2009-01-01

    This study employs data on small businesses from the Office of Advocacy for the U.S. Small Business Administration, along with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Call Report data for U.S. commercial banks. It examines the efficiency of the impact of the financial inputs on small business entrepreneurial output. This study provides a metric to capture financial input efficiency to the entrepreneurial process. The metric obtained from this analysis is useful for identification and adopti...

  1. Intelligent RF-Based Gesture Input Devices Implemented Using e-Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Hughes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an radio-frequency (RF-based approach to gesture detection and recognition, using e-textile versions of common transmission lines used in microwave circuits. This approach allows for easy fabrication of input swatches that can detect a continuum of finger positions and similarly basic gestures, using a single measurement line. We demonstrate that the swatches can perform gesture detection when under thin layers of cloth or when weatherproofed, providing a high level of versatility not present with other types of approaches. Additionally, using small convolutional neural networks, low-level gestures can be identified with a high level of accuracy using a small, inexpensive microcontroller, allowing for an intelligent fabric that reports only gestures of interest, rather than a simple sensor requiring constant surveillance from an external computing device. The resulting e-textile smart composite has applications in controlling wearable devices by providing a simple, eyes-free mechanism to input simple gestures.

  2. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  3. Textual Enhancement of Input: Issues and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ZhaoHong; Park, Eun Sung; Combs, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The input enhancement hypothesis proposed by Sharwood Smith (1991, 1993) has stimulated considerable research over the last 15 years. This article reviews the research on textual enhancement of input (TE), an area where the majority of input enhancement studies have aggregated. Methodological idiosyncrasies are the norm of this body of research.…

  4. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.607 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety of forums...

  5. Do prehospital discharge pacemaker checks provide any additional clinical benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelan, Kevin R; Legge, Darlene M; Sakowski, Brent C; Bruce, Susan S; Roberts, David C; Johnston, L Murphy; Moore, B Jane; Beveridge, Thomas P; Wells, Peter J; Vallabahn, Ravi; Donsky, Michael S; Franklin, Jay O

    2005-08-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 250 records of consecutive, newly implanted, pacemaker patients from a single center to determine the rate of postimplant complications and observations discovered before and during the prehospital discharge evaluation. No observations occurred in 246 of 250 patients (98.4%) (1-sided 95% confidence interval 96.4%). Of the 250 patients, 4 had observations that were discovered at the prehospital discharge check and required reprogramming to increase the sensitivity safety margin (3 atrial and 1 ventricular). We documented only 1 complication that was discovered before the predischarge evaluation through telemetry and resulted in an atrial lead revision.

  6. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2014-01-01

    Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

  7. Turn customer input into innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis.

  8. Input variable selection for interpolating high-resolution climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the primary input data of climate interpolations are usually meteorological data, other related (independent) variables are frequently incorporated in the interpolation process. One such variable is elevation, which is known to have a strong influence on climate. This research investigates the potential of 4 additional ...

  9. Combining symbolic cues with sensory input and prior experience in an iterative Bayesian framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederike Hermi Petzschner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception and action are the result of an integration of various sources of information, such as current sensory input, prior experience, or the context in which a stimulus occurs. Often, the interpretation is not trivial hence needs to be learned from the co-occurrence of stimuli. Yet, how do we combine such diverse information to guide our action?Here we use a distance production-reproduction task to investigate the influence of auxiliary, symbolic cues, sensory input, and prior experience on human performance under three different conditions that vary in the information provided. Our results indicate that subjects can (1 learn the mapping of a verbal, symbolic cue onto the stimulus dimension and (2 integrate symbolic information and prior experience into their estimate of displacements.The behavioral results are explained by to two distinct generative models that represent different structural approaches of how a Bayesian observer would combine prior experience, sensory input, and symbolic cue information into a single estimate of displacement. The first model interprets the symbolic cue in the context of categorization, assuming that it reflects information about a distinct underlying stimulus range (categorical model. The second model applies a multi-modal integration approach and treats the symbolic cue as additional sensory input to the system, which is combined with the current sensory measurement and the subjects’ prior experience (cue-combination model. Notably, both models account equally well for the observed behavior despite their different structural assumptions. The present work thus provides evidence that humans can interpret abstract symbolic information and combine it with other types of information such as sensory input and prior experience. The similar explanatory power of the two models further suggest that issues such as categorization and cue-combination could be explained by alternative probabilistic approaches.

  10. A novel three-input monomolecular logic circuit on a rhodamine inspired bio-compatible bi-compartmental molecular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistri, Tarun; Bhowmick, Rahul; Katarkar, Atul; Chaudhuri, Keya; Ali, Mahammad

    2017-01-01

    Methodological synthesis of a new biocompatible bi-compartmental rhodamine based probe (L 3 ) provides a multi-inputs and multi-outputs molecular logic circuit based on simple chemosensing phenomena. Spectroscopic responses of Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ towards L 3 together with reversible binding of S 2- with L 3 -Cu 2+ and L 3 -Hg 2+ complexes help us to construct a thee-input molecular circuit on their control and sequential addition to a solution of L 3 in a mixed organo-aqueous medium. We have further successfully encoded binary digits out of these inputs and outputs which may convert a three-digit input string into a two-digit output string resulting a simple monomolecular logic circuit. Such a molecular ‘Boolean’ logic operation may improve the complexity of logic gate circuitry and computational speed and may be useful to employ in potential biocompatible molecular logic platforms. - Graphical abstract: A new bi-compartmental molecular system equipped with Rhodamine fluorophore unit provides a Multi-inputs and Multi-outputs Molecular Logic Circuit based on a very simple observation of chemosensing activities.

  11. A novel three-input monomolecular logic circuit on a rhodamine inspired bio-compatible bi-compartmental molecular platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistri, Tarun; Bhowmick, Rahul [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Katarkar, Atul; Chaudhuri, Keya [Molecular & Human Genetics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ali, Mahammad, E-mail: mali@chemistry.jdvu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Methodological synthesis of a new biocompatible bi-compartmental rhodamine based probe (L{sup 3}) provides a multi-inputs and multi-outputs molecular logic circuit based on simple chemosensing phenomena. Spectroscopic responses of Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} towards L{sup 3} together with reversible binding of S{sup 2-} with L{sup 3}-Cu{sup 2+} and L{sup 3}-Hg{sup 2+} complexes help us to construct a thee-input molecular circuit on their control and sequential addition to a solution of L{sup 3} in a mixed organo-aqueous medium. We have further successfully encoded binary digits out of these inputs and outputs which may convert a three-digit input string into a two-digit output string resulting a simple monomolecular logic circuit. Such a molecular ‘Boolean’ logic operation may improve the complexity of logic gate circuitry and computational speed and may be useful to employ in potential biocompatible molecular logic platforms. - Graphical abstract: A new bi-compartmental molecular system equipped with Rhodamine fluorophore unit provides a Multi-inputs and Multi-outputs Molecular Logic Circuit based on a very simple observation of chemosensing activities.

  12. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.

  13. Discrete Input Signaling for MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-05-12

    In this paper, we study the achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication (VLC) links for discrete input distributions. We consider single user single eavesdropper multiple-input single-output (MISO) links. In addition, both beamforming and robust beamforming are considered. In the former case, the location of the eavesdropper is assumed to be known, whereas in the latter case, the location of the eavesdropper is unknown. We compare the obtained results with those achieved by some continuous distributions including the truncated generalized normal (TGN) distribution and the uniform distribution. We numerically show that the secrecy rate achieved by the discrete input distribution with a finite support is significantly improved as compared to those achieved by the TGN and the uniform distributions.

  14. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  15. Global sensitivity analysis of computer models with functional inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, Bertrand; Ribatet, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is used to quantify the influence of uncertain model inputs on the response variability of a numerical model. The common quantitative methods are appropriate with computer codes having scalar model inputs. This paper aims at illustrating different variance-based sensitivity analysis techniques, based on the so-called Sobol's indices, when some model inputs are functional, such as stochastic processes or random spatial fields. In this work, we focus on large cpu time computer codes which need a preliminary metamodeling step before performing the sensitivity analysis. We propose the use of the joint modeling approach, i.e., modeling simultaneously the mean and the dispersion of the code outputs using two interlinked generalized linear models (GLMs) or generalized additive models (GAMs). The 'mean model' allows to estimate the sensitivity indices of each scalar model inputs, while the 'dispersion model' allows to derive the total sensitivity index of the functional model inputs. The proposed approach is compared to some classical sensitivity analysis methodologies on an analytical function. Lastly, the new methodology is applied to an industrial computer code that simulates the nuclear fuel irradiation.

  16. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  17. READDATA: a FORTRAN 77 codeword input package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A new codeword input package has been produced as a result of the incompatibility between different dialects of FORTRAN, especially when character variables are passed as parameters. This report is for those who wish to use a codeword input package with FORTRAN 77. The package, called ''Readdata'', attempts to combine the best features of its predecessors such as BINPUT and pseudo-BINPUT. (author)

  18. CREATING INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR RIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to create tables for input into RIP ver. 5.18 (Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems) from WAPDEG ver. 3.06 (Waste Package Degradation) output. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables for TSPA-VA REV.00

  19. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  20. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillerman, Joshua; Fredian, Thomas; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud

  1. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  2. Input and Age-Dependent Variation in Second Language Learning: A Connectionist Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janciauskas, Marius; Chang, Franklin

    2017-07-26

    Language learning requires linguistic input, but several studies have found that knowledge of second language (L2) rules does not seem to improve with more language exposure (e.g., Johnson & Newport, 1989). One reason for this is that previous studies did not factor out variation due to the different rules tested. To examine this issue, we reanalyzed grammaticality judgment scores in Flege, Yeni-Komshian, and Liu's (1999) study of L2 learners using rule-related predictors and found that, in addition to the overall drop in performance due to a sensitive period, L2 knowledge increased with years of input. Knowledge of different grammar rules was negatively associated with input frequency of those rules. To better understand these effects, we modeled the results using a connectionist model that was trained using Korean as a first language (L1) and then English as an L2. To explain the sensitive period in L2 learning, the model's learning rate was reduced in an age-related manner. By assigning different learning rates for syntax and lexical learning, we were able to model the difference between early and late L2 learners in input sensitivity. The model's learning mechanism allowed transfer between the L1 and L2, and this helped to explain the differences between different rules in the grammaticality judgment task. This work demonstrates that an L1 model of learning and processing can be adapted to provide an explicit account of how the input and the sensitive period interact in L2 learning. © 2017 The Authors. Cognitive Science - A Multidisciplinary Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. RIP INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR LA DESIGN SELECTION: ENHANCED DESIGN ALTERNATIVE V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b, Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. Performance credit of the inner barrier material is not taken in this calculation. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative V are provided in a Design Input Request (CRWMS M and O 1999e, Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations, Item 3)

  4. Statistical identification of effective input variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications

  5. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  6. Framework for Modelling Multiple Input Complex Aggregations for Interactive Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Nicolas; Andreasen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    on fuzzy logic and provides a method for variably balancing interaction and user input with the intention of the artist or director. An experimental design is presented, demonstrating an intuitive interface for parametric modelling of a complex aggregation function. The aggregation function unifies...

  7. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...

  8. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  9. An improved input shaping design for an efficient sway control of a nonlinear 3D overhead crane with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Mohammad Javad; Mohamed, Z.; Sudin, S.; Buyamin, S.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ahmad, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes an improved input shaping scheme for an efficient sway control of a nonlinear three dimensional (3D) overhead crane with friction using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Using this approach, a higher payload sway reduction is obtained as the input shaper is designed based on a complete nonlinear model, as compared to the analytical-based input shaping scheme derived using a linear second order model. Zero Vibration (ZV) and Distributed Zero Vibration (DZV) shapers are designed using both analytical and PSO approaches for sway control of rail and trolley movements. To test the effectiveness of the proposed approach, MATLAB simulations and experiments on a laboratory 3D overhead crane are performed under various conditions involving different cable lengths and sway frequencies. Their performances are studied based on a maximum residual of payload sway and Integrated Absolute Error (IAE) values which indicate total payload sway of the crane. With experiments, the superiority of the proposed approach over the analytical-based is shown by 30-50% reductions of the IAE values for rail and trolley movements, for both ZV and DZV shapers. In addition, simulations results show higher sway reductions with the proposed approach. It is revealed that the proposed PSO-based input shaping design provides higher payload sway reductions of a 3D overhead crane with friction as compared to the commonly designed input shapers.

  10. Automation of Geometry Input for Building Code Compliance Check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Johansen, Peter Lind; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    Documentation of compliance with the energy performance regulations at the end of the detailed design phase is mandatory for building owners in Denmark. Therefore, besides multidisciplinary input, the building design process requires various iterative analyses, so that the optimal solutions can....... That has left the industry in constant pursuit of possibilities for integration of the tool within the Building Information Modelling environment so that the potential provided by the latter can be harvested and the processed can be optimized. This paper presents a solution for automated data extraction...... from building geometry created in Autodesk Revit and its translation to input for compliance check analysis....

  11. Input and language development in bilingually developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2013-11-01

    Language skills in young bilingual children are highly varied as a result of the variability in their language experiences, making it difficult for speech-language pathologists to differentiate language disorder from language difference in bilingual children. Understanding the sources of variability in bilingual contexts and the resulting variability in children's skills will help improve language assessment practices by speech-language pathologists. In this article, we review literature on bilingual first language development for children under 5 years of age. We describe the rate of development in single and total language growth, we describe effects of quantity of input and quality of input on growth, and we describe effects of family composition on language input and language growth in bilingual children. We provide recommendations for language assessment of young bilingual children and consider implications for optimizing children's dual language development. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Incorporating uncertainty in RADTRAN 6.0 input files.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John (Alion Science and Technology)

    2010-02-01

    Uncertainty may be introduced into RADTRAN analyses by distributing input parameters. The MELCOR Uncertainty Engine (Gauntt and Erickson, 2004) has been adapted for use in RADTRAN to determine the parameter shape and minimum and maximum of the distribution, to sample on the distribution, and to create an appropriate RADTRAN batch file. Coupling input parameters is not possible in this initial application. It is recommended that the analyst be very familiar with RADTRAN and able to edit or create a RADTRAN input file using a text editor before implementing the RADTRAN Uncertainty Analysis Module. Installation of the MELCOR Uncertainty Engine is required for incorporation of uncertainty into RADTRAN. Gauntt and Erickson (2004) provides installation instructions as well as a description and user guide for the uncertainty engine.

  13. A Practical pedestrian approach to parsimonious regression with inaccurate inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Karrila

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A measurement result often dictates an interval containing the correct value. Interval data is also created by roundoff, truncation, and binning. We focus on such common interval uncertainty in data. Inaccuracy in model inputs is typically ignored on model fitting. We provide a practical approach for regression with inaccurate data: the mathematics is easy, and the linear programming formulations simple to use even in a spreadsheet. This self-contained elementary presentation introduces interval linear systems and requires only basic knowledge of algebra. Feature selection is automatic; but can be controlled to find only a few most relevant inputs; and joint feature selection is enabled for multiple modeled outputs. With more features than cases, a novel connection to compressed sensing emerges: robustness against interval errors-in-variables implies model parsimony, and the input inaccuracies determine the regularization term. A small numerical example highlights counterintuitive results and a dramatic difference to total least squares.

  14. Total dose induced increase in input offset voltage in JFET input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.L.; Krieg, J.; Gehlhausen, M.; Black, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different types of commercial JFET input operational amplifiers were irradiated with ionizing radiation under a variety of test conditions. All experienced significant increases in input offset voltage (Vos). Microprobe measurement of the electrical characteristics of the de-coupled input JFETs demonstrates that the increase in Vos is a result of the mismatch of the degraded JFETs. (authors)

  15. Development of the GUI environments of MIDAS code for convenient input and output processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. L.; Kim, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    MIDAS is being developed at KAERI as an integrated Severe Accident Analysis Code with easy model modification and addition by restructuring the data transfer scheme. In this paper, the input file management system, IEDIT and graphic simulation system, SATS, are presented as MIDAS input and output GUI systems. These two systems would form the basis of the MIDAS GUI system for input and output processing, and they are expected to be useful tools for severe accidents analysis and simulation

  16. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  17. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  18. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  19. A novel feedforward compensation canceling input filter-regulator interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, S. S.; Lee, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between the input and the control loop of switching regulators often results in deterimental effects, such as loop instability, degradation of transient response, and audiosusceptibility, etc. The concept of pole-zero cancelation is employed to mitigate some of these detrimental effects and is implemented using a novel feedforward loop, in addition to existing feedback loops of a buck regulator. Experimental results are presented which show excellent correlation with theory.

  20. The Effects of Changing Input Costs on Food Prices

    OpenAIRE

    R. McFall Lamm; Paul C. Westcott

    1981-01-01

    The relationships between changes in food sector input costs and retail food prices are examined. Results indicate that increases in factor prices pass quickly to consumers, within two quarters for most foods. In addition, rising farm-level prices and substantial increases in nonfarm resource prices appear to explain why food prices rose more rapidly than nonfood prices in the 1970s. The analysis is based on a twenty-equation econometric model of the food-price determination process, specifie...

  1. Inhibitory Gating of Basolateral Amygdala Inputs to the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Laura M; Carter, Adam G

    2016-09-07

    Interactions between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulate emotional behaviors. However, a circuit-level understanding of functional connections between these brain regions remains incomplete. The BLA sends prominent glutamatergic projections to the PFC, but the overall influence of these inputs is predominantly inhibitory. Here we combine targeted recordings and optogenetics to examine the synaptic underpinnings of this inhibition in the mouse infralimbic PFC. We find that BLA inputs preferentially target layer 2 corticoamygdala over neighboring corticostriatal neurons. However, these inputs make even stronger connections onto neighboring parvalbumin and somatostatin expressing interneurons. Inhibitory connections from these two populations of interneurons are also much stronger onto corticoamygdala neurons. Consequently, BLA inputs are able to drive robust feedforward inhibition via two parallel interneuron pathways. Moreover, the contributions of these interneurons shift during repetitive activity, due to differences in short-term synaptic dynamics. Thus, parvalbumin interneurons are activated at the start of stimulus trains, whereas somatostatin interneuron activation builds during these trains. Together, these results reveal how the BLA impacts the PFC through a complex interplay of direct excitation and feedforward inhibition. They also highlight the roles of targeted connections onto multiple projection neurons and interneurons in this cortical circuit. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding for how the BLA can influence the PFC circuit, with important implications for how this circuit participates in the regulation of emotion. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact to control emotional behaviors. Here we show that BLA inputs elicit direct excitation and feedforward inhibition of layer 2 projection neurons in infralimbic PFC. BLA inputs are much stronger at corticoamygdala neurons compared

  2. Outsourcing, public Input provision and policy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns public input provision as an instrument for redistribution under international outsourcing by using a model-economy comprising two countries, North and South, where firms in the North may outsource part of their low-skilled labor intensive production to the South. We consider two interrelated issues: (i) the incentives for each country to modify the provision of public input goods in response to international outsourcing, and (ii) whether international outsourcing justifie...

  3. Isotope correlation techniques for verifying input accountability measurements at a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope correlation techniques were studied to verify input accountability measurements at a reprocessing plant. On the basis of a historical data bank, correlation between plutonium-to-uranium ratio and isotopic variables was derived as a function of burnup. The burnup was determined from the isotopic ratios of uranium and plutonium, too. Data treatment was therefore made in an iterative manner. The isotopic variables were defined to cover a wide spectrum of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. The isotope correlation techniques evaluated important parameters such as the fuel burnup, the most probable ratio of plutonium to uranium, and the amounts of uranium and plutonium in reprocessing batches in connection with fresh fuel fabrication data. In addition, the most probable values of isotope abundance of plutonium and uranium could be estimated from the plutonium-to-uranium ratio determined, being compared with the reported data for verification. A pocket-computer-based system was developed to enable inspectors to collect and evaluate data in a timely fashion at the input accountability measurement point by the isotope correlation techniques. The device is supported by battery power and completely independent of the operator's system. The software of the system was written in BASIC. The data input can be stored in a cassette tape and transferred into a higher level computer. The correlations used for the analysis were given as a form of analytical function. Coefficients for the function were provided relevant to the type of reactor and the initial enrichment of fuel. (author)

  4. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse conserve the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing X Pan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and, manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  5. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse reflect the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weixing X; Mao, Tianyi; Dudman, Joshua T

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  6. FlaME: Flash Molecular Editor - a 2D structure input tool for the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallakian Pavel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, there have been no Flash-based web tools available for chemical structure input. The authors herein present a feasibility study, aiming at the development of a compact and easy-to-use 2D structure editor, using Adobe's Flash technology and its programming language, ActionScript. As a reference model application from the Java world, we selected the Java Molecular Editor (JME. In this feasibility study, we made an attempt to realize a subset of JME's functionality in the Flash Molecular Editor (FlaME utility. These basic capabilities are: structure input, editing and depiction of single molecules, data import and export in molfile format. Implementation The result of molecular diagram sketching in FlaME is accessible in V2000 molfile format. By integrating the molecular editor into a web page, its communication with the HTML elements on this page is established using the two JavaScript functions, getMol( and setMol(. In addition, structures can be copied to the system clipboard. Conclusion A first attempt was made to create a compact single-file application for 2D molecular structure input/editing on the web, based on Flash technology. With the application examples presented in this article, it could be demonstrated that the Flash methods are principally well-suited to provide the requisite communication between the Flash object (application and the HTML elements on a web page, using JavaScript functions.

  7. Energy Input Flux in the Global Quiet-Sun Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Cormack, Cecilia; Vásquez, Alberto M.; López Fuentes, Marcelo; Nuevo, Federico A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA, CC 67—Suc 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Landi, Enrico; Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering (CLaSP), University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present first results of a novel technique that provides, for the first time, constraints on the energy input flux at the coronal base ( r ∼ 1.025 R {sub ⊙}) of the quiet Sun at a global scale. By combining differential emission measure tomography of EUV images, with global models of the coronal magnetic field, we estimate the energy input flux at the coronal base that is required to maintain thermodynamically stable structures. The technique is described in detail and first applied to data provided by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument, on board the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument, on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, for two solar rotations with different levels of activity. Our analysis indicates that the typical energy input flux at the coronal base of magnetic loops in the quiet Sun is in the range ∼0.5–2.0 × 10{sup 5} (erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), depending on the structure size and level of activity. A large fraction of this energy input, or even its totality, could be accounted for by Alfvén waves, as shown by recent independent observational estimates derived from determinations of the non-thermal broadening of spectral lines in the coronal base of quiet-Sun regions. This new tomography product will be useful for the validation of coronal heating models in magnetohydrodinamic simulations of the global corona.

  8. Replacing Voice Input with Technology that Provided Immediate Visual and Audio Feedback to Reduce Employee Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2010-01-01

    In this report from the field at two auto parts distribution centers, order selectors picked auto accessories (e.g., fuses, oil caps, tool kits) into industrial plastic totes as part of store orders. Accurately identifying all store order totes via the license plate number was a prerequisite for the warehouse management system (WMS) to track each…

  9. MRTouch: Adding Touch Input to Head-Mounted Mixed Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Robert; Schwarz, Julia; Throm, Nick; Wilson, Andrew D; Benko, Hrvoje

    2018-04-01

    We present MRTouch, a novel multitouch input solution for head-mounted mixed reality systems. Our system enables users to reach out and directly manipulate virtual interfaces affixed to surfaces in their environment, as though they were touchscreens. Touch input offers precise, tactile and comfortable user input, and naturally complements existing popular modalities, such as voice and hand gesture. Our research prototype combines both depth and infrared camera streams together with real-time detection and tracking of surface planes to enable robust finger-tracking even when both the hand and head are in motion. Our technique is implemented on a commercial Microsoft HoloLens without requiring any additional hardware nor any user or environmental calibration. Through our performance evaluation, we demonstrate high input accuracy with an average positional error of 5.4 mm and 95% button size of 16 mm, across 17 participants, 2 surface orientations and 4 surface materials. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of our technique to enable on-world touch interactions through 5 example applications.

  10. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  11. Defense Intelligence: Additional Steps Could Better Integrate Intelligence Input into DODs Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    into its acquisitions; and (3) efforts to develop tools to integrate intelligence into its acquisitions. GAO compared certification and training to...conduct their business , and that the centers currently were not prioritizing, verifying, or balancing the work related to producing intelligence mission...Force, and we observed briefings from the task force to the Acquisition Intelligence Requirements Executive Steering Group. We also compared the

  12. Conceptual Design of GRIG (GUI Based RETRAN Input Generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyung Jin; Hwang, Su Hyun; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Jang, Chan Su; Um, Kil Sup

    2007-01-01

    For the development of high performance methodology using advanced transient analysis code, it is essential to generate the basic input of transient analysis code by rigorous QA procedures. There are various types of operating NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) in Korea such as Westinghouse plants, KSNP(Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant), APR1400 (Advance Power Reactor), etc. So there are some difficulties to generate and manage systematically the input of transient analysis code reflecting the inherent characteristics of various types of NPPs. To minimize the user faults and investment man power and to generate effectively and accurately the basic inputs of transient analysis code for all domestic NPPs, it is needed to develop the program that can automatically generate the basic input, which can be directly applied to the transient analysis, from the NPP design material. ViRRE (Visual RETRAN Running Environment) developed by KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) and KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) provides convenient working environment for Kori Unit 1/2. ViRRE shows the calculated results through on-line display but its capability is limited on the convenient execution of RETRAN. So it can not be used as input generator. ViSA (Visual System Analyzer) developed by KAERI is a NPA (Nuclear Plant Analyzer) using RETRAN and MARS code as thermal-hydraulic engine. ViSA contains both pre-processing and post-processing functions. In the pre-processing, only the trip data cards and boundary conditions can be changed through GUI mode based on pre-prepared text-input, so the capability of input generation is very limited. SNAP (Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package) developed by Applied Programming Technology, Inc. and NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) provides efficient working environment for the use of nuclear safety analysis codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-M codes. SNAP covers wide aspects of thermal-hydraulic analysis from model creation through data analysis

  13. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  14. Six axis force feedback input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  15. A guidance on MELCOR input preparation : An input deck for Ul-Chin 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Song Won

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the capability of assessing the severe accident sequence analyses and the containment behavior using MELCOR computer code and to provide the guideline of its efficient use. This report shows the method of the input deck preparation as well as the assessment strategy for the MELCOR code. MELCOR code is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. NRC as a second generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the source term code package. The accident sequence of the reference input deck prepared in this study for Ulchin unit 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is the total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) without any success of safety systems, which is similar to station blackout (TLMB). It is very useful to simulate a well-known sequence through the best estimated code or experiment, because the results of the simulation before core melt can be compared with the FSAR, but no data is available after core melt. The precalculation for the TLOFW using the reference input deck is performed successfully as expected. The other sequences will be carried out with minor changes in the reference input. This input deck will be improved continually by the adding of the safety systems not included in this input deck, and also through the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (author). 19 refs., 10 tabs., 55 figs.

  16. A guidance on MELCOR input preparation : An input deck for Ul-Chin 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Song Won.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the capability of assessing the severe accident sequence analyses and the containment behavior using MELCOR computer code and to provide the guideline of its efficient use. This report shows the method of the input deck preparation as well as the assessment strategy for the MELCOR code. MELCOR code is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. NRC as a second generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the source term code package. The accident sequence of the reference input deck prepared in this study for Ulchin unit 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is the total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) without any success of safety systems, which is similar to station blackout (TLMB). It is very useful to simulate a well-known sequence through the best estimated code or experiment, because the results of the simulation before core melt can be compared with the FSAR, but no data is available after core melt. The precalculation for the TLOFW using the reference input deck is performed successfully as expected. The other sequences will be carried out with minor changes in the reference input. This input deck will be improved continually by the adding of the safety systems not included in this input deck, and also through the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (author). 19 refs., 10 tabs., 55 figs

  17. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  18. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  19. Computer Generated Inputs for NMIS Processor Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. A. Mullens; J. E. Breeding; J. A. McEvers; R. W. Wysor; L. G. Chiang; J. R. Lenarduzzi; J. T. Mihalczo; J. K. Mattingly

    2001-01-01

    Proper operation of the Nuclear Identification Materials System (NMIS) processor can be verified using computer-generated inputs [BIST (Built-In-Self-Test)] at the digital inputs. Preselected sequences of input pulses to all channels with known correlation functions are compared to the output of the processor. These types of verifications have been utilized in NMIS type correlation processors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1984. The use of this test confirmed a malfunction in a NMIS processor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) in 1998. The NMIS processor boards were returned to the U.S. for repair and subsequently used in NMIS passive and active measurements with Pu at VNIIEF in 1999

  20. Harmonize input selection for sediment transport prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; Keshtegar, Behrooz; Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, three modeling approaches using a Neural Network (NN), Response Surface Method (RSM) and response surface method basis Global Harmony Search (GHS) are applied to predict the daily time series suspended sediment load. Generally, the input variables for forecasting the suspended sediment load are manually selected based on the maximum correlations of input variables in the modeling approaches based on NN and RSM. The RSM is improved to select the input variables by using the errors terms of training data based on the GHS, namely as response surface method and global harmony search (RSM-GHS) modeling method. The second-order polynomial function with cross terms is applied to calibrate the time series suspended sediment load with three, four and five input variables in the proposed RSM-GHS. The linear, square and cross corrections of twenty input variables of antecedent values of suspended sediment load and water discharge are investigated to achieve the best predictions of the RSM based on the GHS method. The performances of the NN, RSM and proposed RSM-GHS including both accuracy and simplicity are compared through several comparative predicted and error statistics. The results illustrated that the proposed RSM-GHS is as uncomplicated as the RSM but performed better, where fewer errors and better correlation was observed (R = 0.95, MAE = 18.09 (ton/day), RMSE = 25.16 (ton/day)) compared to the ANN (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.17 (ton/day), RMSE = 33.09 (ton/day)) and RSM (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.06 (ton/day), RMSE = 31.92 (ton/day)) for all types of input variables.

  1. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaylie Rasmuson; Kurt Rautenstrauch

    2003-01-01

    This analysis is one of nine technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. It documents input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in the biosphere Technical Work Plan (TWP, BSC 2003a). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development and therefore not available at the time this document is issued. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003b) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters. This analysis report, ANL-MGR-MD-000006, ''Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. This report defines and justifies values for twelve parameters required in the biosphere model. These parameters are related to use of contaminated groundwater to grow crops. The parameter values recommended in this report are used in the soil, plant, and carbon-14 submodels of the ERMYN

  2. The human motor neuron pools receive a dominant slow‐varying common synaptic input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Francesco; Yavuz, Utku Şükrü

    2016-01-01

    Key points Motor neurons in a pool receive both common and independent synaptic inputs, although the proportion and role of their common synaptic input is debated.Classic correlation techniques between motor unit spike trains do not measure the absolute proportion of common input and have limitations as a result of the non‐linearity of motor neurons.We propose a method that for the first time allows an accurate quantification of the absolute proportion of low frequency common synaptic input (60%) of common input, irrespective of their different functional and control properties.These results increase our knowledge about the role of common and independent input to motor neurons in force control. Abstract Motor neurons receive both common and independent synaptic inputs. This observation is classically based on the presence of a significant correlation between pairs of motor unit spike trains. The functional significance of different relative proportions of common input across muscles, individuals and conditions is still debated. One of the limitations in our understanding of correlated input to motor neurons is that it has not been possible so far to quantify the absolute proportion of common input with respect to the total synaptic input received by the motor neurons. Indeed, correlation measures of pairs of output spike trains only allow for relative comparisons. In the present study, we report for the first time an approach for measuring the proportion of common input in the low frequency bandwidth (60%) proportion of common low frequency oscillations with respect to their total synaptic input. These results suggest that the central nervous system provides a large amount of common input to motor neuron pools, in a similar way to that for muscles with different functional and control properties. PMID:27151459

  3. Shaped input distributions for structural damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2018-01-01

    localization method is cast that operates on the premise of shaping inputs—whose spatial distribution is fixed—by use of a model, such that these inputs, in one structural subdomain at a time, suppress certain steady-state vibration quantities (depending on the type of damage one seeks to interrogate for......). Accordingly, damage is localized when the vibration signature induced by the shaped inputs in the damaged state corresponds to that in the reference state, hereby implying that the approach does not point directly to damage. Instead, it operates with interrogation based on postulated damage patterns...

  4. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  5. Nuclear reaction inputs based on effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S.; Peru, S.; Dubray, N.; Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    Extensive nuclear structure studies have been performed for decades using effective interactions as sole input. They have shown a remarkable ability to describe rather accurately many types of nuclear properties. In the early 2000 s, a major effort has been engaged to produce nuclear reaction input data out of the Gogny interaction, in order to challenge its quality also with respect to nuclear reaction observables. The status of this project, well advanced today thanks to the use of modern computers as well as modern nuclear reaction codes, is reviewed and future developments are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Simulation of a Multidimensional Input Quantum Perceptron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Alexandre Y.; Sundqvist, Kyle M.; Li, Peng; Harris, H. Rusty

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the improved data separation capabilities of the Multidimensional Input Quantum Perceptron (MDIQP), a fundamental cell for the construction of more complex Quantum Artificial Neural Networks (QANNs). This is done by using input controlled alterations of ancillary qubits in combination with phase estimation and learning algorithms. The MDIQP is capable of processing quantum information and classifying multidimensional data that may not be linearly separable, extending the capabilities of the classical perceptron. With this powerful component, we get much closer to the achievement of a feedforward multilayer QANN, which would be able to represent and classify arbitrary sets of data (both quantum and classical).

  7. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  8. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  9. Generic MIDI devices as new input for specialized software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Badurowicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of sublime devices, including input devices, for all kinds of specialists working with computers available on the market. Furthermore, the more specific solutions are needed, the more expensive and complicated they are. At the time when many people prefer to try as many things as possible before selecting the specific learning paths, both high price and high entry threshold, can appear as blockers. In the paper, there are selected some hardware and software solutions for facilitating the work of the professionals , who expect more analog-like interfaces and more natural ways to control computers presented. Additionally, the authors describe original software and hardware solution that allows the use of wide range MIDI devices as custom input devices. The concept of the software made is being presented, as well as some results of initial interaction of different kind of professionals and the proposed solution software and hardware.

  10. Model reduction of nonlinear systems subject to input disturbances

    KAUST Repository

    Ndoye, Ibrahima

    2017-07-10

    The method of convex optimization is used as a tool for model reduction of a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. It is shown that under some conditions the nonlinear disturbed system can be approximated by a reduced order nonlinear system with similar disturbance-output properties to the original plant. The proposed model reduction strategy preserves the nonlinearity and the input disturbance nature of the model. It guarantees a sufficiently small error between the outputs of the original and the reduced-order systems, and also maintains the properties of input-to-state stability. The matrices of the reduced order system are given in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The paper concludes with a demonstration of the proposed approach on model reduction of a nonlinear electronic circuit with additive disturbances.

  11. Workflow Optimization for Tuning Prostheses with High Input Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    of Specific Aim 1 by driving a commercially available two DoF wrist and single DoF hand. The high -level control system will provide analog signals...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0767 TITLE: Workflow Optimization for Tuning Prostheses with High Input Channel PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daniel Merrill...Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department

  12. International P/L Insurance Output, Input, and Productivity Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Mary A. Weiss

    1991-01-01

    This research provides (bilateral) divisia and multilateral divisia indexes of output, input, and productivity for the property-liability (P-L) insurance industry for the following countries: United States, West Germany, Switzerland, France, and Japan. The time period studied is 1975 to 1987. The results indicate that considerable diversity exists among different countries, with Japan showing the weakest productivity growth. The United States and West Germany are associated overall with high ...

  13. An Interface Theory for Input/Output Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de~Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch's Input/Output Automata, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit....... We also present a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata. Proofs are provided in an appendix....

  14. Anthropogenic inputs of dissolved organic matter in New York Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.

  15. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL...

  16. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  17. A summary of WIMSD4 input option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of all the available input data options in the ICL 4/70 and IBM 370 versions of WIMSD4, with little more than a reference where there is already adequate documentation but with rather more detail where no such documentation exists. (author)

  18. Representations of space based on haptic input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhoek, S.

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis focused on the representations of grasping space based on haptic input. We aimed at identifying their characteristics, and the underlying neurocognitive processes and mechanisms. To this end, we studied the systematic distortions in performance on several orientation perception

  19. Hydrogen Generation Rate Model Calculation Input Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KUFAHL, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the procedures and techniques utilized in the collection and analysis of analyte input data values in support of the flammable gas hazard safety analyses. This document represents the analyses of data current at the time of its writing and does not account for data available since then

  20. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  1. Strategies of Transition to Sustainable Agriculture in Iran II- Inputs Replacement and Designing Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koocheki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustainable agricultural development is an important goal in economic planning and human development worldwide. A range of processes and relationships are transformed, beginning with aspects of basic soil structure, organic matter content, and diversity and activity of soil biota. Eventually, major changes also occur in the relationships among weed, insect, and disease populations, and in the balance between beneficial and pest organisms. Ultimately, nutrient dynamics and cycling, energy use efficiency, and overall system productivity are impacted. Measuring and monitoring these changes during the conversion period helps the farmer evaluate the success of the conversion process, and provides a framework to determine the requirements for sustainability. After improving resource use efficiency, replacement of ecological inputs with chemical inputs as second step and redesign of agro-ecosystems is as final step in transition of common to sustainable agriculture. The study was investigated to evaluation of Iran’s agricultural systems status. Materials and Methods Using organic and ecological inputs than chemicals is the second step for transition to sustainable agriculture. This study was performed to assess and measure the status of inputs replacement and agro-ecosystem designing based on ecological principle in Iran. For this purpose, we used 223 studied researches on agronomical and medicinal plants. After, they analyzed based on functional and structural characteristics and then used. Considering to the importance of multi-functionality in sustainable agriculture, in this study we considered the multiple managements for inputs replacement. The using functions in the study were: improving fertility and bio-chemical characteristics of soil, ecological managements of pest and diseases, reducing the energy usage, and increasing biodiversity. Using the organic and biological inputs, remaining the plant residual on soil, using

  2. Quantum nondemolition measurement with a nonclassical meter input and an electro-optic enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchler, B.C.; Bachor, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical quantum nondemolition measurements are performed using a beamsplitter with a nonclassical meter input and a electro-optic feedforward loop. The nonclassical meter input is provided by a stable 4.5 dB amplitude squeezed source generated by an optical parametric amplifier. We show...

  3. Computational Techniques for Model Predictive Control of Large-Scale Systems with Continuous-Valued and Discrete-Valued Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose computational techniques for model predictive control of large-scale systems with both continuous-valued control inputs and discrete-valued control inputs, which are a class of hybrid systems. In the proposed method, we introduce the notion of virtual control inputs, which are obtained by relaxing discrete-valued control inputs to continuous variables. In online computation, first, we find continuous-valued control inputs and virtual control inputs minimizing a cost function. Next, using the obtained virtual control inputs, only discrete-valued control inputs at the current time are computed in each subsystem. In addition, we also discuss the effect of quantization errors. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by a numerical example. The proposed method enables us to reduce and decentralize the computation load.

  4. Microcontroller based automatic liquid poison addition control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatral, R.S.; Ananthakrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Microcontrollers are finding increasing applications in instrumentation where complex digital circuits can be substituted by a compact and simple circuit, thus enhancing the reliability. In addition to this, intelligence and flexibility can be incorporated. For applications not requiring large amount of read/write memory (RAM), microcontrollers are ideally suited since they contain programmable memory (Eprom), parallel input/output lines, data memory, programmable timers and serial interface ports in one chip. This paper describes the design of automatic liquid poison addition control system (ALPAS) using intel's 8 bit microcontroller 8751, which is used to generate complex timing control sequence signals for liquid poison addition to the moderator in a nuclear reactor. ALPAS monitors digital inputs coming from protection system and regulating system of a nuclear reactor and provides control signals for liquid poison addition for long term safe shutdown of the reactor after reactor trip and helps the regulating system to reduce the power of the reactor during operation. Special hardware and software features have been incorporated to improve performance and fault detection. (author)

  5. Conceptualizing, Understanding, and Predicting Responsible Decisions and Quality Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, N.; PytlikZillig, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    In areas such as climate change, where uncertainty is high, it is arguably less difficult to tell when efforts have resulted in changes in knowledge, than when those efforts have resulted in responsible decisions. What is a responsible decision? More broadly, when it comes to citizen input, what is "high quality" input? And most importantly, how are responsible decisions and quality input enhanced? The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the different dimensions of "responsible" or "quality" public input and citizen decisions by comparing and contrasting the different predictors of those different dimensions. We first present different possibilities for defining, operationalizing and assessing responsible or high quality decisions. For example, responsible decisions or quality input might be defined as using specific content (e.g., using climate change information in decisions appropriately), as using specific processes (e.g., investing time and effort in learning about and discussing the issues prior to making decisions), or on the basis of some judgment of the decision or input itself (e.g., judgments of the rationale provided for the decisions, or number of issues considered when giving input). Second, we present results from our work engaging people with science policy topics, and the different ways that we have tried to define these two constructs. In the area of climate change specifically, we describe the development of a short survey that assesses exposure to climate information, knowledge of and attitudes toward climate change, and use of climate information in one's decisions. Specifically, the short survey was developed based on a review of common surveys of climate change related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, and extensive piloting and cognitive interviews. Next, we analyze more than 200 responses to that survey (data collection is currently ongoing and will be complete after the AGU deadline), and report the predictors of

  6. The expert surgical assistant. An intelligent virtual environment with multimodal input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, M; Savage, J; Oppenheimer, P; Edmond, C

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality has made computer interfaces more intuitive but not more intelligent. This paper shows how an expert system can be coupled with multimodal input in a virtual environment to provide an intelligent simulation tool or surgical assistant. This is accomplished in three steps. First, voice and gestural input is interpreted and represented in a common semantic form. Second, a rule-based expert system is used to infer context and user actions from this semantic representation. Finally, the inferred user actions are matched against steps in a surgical procedure to monitor the user's progress and provide automatic feedback. In addition, the system can respond immediately to multimodal commands for navigational assistance and/or identification of critical anatomical structures. To show how these methods are used we present a prototype sinus surgery interface. The approach described here may easily be extended to a wide variety of medical and non-medical training applications by making simple changes to the expert system database and virtual environment models. Successful implementation of an expert system in both simulated and real surgery has enormous potential for the surgeon both in training and clinical practice.

  7. Low-level waste shallow land disposal source term model: Data input guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Suen, C.J.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides an input guide for the computational models developed to predict the rate of radionuclide release from shallow land disposal of low-level waste. Release of contaminants depends on four processes: water flow, container degradation, waste from leaching, and contaminant transport. The computer code FEMWATER has been selected to predict the movement of water in an unsaturated porous media. The computer code BLT (Breach, Leach, and Transport), a modification of FEMWASTE, has been selected to predict the processes of container degradation (Breach), contaminant release from the waste form (Leach), and contaminant migration (Transport). In conjunction, these two codes have the capability to account for the effects of disposal geometry, unsaturated/water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and migration of contaminants releases within a single disposal trench. In addition to the input requirements, this report presents the fundamental equations and relationships used to model the four different processes previously discussed. Further, the appendices provide a representative sample of data required by the different models. 14 figs., 27 tabs

  8. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  9. Effect of weld metal chemistry and heat input on the structure and properties of duplex stainless steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthupandi, V.; Bala Srinivasan, P.; Seshadri, S.K.; Sundaresan, S

    2003-10-15

    The excellent combination of strength and corrosion resistance in duplex stainless steels (DSS) is due to their strict composition control and microstructural balance. The ferrite-austenite ratio is often upset in DSS weld metals owing to the rapid cooling rates associated with welding. To achieve the desired ferrite-austenite balance and hence properties, either the weld metal composition and/or the heat input is controlled. In the current work, a low heat input process viz., EBW and another commonly employed process, gas tungsten-arc welding have been employed for welding of DSS with and without nickel enhancement. Results show that (i) chemical composition has got a greater influence on the ferrite-austenite ratio than the cooling rate, (ii) and even EBW which is considered an immature process in welding of DSS, can be employed provided means of filler addition could be devised.

  10. Input frequency and lexical variability in phonological development: a survival analysis of word-initial cluster production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Green, Sam J

    2013-06-01

    Although it has been often hypothesized that children learn to produce new sound patterns first in frequently heard words, the available evidence in support of this claim is inconclusive. To re-examine this question, we conducted a survival analysis of word-initial consonant clusters produced by three children in the Providence Corpus (0 ; 11-4 ; 0). The analysis took account of several lexical factors in addition to lexical input frequency, including the age of first production, production frequency, neighborhood density and number of phonemes. The results showed that lexical input frequency was a significant predictor of the age at which the accuracy level of cluster production in each word first reached 80%. The magnitude of the frequency effect differed across cluster types. Our findings indicate that some of the between-word variance found in the development of sound production can indeed be attributed to the frequency of words in the child's ambient language.

  11. Input Files and Procedures for Analysis of SMA Hybrid Composite Beams in MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Patel, Hemant D.

    2005-01-01

    A thermoelastic constitutive model for shape memory alloys (SMAs) and SMA hybrid composites (SMAHCs) was recently implemented in the commercial codes MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. The model is implemented and supported within the core of the commercial codes, so no user subroutines or external calculations are necessary. The model and resulting structural analysis has been previously demonstrated and experimentally verified for thermoelastic, vibration and acoustic, and structural shape control applications. The commercial implementations are described in related documents cited in the references, where various results are also shown that validate the commercial implementations relative to a research code. This paper is a companion to those documents in that it provides additional detail on the actual input files and solution procedures and serves as a repository for ASCII text versions of the input files necessary for duplication of the available results.

  12. Ia Afferent input alters the recruitment thresholds and firing rates of single human motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, G; Cafarelli, E

    2003-06-01

    Vibration of the patellar tendon recruits motor units in the knee extensors via excitation of muscle spindles and subsequent Ia afferent input to the alpha-motoneuron pool. Our first purpose was to determine if the recruitment threshold and firing rate of the same motor unit differed when recruited involuntarily via reflex or voluntarily via descending spinal pathways. Although Ia input is excitatory to the alpha-motoneuron pool, it has also been shown paradoxically to inhibit itself. Our second purpose was to determine if vibration of the patellar tendon during a voluntary knee extension causes a change in the firing rate of already recruited motor units. In the first protocol, 10 subjects voluntarily reproduced the same isometric force profile of the knee extensors that was elicited by vibration of the patellar tendon. Single motor unit recordings from the vastus lateralis (VL) were obtained with tungsten microelectrodes and unitary behaviour was examined during both reflex and voluntary knee extensions. Recordings from 135 single motor units showed that both recruitment thresholds and firing rates were lower during reflex contractions. In the second protocol, 7 subjects maintained a voluntary knee extension at 30 N for approximately 40-45 s. Three bursts of patellar tendon vibration were superimposed at regular intervals throughout the contraction and changes in the firing rate of already recruited motor units were examined. A total of 35 motor units were recorded and each burst of superimposed vibration caused a momentary reduction in the firing rates and recruitment of additional units. Our data provide evidence that Ia input modulates the recruitment thresholds and firing rates of motor units providing more flexibility within the neuromuscular system to grade force at low levels of force production.

  13. Development and operation of K-URT data input system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Jae; Myoung, Noh Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Han, Jae Jun

    2010-05-01

    Activities for TSPA(Total System Performance Assessment) on the permanent disposal of high level radioactive waste includes production of input data, safety assessment using input data, license procedure and others. These activities are performed in 5 steps as follows; (1) Adequate planning, (2) Controlled execution, (3) Complete documentation, (4) Thorough review, (5) Independent oversight. For the confidence building, it is very important to record and manage the materials obtained from research works in transparency. For the documentation of disposal research work from planning stage to data management stage, KAERI developed CYPRUS named CYBER R and D Platform for Radwaste Disposal in Underground System with a QA(Quality Assurance) System. In CYPRUS, QA system makes effects on other functions such as data management, project management and others. This report analyzes the structure of CYPRUS and proposes to accumulate qualified data, to provide a convenient application and to promote access and use of CYPRUS for a future-oriented system

  14. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-01-01

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters

  15. Biological 2-Input Decoder Circuit in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2n outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions. PMID:24694115

  16. Biological 2-input decoder circuit in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas

    2014-08-15

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2(n) outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions.

  17. Current Practices in Defining Seismic Input for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    This report has been written in the framework of seismic subgroup of the OECD/NEA CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE) to provide a brief review of current practices regarding the definition of the seismic input for design and reevaluation of nuclear power plants. It is taken for granted that, prior to conducting the seismic design of a nuclear facility, a seismic hazard analysis (SHA) has been conducted for the site where the facility is located. This provides some reference motions for defining those that will later be used as input for the dynamic analyses of the facility. The objective of the report is to clarify the current practices in various OECD Member States for defining the seismic input to be used in the dynamic calculations of NPPs, once the SHA results are already at hand. Current practices have been summarized for Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The main findings of the report are: a) The approaches followed by the regulatory bodies of OECD Member States differ substantially, certainly in relation with the consideration of site effects, but also in the probability level of the event that a nuclear facility should be required to withstand. b) In many countries a probabilistic approach is adopted for the design, in some cases combined with a deterministic one; in other cases, like France, Japan or South Korea, a deterministic approach is followed. c) The US and Japan have the more complete guidelines in relation with site effects. The former provide specific approaches for definition of the seismic input. The latter clearly recognizes the need to propagate the bedrock motion to foundation level, thereby introducing the site effect in some way. d) The definition of bedrock is very heterogeneous in the various countries, although this should not constitute a serious problem if the starting

  18. The role of the input scale in parton distribution analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    A first systematic study of the effects of the choice of the input scale in global determinations of parton distributions and QCD parameters is presented. It is shown that, although in principle the results should not depend on these choices, in practice a relevant dependence develops as a consequence of what is called procedural bias. This uncertainty should be considered in addition to other theoretical and experimental errors, and a practical procedure for its estimation is proposed. Possible sources of mistakes in the determination of QCD parameter from parton distribution analysis are pointed out.

  19. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OFDM with Index Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Basar, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM) is a novel multicarrier transmission technique which has been proposed as an alternative to classical OFDM. The main idea of OFDM-IM is the use of the indices of the active subcarriers in an OFDM system as an additional source of information. In this work, we propose multiple-input multiple-output OFDM-IM (MIMO-OFDM-IM) scheme by combining OFDM-IM and MIMO transmission techniques. The low complexity transceiver structu...

  20. Do efficiency scores depend on input mix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the possibility of using the standard Kruskal-Wallis (KW) rank test in order to evaluate whether the distribution of efficiency scores resulting from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is independent of the input (or output) mix of the observations. Since the DEA frontier...... is estimated, many standard assumptions for evaluating the KW test statistic are violated. Therefore, we propose to explore its statistical properties by the use of simulation studies. The simulations are performed conditional on the observed input mixes. The method, unlike existing approaches...... the assumption of mix independence is rejected the implication is that it, for example, is impossible to determine whether machine intensive project are more or less efficient than labor intensive projects....

  1. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  2. Additivity properties of a Gaussian channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth

    2004-01-01

    The Amosov-Holevo-Werner conjecture implies the additivity of the minimum Renyi entropies at the output of a channel. The conjecture is proven true for all Renyi entropies of integer order greater than two in a class of Gaussian bosonic channel where the input signal is randomly displaced or where it is coupled linearly to an external environment

  3. PREP-45, Input Preparation for CITATION-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho Carlos, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A Fortran program has been created, which saves much effort in preparing sections 004 (intervals in the coordinates) and 005 (zone numbers) of the input data file for the multigroup theory code CITATION (version CITATION-2, NESC0387/09), particularly when a thin complicated mesh is used. 2 - Method of solution: A domain is defined for CITATION calculations through specifying its sub-domains (e.g. graphite, lead, beryllium, water and fuel sub-domains) in a compact and simple way. An independent and previous geometrical specification is made of the various types of elements which are envisaged to constitute the contents of the reactor core grid positions. Then the load table for the configuration is input and scanned throughout, thus enabling the geometric mesh description to be produced (section 004). Also the zone placement (section 005) is achieved by means of element description subroutines for the different types of element (which may require appropriate but simple changes in the actual cases). The output of PREP45 is directly obtained in a format which is compatible with CITATION-2 input. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Only rectangular two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates are considered. A maximum of 12 sub-domains in the x direction (18 in the y direction) and up to 8 distinct element types are considered in this version. Other limitations exist which can nevertheless be overcome with simple changes in the source program

  4. Molecular structure input on the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A molecule editor, that is program for input and editing of molecules, is an indispensable part of every cheminformatics or molecular processing system. This review focuses on a special type of molecule editors, namely those that are used for molecule structure input on the web. Scientific computing is now moving more and more in the direction of web services and cloud computing, with servers scattered all around the Internet. Thus a web browser has become the universal scientific user interface, and a tool to edit molecules directly within the web browser is essential. The review covers a history of web-based structure input, starting with simple text entry boxes and early molecule editors based on clickable maps, before moving to the current situation dominated by Java applets. One typical example - the popular JME Molecule Editor - will be described in more detail. Modern Ajax server-side molecule editors are also presented. And finally, the possible future direction of web-based molecule editing, based on technologies like JavaScript and Flash, is discussed.

  5. Influence of active dendritic currents on input-output processing in spinal motoneurons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R H; Kuo, J J; Jiang, M C; Heckman, C J

    2003-01-01

    The extensive dendritic tree of the adult spinal motoneuron generates a powerful persistent inward current (PIC). We investigated how this dendritic PIC influenced conversion of synaptic input to rhythmic firing. A linearly increasing, predominantly excitatory synaptic input was generated in triceps ankle extensor motoneurons by slow stretch (duration: 2-10 s) of the Achilles tendon in the decerebrate cat preparation. The firing pattern evoked by stretch was measured by injecting a steady current to depolarize the cell to threshold for firing. The effective synaptic current (I(N), the net synaptic current reaching the soma of the cell) evoked by stretch was measured during voltage clamp. Hyperpolarized holding potentials were used to minimize the activation of the dendritic PIC and thus estimate stretch-evoked I(N) for a passive dendritic tree (I(N,PASS)). Depolarized holding potentials that approximated the average membrane potential during rhythmic firing allowed strong activation of the dendritic PIC and thus resulted in marked enhancement of the total stretch-evoked I(N) (I(N,TOT)). The net effect of the dendritic PIC on the generation of rhythmic firing was assessed by plotting stretch-evoked firing (strong PIC activation) versus stretch-evoked I(N,PASS) (minimal PIC activation). The gain of this input-output function for the neuron (I-O(N)) was found to be ~2.7 times as high as for the standard injected frequency current (F-I) function in low-input conductance neurons. However, about halfway through the stretch, firing rate tended to become constant, resulting in a sharp saturation in I-O(N) that was not present in F-I. In addition, the gain of I-O(N) decreased sharply with increasing input conductance, resulting in much lower stretch-evoked firing rates in high-input conductance cells. All three of these phenomena (high initial gain, saturation, and differences in low- and high-input conductance cells) were also readily apparent in the differences between

  6. Joint analysis of input and parametric uncertainties in watershed water quality modeling: A formal Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng; Zheng, Yi

    2018-06-01

    Significant Input uncertainty is a major source of error in watershed water quality (WWQ) modeling. It remains challenging to address the input uncertainty in a rigorous Bayesian framework. This study develops the Bayesian Analysis of Input and Parametric Uncertainties (BAIPU), an approach for the joint analysis of input and parametric uncertainties through a tight coupling of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA). The formal likelihood function for this approach is derived considering a lag-1 autocorrelated, heteroscedastic, and Skew Exponential Power (SEP) distributed error model. A series of numerical experiments were performed based on a synthetic nitrate pollution case and on a real study case in the Newport Bay Watershed, California. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(ZS)) were used as the representative WWQ model and MCMC algorithm, respectively. The major findings include the following: (1) the BAIPU can be implemented and used to appropriately identify the uncertain parameters and characterize the predictive uncertainty; (2) the compensation effect between the input and parametric uncertainties can seriously mislead the modeling based management decisions, if the input uncertainty is not explicitly accounted for; (3) the BAIPU accounts for the interaction between the input and parametric uncertainties and therefore provides more accurate calibration and uncertainty results than a sequential analysis of the uncertainties; and (4) the BAIPU quantifies the credibility of different input assumptions on a statistical basis and can be implemented as an effective inverse modeling approach to the joint inference of parameters and inputs.

  7. Input-profile-based software failure probability quantification for safety signal generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Lim, Ho Gon; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Man Cheol; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2009-01-01

    The approaches for software failure probability estimation are mainly based on the results of testing. Test cases represent the inputs, which are encountered in an actual use. The test inputs for the safety-critical application such as a reactor protection system (RPS) of a nuclear power plant are the inputs which cause the activation of protective action such as a reactor trip. A digital system treats inputs from instrumentation sensors as discrete digital values by using an analog-to-digital converter. Input profile must be determined in consideration of these characteristics for effective software failure probability quantification. Another important characteristic of software testing is that we do not have to repeat the test for the same input value since the software response is deterministic for each specific digital input. With these considerations, we propose an effective software testing method for quantifying the failure probability. As an example application, the input profile of the digital RPS is developed based on the typical plant data. The proposed method in this study is expected to provide a simple but realistic mean to quantify the software failure probability based on input profile and system dynamics.

  8. Optimally decoding the input rate from an observation of the interspike intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton (United Kingdom) and Computational Neuroscience Laboratory, Babraham Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jf218@cam.ac.uk

    2001-09-21

    A neuron extensively receives both inhibitory and excitatory inputs. What is the ratio r between these two types of input so that the neuron can most accurately read out input information (rate)? We explore the issue in this paper provided that the neuron is an ideal observer - decoding the input information with the attainment of the Cramer-Rao inequality bound. It is found that, in general, adding certain amounts of inhibitory inputs to a neuron improves its capability of accurately decoding the input information. By calculating the Fisher information of an integrate-and-fire neuron, we determine the optimal ratio r for decoding the input information from an observation of the efferent interspike intervals. Surprisingly, the Fisher information can be zero for certain values of the ratio, seemingly implying that it is impossible to read out the encoded information at these values. By analysing the maximum likelihood estimate of the input information, it is concluded that the input information is in fact most easily estimated at the points where the Fisher information vanishes. (author)

  9. PERSPECTIVES ON A DOE CONSEQUENCE INPUTS FOR ACCIDENT ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Thoman, D.C.; Lowrie, J.; Keller, A.

    2008-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) accident analysis for establishing the required control sets for nuclear facility safety applies a series of simplifying, reasonably conservative assumptions regarding inputs and methodologies for quantifying dose consequences. Most of the analytical practices are conservative, have a technical basis, and are based on regulatory precedent. However, others are judgmental and based on older understanding of phenomenology. The latter type of practices can be found in modeling hypothetical releases into the atmosphere and the subsequent exposure. Often the judgments applied are not based on current technical understanding but on work that has been superseded. The objective of this paper is to review the technical basis for the major inputs and assumptions in the quantification of consequence estimates supporting DOE accident analysis, and to identify those that could be reassessed in light of current understanding of atmospheric dispersion and radiological exposure. Inputs and assumptions of interest include: Meteorological data basis; Breathing rate; and Inhalation dose conversion factor. A simple dose calculation is provided to show the relative difference achieved by improving the technical bases

  10. α(2A)-adrenergic receptors filter parabrachial inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Stephanie A; Matthews, Robert T; Wang, Qin; Muly, E Chris; Winder, Danny G

    2014-07-09

    α2-adrenergic receptors (AR) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) reduce stress-reward interactions in rodent models. In addition to their roles as autoreceptors, BNST α(2A)-ARs suppress glutamatergic transmission. One prominent glutamatergic input to the BNST originates from the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and consists of asymmetric axosomatic synapses containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vGluT2. Here we provide immunoelectron microscopic data showing that many asymmetric axosomatic synapses in the BNST contain α(2A)-ARs. Further, we examined optically evoked glutamate release ex vivo in BNST from mice with virally delivered channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) expression in PBN. In BNST from these animals, ChR2 partially colocalized with CGRP, and activation generated EPSCs in dorsal anterolateral BNST neurons that elicited two cell-type-specific outcomes: (1) feedforward inhibition or (2) an EPSP that elicited firing. We found that the α(2A)-AR agonist guanfacine selectively inhibited this PBN input to the BNST, preferentially reducing the excitatory response in ex vivo mouse brain slices. To begin to assess the overall impact of α(2A)-AR control of this PBN input on BNST excitatory transmission, we used a Thy1-COP4 mouse line with little postsynaptic ChR2 expression nor colocalization of ChR2 with CGRP in the BNST. In slices from these mice, we found that guanfacine enhanced, rather than suppressed, optogenetically initiated excitatory drive in BNST. Thus, our study reveals distinct actions of PBN afferents within the BNST and suggests that α(2A)-AR agonists may filter excitatory transmission in the BNST by inhibiting a component of the PBN input while enhancing the actions of other inputs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349319-13$15.00/0.

  11. Identifying the relevant dependencies of the neural network response on characteristics of the input space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This talk presents an approach to identify those characteristics of the neural network inputs that are most relevant for the response and therefore provides essential information to determine the systematic uncertainties.

  12. Delay-Dependent Stability Analysis of Uncertain Fuzzy Systems with State and Input Delays under Imperfect Premise Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejian Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the stability and stabilization problem for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with time-varying state and input delays. A new augmented Lyapunov function with an additional triple-integral term and different membership functions of the fuzzy models and fuzzy controllers are introduced to derive the stability criterion, which is less conservative than the existing results. Moreover, a new flexibility design method is also provided. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed method.

  13. Can Simulation Credibility Be Improved Using Sensitivity Analysis to Understand Input Data Effects on Model Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Young, M.; Goodenow, Debra A.; Keenan, A.; Walton, M.; Boley, L.

    2015-01-01

    Model and simulation (MS) credibility is defined as, the quality to elicit belief or trust in MS results. NASA-STD-7009 [1] delineates eight components (Verification, Validation, Input Pedigree, Results Uncertainty, Results Robustness, Use History, MS Management, People Qualifications) that address quantifying model credibility, and provides guidance to the model developers, analysts, and end users for assessing the MS credibility. Of the eight characteristics, input pedigree, or the quality of the data used to develop model input parameters, governing functions, or initial conditions, can vary significantly. These data quality differences have varying consequences across the range of MS application. NASA-STD-7009 requires that the lowest input data quality be used to represent the entire set of input data when scoring the input pedigree credibility of the model. This requirement provides a conservative assessment of model inputs, and maximizes the communication of the potential level of risk of using model outputs. Unfortunately, in practice, this may result in overly pessimistic communication of the MS output, undermining the credibility of simulation predictions to decision makers. This presentation proposes an alternative assessment mechanism, utilizing results parameter robustness, also known as model input sensitivity, to improve the credibility scoring process for specific simulations.

  14. Investing in biogas: Timing, technological choice and the value of flexibility from input mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Corato, Luca; Moretto, Michele

    2011-01-01

    In a stochastic dynamic frame, we study the technology choice problem of a continuous co-digestion biogas plant where input factors are substitutes but need to be mixed together to provide output. Given any initial rule for the composition of the feedstock, we consider the possibility of revising it if economic circumstances make it profitable. Flexibility in the mix is an advantage under randomly fluctuating input costs and comes at a higher investment cost. We show that the degree of flexibility in the productive technology installed depends on the value of the option to profitably re-arrange the input mix. Such option adds value to the project in that it provides a device for hedging against fluctuations in the input relative convenience. Accounting for such value we discuss the trade-off between investment timing and profit smoothing flexibility. - Research highlights: ► We study the technology choice problem of a continuous co-digestion biogas plant where input factors are substitutes but need to be mixed together to provide output. ► We show that the degree of flexibility in the productive technology installed depends on the value of the option to profitably re-arrange the input mix. ► Such option adds value to the project in that it provides a device for hedging against fluctuations in the input relative convenience.

  15. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaylie Rasmuson; Kurt Rautenstrauch

    2003-06-20

    This analysis is one of nine technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. It documents input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in the biosphere Technical Work Plan (TWP, BSC 2003a). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development and therefore not available at the time this document is issued. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003b) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters. This analysis report, ANL-MGR-MD-000006, ''Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. This report defines and justifies values for twelve parameters required in the biosphere model. These parameters are related to use of contaminated groundwater to grow crops. The parameter values recommended in this report are used in the soil, plant, and carbon-14 submodels of the ERMYN.

  16. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-10

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA-LA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) (TWP). This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA). This report is one of the five reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model and the mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters. The output of this report is used as direct input in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' and in the ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios, respectively. The purpose of this analysis was to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or in volcanic ash). The analysis

  17. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA-LA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) (TWP). This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA). This report is one of the five reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model and the mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters. The output of this report is used as direct input in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' and in the ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios, respectively. The purpose of this analysis was to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or in volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573])

  18. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. Wallin

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective

  19. Post-BEMUSE Reflood Model Input Uncertainty Methods (PREMIUM) Benchmark Phase II: Identification of Influential Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtonyuk, A.; Petruzzi, A.; D'Auria, F.

    2015-01-01

    proposed in Specifications, and others used their own methodologies. This fact was a partial reason for the different ranges of input parameter variation identified by participants, in addition to differences of the physical models adopted by the different codes. Therefore, such different variation ranges of IP and, correspondingly, such different variation ranges of cladding temperature and time of re-wet, make rather difficult the task of meaningful and easy-comprehensible comparison of Phase II results. Out of a total of 72 input parameters, initially considered by all participants, only 6 were identified as influential by more than 4 participants that are: - bundle power; - wall heat transfer coefficient; - interphase friction coefficient; - interphase heat transfer coefficient; - heat transfer (enhancement) at the quench front; - droplet diameter. It should be noted that actual parameters considered in parameter 'Heat transfer (enhancement) at the quench front' are code-specific and may have different influence on calculation results. Several participants discarded some identified influential parameters (e.g., droplet diameter) due to existing relation between this kind of parameters so-called 'Input Coefficient Parameters' and more global parameters (e.g. interfacial friction coefficient and interphase heat transfer coefficient which use the droplet diameter) so-called 'Input Global Parameters'. Some participants also discarded identified influential so-called 'Input Basic Coefficients' (e.g. bundle power) since their uncertainty has not to be determined in the Phase III but will be provided by the coordinator from experimental data. The behaviour of the variation of the responses at the extremes of IP range of variation greatly depends on the type of input parameter and on the code used. Mainly, the following two different behaviours can be characterized: - For some parameters, like power, wall heat transfer and interphase

  20. Financial analysis of biogas utilization : input cattle, pig feces and coffee waste in Karo, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.; Zuhri, F.; Hasnudi; Mirwandhono, E.; Sembiring, I.; Daulay, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    The community's need for renewable energy was very urgent. In addition, efforts to preserve the environment from waste caused biogas technology feasible to apply. This study aims to provide biogas technology with minimal cost and utilize agricultural waste that were coffee and livestock waste. The study was conducted from July to October 2016. The theoretical and empirical methods used in this study were included data from officials resources, field survey on 16 biogas locations, focus group discussion and interview with stake holders. Data were tabulated by Excel Program which then were analysed by SAS. Parameters were included Production Cost, Production Result, Profit Loss Analysis, Revenue Cost Ratio (R/C Ratio), Return On Investment (ROI), Net B/C, and IRR. The result of this research showed that the application of bioplastic gas with cow dung and coffee waste as bioplasticgas input cause the best results.

  1. A Zero Input Current Ripple ZVS/ZCS Boost Converter with Boundary-Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to achieve zero ripple conditions, the use of a ripple mirror (RM circuit for the boost converter is proposed. The operation modes are studied and steady-state analyses performed to show the merits of the proposed converter. It is found that the proposed RM circuit technique can provide much better flexibility than the two-phase interleaved boost converter for locating the zero ripple operating point in the design stage. In addition, the choice of using a boundary-mode control is mainly based on the consideration of achieving both ZVS (zero voltage switching/ZCS (zero current switching soft-switching and constant on-time control for the converter. To verify the performance of the proposed converter, a 48 V input and 200 W/200 V output prototype is constructed. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  2. Culture Input in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晶

    2009-01-01

    Language and culture are highly interrelated, that is to say, language is not only the carrier of culture but it is also restricted by culture. Therefore, foreign language teaching aiming at cultivate students' intercultural communication should take culture differences into consideration. In this paper, the relationship between language and culture will be discussed. Then I will illustrate the importance of intercultural communication. Finally, according to the present situation of foreign language teaching in China, several strategies for cultural input in and out of class will be suggested.

  3. Flexible input, dazzling output with IBM i

    CERN Document Server

    Victória-Pereira, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Link your IBM i system to the modern business server world! This book presents easier and more flexible ways to get data into your IBM i system, along with rather surprising methods to export and present the vital business data it contains. You'll learn how to automate file transfers, seamlessly connect PC applications with your RPG programs, and much more. Input operations will become more flexible and user-proof, with self-correcting import processes and direct file transfers that require a minimum of user intervention. Also learn novel ways to present information: your DB2 data will look gr

  4. Computer code ANISN multiplying media and shielding calculation 2. Code description (input/output)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The new code CCC-0514-ANISN/PC is described, as well as a ''GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ANISN/PC code''. In addition to the ANISN/PC code, the transmittal package includes an interactive input generation programme called APE (ANISN Processor and Evaluator), which facilitates the work of the user in giving input. Also, a 21 group photon cross section master library FLUNGP.LIB in ISOTX format, which can be edited by an executable file LMOD.EXE, is included in the package. The input and output subroutines are reviewed. 6 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Input to the PRAST computer code used in the SRS probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearnaghan, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The PRAST (Production Reactor Algorithm for Source Terms) computer code was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Science Application International Corporation for the quantification of source terms for the SRS Savannah River Site (SRS) Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment. PRAST requires as input a set of release fractions, decontamination factors, transfer fractions and source term characteristics that accurately reflect the conditions that are evaluated by PRAST. This document links the analyses which form the basis for the PRAST input parameters. In addition, it gives the distribution of the input parameters that are uncertain and considered to be important to the evaluation of the source terms to the environment

  6. The Importance of Input and Interaction in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党春花

    2009-01-01

    As is known to us, input and interaction play the crucial roles in second language acquisition (SLA). Different linguistic schools have different explanations to input and interaction Behaviorist theories hold a view that input is composed of stimuli and response, putting more emphasis on the importance of input, while mentalist theories find input is a necessary condition to SLA, not a sufficient condition. At present, social interaction theories, which is one type of cognitive linguistics, suggests that besides input, interaction is also essential to language acquisition. Then, this essay will discuss how input and interaction result in SLA.

  7. Comparison of chemical inputs consumption in saffron and wheat fields in Qaenat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yaghoubi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of agricultural operations and use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agricultural production has been created serious environmental impacts. Due to this issue and in order to assess the amount of chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs in saffron and wheat production systems, a study was conducted in Qaenat region (South Khorasan province, 50 wheat fields and 48 saffron fields were investigated during 2011-12. The results showed that average nitrogen fertilizer consumption was 222.38 and 57.83 kg.ha-1 in wheat and saffron production systems, respectively, which from sstatistically point of view the difference was significant. In addition, unlike wheat, the use of pesticides very low in saffron cultivation and in many saffron farms it was zero. Therefore, the results can be considered saffron is an healthier product and have greater potential to organic product. Also, the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers which were using in wheat in the study area were significantly different with recommended values. While in saffron production there was no significant difference between the values of consumed and recommended. Therefore, it seems, performing soil testing in each region and providing appropriate fertilizer formulas and required promotional-educational services in this regard, and raising public awareness is a good strategy for reducing the use of chemical inputs.

  8. Evaluation of head-free eye tracking as an input device for air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roland; Causse, Mickaël; Vachon, François; Parise, Robert; Dehais, Frédéric; Terrier, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility to integrate a free head motion eye-tracking system as input device in air traffic control (ATC) activity. Sixteen participants used an eye tracker to select targets displayed on a screen as quickly and accurately as possible. We assessed the impact of the presence of visual feedback about gaze position and the method of target selection on selection performance under different difficulty levels induced by variations in target size and target-to-target separation. We tend to consider that the combined use of gaze dwell-time selection and continuous eye-gaze feedback was the best condition as it suits naturally with gaze displacement over the ATC display and free the hands of the controller, despite a small cost in terms of selection speed. In addition, target size had a greater impact on accuracy and selection time than target distance. These findings provide guidelines on possible further implementation of eye tracking in ATC everyday activity. We investigated the possibility to integrate a free head motion eye-tracking system as input device in air traffic control (ATC). We found that the combined use of gaze dwell-time selection and continuous eye-gaze feedback allowed the best performance and that target size had a greater impact on performance than target distance.

  9. Distributed Input and State Estimation Using Local Information in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzung Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new distributed input and state estimation architecture is introduced and analyzed for heterogeneous sensor networks. Specifically, nodes of a given sensor network are allowed to have heterogeneous information roles in the sense that a subset of nodes can be active (that is, subject to observations of a process of interest and the rest can be passive (that is, subject to no observation. Both fixed and varying active and passive roles of sensor nodes in the network are investigated. In addition, these nodes are allowed to have non-identical sensor modalities under the common underlying assumption that they have complimentary properties distributed over the sensor network to achieve collective observability. The key feature of our framework is that it utilizes local information not only during the execution of the proposed distributed input and state estimation architecture but also in its design in that global uniform ultimate boundedness of error dynamics is guaranteed once each node satisfies given local stability conditions independent from the graph topology and neighboring information of these nodes. As a special case (e.g., when all nodes are active and a positive real condition is satisfied, the asymptotic stability can be achieved with our algorithm. Several illustrative numerical examples are further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture.

  10. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  11. Prediction-Based Control for Nonlinear Systems with Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Estrada-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has two primary objectives. First, it presents a state prediction strategy for a class of nonlinear Lipschitz systems subject to constant time delay in the input signal. As a result of a suitable change of variable, the state predictor asymptotically provides the value of the state τ units of time ahead. Second, it proposes a solution to the stabilization and trajectory tracking problems for the considered class of systems using predicted states. The predictor-controller convergence is proved by considering a complete Lyapunov functional. The proposed predictor-based controller strategy is evaluated using numerical simulations.

  12. Manual input device for controlling a robot arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.J.; Siva, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    A six-axis input device, eg joystick, is supported by a mechanism which enables the joystick to be aligned with any desired orientation, eg parallel to the tool. The mechanism can then be locked to provide a rigid support of the joystick. The mechanism may include three pivotal joints whose axes are perpendicular, each incorporating a clutch. The clutches may be electromagnetic or mechanical and may be operable jointly or independently. The robot arm comprises a base rotatable about a vertical axis, an upper arm, a forearm and a tool or grip rotatable about three perpendicular axes relative to the forearm. (author)

  13. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Input-output mass balances within stream reaches provide in situ estimates of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical characterisation of stream water at the input and output ends of the stream reach. There is a need to optimise the hydrological monitoring and the frequencies of water sampling to yield precise annual mass balances, so as to avoid undue cost - high resolution monitoring and subsequent chemical analysis can be labour intensive and costly. In this paper, simulation exercises were performed using a data set created to represent the instantaneous discharge and solute dynamics at the input and output ends of a model stream reach during a one year period. At the output end, stream discharge and water chemistry were monitored continuously, while the input end was assumed to be ungauged; water sampling frequency was changed arbitrarily. Instantaneous discharge at the ungauged sampling point was estimated with an empirical power model linking the discharge to the catchment area (Hooper, 1986. The model thus substitutes for the additional gauge station. Simulations showed that 10 days was the longest chemical sampling interval which could provide reach annual mass balances of acceptable precision. Presently, the relationship between discharge and catchment area is usually assumed to be linear but simulations indicate that small departures from the linearity of this relationship could cause dramatic changes in the mass balance estimations.

  14. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Sydorenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio on (a the learning of written and aural word forms, (b overall vocabulary gains, (c attention to input, and (d vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian participated in this study. Group one (N = 8 saw video with audio and captions (VAC; group two (N = 9 saw video with audio (VA; group three (N = 9 saw video with captions (VC. All participants completed written and aural vocabulary tests and a final questionnaire.The results indicate that groups with captions (VAC and VC scored higher on written than on aural recognition of word forms, while the reverse applied to the VA group. The VAC group learned more word meanings than the VA group. Results from the questionnaire suggest that learners paid most attention to captions, followed by video and audio, and acquired most words by associating them with visual images. Pedagogical implications of this study are that captioned video tends to aid recognition of written word forms and the learning of word meaning, while non-captioned video tends to improve listening comprehension as it facilitates recognition of aural word forms.

  15. [Prosody, speech input and language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungheim, M; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In order to acquire language, children require speech input. The prosody of the speech input plays an important role. In most cultures adults modify their code when communicating with children. Compared to normal speech this code differs especially with regard to prosody. For this review a selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was performed. Prosodic characteristics are a key feature of spoken language. By analysing prosodic features, children gain knowledge about underlying grammatical structures. Child-directed speech (CDS) is modified in a way that meaningful sequences are highlighted acoustically so that important information can be extracted from the continuous speech flow more easily. CDS is said to enhance the representation of linguistic signs. Taking into consideration what has previously been described in the literature regarding the perception of suprasegmentals, CDS seems to be able to support language acquisition due to the correspondence of prosodic and syntactic units. However, no findings have been reported, stating that the linguistically reduced CDS could hinder first language acquisition.

  16. Radionuclides in the oceans inputs and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Germain, P.; Metivier, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after Chernobyl, following the decision by France to end nuclear weapon testing in the Pacific ocean, after the end of the OECD-NEA Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance programme related to low-level waste dumping in the deep ocean, and one hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity, the IPSN wanted to compile and review the available information on artificial radioactivity levels in seas and oceans. International experts have been invited to present data on inputs and inventories of radionuclides in the marine environment, and to describe the evolution of radioactivity levels in water, sediments and living organisms. Different sources of radionuclides present in the aquatic environment are described: atmospheric fallout before and after Chernobyl, industrial wastes, dumped wastes and ships, nuclear ship accidents, river inputs, earth-sea atmospheric transfers and experimental sites for nuclear testing. Radioactivity levels due to these sources are dealt with at ocean (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian) and sea level (Channel, North Sea, Irish Sea, Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea and Arctic seas). These data collected in the present book give an up-to-date assessment of radionuclide distributions which will be very useful to address scientific and wider public concerns about radionuclides found in the aquatic environment. It gives many references useful to those who want to deepen their understanding of particular aspects of marine radioecology. (authors)

  17. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  18. Does frequency count? Parental input and the acquisition of vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Judith C; Dale, Philip S; Li, Ping

    2008-08-01

    Studies examining factors that influence when words are learned typically investigate one lexical category or a small set of words. We provide the first evaluation of the relation between input frequency and age of acquisition for a large sample of words. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory provides norming data on age of acquisition for 562 individual words collected from the parents of children aged 0 ; 8 to 2 ; 6. The CHILDES database provides estimates of frequency with which parents use these words with their children (age: 0 ; 7-7 ; 5; mean age: 36 months). For production, across all words higher parental frequency is associated with later acquisition. Within lexical categories, however, higher frequency is related to earlier acquisition. For comprehension, parental frequency correlates significantly with the age of acquisition only for common nouns. Frequency effects change with development. Thus, frequency impacts vocabulary acquisition in a complex interaction with category, modality and developmental stage.

  19. Control Board Digital Interface Input Devices – Touchscreen, Trackpad, or Mouse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring; Roger Lew

    2015-08-01

    The authors collaborated with a power utility to evaluate input devices for use in the human system interface (HSI) for a new digital Turbine Control System (TCS) at a nuclear power plant (NPP) undergoing a TCS upgrade. A standalone dynamic software simulation of the new digital TCS and a mobile kiosk were developed to conduct an input device study to evaluate operator preference and input device effectiveness. The TCS software presented the anticipated HSI for the TCS and mimicked (i.e., simulated) the turbine systems’ responses to operator commands. Twenty-four licensed operators from the two nuclear power units participated in the study. Three input devices were tested: a trackpad, mouse, and touchscreen. The subjective feedback from the survey indicates the operators preferred the touchscreen interface. The operators subjectively rated the touchscreen as the fastest and most comfortable input device given the range of tasks they performed during the study, but also noted a lack of accuracy for selecting small targets. The empirical data suggest the mouse input device provides the most consistent performance for screen navigation and manipulating on screen controls. The trackpad input device was both empirically and subjectively found to be the least effective and least desired input device.

  20. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M and O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes

  1. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Wong

    2004-11-05

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

  2. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether....... The finding suggests that input processing difficulties are associated with the phonological deficit, but that these difficulties may be stronger above the level of phoneme perception.......Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...

  3. Auto Draw from Excel Input Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Goullioud, Renaud; Cox, Brian; Grimes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The design process often involves the use of Excel files during project development. To facilitate communications of the information in the Excel files, drawings are often generated. During the design process, the Excel files are updated often to reflect new input. The problem is that the drawings often lag the updates, often leading to confusion of the current state of the design. The use of this program allows visualization of complex data in a format that is more easily understandable than pages of numbers. Because the graphical output can be updated automatically, the manual labor of diagram drawing can be eliminated. The more frequent update of system diagrams can reduce confusion and reduce errors and is likely to uncover symmetric problems earlier in the design cycle, thus reducing rework and redesign.

  4. Optimizing microwave photodetection: input-output theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Govia, L. C. G.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    High fidelity microwave photon counting is an important tool for various areas from background radiation analysis in astronomy to the implementation of circuit quantum electrodynamic architectures for the realization of a scalable quantum information processor. In this work we describe a microwave photon counter coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line. We employ input-output theory to examine a continuously driven transmission line as well as traveling photon wave packets. Using analytic and numerical methods, we calculate the conditions on the system parameters necessary to optimize measurement and achieve high detection efficiency. With this we can derive a general matching condition depending on the different system rates, under which the measurement process is optimal.

  5. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  6. Distribution Development for STORM Ingestion Input Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Sandia-developed Transport of Radioactive Materials (STORM) code suite is used as part of the Radioisotope Power System Launch Safety (RPSLS) program to perform statistical modeling of the consequences due to release of radioactive material given a launch accident. As part of this modeling, STORM samples input parameters from probability distributions with some parameters treated as constants. This report described the work done to convert four of these constant inputs (Consumption Rate, Average Crop Yield, Cropland to Landuse Database Ratio, and Crop Uptake Factor) to sampled values. Consumption rate changed from a constant value of 557.68 kg / yr to a normal distribution with a mean of 102.96 kg / yr and a standard deviation of 2.65 kg / yr. Meanwhile, Average Crop Yield changed from a constant value of 3.783 kg edible / m 2 to a normal distribution with a mean of 3.23 kg edible / m 2 and a standard deviation of 0.442 kg edible / m 2 . The Cropland to Landuse Database ratio changed from a constant value of 0.0996 (9.96%) to a normal distribution with a mean value of 0.0312 (3.12%) and a standard deviation of 0.00292 (0.29%). Finally the crop uptake factor changed from a constant value of 6.37e-4 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) to a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean value of 3.38e-4 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) and a standard deviation value of 3.33 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg)

  7. Laterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus: A processor of somatosensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdudnaya, Tatiana; Keller, Asaf

    2008-04-20

    The laterodorsal (LD) nucleus of the thalamus has been considered a "higher order" nucleus that provides inputs to limbic cortical areas. Although its functions are largely unknown, it is often considered to be involved in spatial learning and memory. Here we provide evidence that LD is part of a hitherto unknown pathway for processing somatosensory information. Juxtacellular and extracellular recordings from LD neurons reveal that they respond to vibrissa stimulation with short latency (median = 7 ms) and large magnitude responses (median = 1.2 spikes/stimulus). Most neurons (62%) had large receptive fields, responding to six and more individual vibrissae. Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nucleus interpolaris (SpVi) evoked short latency responses (median = 3.8 ms) in vibrissa-responsive LD neurons. Labeling produced by anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracers confirmed that LD neurons receive direct inputs from SpVi. Electrophysiological and neuroanatomical analyses revealed also that LD projects upon the cingulate and retrosplenial cortex, but has only sparse projections to the barrel cortex. These findings suggest that LD is part of a novel processing stream involved in spatial orientation and learning related to somatosensory cues. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Multi detector input and function generator for polarized neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blois, J.; Beunes, A.J.H.; Ende, P. v.d.; Osterholt, E.A.; Rekveldt, M.T.; Schipper, M.N.; Velthuis, S.G.E. te

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a VME module is described for static or stroboscopic measurements with a neutron scattering instrument, consisting essentially of a series of up to 64 3 He neutron detectors around a sample environment. Each detector is provided with an amplifier and a discriminator to separate the neutrons from noise. To reduce the wiring, the discriminator outputs are connected to the module by coding boxes. Two 16-inputs to one-output coding boxes generate serial output codes on a fiber optic connection. This basically fast connection reduces the dead time introduced by the coding, and the influence of environmental noise. With stroboscopic measurements a periodic function is used to affect the sample surrounded by a field coil. Each detected neutron is labeled with a data label containing the detector number and the time of detection with respect to a time reference. The data time base can be programmed on a linear or a nonlinear scale. An external source or an attribute of the periodic function may generate the time reference pulse. A 12-bit DAC connected to the output of an 8 K, 16-bits memory, where the pattern of the current has been stored before, generates the function. The function memory is scanned by the programmable function time base. Attributes are set by the four remaining bits of the memory. One separate detector input connects a monitor detector in the neutron beam with a 32-bit counter/timer that provides measuring on a preset count, preset time or preset frame. (orig.)

  9. Provider Opinions Regarding the Development of a Stigma-Reduction Intervention Tailored for Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Dinesh; Corrigan, Patrick; Drummond, Karen L.; Porchia, Sylvia; Sullivan, Greer

    2016-01-01

    Interventions involving contact with a person who has recovered from mental illness are most effective at reducing stigma. This study sought input from health care providers to inform the design of a contact intervention intended to reduce provider stigma toward persons with serious mental illness. Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were…

  10. Analysis on relation between safety input and accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing-guo; ZHANG Xue-mu; LI Chun-hui

    2007-01-01

    The number of safety input directly determines the level of safety, and there exists dialectical and unified relations between safety input and accidents. Based on the field investigation and reliable data, this paper deeply studied the dialectical relationship between safety input and accidents, and acquired the conclusions. The security situation of the coal enterprises was related to the security input rate, being effected little by the security input scale, and build the relationship model between safety input and accidents on this basis, that is the accident model.

  11. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...

  12. a Method for Preview Vibration Control of Systems Having Forcing Inputs and Rapidly-Switched Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBeheiry, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    In a variety of applications, especially in large scale dynamic systems, the mechanization of different vibration control elements in different locations would be decided by limitations placed on the modal vibration of the system and the inherent dynamic coupling between its modes. Also, the quality of vibration control to the economy of producing the whole system would be another trade-off leading to a mix of passive, active and semi-active vibration control elements in one system. This termactiveis limited to externally powered vibration control inputs and the termsemi-activeis limited to rapidly switched dampers. In this article, an optimal preview control method is developed for application to dynamic systems having active and semi-active vibration control elements mechanized at different locations in one system. The system is then a piecewise (bilinear) controller in which two independent sets of control inputs appear additively and multiplicatively. Calculus of variations along with the Hamiltonian approach are employed for the derivation of this method. In essence, it requires the active elements to be ideal force generators and the switched dampers to have the property of on-line variation of the damping characteristics to pre-determined limits. As the dampers switch during operation the whole system's structure differs, and then values of the active forcing inputs are adapted to match these rapid changes. Strictly speaking, each rapidly switched damper has pre-known upper and lower damping levels and it can take on any in-between value. This in-between value is to be determined by the method as long as the damper tracks a pre-known fully active control demand. In every damping state of each semi-active damper the method provides the optimal matching values of the active forcing inputs. The method is shown to have the feature of solving simple standard matrix equations to obtain closed form solutions. A comprehensive 9-DOF tractor semi-trailer model is used

  13. Development of NUPREP PC Version and Input Structures for NUCIRC Single Channel Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-12-15

    The input file for a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code NUCIRC consists of common channel input data and specific channel input data in a case of single channel analysis. Even when all the data is ready for the 380 channels' single channel analyses, it takes long time and requires enormous effort to compose an input file by hand-editing. The automatic pre-processor for this tedious job is a NUPREP code. In this study, a NUPREP PC version has been developed from the source list in the program manual of NUCIRC-MOD2.000 that is imported in a form of an execution file. In this procedure, some errors found in PC executions and lost statements are fixed accordingly. It is confirmed that the developed NUPREP code produces input file correctly for the CANDU-6 single channel analysis. Additionally, the NUCIRC input structure and data format are summarized for a single channel analysis and the input CARDs required for the creep information of aged channels are listed.

  14. Development of NUPREP PC Version and Input Structures for NUCIRC Single Channel Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-12-01

    The input file for a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code NUCIRC consists of common channel input data and specific channel input data in a case of single channel analysis. Even when all the data is ready for the 380 channels' single channel analyses, it takes long time and requires enormous effort to compose an input file by hand-editing. The automatic pre-processor for this tedious job is a NUPREP code. In this study, a NUPREP PC version has been developed from the source list in the program manual of NUCIRC-MOD2.000 that is imported in a form of an execution file. In this procedure, some errors found in PC executions and lost statements are fixed accordingly. It is confirmed that the developed NUPREP code produces input file correctly for the CANDU-6 single channel analysis. Additionally, the NUCIRC input structure and data format are summarized for a single channel analysis and the input CARDs required for the creep information of aged channels are listed

  15. Litter input controls on soil carbon in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Richard D.; Deem, Lauren; Plante, Alain F.

    2014-01-01

    Above- and belowground litter inputs in a temperate deciduous forest were altered for 20 yr to determine the importance of leaves and roots on soil C and soil organic matter (SOM) quantity and quality. Carbon and SOM quantity and quality were measured in the O horizon and mineral soil to 50 cm...... soil C, but decreases in litter inputs resulted in rapid soil C declines. Root litter may ultimately provide more stable sources of soil C. Management activities or environmental alterations that decrease litter inputs in mature forests can lower soil C content; however, increases in forest...

  16. Reduced basis ANOVA methods for partial differential equations with high-dimensional random inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Qifeng, E-mail: liaoqf@shanghaitech.edu.cn [School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lin, Guang, E-mail: guanglin@purdue.edu [Department of Mathematics & School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we present a reduced basis ANOVA approach for partial deferential equations (PDEs) with random inputs. The ANOVA method combined with stochastic collocation methods provides model reduction in high-dimensional parameter space through decomposing high-dimensional inputs into unions of low-dimensional inputs. In this work, to further reduce the computational cost, we investigate spatial low-rank structures in the ANOVA-collocation method, and develop efficient spatial model reduction techniques using hierarchically generated reduced bases. We present a general mathematical framework of the methodology, validate its accuracy and demonstrate its efficiency with numerical experiments.

  17. Additive lattice kirigami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  18. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  19. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  20. Effect of input compression and input frequency response on music perception in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emily R; Jones, Linor L; Fraser, Matthew; Lockley, Morag; Hill-Feltham, Penelope; McKay, Colette M

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether modifications to input compression and input frequency response characteristics can improve music-listening satisfaction in cochlear implant users. Experiment 1 compared three pre-processed versions of music and speech stimuli in a laboratory setting: original, compressed, and flattened frequency response. Music excerpts comprised three music genres (classical, country, and jazz), and a running speech excerpt was compared. Experiment 2 implemented a flattened input frequency response in the speech processor program. In a take-home trial, participants compared unaltered and flattened frequency responses. Ten and twelve adult Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant users participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Experiment 1 revealed a significant preference for music stimuli with a flattened frequency response compared to both original and compressed stimuli, whereas there was a significant preference for the original (rising) frequency response for speech stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed no significant mean preference for the flattened frequency response, with 9 of 11 subjects preferring the rising frequency response. Input compression did not alter music enjoyment. Comparison of the two experiments indicated that individual frequency response preferences may depend on the genre or familiarity, and particularly whether the music contained lyrics.

  1. Robust input design for nonlinear dynamic modeling of AUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Nowrouz Mohammad; Valadi, Mehrdad

    2017-09-01

    Input design has a dominant role in developing the dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) through system identification. Optimal input design is the process of generating informative inputs that can be used to generate the good quality dynamic model of AUVs. In a problem with optimal input design, the desired input signal depends on the unknown system which is intended to be identified. In this paper, the input design approach which is robust to uncertainties in model parameters is used. The Bayesian robust design strategy is applied to design input signals for dynamic modeling of AUVs. The employed approach can design multiple inputs and apply constraints on an AUV system's inputs and outputs. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to solve the constraint robust optimization problem. The presented algorithm is used for designing the input signals for an AUV, and the estimate obtained by robust input design is compared with that of the optimal input design. According to the results, proposed input design can satisfy both robustness of constraints and optimality. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Facilitating mathematics learning for students with upper extremity disabilities using touch-input system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; Chan, Tak-Yin

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using tablet device as user interface for students with upper extremity disabilities to input mathematics efficiently into computer. A touch-input system using tablet device as user interface was proposed to assist these students to write mathematics. User-switchable and context-specific keyboard layouts were designed to streamline the input process. The system could be integrated with conventional computer systems only with minor software setup. A two-week pre-post test study involving five participants was conducted to evaluate the performance of the system and collect user feedback. The mathematics input efficiency of the participants was found to improve during the experiment sessions. In particular, their performance in entering trigonometric expressions by using the touch-input system was significantly better than that by using conventional mathematics editing software with keyboard and mouse. The participants rated the touch-input system positively and were confident that they could operate at ease with more practice. The proposed touch-input system provides a convenient way for the students with hand impairment to write mathematics and has the potential to facilitate their mathematics learning. Implications for Rehabilitation Students with upper extremity disabilities often face barriers to learning mathematics which is largely based on handwriting. Conventional computer user interfaces are inefficient for them to input mathematics into computer. A touch-input system with context-specific and user-switchable keyboard layouts was designed to improve the efficiency of mathematics input. Experimental results and user feedback suggested that the system has the potential to facilitate mathematics learning for the students.

  3. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  4. Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence (CIRMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1977-04-01

    The Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence (CIRMIS) was developed to provide the research scientist with man--machine interactive capabilities in a real-time environment, and thereby produce results more quickly and efficiently. The CIRMIS system was originally developed to increase data storage and retrieval capabilities and ground-water model control for the Hanford site. The overall configuration, however, can be used in other areas. The CIRMIS system provides the user with three major functions: retrieval of well-based data, special application for manipulating surface data or background maps, and the manipulation and control of ground-water models. These programs comprise only a portion of the entire CIRMIS system. A complete description of the CIRMIS system is given in this report. 25 figures, 7 tables

  5. Trends in Solidification Grain Size and Morphology for Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Joy; Sheridan, Luke; Narra, Sneha P.; Klingbeil, Nathan W.; Beuth, Jack

    2017-12-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is used for both prototyping and production of final parts. Therefore, there is a need to predict and control the microstructural size and morphology. Process mapping is an approach that represents AM process outcomes in terms of input variables. In this work, analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches are combined to provide a holistic view of trends in the solidification grain structure of Ti-6Al-4V across a wide range of AM process input variables. The thermal gradient is shown to vary significantly through the depth of the melt pool, which precludes development of fully equiaxed microstructure throughout the depth of the deposit within any practical range of AM process variables. A strategy for grain size control is demonstrated based on the relationship between melt pool size and grain size across multiple deposit geometries, and additional factors affecting grain size are discussed.

  6. Quantum theory of multiple-input-multiple-output Markovian feedback with diffusive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, A.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback control engineers have been interested in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) extensions of single-input-single-output (SISO) results of various kinds due to its rich mathematical structure and practical applications. An outstanding problem in quantum feedback control is the extension of the SISO theory of Markovian feedback by Wiseman and Milburn [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548 (1993)] to multiple inputs and multiple outputs. Here we generalize the SISO homodyne-mediated feedback theory to allow for multiple inputs, multiple outputs, and arbitrary diffusive quantum measurements. We thus obtain a MIMO framework which resembles the SISO theory and whose additional mathematical structure is highlighted by the extensive use of vector-operator algebra.

  7. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  8. A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping, E-mail: wangxiaoping@hust.edu.cn; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian

    2016-09-07

    The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.

  9. A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.

  10. Guidelines for determining inputs of inorganic contaminants into estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication describes sampling and sample preparation procedures suitable to obtain unpolluted samples for the purpose of determining river inputs of inorganic pollutants into estuaries. Emphasis is placed on heavy metal pollutants but procedures are suitable, with appropriate modifications for other inorganic pollutants. For example, the collection of samples for mercury may require modifications of handling procedures. River water samples are collected at the most down-river point where no estuarine influences effect results. Samples are collected using a peristaltic pump and separated into aqueous and particulate phases for pollutant analysis. As is the case of all trace pollutant analyses, meticulous care is required to prevent pollution of the sample and in addition to the precautions described in this method, great personal attention is required to minimize sample handling, pollution by smoke, hands, hair, dust, talc from gloves, etc., and to avoid all contact of the samples and reagents with skin and metallic objects. 1 ref., 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Input-output analysis for installing renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Y.; Nakata, T.

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy facilities have been installed in many regions, because of their possibility to be an alternative to fossil fuels for mitigating global warming. Besides the profitability of renewable energy businesses, indirect economic effects of installing renewable energy facilities should be clarified. This study examines the possibility that the renewable energy facilities give renewed impetus to regional economic progress. The economic effects are analysed with input-output techniques in a rural area in Japan. As a consequence, both positive and negative effects on the rural economy are derived. In addition, we will focus on the changes in sectors such as construction, business services, banking, etc. as a result of economic activities for renewable systems. The business benefits of renewable energy system are discussed. (author)

  12. Magnetospheric energy inputs into the upper atmospheres of the giant planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the effects of Joule heating upon the upper atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. We show that in addition to direct Joule heating there is an additional input of kinetic energy – ion drag energy – which we quantify relative to the Joule heating. We also show that fluctuations about the mean electric field, as observed in the Earth's ionosphere, may significantly increase the Joule heating itself. For physically plausible parameters these effects may increase previous estimates of the upper atmospheric energy input at Saturn from ~10 TW to ~20 TW.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Electric fields and currents; Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena

  13. Asymptotic Stabilization of Continuous-Time Linear Systems with Input and State Quantizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wook Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the asymptotic stabilization problem of linear systems with input and state quantizations. In order to achieve asymptotic stabilization of such systems, we propose a state-feedback controller comprising two control parts: the main part is used to determine the fundamental characteristics of the system associated with the cost, and the additional part is employed to eliminate the effects of input and state quanizations. In particular, in order to implement the additional part, we introduce a quantizer with a region-decision making process (RDMP for a certain linear switching surface. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  14. Radioactive inputs to the North Sea and the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (radioactivity; radioisotopes; discharges from nuclear establishments); data sources (statutory requirements); sources of liquid radioactive waste (figure showing location of principal sources of radioactive discharges; tables listing principal discharges by activity and by nature of radioisotope); Central Electricity Generating Board nuclear power stations; research and industrial establishments; Ministy of Defence establishments; other UK inputs of radioactive waste; total inputs to the North Sea and the Channel (direct inputs; river inputs; adjacent sea areas); conclusions. (U.K.)

  15. Calibrating the input accountancy tanks on THORP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.G.; Hillier, A.P.; Temple, A.

    1995-01-01

    BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), at Sellafield in the UK, processes oxide fuels from customers around the world. The fuel moves through the plant from shearing and dissolution in the Head End and subsequently to solvent extraction in the Chemical Plant. Clarified dissolver liquor is accumulated in three large buffer storage tanks (each of approximately 75 m 3 capacity), in the Head End prior to feeding to the Chemical Plant. The amount of dissolver liquor being passed to these tanks is accurately measured in one of two Input Accountancy Tanks, which are each of 23 m 3 working capacity, and are equipped with high accuracy weight and level measurement systems. Several papers have been published which describe the principles applied to achieve the Safeguarding of THORP. This paper describes the setting to work of a key measurement point in the THORP process and details the complex trials that were begun during the early commissioning phases, to ensure that these accountancy systems would eventually be fully characterized

  16. Information Fusion of Conflicting Input Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Mönks

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data. Thus, information fusion mechanisms gain increasing importance. Besides the management of large amounts of data, further challenges towards the fusion algorithms arise from epistemic uncertainties (incomplete knowledge in the input signals as well as conflicts between them. These aspects must be considered during information processing to obtain reliable results, which are in accordance with the real world. The analysis of the scientific state of the art shows that current solutions fulfil said requirements at most only partly. This article proposes the multilayered information fusion system MACRO (multilayer attribute-based conflict-reducing observation employing the μBalTLCS (fuzzified balanced two-layer conflict solving fusion algorithm to reduce the impact of conflicts on the fusion result. The performance of the contribution is shown by its evaluation in the scope of a machine condition monitoring application under laboratory conditions. Here, the MACRO system yields the best results compared to state-of-the-art fusion mechanisms. The utilised data is published and freely accessible.

  17. Information Fusion of Conflicting Input Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönks, Uwe; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker; Hübner, Michael

    2016-10-29

    Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data. Thus, information fusion mechanisms gain increasing importance. Besides the management of large amounts of data, further challenges towards the fusion algorithms arise from epistemic uncertainties (incomplete knowledge) in the input signals as well as conflicts between them. These aspects must be considered during information processing to obtain reliable results, which are in accordance with the real world. The analysis of the scientific state of the art shows that current solutions fulfil said requirements at most only partly. This article proposes the multilayered information fusion system MACRO (multilayer attribute-based conflict-reducing observation) employing the μ BalTLCS (fuzzified balanced two-layer conflict solving) fusion algorithm to reduce the impact of conflicts on the fusion result. The performance of the contribution is shown by its evaluation in the scope of a machine condition monitoring application under laboratory conditions. Here, the MACRO system yields the best results compared to state-of-the-art fusion mechanisms. The utilised data is published and freely accessible.

  18. Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, I; Novejarque, A; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Insausti, R; Martinez-Garcia, F; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2008-03-18

    Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.

  19. Grammar in Context using Comprehended Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Mohamed Nor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been so many ongoing disputes on different approaches to teaching grammar. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching grammar using Gass comprehended Input technique (GCI (1997 (implicit and to explore the undergraduates’ perception on the GCI technique. The respondents consisted of 30 undergraduates’ who are currently pursuing their Bachelor of English. Using the qualitative method, the research instrument was a set of 23- item interview and content analysis of the students’ written work. Results showed that the teaching of grammar using explicit instructions was more preferred than implicit instruction for complex components in grammatical rules. However, implicit instruction is equally effective regardless of the proficiency levels to enable pedagogy to be executed. It is also noted that there is lots of room for improvement, since the undergraduates have a weak grasp of the basic tense aspect of English grammar. Therefore, the Malaysian Ministry of Education should consider having grammar formally taught in isolation as what was practised previously.

  20. DUSTMS-D: DISPOSAL UNIT SOURCE TERM - MULTIPLE SPECIES - DISTRIBUTED FAILURE DATA INPUT GUIDE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    the waste form), (b) diffusion release.(release from either a cylindrical, spherical, or rectangular wasteform), (c) dissolution release (uniform release over time due to dissolution of the wasteform surface), and (d) solubility limited release. The predicated wasteform releases are corrected for radioactive decay and ingrowth. A unique set of container failure and wasteform release parameters can be specified for each control volume with a container. Contaminant transport is modeled through a finite-difference solution of the advective transport equation with sources (wasteform release and ingrowth) and radioactive decay. Although DUST-MS simulates one-dimensional transport, it can be used to simulate migration down to an aquifer and then transport in the aquifer by running the code twice. A special subroutine allows the flux into the aquifer from the first simulation to be input as the flux at the upstream boundary in the aquifer. This document presents the models used to calculate release from a disposal facility, verification of the model, and instructions on the use of the DUST-MS code. In addition to DUST-MS, a preprocessor, DUSTINMS, which helps the code user create input decks for DUST-MS and a post-processor, GRAFMS, which takes selected output files and plots them on the computer terminal have been written. Use of these codes is also described. In using DUST-MS, as with all computer models, the validity of the predictions relies heavily on the validity of the input parameters. Often, the largest uncertainties arise from uncertainty in the input parameters. Therefore, it is crucial to document and support the use of these parameters. The DUST-MS code, because of its flexibility and ability to compute release rates quickly, is extremely useful for screening to determine the radionuclide released at the highest rate, parameter sensitivity analysis and, with proper choice of the input parameters, provide upper bounds to release rates.

  1. Estimation of the pulmonary input function in dynamic whole body PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho-Shon, K.; Buchen, P.; Meikle, S.R.; Fulham, M.J.; University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Dynamic data acquisition in Whole Body PET (WB-PET) has the potential to measure the metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlc) in tissue in-vivo. Estimation of changes in tumoral MRGlc may be a valuable tool in cancer by providing an quantitative index of response to treatment. A necessary requirement is an input function (IF) that can be obtained from arterial, 'arterialised' venous or pulmonary arterial blood in the case of lung tumours. Our aim was to extract the pulmonary input function from dynamic WB-PET data using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Factor Analysis (FA) and Maximum Entropy (ME) for the evaluation of patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. PCA is first used as a method of dimension reduction to obtain a signal space, defined by an optimal metric and a set of vectors. FA is used together with a ME constraint to rotate these vectors to obtain 'physiological' factors. A form of entropy function that does not require normalised data was used. This enabled the introduction of a penalty function based on the blood concentration at the last time point which provides an additional constraint. Tissue functions from 10 planes through normal lung were simulated. The model was a linear combination of an IF and a tissue time activity curve (TAC). The proportion of the IF to TAC was varied over the planes to simulate the apical to basal gradient in vascularity of the lung and pseudo Poisson noise was added. The method accurately extracted the IF at noise levels spanning the expected range for dynamic ROI data acquired with the interplane septa extended. Our method is minimally invasive because it requires only 1 late venous blood sample and is applicable to a wide range of tracers since it does not assume a particular compartmental model. Pilot data from 2 patients have been collected enabling comparison of the estimated IF with direct blood sampling from the pulmonary artery

  2. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  3. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  4. Inputs and spatial distribution patterns of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Cr pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the input and spatial distribution patterns is essential to pollution control. In according to the source strengths of the major pollution sources, the input patterns of pollutants to marine bay include slight, moderate and heavy, and the spatial distribution are corresponding to three block models respectively. This paper analyzed input patterns and distributions of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay, eastern China based on investigation on Cr in surface waters during 1979-1983. Results showed that the input strengths of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay could be classified as moderate input and slight input, and the input strengths were 32.32-112.30 μg L-1 and 4.17-19.76 μg L-1, respectively. The input patterns of Cr included two patterns of moderate input and slight input, and the horizontal distributions could be defined by means of Block Model 2 and Block Model 3, respectively. In case of moderate input pattern via overland runoff, Cr contents were decreasing from the estuaries to the bay mouth, and the distribution pattern was parallel. In case of moderate input pattern via marine current, Cr contents were decreasing from the bay mouth to the bay, and the distribution pattern was parallel to circular. The Block Models were able to reveal the transferring process of various pollutants, and were helpful to understand the distributions of pollutants in marine bay.

  5. Distinctiveness and Bidirectional Effects in Input Enhancement for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This study examined input enhancement and second language (L2) vocabulary learning while exploring the role of "distinctiveness," the degree to which an item in the input diverges from the form in which other items in the input are presented, with regard to the nature and direction of the effects of enhancement. In this study,…

  6. Input Manipulation, Enhancement and Processing: Theoretical Views and Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in the field of instructed second language acquisition have been examining the issue of how learners interact with input by conducting research measuring particular kinds of instructional interventions (input-oriented and meaning-based). These interventions include such things as input flood, textual enhancement and processing…

  7. 7 CFR 3431.4 - Solicitation of stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Solicitation of stakeholder input. 3431.4 Section... Designation of Veterinarian Shortage Situations § 3431.4 Solicitation of stakeholder input. The Secretary will solicit stakeholder input on the process and procedures used to designate veterinarian shortage situations...

  8. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  9. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-09-24

    This analysis is one of the nine reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003a) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents a set of input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. This report, ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003b). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available at that time. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this analysis report. This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading, which is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Measurements of mass loading are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air surrounding crops and concentrations in air

  10. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-01-01

    This analysis is one of the nine reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003a) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents a set of input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. This report, ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003b). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available at that time. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this analysis report. This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading, which is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Measurements of mass loading are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air surrounding crops and concentrations in air inhaled by a receptor. Concentrations in air to which the

  11. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  12. Structural consequences of carbon taxes: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yuhu.

    1992-01-01

    A model system is provided for examining for examining the structural consequences of carbon taxes on economic, energy, and environmental issues. The key component is the Iterative Multi-Optimization (IMO) Process model which describes, using an Input-Output (I-O) framework, the feedback between price changes and substitution. The IMO process is designed to assure this feedback process when the input coefficients in an I-O table can be changed while holding the I-O price model. The theoretical problems of convergence to a limit in the iterative process and uniqueness (which requires all IMO processes starting from different initial prices to converge to a unique point for a given level of carbon taxes) are addressed. The empirical analysis also examines the effects of carbon taxes on the US economy as described by a 78 sector I-O model. Findings are compared with those of other models that assess the effects of carbon taxes, and the similarities and differences with them are interpreted in terms of differences in the scope, sectoral detail, time frame, and policy assumptions among the models

  13. Authentic Language Input Through Audiovisual Technology and Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Bahrani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Second language acquisition cannot take place without having exposure to language input. With regard to this, the present research aimed at providing empirical evidence about the low and the upper-intermediate language learners’ preferred type of audiovisual programs and language proficiency development outside the classroom. To this end, 60 language learners (30 low level and 30 upper-intermediate level were asked to have exposure to their preferred types of audiovisual program(s outside the classroom and keep a diary of the amount and the type of exposure. The obtained data indicated that the low-level participants preferred cartoons and the upper-intermediate participants preferred news more. To find out which language proficiency level could improve its language proficiency significantly, a post-test was administered. The results indicated that only the upper-intermediate language learners gained significant improvement. Based on the findings, the quality of the language input should be given priority over the amount of exposure.

  14. Latitudinal and seasonal variability of the micrometeor input function: A study using model predictions and observations from Arecibo and PFISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentzke, J. T.; Janches, D.; Sparks, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    In this work, we use a semi-empirical model of the micrometeor input function (MIF) together with meteor head-echo observations obtained with two high power and large aperture (HPLA) radars, the 430 MHz Arecibo Observatory (AO) radar in Puerto Rico (18°N, 67°W) and the 450 MHz Poker flat incoherent scatter radar (PFISR) in Alaska (65°N, 147°W), to study the seasonal and geographical dependence of the meteoric flux in the upper atmosphere. The model, recently developed by Janches et al. [2006a. Modeling the global micrometeor input function in the upper atmosphere observed by high power and large aperture radars. Journal of Geophysical Research 111] and Fentzke and Janches [2008. A semi-empirical model of the contribution from sporadic meteoroid sources on the meteor input function observed at arecibo. Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 113 (A03304)], includes an initial mass flux that is provided by the six known meteor sources (i.e. orbital families of dust) as well as detailed modeling of meteoroid atmospheric entry and ablation physics. In addition, we use a simple ionization model to treat radar sensitivity issues by defining minimum electron volume density production thresholds required in the meteor head-echo plasma for detection. This simplified approach works well because we use observations from two radars with similar frequencies, but different sensitivities and locations. This methodology allows us to explore the initial input of particles and how it manifests in different parts of the MLT as observed by these instruments without the need to invoke more sophisticated plasma models, which are under current development. The comparisons between model predictions and radar observations show excellent agreement between diurnal, seasonal, and latitudinal variability of the detected meteor rate and radial velocity distributions, allowing us to understand how individual meteoroid populations contribute to the overall flux at a particular

  15. SPM analysis of parametric (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding images: plasma input versus reference tissue parametric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van Berckel, Bart N M; Kropholler, Marc A; Veltman, Dick J; Scheltens, Philip; Jonker, Cees; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2007-05-01

    (R)-[11C]PK11195 has been used for quantifying cerebral microglial activation in vivo. In previous studies, both plasma input and reference tissue methods have been used, usually in combination with a region of interest (ROI) approach. Definition of ROIs, however, can be labourious and prone to interobserver variation. In addition, results are only obtained for predefined areas and (unexpected) signals in undefined areas may be missed. On the other hand, standard pharmacokinetic models are too sensitive to noise to calculate (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Linearised versions of both plasma input and reference tissue models have been described, and these are more suitable for parametric imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of these plasma input and reference tissue parametric methods on the outcome of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding. Dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were performed in 7 younger and 11 elderly healthy subjects. Parametric images of volume of distribution (Vd) and binding potential (BP) were generated using linearised versions of plasma input (Logan) and reference tissue (Reference Parametric Mapping) models. Images were compared at the group level using SPM with a two-sample t-test per voxel, both with and without proportional scaling. Parametric BP images without scaling provided the most sensitive framework for determining differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding between younger and elderly subjects. Vd images could only demonstrate differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding when analysed with proportional scaling due to intersubject variation in K1/k2 (blood-brain barrier transport and non-specific binding).

  16. Enhanced Sensitivity to Rapid Input Fluctuations by Nonlinear Threshold Dynamics in Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Skander; Hagens, Olivier; Gerstner, Wulfram; Pozzorini, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The way in which single neurons transform input into output spike trains has fundamental consequences for network coding. Theories and modeling studies based on standard Integrate-and-Fire models implicitly assume that, in response to increasingly strong inputs, neurons modify their coding strategy by progressively reducing their selective sensitivity to rapid input fluctuations. Combining mathematical modeling with in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that, in L5 pyramidal neurons, the firing threshold dynamics adaptively adjust the effective timescale of somatic integration in order to preserve sensitivity to rapid signals over a broad range of input statistics. For that, a new Generalized Integrate-and-Fire model featuring nonlinear firing threshold dynamics and conductance-based adaptation is introduced that outperforms state-of-the-art neuron models in predicting the spiking activity of neurons responding to a variety of in vivo-like fluctuating currents. Our model allows for efficient parameter extraction and can be analytically mapped to a Generalized Linear Model in which both the input filter--describing somatic integration--and the spike-history filter--accounting for spike-frequency adaptation--dynamically adapt to the input statistics, as experimentally observed. Overall, our results provide new insights on the computational role of different biophysical processes known to underlie adaptive coding in single neurons and support previous theoretical findings indicating that the nonlinear dynamics of the firing threshold due to Na+-channel inactivation regulate the sensitivity to rapid input fluctuations.

  17. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecosystem services provided by bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Thomas H; Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth; Bauer, Dana; Lobova, Tatyana; Fleming, Theodore H

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits obtained from the environment that increase human well-being. Economic valuation is conducted by measuring the human welfare gains or losses that result from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Bats have long been postulated to play important roles in arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, and pollination; however, only recently have these ecosystem services begun to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we review the available literature on the ecological and economic impact of ecosystem services provided by bats. We describe dietary preferences, foraging behaviors, adaptations, and phylogenetic histories of insectivorous, frugivorous, and nectarivorous bats worldwide in the context of their respective ecosystem services. For each trophic ensemble, we discuss the consequences of these ecological interactions on both natural and agricultural systems. Throughout this review, we highlight the research needed to fully determine the ecosystem services in question. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview of economic valuation of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, few studies estimating the economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats have been conducted to date; however, we outline a framework that could be used in future studies to more fully address this question. Consumptive goods provided by bats, such as food and guano, are often exchanged in markets where the market price indicates an economic value. Nonmarket valuation methods can be used to estimate the economic value of nonconsumptive services, including inputs to agricultural production and recreational activities. Information on the ecological and economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats can be used to inform decisions regarding where and when to protect or restore bat populations and associated habitats, as well as to improve public perception of bats. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. On the Nature of the Input in Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heck, Fabian; Müller, Gereon; Vogel, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    The input has two main functions in optimality theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993). First, the input defines the candidate set, in other words it determines which output candidates compete for optimality, and which do not. Second, the input is referred to by faithfulness constraints that prohibit...... output candidates from deviating from specifications in the input. Whereas there is general agreement concerning the relevance of the input in phonology, the nature of the input in syntax is notoriously unclear. In this article, we show that the input should not be taken to define syntactic candidate...... and syntax is due to a basic, irreducible difference between these two components of grammar: Syntax is an information preserving system, phonology is not....

  20. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  1. Convergence and periodic solutions for the input impedance of a standard ladder network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucak, C; Acar, C

    2007-01-01

    The input impedance of an infinite ladder network is computed by using the recursive relation and by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block is added to the network. However, this assumption is not true in general and standard textbooks do not always treat these networks correctly. This paper develops a general solution to obtain the input impedance of a standard ladder network of impedances and admittances for any number of blocks. Then, this result is used to provide the convergence condition for the infinite ladder network. The conditions which lead to periodic input impedance are exploited. It is shown that there are infinite numbers of periodic points and no paradoxical behaviour exists in the standard ladder network

  2. Input preshaping with frequency domain information for flexible-link manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzes, Anthony; Englehart, Matthew J.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The application of an input preshaping scheme to flexible manipulators is considered. The resulting control corresponds to a feedforward term that convolves in real-time the desired reference input with a sequence of impulses and produces a vibration free output. The robustness of the algorithm with respect to injected disturbances and modal frequency variations is not satisfactory and can be improved by convolving the input with a longer sequence of impulses. The incorporation of the preshaping scheme to a closed-loop plant, using acceleration feedback, offers satisfactory disturbance rejection due to feedback and cancellation of the flexible mode effects due to the preshaping. A frequency domain identification scheme is used to estimate the modal frequencies on-line and subsequently update the spacing between the impulses. The combined adaptive input preshaping scheme provides the fastest possible slew that results in a vibration free output.

  3. Crop Breeding for Low Input Agriculture: A Sustainable Response to Feed a Growing World Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner A. Benedito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World population is projected to reach its maximum (~10 billion people by the year 2050. This 45% increase of the current world population (approaching seven billion people will boost the demand for food and raw materials. However, we live in a historical moment when supply of phosphate, water, and oil are at their peaks. Modern agriculture is fundamentally based on varieties bred for high performance under high input systems (fertilizers, water, oil, pesticides, which generally do not perform well under low-input situations. We propose a shift of research goals and plant breeding objectives from high-performance agriculture at high-energy input to those with an improved rationalization between yield and energy input. Crop breeding programs that are more focused on nutrient economy and local environmental fitness will help reduce energy demands for crop production while still providing adequate amounts of high quality food as global resources decline and population is projected to increase.

  4. Bottom-up and Top-down Input Augment the Variability of Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Kreiman, Gabriel; Born, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Neurons in the cerebral cortex respond inconsistently to a repeated sensory stimulus, yet they underlie our stable sensory experiences. Although the nature of this variability is unknown, its ubiquity has encouraged the general view that each cell produces random spike patterns that noisily represent its response rate. In contrast, here we show that reversibly inactivating distant sources of either bottom-up or top-down input to cortical visual areas in the alert primate reduces both the spike train irregularity and the trial-to-trial variability of single neurons. A simple model in which a fraction of the pre-synaptic input is silenced can reproduce this reduction in variability, provided that there exist temporal correlations primarily within, but not between, excitatory and inhibitory input pools. A large component of the variability of cortical neurons may therefore arise from synchronous input produced by signals arriving from multiple sources. PMID:27427459

  5. Development and validation of gui based input file generation code for relap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Khan, A.A.; Chughati, I.R.; Chaudri, K.S.; Inyat, M.H.; Hayat, T.

    2009-01-01

    Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP) is a widely acceptable computer code for thermal hydraulics modeling of Nuclear Power Plants. It calculates thermal- hydraulic transients in water-cooled nuclear reactors by solving approximations to the one-dimensional, two-phase equations of hydraulics in an arbitrarily connected system of nodes. However, the preparation of input file and subsequent analysis of results in this code is a tedious task. The development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for preparation of the input file for RELAP-5 is done with the validation of GUI generated Input File. The GUI is developed in Microsoft Visual Studio using Visual C Sharp (C) as programming language. The Nodalization diagram is drawn graphically and the program contains various component forms along with the starting data form, which are launched for properties assignment to generate Input File Cards serving as GUI for the user. The GUI is provided with Open / Save function to store and recall the Nodalization diagram along with Components' properties. The GUI generated Input File is validated for several case studies and individual component cards are compared with the originally required format. The generated Input File of RELAP is found consistent with the requirement of RELAP. The GUI provided a useful platform for simulating complex hydrodynamic problems efficiently with RELAP. (author)

  6. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language.

  7. Convergent responses of nitrogen and phosphorus resorption to nitrogen inputs in a semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha; Yu, Qiang; He, Nian-Peng; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Han, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Human activities have significantly altered nitrogen (N) availability in most terrestrial ecosystems, with consequences for community composition and ecosystem functioning. Although studies of how changes in N availability affect biodiversity and community composition are relatively common, much less remains known about the effects of N inputs on the coupled biogeochemical cycling of N and phosphorus (P), and still fewer data exist regarding how increased N inputs affect the internal cycling of these two elements in plants. Nutrient resorption is an important driver of plant nutrient economies and of the quality of litter plants produce. Accordingly, resorption patterns have marked ecological implications for plant population and community fitness, as well as for ecosystem nutrient cycling. In a semiarid grassland in northern China, we studied the effects of a wide range of N inputs on foliar nutrient resorption of two dominant grasses, Leymus chinensis and Stipa grandis. After 4 years of treatments, N and P availability in soil and N and P concentrations in green and senesced grass leaves increased with increasing rates of N addition. Foliar N and P resorption significantly decreased along the N addition gradient, implying a resorption-mediated, positive plant–soil feedback induced by N inputs. Furthermore, N : P resorption ratios were negatively correlated with the rates of N addition, indicating the sensitivity of plant N and P stoichiometry to N inputs. Taken together, the results demonstrate that N additions accelerate ecosystem uptake and turnover of both N and P in the temperate steppe and that N and P cycles are coupled in dynamic ways. The convergence of N and P resorption in response to N inputs emphasizes the importance of nutrient resorption as a pathway by which plants and ecosystems adjust in the face of increasing N availability.

  8. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  9. Method for evaluating operator inputs to digital controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Most industrial processes employ operator-interactive control systems. The performance of these control systems is influenced by the choice of control station (device through which operator enters control commands). While the importance of proper control-station selection is widely accepted, standard and simple selection methods are not available for the control station using color-graphics terminals. This paper describes a unique facility for evaluating the effectiveness of various control stations. In the facility, a process is simulated on a hybrid computer, color-graphics display terminals provide information to the operator, and different control stations accept input commands to control the simulation. Tests are being conducted to evaluate a keyboard, a graphics tablet, and a CRT touch panel for use as control stations on a nuclear power plant. Preliminary results indicate that our facility can be used to determine those situations where each type of station is advantageous

  10. Modelling Analysis of Forestry Input-Output Elasticity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended economic model and space econometrics, this essay analyzed the spatial distributions and interdependent relationships of the production of forestry in China; also the input-output elasticity of forestry production were calculated. Results figure out there exists significant spatial correlation in forestry production in China. Spatial distribution is mainly manifested as spatial agglomeration. The output elasticity of labor force is equal to 0.6649, and that of capital is equal to 0.8412. The contribution of land is significantly negative. Labor and capital are the main determinants for the province-level forestry production in China. Thus, research on the province-level forestry production should not ignore the spatial effect. The policy-making process should take into consideration the effects between provinces on the production of forestry. This study provides some scientific technical support for forestry production.

  11. Prioritizing Interdependent Production Processes using Leontief Input-Output Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masbad Jesah Grace

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology in identifying key production processes in an interdependent production system. Previous approaches on this domain have drawbacks that may potentially affect the reliability of decision-making. The proposed approach adopts the Leontief input-output model (L-IOM which was proven successful in analyzing interdependent economic systems. The motivation behind such adoption lies in the strength of L-IOM in providing a rigorous quantitative framework in identifying key components of interdependent systems. In this proposed approach, the consumption and production flows of each process are represented respectively by the material inventory produced by the prior process and the material inventory produced by the current process, both in monetary values. A case study in a furniture production system located in central Philippines was carried out to elucidate the proposed approach. Results of the case were reported in this work

  12. Radiation curable Michael addition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.W.; Friedlander, C.B.; McDonald, W.H.; Dowbenko, R.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable acrylyloxy-containing reaction products are provided from Michael addition reaction of an amide containing at least two acrylate groups with a primary or secondary amine. The resulting amine adducts of the amide, which contain at least one acrylate group per molecule, possesses high cure rates in air and are useful in compositions for forming coatings. (author)

  13. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Tilman, David

    2017-06-01

    Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture’s environmental impacts. A meta-analysis of life cycle assessments that includes 742 agricultural systems and over 90 unique foods produced primarily in high-input systems shows that, per unit of food, organic systems require more land, cause more eutrophication, use less energy, but emit similar greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as conventional systems; that grass-fed beef requires more land and emits similar GHG emissions as grain-feed beef; and that low-input aquaculture and non-trawling fisheries have much lower GHG emissions than trawling fisheries. In addition, our analyses show that increasing agricultural input efficiency (the amount of food produced per input of fertilizer or feed) would have environmental benefits for both crop and livestock systems. Further, for all environmental indicators and nutritional units examined, plant-based foods have the lowest environmental impacts; eggs, dairy, pork, poultry, non-trawling fisheries, and non-recirculating aquaculture have intermediate impacts; and ruminant meat has impacts ∼100 times those of plant-based foods. Our analyses show that dietary shifts towards low-impact foods and increases in agricultural input use efficiency would offer larger environmental benefits than would switches from conventional agricultural systems to alternatives such as organic agriculture or grass-fed beef.

  14. Maturation of GABAergic inhibition promotes strengthening of temporally coherent inputs among convergent pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Kuhlman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP, a form of Hebbian plasticity, is inherently stabilizing. Whether and how GABAergic inhibition influences STDP is not well understood. Using a model neuron driven by converging inputs modifiable by STDP, we determined that a sufficient level of inhibition was critical to ensure that temporal coherence (correlation among presynaptic spike times of synaptic inputs, rather than initial strength or number of inputs within a pathway, controlled postsynaptic spike timing. Inhibition exerted this effect by preferentially reducing synaptic efficacy, the ability of inputs to evoke postsynaptic action potentials, of the less coherent inputs. In visual cortical slices, inhibition potently reduced synaptic efficacy at ages during but not before the critical period of ocular dominance (OD plasticity. Whole-cell recordings revealed that the amplitude of unitary IPSCs from parvalbumin positive (Pv+ interneurons to pyramidal neurons increased during the critical period, while the synaptic decay time-constant decreased. In addition, intrinsic properties of Pv+ interneurons matured, resulting in an increase in instantaneous firing rate. Our results suggest that maturation of inhibition in visual cortex ensures that the temporally coherent inputs (e.g. those from the open eye during monocular deprivation control postsynaptic spike times of binocular neurons, a prerequisite for Hebbian mechanisms to induce OD plasticity.

  15. Multivariate Self-Exciting Threshold Autoregressive Models with eXogenous Input

    OpenAIRE

    Addo, Peter Martey

    2014-01-01

    This study defines a multivariate Self--Exciting Threshold Autoregressive with eXogenous input (MSETARX) models and present an estimation procedure for the parameters. The conditions for stationarity of the nonlinear MSETARX models is provided. In particular, the efficiency of an adaptive parameter estimation algorithm and LSE (least squares estimate) algorithm for this class of models is then provided via simulations.

  16. GGDC Productivity Level Database : International Comparisons of Output, Inputs and Productivity at the Industry Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the GGDC Productivity Level database. This database provides comparisons of output, inputs and productivity at a detailed industry level for a set of thirty OECD countries. It complements the EU KLEMS growth and productivity accounts by providing comparative levels and

  17. Medical service provider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2018-05-17

    In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null. Although all providers join the network under any-willing-provider contracting in the absence of third-party payment, an asymmetric equilibrium may exist when this billing arrangement is implemented. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Rachel F; Barratt, Alexandra L; Crossing, Sally; Butow, Phyllis N; Hanson, Susan; Tattersall, Martin Hn

    2011-06-26

    The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO) was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  19. Temporal rainfall estimation using input data reduction and model inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. J.; Vrugt, J. A.; Walker, J. P.; Pauwels, V. R. N.

    2016-12-01

    Floods are devastating natural hazards. To provide accurate, precise and timely flood forecasts there is a need to understand the uncertainties associated with temporal rainfall and model parameters. The estimation of temporal rainfall and model parameter distributions from streamflow observations in complex dynamic catchments adds skill to current areal rainfall estimation methods, allows for the uncertainty of rainfall input to be considered when estimating model parameters and provides the ability to estimate rainfall from poorly gauged catchments. Current methods to estimate temporal rainfall distributions from streamflow are unable to adequately explain and invert complex non-linear hydrologic systems. This study uses the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to reduce rainfall dimensionality for the catchment of Warwick, Queensland, Australia. The reduction of rainfall to DWT coefficients allows the input rainfall time series to be simultaneously estimated along with model parameters. The estimation process is conducted using multi-chain Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation with the DREAMZS algorithm. The use of a likelihood function that considers both rainfall and streamflow error allows for model parameter and temporal rainfall distributions to be estimated. Estimation of the wavelet approximation coefficients of lower order decomposition structures was able to estimate the most realistic temporal rainfall distributions. These rainfall estimates were all able to simulate streamflow that was superior to the results of a traditional calibration approach. It is shown that the choice of wavelet has a considerable impact on the robustness of the inversion. The results demonstrate that streamflow data contains sufficient information to estimate temporal rainfall and model parameter distributions. The extent and variance of rainfall time series that are able to simulate streamflow that is superior to that simulated by a traditional calibration approach is a

  20. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  1. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  2. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  3. Groups – Additive Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  4. Comparing apples and oranges: fold-change detection of multiple simultaneous inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Hart

    Full Text Available Sensory systems often detect multiple types of inputs. For example, a receptor in a cell-signaling system often binds multiple kinds of ligands, and sensory neurons can respond to different types of stimuli. How do sensory systems compare these different kinds of signals? Here, we consider this question in a class of sensory systems - including bacterial chemotaxis- which have a property known as fold-change detection: their output dynamics, including amplitude and response time, depends only on the relative changes in signal, rather than absolute changes, over a range of several decades of signal. We analyze how fold-change detection systems respond to multiple signals, using mathematical models. Suppose that a step of fold F1 is made in input 1, together with a step of F2 in input 2. What total response does the system provide? We show that when both input signals impact the same receptor with equal number of binding sites, the integrated response is multiplicative: the response dynamics depend only on the product of the two fold changes, F1F2. When the inputs bind the same receptor with different number of sites n1 and n2, the dynamics depend on a product of power laws, [Formula: see text]. Thus, two input signals which vary over time in an inverse way can lead to no response. When the two inputs affect two different receptors, other types of integration may be found and generally the system is not constrained to respond according to the product of the fold-change of each signal. These predictions can be readily tested experimentally, by providing cells with two simultaneously varying input signals. The present study suggests how cells can compare apples and oranges, namely by comparing each to its own background level, and then multiplying these two fold-changes.

  5. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  6. The effectiveness of visual input enhancement on the noticing and L2 development of the Spanish past tense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Loewen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Textual manipulation is a common pedagogic tool used to emphasize specific features of a second language (L2 text, thereby facilitating noticing and, ideally, second language development. Visual input enhancement has been used to investigate the effects of highlighting specific grammatical structures in a text. The current study uses a quasi-experimental design to determine the extent to which textual manipulation increase (a learners’ perception of targeted forms and (b their knowledge of the forms. Input enhancement was used to highlight the Spanish preterit and imperfect verb forms and an eye tracker measured the frequency and duration of participants’ fixation on the targeted items. In addition, pretests and posttests of the Spanish past tense provided information about participants’ knowledge of the targeted forms. Results indicate that learners were aware of the highlighted grammatical forms in the text; however, there was no difference in the amount of attention between the enhanced and unenhanced groups. In addition, both groups improved in their knowledge of the L2 forms; however, again, there was no differential improvement between the two groups.

  7. Logic gate system with three outputs and three inputs based on switchable electrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase entrapped in chitosan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Lei; Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A logic-gate system with three outputs and three inputs was developed based on the bioelectrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped in chitosan films on the electrode surface by means of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)2 ). Cyclic voltammetric (CV) signals of Fc(COOH)2 exhibited pH-triggered on/off behavior owing to electrostatic interactions between the film and the probe at different pH levels. The addition of glucose greatly increased the oxidation peak current (Ipa ) through the electrocatalytic reaction. pH and glucose were selected as two inputs. As a reversible inhibitor of GOx, Cu(2+) was chosen as the third input. The combination of three inputs led to Ipa with different values according to different mechanisms, which were defined as three outputs with two thresholds. The logic gate with three outputs by using one type of enzyme provided a novel model to build logic circuits based on biomacromolecules, which might be applied to the intelligent medical diagnostics as smart biosensors in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Method and System for Physiologically Modulating Videogames and Simulations which Use Gesture and Body Image Sensing Control Input Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Stephens, Chad L. (Inventor); Habowski, Tyler (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Method for physiologically modulating videogames and simulations includes utilizing input from a motion-sensing video game system and input from a physiological signal acquisition device. The inputs from the physiological signal sensors are utilized to change the response of a user's avatar to inputs from the motion-sensing sensors. The motion-sensing system comprises a 3D sensor system having full-body 3D motion capture of a user's body. This arrangement encourages health-enhancing physiological self-regulation skills or therapeutic amplification of healthful physiological characteristics. The system provides increased motivation for users to utilize biofeedback as may be desired for treatment of various conditions.

  9. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koks, E.E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Husby, T.G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of models have been applied to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are input-output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing number of scholars have developed hybrid approaches: one that combines both or either of

  11. Robust synergetic control design under inputs and states constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Saeid; Araújo, Rui; Sadati, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel robust-constrained control methodology for discrete-time linear parameter-varying (DT-LPV) systems is proposed based on a synergetic control theory (SCT) approach. It is shown that in DT-LPV systems without uncertainty, and for any unmeasured bounded additive disturbance, the proposed controller accomplishes the goal of stabilising the system by asymptotically driving the error of the controlled variable to a bounded set containing the origin and then maintaining it there. Moreover, given an uncertain DT-LPV system jointly subject to unmeasured and constrained additive disturbances, and constraints in states, input commands and reference signals (set points), then invariant set theory is used to find an appropriate polyhedral robust invariant region in which the proposed control framework is guaranteed to robustly stabilise the closed-loop system. Furthermore, this is achieved even for the case of varying non-zero control set points in such uncertain DT-LPV systems. The controller is characterised to have a simple structure leading to an easy implementation, and a non-complex design process. The effectiveness of the proposed method and the implications of the controller design on feasibility and closed-loop performance are demonstrated through application examples on the temperature control on a continuous-stirred tank reactor plant, on the control of a real-coupled DC motor plant, and on an open-loop unstable system example.

  12. A low-offset low-voltage CMOS Op Amp with rail-to-rail input and output ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Stroet, Peter; Stroet, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A low voltage CMOS op amp is presented. The circuit uses complementary input pairs to achieve a rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. Special attention has been given to the reduction of the op amp's systematic offset voltage. Gain boost amplifiers are connected in a special way to provide

  13. Response sensitivity of barrel neuron subpopulations to simulated thalamic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Rittenhouse, Cynthia D; Pinto, David J

    2010-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the relationship between neuron- and network-level processing in the context of a well-studied cortical function, the processing of thalamic input by whisker-barrel circuits in rodent neocortex. Here we focus on neuron-level processing and investigate the responses of excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons to simulated thalamic inputs applied using the dynamic clamp method in brain slices. Simulated inputs are modeled after real thalamic inputs recorded in vivo in response to brief whisker deflections. Our results suggest that inhibitory neurons require more input to reach firing threshold, but then fire earlier, with less variability, and respond to a broader range of inputs than do excitatory neurons. Differences in the responses of barrel neuron subtypes depend on their intrinsic membrane properties. Neurons with a low input resistance require more input to reach threshold but then fire earlier than neurons with a higher input resistance, regardless of the neuron's classification. Our results also suggest that the response properties of excitatory versus inhibitory barrel neurons are consistent with the response sensitivities of the ensemble barrel network. The short response latency of inhibitory neurons may serve to suppress ensemble barrel responses to asynchronous thalamic input. Correspondingly, whereas neurons acting as part of the barrel circuit in vivo are highly selective for temporally correlated thalamic input, excitatory barrel neurons acting alone in vitro are less so. These data suggest that network-level processing of thalamic input in barrel cortex depends on neuron-level processing of the same input by excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons.

  14. Input variable selection for data-driven models of Coriolis flowmeters for two-phase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xue; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Input variable selection is an essential step in the development of data-driven models for environmental, biological and industrial applications. Through input variable selection to eliminate the irrelevant or redundant variables, a suitable subset of variables is identified as the input of a model. Meanwhile, through input variable selection the complexity of the model structure is simplified and the computational efficiency is improved. This paper describes the procedures of the input variable selection for the data-driven models for the measurement of liquid mass flowrate and gas volume fraction under two-phase flow conditions using Coriolis flowmeters. Three advanced input variable selection methods, including partial mutual information (PMI), genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and tree-based iterative input selection (IIS) are applied in this study. Typical data-driven models incorporating support vector machine (SVM) are established individually based on the input candidates resulting from the selection methods. The validity of the selection outcomes is assessed through an output performance comparison of the SVM based data-driven models and sensitivity analysis. The validation and analysis results suggest that the input variables selected from the PMI algorithm provide more effective information for the models to measure liquid mass flowrate while the IIS algorithm provides a fewer but more effective variables for the models to predict gas volume fraction. (paper)

  15. Sensitivity of traffic input parameters on rutting performance of a flexible pavement using Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hossain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The traffic input parameters in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG are: (a general traffic inputs, (b traffic volume adjustment factors, and (c axle load spectra (ALS. Of these three traffic inputs, the traffic volume adjustment factors specifically monthly adjustment factor (MAF and the ALS are widely considered to be important and sensitive factors, which can significantly affect design of and prediction of distress in flexible pavements. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the sensitivity of ALS and MAF traffic inputs on rutting distress of a flexible pavement. The traffic data of four years (from 2008 to 2012 were collected from an instrumented test section on I-35 in Oklahoma. Site specific traffic input parameters were developed. It was observed that significant differences exist between the MEPDG default and developed site-specific traffic input values. However, the differences in the yearly ALS and MAF data, developed for these four years, were not found to be as significant when compared to one another. In addition, quarterly field rut data were measured on the test section and compared with the MEPDG predicted rut values using the default and developed traffic input values for different years. It was found that significant differences exist between the measured rut and the MEPDG (AASHTOWare-ME predicted rut when default values were used. Keywords: MEPDG, Rut, Level 1 inputs, Axle load spectra, Traffic input parameters, Sensitivity

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  17. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  18. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  19. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  20. Cost efficiency with triangular fuzzy number input prices: An application of DEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherzadeh Valami, H.

    2009-01-01

    The cost efficiency model (CE) has been considered by researchers as a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model for evaluating the efficiency of DMUs. In this model, the possibility of producing the outputs of a target DMU is evaluated by the input prices of the DMU. This provides a criterion for evaluating the CE of DMUs. The main contribution of this paper is to provide an approach for generalizing the CE of DMUs when their input prices are triangular fuzzy numbers, where preliminary concepts of fuzzy theory and CE, are directly used.

  1. Soil-related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. J. Smith

    2003-01-01

    This analysis is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003 [163602]). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. ''The Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters needed to evaluate doses from pathways associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation and ash

  2. Input data for inferring species distributions in Kyphosidae world-wide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Wilhelm Knudsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Input data files for inferring the relationship among the family Kyphosidae, as presented in (Knudsen and Clements, 2016 [1], is here provided together with resulting topologies, to allow the reader to explore the topologies in detail. The input data files comprise seven nexus-files with sequence alignments of mtDNA and nDNA markers for performing Bayesian analysis. A matrix of recoded character states inferred from the morphology examined in museum specimens representing Dichistiidae, Girellidae, Kyphosidae, Microcanthidae and Scorpididae, is also provided, and can be used for performing a parsimonious analysis to infer the relationship among these perciform families. The nucleotide input data files comprise both multiple and single representatives of the various species to allow for inference of the relationship among the species in Kyphosidae and between the families closely related to Kyphosidae. The ‘.xml’-files with various constrained relationships among the families potentially closely related to Kyphosidae are also provided to allow the reader to rerun and explore the results from the stepping-stone analysis. The resulting topologies are supplied in newick-file formats together with input data files for Bayesian analysis, together with ‘.xml’-files. Re-running the input data files in the appropriate software, will enable the reader to examine log-files and tree-files themselves. Keywords: Sea chub, Drummer, Kyphosus, Scorpis, Girella

  3. Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents one of the analyses that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the details of the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and the required input parameters. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A schematic representation of the documentation flow for the Biosphere input to TSPA is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the evolutionary relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation or ash deposition and, as a direct consequence, radionuclide concentration in other environmental media that are affected by radionuclide concentrations in soil. The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) where the governing procedure was defined as AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses''. This

  4. Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Smith

    2004-09-09

    This report presents one of the analyses that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the details of the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and the required input parameters. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A schematic representation of the documentation flow for the Biosphere input to TSPA is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the evolutionary relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation or ash deposition and, as a direct consequence, radionuclide concentration in other environmental media that are affected by radionuclide concentrations in soil. The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) where the governing procedure

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  6. Reconstruction of neuronal input through modeling single-neuron dynamics and computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Qing; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Chan, Wai-lok

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models provide a mathematical description of neuron activity, which can better understand and quantify neural computations and corresponding biophysical mechanisms evoked by stimulus. In this paper, based on the output spike train evoked by the acupuncture mechanical stimulus, we present two different levels of models to describe the input-output system to achieve the reconstruction of neuronal input. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps: First, considering the neuronal spiking event as a Gamma stochastic process. The scale parameter and the shape parameter of Gamma process are, respectively, defined as two spiking characteristics, which are estimated by a state-space method. Then, leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model is used to mimic the response system and the estimated spiking characteristics are transformed into two temporal input parameters of LIF model, through two conversion formulas. We test this reconstruction method by three different groups of simulation data. All three groups of estimates reconstruct input parameters with fairly high accuracy. We then use this reconstruction method to estimate the non-measurable acupuncture input parameters. Results show that under three different frequencies of acupuncture stimulus conditions, estimated input parameters have an obvious difference. The higher the frequency of the acupuncture stimulus is, the higher the accuracy of reconstruction is.

  7. Reconstruction of neuronal input through modeling single-neuron dynamics and computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Qing; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin, E-mail: dengbin@tju.edu.cn; Chan, Wai-lok [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Mathematical models provide a mathematical description of neuron activity, which can better understand and quantify neural computations and corresponding biophysical mechanisms evoked by stimulus. In this paper, based on the output spike train evoked by the acupuncture mechanical stimulus, we present two different levels of models to describe the input-output system to achieve the reconstruction of neuronal input. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps: First, considering the neuronal spiking event as a Gamma stochastic process. The scale parameter and the shape parameter of Gamma process are, respectively, defined as two spiking characteristics, which are estimated by a state-space method. Then, leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model is used to mimic the response system and the estimated spiking characteristics are transformed into two temporal input parameters of LIF model, through two conversion formulas. We test this reconstruction method by three different groups of simulation data. All three groups of estimates reconstruct input parameters with fairly high accuracy. We then use this reconstruction method to estimate the non-measurable acupuncture input parameters. Results show that under three different frequencies of acupuncture stimulus conditions, estimated input parameters have an obvious difference. The higher the frequency of the acupuncture stimulus is, the higher the accuracy of reconstruction is.

  8. Critical carbon input to maintain current soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing

    2016-01-13

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  9. Quantified carbon input for maintaining existing soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1°× 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  10. Self-Structured Organizing Single-Input CMAC Control for Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ThanhQuyen Ngo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a self-structured organizing single-input control system based on differentiable cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC for an n-link robot manipulator to achieve the high-precision position tracking. In the proposed scheme, the single-input CMAC controller is solely used to control the plant, so the input space dimension of CMAC can be simplified and no conventional controller is needed. The structure of single-input CMAC will also be self-organized; that is, the layers of single-input CMAC will grow or prune systematically and their receptive functions can be automatically adjusted. The online tuning laws of single-input CMAC parameters are derived in gradient-descent learning method and the discrete-type Lyapunov function is applied to determine the learning rates of proposed control system so that the stability of the system can be guaranteed. The simulation results of robot manipulator are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

  11. Automated input data management in manufacturing process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ettefaghian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Input Data Management (IDM) is a time consuming and costly process for Discrete Event Simulation (DES) projects. Input Data Management is considered as the basis of real-time process simulation (Bergmann, Stelzer and Strassburger, 2011). According to Bengtsson et al. (2009), data input phase constitutes on the average about 31% of the time of an entire simulation project. Moreover, the lack of interoperability between manufacturing applications and simulation software leads to a high cost to ...

  12. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  13. On a multi-channel transportation loss system with controlled input and controlled service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewgeni Dshalalow

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-channel loss queueing system is investigated. The input stream is a controlled point process. The service in each of m parallel channels depends on the state of the system at certain moments of time when input and service may be controlled. To obtain explicitly the limiting distribution of the main process (Zt (the number of busy channels in equilibrium, an auxiliary three dimensional process with two additional components (one of them is a semi-Markov process is treated as semi-regenerative process. An optimization problem is discussed. Simple expressions for an objective function are derived.

  14. Kalman Filter Input Processor for Boresight Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Asmar, Sami W.

    2014-01-01

    Ka-band ranging provides the phase center (PC) to phase center range, which needs to be converted to the center of mass (CM) to center of mass range. Nominally, both PC and CM lie on the line connecting the spacecraft GRAIL A and GRAIL B. In this case, the conversion should be done simply by adding the CM-to-PC distance L to the measured range for both spacecraft. However, due to various technical reasons, such as displacement of the true CM from its nominal position in the SRF, or spacecraft attitude fluctuations, the PC and CM define a unit vector that may be different from the nominal line of sight. The objectives of the software are to determine the actual line of sight direction for each spacecraft and correct the previously recorded range data, and to provide instructions for how to maneuver each spacecraft to make necessary attitude corrections.

  15. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Srikanta [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available.

  16. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Srikanta

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available

  17. Credential Service Provider (CSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides a VA operated Level 1 and Level 2 credential for individuals who require access to VA applications, yet cannot obtain a credential from another VA accepted...

  18. MAX Provider Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MAX Provider Characteristics (PC) File Implementation Report describes the design, implementation, and results of the MAXPC prototype, which was based on three...

  19. Influence of freshwater input on the skill of decadal forecast of sea ice in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zunz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have investigated the potential link between the freshwater input derived from the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet and the observed recent increase in sea ice extent in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we assess the impact of an additional freshwater flux on the trend in sea ice extent and concentration in simulations with data assimilation, spanning the period 1850–2009, as well as in retrospective forecasts (hindcasts initialised in 1980. In the simulations with data assimilation, the inclusion of an additional freshwater flux that follows an autoregressive process improves the reconstruction of the trend in ice extent and concentration between 1980 and 2009. This is linked to a better efficiency of the data assimilation procedure but can also be due to a better representation of the freshwater cycle in the Southern Ocean. The results of the hindcast simulations show that an adequate initial state, reconstructed thanks to the data assimilation procedure including an additional freshwater flux, can lead to an increase in the sea ice extent spanning several decades that is in agreement with satellite observations. In our hindcast simulations, an increase in sea ice extent is obtained even in the absence of any major change in the freshwater input over the last decades. Therefore, while the additional freshwater flux appears to play a key role in the reconstruction of the evolution of the sea ice in the simulation with data assimilation, it does not seem to be required in the hindcast simulations. The present work thus provides encouraging results for sea ice predictions in the Southern Ocean, as in our simulation the positive trend in ice extent over the last 30 years is largely determined by the state of the system in the late 1970s.

  20. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  1. 78 FR 12271 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Additional Comment In Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Competition Bureau seeks public input on additional questions relating to modeling voice capability and Annual... the model. 4. The Bureau now seeks public input on additional questions relating to modeling voice... with fewer than 25 employees, pursuant to the Small Business Paperwork Relief Act of 2002, Public Law...

  2. Dietary quality as a non-medical health input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraf, Christine; Teuber, Ramona; Glauben, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this inquiry is to provide a comprehensive theoretical framework, which describes the demand for dietary quality. In our dietary health investment model, we consider the health investment character of dietary choices as well as the intertemporal health-taste trade-off. Additionally, a ...

  3. Energy input for tomato production what economy says, and what is good for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshyar, Ehsan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Tarazkar, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The central Fars province is the main tomato producer region in Southwest Iran. This study was undertaken to evaluate the energy consumption patterns of tomato production, corresponding GHG emissions, and relationships between inputs and output by a Cobb–Douglass econometric model. The changes...... productivities (MPPs), however, indicated that tomato yield is most sensitive to machinery and chemicals energy inputs in the C1 and C2, respectively, which should be considered first to increase in order to achieve productivity enhancement. The result displayed that higher energy consumption according...... to the econometric models and MPPs may lead to much higher CO2 emissions compared to the current average emissions particularly when MPP is low. Hence, it is suggested that production types with the highest MPPs should be considered if change in energy inputs is desired. In addition, it is recommended that “green...

  4. Input-dependent frequency modulation of cortical gamma oscillations shapes spatial synchronization and enables phase coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowet, Eric; Roberts, Mark; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Peter, Alina; van der Eerden, Jan; De Weerd, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (∼25-80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping ('binding') and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated which principles govern gamma synchronization in the presence of input-dependent frequency modulations and whether they are detrimental for meaningful input-dependent gamma-mediated temporal organization. To this aim, we constructed a biophysically realistic excitatory-inhibitory network able to express different oscillation frequencies at nearby spatial locations. Similarly to cortical networks, the model was topographically organized with spatially local connectivity and spatially-varying input drive. We analyzed gamma synchronization with respect to phase-locking, phase-relations and frequency differences, and quantified the stimulus-related information represented by gamma phase and frequency. By stepwise simplification of our models, we found that the gamma-mediated temporal organization could be reduced to basic synchronization principles of weakly coupled oscillators, where input drive determines the intrinsic (natural) frequency of oscillators. The gamma phase-locking, the precise phase relation and the emergent (measurable) frequencies were determined by two principal factors: the detuning (intrinsic frequency difference, i.e. local input difference) and the coupling strength. In addition to frequency coding, gamma phase contained complementary stimulus information. Crucially, the phase code reflected input differences, but not the absolute input level. This property of relative input-to-phase conversion, contrasting with latency codes

  5. Development of an Input Model to MELCOR 1.8.5 for the Oskarshamn 3 BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars [Lentek, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    An input model has been prepared to the code MELCOR 1.8.5 for the Swedish Oskarshamn 3 Boiling Water Reactor (O3). This report describes the modelling work and the various files which comprise the input deck. Input data are mainly based on original drawings and system descriptions made available by courtesy of OKG AB. Comparison and check of some primary system data were made against an O3 input file to the SCDAP/RELAP5 code that was used in the SARA project. Useful information was also obtained from the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) for O3 and the SKI report '2003 Stoerningshandboken BWR'. The input models the O3 reactor at its current state with the operating power of 3300 MW{sub th}. One aim with this work is that the MELCOR input could also be used for power upgrading studies. All fuel assemblies are thus assumed to consist of the new Westinghouse-Atom's SVEA-96 Optima2 fuel. MELCOR is a severe accident code developed by Sandia National Laboratory under contract from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). MELCOR is a successor to STCP (Source Term Code Package) and has thus a long evolutionary history. The input described here is adapted to the latest version 1.8.5 available when the work began. It was released the year 2000, but a new version 1.8.6 was distributed recently. Conversion to the new version is recommended. (During the writing of this report still another code version, MELCOR 2.0, has been announced to be released within short.) In version 1.8.5 there is an option to describe the accident progression in the lower plenum and the melt-through of the reactor vessel bottom in more detail by use of the Bottom Head (BH) package developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory especially for BWRs. This is in addition to the ordinary MELCOR COR package. Since problems arose running with the BH input two versions of the O3 input deck were produced, a NONBH and a BH deck. The BH package is no longer a separate package in the new 1

  6. Provider software buyer's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    To help long term care providers find new ways to improve quality of care and efficiency, Provider magazine presents the fourth annual listing of software firms marketing computer programs for all areas of nursing facility operations. On the following five pages, more than 80 software firms display their wares, with programs such as minimum data set and care planning, dietary, accounting and financials, case mix, and medication administration records. The guide also charts compatible hardware, integration ability, telephone numbers, company contacts, and easy-to-use reader service numbers.

  7. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2017-10-31

    Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the "open loop sensitivity" of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  8. Design, Fabrication, and Modeling of a Novel Dual-Axis Control Input PZT Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5±1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the “open loop sensitivity” of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

  9. Comfort constraints. Input for simulation of residents' behavior; Comforthinder. Input bij simulatie van bewonersgedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaff, H. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Buildings in reality, use more energy than predicted. Among many causes, occupant behaviour plays an important role. Better simulation of occupant behaviour, with respect to thermal comfort and energy use of buildings, opens the possibility to design better, comfortable buildings that have lower energy consumption in reality. Thermal discomfort, a dynamical version of Fanger's PPD, is proposed to be used as input to simulate occupant behaviour via a 'flexible task list' and two Markov processes. [Dutch] Simulatie van bewonersgedrag m.b.t. energiegebruik in gebouwen biedt de mogelijkheid om gebouwen en bijbehorende energie installaties zo te ontwerpen dat ze prettiger zijn om in te wonen en te werken. Thermisch discomfort, een dynamische versie van PPD (percentage of dissatisfied persons) wordt hier voorgesteld om via een Markov-proces en een takenlijst bewonersgedrag mee te simuleren.

  10. Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-04-04

    Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.

  11. Phylogenetic mixtures and linear invariants for equal input models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanellas, Marta; Steel, Mike

    2017-04-01

    The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from molecular sequence data relies on modelling site substitutions by a Markov process, or a mixture of such processes. In general, allowing mixed processes can result in different tree topologies becoming indistinguishable from the data, even for infinitely long sequences. However, when the underlying Markov process supports linear phylogenetic invariants, then provided these are sufficiently informative, the identifiability of the tree topology can be restored. In this paper, we investigate a class of processes that support linear invariants once the stationary distribution is fixed, the 'equal input model'. This model generalizes the 'Felsenstein 1981' model (and thereby the Jukes-Cantor model) from four states to an arbitrary number of states (finite or infinite), and it can also be described by a 'random cluster' process. We describe the structure and dimension of the vector spaces of phylogenetic mixtures and of linear invariants for any fixed phylogenetic tree (and for all trees-the so called 'model invariants'), on any number n of leaves. We also provide a precise description of the space of mixtures and linear invariants for the special case of [Formula: see text] leaves. By combining techniques from discrete random processes and (multi-) linear algebra, our results build on a classic result that was first established by James Lake (Mol Biol Evol 4:167-191, 1987).

  12. Land use and nutrient inputs affect priming in Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mganga, Kevin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Organic C and nutrients additions in soil can accelerate mineralisation of soil organic matter i.e. priming effects. However, only very few studies have been conducted to investigate the priming effects phenomenon in tropical Andosols. Nutrients (N, P, N+P) and 14C labelled glucose were added to Andosols from six natural and intensively used ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro i.e. (1) savannah, (2) maize fields, (3) lower montane forest, (4) coffee plantation, (5) grasslands and (6) Chagga homegardens. Carbon-dioxide emissions were monitored over a 60 days incubation period. Mineralisation of glucose to 14CO2 was highest in coffee plantation and lowest in Chagga homegarden soils. Maximal and minimal mineralisation rates immediately after glucose additions were observed in lower montane forest with N+P fertilisation (9.1% ± 0.83 d -1) and in savannah with N fertilisation (0.9% ± 0.17 d -1), respectively. Glucose and nutrient additions accelerated native soil organic matter mineralisation i.e. positive priming. Chagga homegarden soils had the lowest 14CO2 emissions and incorporated the highest percent of glucose into microbial biomass. 50-60% of the 14C input was retained in soil. We attribute this mainly to the high surface area of non-crystalline constituents i.e. allophanes, present in Andosols and having very high sorption capacity for organic C. The allophanic nature of Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro especially under traditional Chagga homegarden agroforestry system shows great potential for providing essential environmental services, notably C sequestration. Key words: Priming Effects, Andosols, Land Use Changes, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Allophanes, Tropical Agroforestry

  13. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  14. What HERA may provide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hannes; De Roeck, Albert; Bartles, Jochen

    2008-09-01

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  15. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  16. Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons follow different connectivity rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Feng, Linqing; Druckmann, Shaul; Kim, Jinhyun

    2018-05-04

    Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Surprisingly, parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) showed a significantly more random pattern spatial structure. Notably, application of Peters' Rule for synapse prediction by random overlap between axons and dendrites enhanced structured connectivity in PCs, but, by contrast, made the connectivity pattern in PVs more random. In addition, PCs in a deep sublayer of striatum pyramidale appeared more highly structured than PCs in superficial layers, and little or no sublayer specificity was found in PVs. Our results show that CA1 excitatory PCs and inhibitory PVs innervated by the same SC inputs follow different connectivity rules. The different organizations of fine scale structured connectivity in hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide important insights into the development and functions of neural networks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how neural circuits generate behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. An important component of this endeavor is the mapping of fine-scale connection patterns that underlie, and help us infer, signal processing in the brain. Here, using our recently developed synapse detection technology (mGRASP and neuTube), we provide detailed profiles of synaptic connectivity in excitatory (CA1 pyramidal) and inhibitory (CA1 parvalbumin-positive) neurons innervated by the same presynaptic inputs (CA3 Schaffer collaterals). Our results reveal that these two types of CA1 neurons follow

  17. MARS input data for steady-state calculation of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Euh, D. J.; Choi, K. Y.; Kwon, T. S.; Jeong, J. J.; Baek, W. P.

    2004-12-01

    An integral effect test loop for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is under construction by Thermal-Hydraulics Safety Research Division in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). This report includes calculation sheets of the input for the best-estimate system analysis code, the MARS code, based on the ongoing design features of ATLAS. The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400. The contents of this report are divided into three parts: (1) core and reactor vessel, (2) steam generator and steam line, and (3) primary piping, pressurizer and reactor coolant pump. The steady-state analysis for the ATLAS facility will be performed based on these calculation sheets, and its results will be applied to the detailed design of ATLAS. Additionally, the calculation results will contribute to getting optimum test conditions and preliminary operational test conditions for the steady-state and transient experiments

  18. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  19. The CBM first-level event selector input interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, Dirk; Lindenstruth, Volker [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBM First-level Event Selector (FLES) is the central event selection system of the upcoming CBM experiment at FAIR. Designed as a high-performance computing cluster, its task is an online analysis of the physics data at a total data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. To allow efficient event selection, the FLES has to combine the data from all given input links to self-contained, overlapping processing intervals and distribute them to compute nodes. This task can be performed efficiently by partitioning the detector data streams into specialized containers. The FLES Interface Board (FLIB), implemented as a custom FPGA board, receives these containers via optical links, prepares them for subsequent interval building, and transfers the data via DMA to the PC's memory. A prototype of the FLIB has been implemented. The inclusion of features foreseen for other parts of the CBM read-out chain allows the evaluation of the interval building concept. Performance studies demonstrated high read-out bandwidth with low overhead. In addition, the FLIB has been used successfully as a readout device in test-beams and lab setups. An overview of the FLES Interface Board as well as results from latest studies is presented.

  20. Regulation of Wnt signaling by nociceptive input in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuqiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central sensitization-associated synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH critically contributes to the development of chronic pain, but understanding of the underlying molecular pathways is still incomplete. Emerging evidence suggests that Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in regulation of synaptic plasticity. Little is known about the potential function of the Wnt signaling cascades in chronic pain development. Results Fluorescent immunostaining results indicate that β-catenin, an essential protein in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is expressed in the superficial layers of the mouse SCDH with enrichment at synapses in lamina II. In addition, Wnt3a, a prototypic Wnt ligand that activates the canonical pathway, is also enriched in the superficial layers. Immunoblotting analysis indicates that both Wnt3a a β-catenin are up-regulated in the SCDH of various mouse pain models created by hind-paw injection of capsaicin, intrathecal (i.t. injection of HIV-gp120 protein or spinal nerve ligation (SNL. Furthermore, Wnt5a, a prototypic Wnt ligand for non-canonical pathways, and its receptor Ror2 are also up-regulated in the SCDH of these models. Conclusion Our results suggest that Wnt signaling pathways are regulated by nociceptive input. The activation of Wnt signaling may regulate the expression of spinal central sensitization during the development of acute and chronic pain.

  1. Anatomical Inputs From the Sensory and Value Structures to the Tail of the Rat Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS, is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not. First, inputs from the sensory cortex and sensory thalamus to the TS were found; visual, auditory, somatosensory and gustatory cortex and thalamus projected to the TS but not to the DMS. Second, two value systems innervated the TS; dopamine and serotonin neurons in the lateral part of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and dorsal raphe nucleus projected to the TS, respectively. The DMS received inputs from the separate group of dopamine neurons in the medial part of the SNc. In addition, learning-related regions of the limbic system innervated the TS; the temporal areas and the basolateral amygdala selectively innervated the TS, but not the DMS. Our data showed that both sensory and value-processing structures innervated the TS, suggesting its plausible role in value-guided sensory-motor association for habitual behavior.

  2. The effectiveness of aided augmented input techniques for persons with developmental disabilities: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Anna A; Schlosser, Ralf W; Brock, Kristofer L; Shane, Howard C

    2017-09-01

    When working with individuals with little or no functional speech, clinicians often recommend that communication partners use the client's augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device when speaking to the client. This is broadly known as "augmented input" and is thought to enhance the client's learning of language form and content. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of augmented input on communication outcomes in persons with developmental disabilities and persons with childhood apraxia of speech who use aided AAC. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Each included study was reviewed in terms of participant characteristics, terminology used, symbol format, augmented input characteristics, outcomes measured, effectiveness, and study quality. Results indicate that augmented input can improve single-word vocabulary skills and expression of multi-symbol utterances; however, comprehension beyond the single word level has not been explored. Additionally, it is difficult to form conclusions about the effect of augmented input on specific diagnostic populations. Directions for future research are posited.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your...

  4. Input reduction for long-term morphodynamic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Ruessink, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Tonnon, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Input reduction is imperative to long-term (> years) morphodynamic simulations to avoid excessive computation times. Here, we discuss the input-reduction framework for wave-dominated coastal settings introduced by Walstra et al. (2013). The framework comprised 4 steps, viz. (1) the selection of the

  5. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  6. Off-line learning from clustered input examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marangi, Carmela; Solla, Sara A.; Biehl, Michael; Riegler, Peter; Marinaro, Maria; Tagliaferri, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the generalization ability of a simple perceptron acting on a structured input distribution for the simple case of two clusters of input data and a linearly separable rule. The generalization ability computed for three learning scenarios: maximal stability, Gibbs, and optimal learning, is

  7. Phonology: An Emergent Consequence of Memory Constraints and Sensory Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. Notes that the model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. Argues that phonological structure is a…

  8. History of the special committee on INIS input preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Keizo

    2011-06-01

    The special committee on INIS input techniques was held 8 times from December 1970 to March 1973. The special committee on INIS input preparation was held 39 times from February 1974 to December 2004. The history of these two committees is described. (author)

  9. Modeling recognition memory using the similarity structure of natural input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacroix, J.P.W.; Murre, J.M.J.; Postma, E.O.; van den Herik, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The natural input memory (NIM) model is a new model for recognition memory that operates on natural visual input. A biologically informed perceptual preprocessing method takes local samples (eye fixations) from a natural image and translates these into a feature-vector representation. During

  10. Modeling Recognition Memory Using the Similarity Structure of Natural Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Joyca P. W.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Postma, Eric O.; van den Herik, H. Jaap

    2006-01-01

    The natural input memory (NAM) model is a new model for recognition memory that operates on natural visual input. A biologically informed perceptual preprocessing method takes local samples (eye fixations) from a natural image and translates these into a feature-vector representation. During recognition, the model compares incoming preprocessed…

  11. A Brief Talk on Cultural Input in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2007-01-01

    Different countries have different languages and cultures. My paper starts from the differentiation between western culture and Chinese culture to point out the importance and necessity of cultural input in English teaching and puts forward some approaches to enforce the cultural input in language teaching.

  12. Determinants of Agro-inputs redemption under the electronic wallet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the spread of farmers and participation in terms of input redemption and the determinants of farmers redeemed with agro-inputs under the electronic-wallet initiative of the Growth Enhancement Support Scheme of the On-going Agricultural Transformation Agenda. Secondary data covering the Nigerian ...

  13. Does Input Enhancement Work for Learning Politeness Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Safari, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of input enhancement on the acquisition of English politeness strategies by intermediate EFL learners. Two groups of freshman English majors were randomly assigned to the experimental (enhanced input) group and the control (mere exposure) group. Initially, a TOEFL test and a discourse completion test (DCT)…

  14. Exact Repetition as Input Enhancement in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eva Dam; Vinther, Thora

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies on input enhancement used to support learners' selection of focus of attention in Spanish second language listening material. Input consisted of video recordings of dialogues between native speakers. Exact repetition and speech rate reduction were examined for effect on comprehension, acquisition of decoding strategies, and…

  15. Variance-based sensitivity indices for models with dependent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, Thierry A.; Tarantola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Computational models are intensively used in engineering for risk analysis or prediction of future outcomes. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are of great help in these purposes. Although several methods exist to perform variance-based sensitivity analysis of model output with independent inputs only a few are proposed in the literature in the case of dependent inputs. This is explained by the fact that the theoretical framework for the independent case is set and a univocal set of variance-based sensitivity indices is defined. In the present work, we propose a set of variance-based sensitivity indices to perform sensitivity analysis of models with dependent inputs. These measures allow us to distinguish between the mutual dependent contribution and the independent contribution of an input to the model response variance. Their definition relies on a specific orthogonalisation of the inputs and ANOVA-representations of the model output. In the applications, we show the interest of the new sensitivity indices for model simplification setting. - Highlights: ► Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are of great help in engineering. ► Several methods exist to perform variance-based sensitivity analysis of model output with independent inputs. ► We define a set of variance-based sensitivity indices for models with dependent inputs. ► Inputs mutual contributions are distinguished from their independent contributions. ► Analytical and computational tests are performed and discussed.

  16. Adaptive projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yu-Jun; Pei Bing-Nan; Wang Xing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the projective synchronization of different chaotic systems with nonlinearity inputs. Based on the adaptive technique, sliding mode control method and pole assignment technique, a novel adaptive projective synchronization scheme is proposed to ensure the drive system and the response system with nonlinearity inputs can be rapidly synchronized up to the given scaling factor. (general)

  17. Achievable Information Rates on Linear Interference Channels with Discrete Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper lower bound on the capacity of multi-dimensional linear interference channels is derived, when the input is taken from a finite size alphabet. The bounds are based on the QR decomposition of the channel matrix, and hold for any input distribution that is independent across dimensions...

  18. A strategy for integrated low-input potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing

  19. Smart-Guard: Defending User Input from Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denzel, Michael; Bruni, Alessandro; Ryan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Trusted input techniques can profoundly enhance a variety of scenarios like online banking, electronic voting, Virtual Private Networks, and even commands to a server or Industrial Control System. To protect the system from malware of the sender’s computer, input needs to be reliably authenticated...

  20. Effect of heat input on dissimilar welds of ultra high strength steel and duplex stainless steel: Microstructural and compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasalloti, H., E-mail: hamed.tasalloti.kashani@student.lut.fi; Kah, P., E-mail: paul.kah@lut.fi; Martikainen, J., E-mail: jukka.martikainen@lut.fi

    2017-01-15

    The effect of heat input on the microstructure and compositional heterogeneity of welds of direct-quenched ultra high strength steel (Optim 960 QC) and duplex stainless steel (UNS S32205) was studied. The dissimilar welds were made using GMAW with a fully austenitic filler wire. In addition to grain coarsening in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the ferritic side, it was found that an increase in heat input correlatively increased the proportional volume of bainitic to martensitic phases. Coarse ferritic grains were observed in the duplex HAZ. Higher heat input, however, had a beneficial effect on the nucleation of austenite in the HAZ. Heat input had a regulatory effect on grain growth within the austenitic weld and more favorable equiaxed austenite was obtained with higher heat input. On the ferritic side of the welds, macrosegregation in the form of a martensitic intermediate zone was observed for all the cooling rates studied. However, on the duplex side, macrosegregation in the fusion boundary was only noticed with higher cooling rates. Microstructural observations and compositional analysis suggest that higher heat input could be beneficial for the structural integrity of the weld despite higher heat input increasing the extent of adverse coarse grains in the HAZ, especially on the ferritic side. - Highlights: •The effect of heat input on dissimilar welds of UHSS and DSS was studied. •Transmutation of the microstructure was discussed in detail. •The influence of heat input on compositional heterogeneity of welds was described. •Higher heat input enhanced bainitic transformation on the ferritic side. •Macrosegregation was affected by the amount of heat input on the DSS side.

  1. Integration of canal and otolith inputs by central vestibular neurons is subadditive for both active and passive self-motion: implication for perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriot, Jerome; Jamali, Mohsen; Brooks, Jessica X; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2015-02-25

    Traditionally, the neural encoding of vestibular information is studied by applying either passive rotations or translations in isolation. However, natural vestibular stimuli are typically more complex. During everyday life, our self-motion is generally not restricted to one dimension, but rather comprises both rotational and translational motion that will simultaneously stimulate receptors in the semicircular canals and otoliths. In addition, natural self-motion is the result of self-generated and externally generated movements. However, to date, it remains unknown how information about rotational and translational components of self-motion is integrated by vestibular pathways during active and/or passive motion. Accordingly, here, we compared the responses of neurons at the first central stage of vestibular processing to rotation, translation, and combined motion. Recordings were made in alert macaques from neurons in the vestibular nuclei involved in postural control and self-motion perception. In response to passive stimulation, neurons did not combine canal and otolith afferent information linearly. Instead, inputs were subadditively integrated with a weighting that was frequency dependent. Although canal inputs were more heavily weighted at low frequencies, the weighting of otolith input increased with frequency. In response to active stimulation, neuronal modulation was significantly attenuated (∼ 70%) relative to passive stimulation for rotations and translations and even more profoundly attenuated for combined motion due to subadditive input integration. Together, these findings provide insights into neural computations underlying the integration of semicircular canal and otolith inputs required for accurate posture and motor control, as well as perceptual stability, during everyday life. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353555-11$15.00/0.

  2. Uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marbjerg, Gerd; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Although many room acoustic simulation models have been well established, simulation results will never be accurate with inaccurate and uncertain input data. This study addresses inappropriateness and uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations. Firstly, the random incidence absorption...... and scattering coefficients are insufficient when simulating highly non-diffuse rooms. More detailed information, such as the phase and angle dependence, can greatly improve the simulation results of pressure-based geometrical and wave-based models at frequencies well below the Schroeder frequency. Phase...... summarizes potential advanced absorption measurement techniques that can improve the quality of input data for room acoustic simulations. Lastly, plenty of uncertain input data are copied from unreliable sources. Software developers and users should be careful when spreading such uncertain input data. More...

  3. Analytic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models with input correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueying; Wang, Qiuping A.; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Probabilistic uncertainty analysis is a common means of evaluating mathematical models. In mathematical modeling, the uncertainty in input variables is specified through distribution laws. Its contribution to the uncertainty in model response is usually analyzed by assuming that input variables are independent of each other. However, correlated parameters are often happened in practical applications. In the present paper, an analytic method is built for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models in the presence of input correlations. With the method, it is straightforward to identify the importance of the independence and correlations of input variables in determining the model response. This allows one to decide whether or not the input correlations should be considered in practice. Numerical examples suggest the effectiveness and validation of our analytic method in the analysis of general models. A practical application of the method is also proposed to the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a deterministic HIV model.

  4. Modeling inputs to computer models used in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Computer models for various risk assessment applications are closely scrutinized both from the standpoint of questioning the correctness of the underlying mathematical model with respect to the process it is attempting to model and from the standpoint of verifying that the computer model correctly implements the underlying mathematical model. A process that receives less scrutiny, but is nonetheless of equal importance, concerns the individual and joint modeling of the inputs. This modeling effort clearly has a great impact on the credibility of results. Model characteristics are reviewed in this paper that have a direct bearing on the model input process and reasons are given for using probabilities-based modeling with the inputs. The authors also present ways to model distributions for individual inputs and multivariate input structures when dependence and other constraints may be present

  5. Double input converters for different voltage sources with isolated charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalash Sattayarak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the double input converters for different voltage input sources with isolated charger coils. This research aims to increase the performance of the battery charger circuit. In the circuit, there are the different voltage levels of input source. The operating modes of the switch in the circuit use the microcontroller to control the battery charge and to control discharge mode automatically when the input voltage sources are lost from the system. The experimental result of this research shows better performance for charging at any time period of the switch, while the voltage input sources work together. Therefore, this research can use and develop to battery charger for present or future.

  6. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  7. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  8. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  9. Why healthcare providers merge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur

    2016-04-01

    In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare providers merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare providers faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare providers predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities.

  10. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  11. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  12. An input-to-state stability approach to verify almost global stability of a synchronous-machine-infinite-bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Johannes; Efimov, Denis; Ortega, Romeo; Barabanov, Nikita

    2017-08-13

    Conditions for almost global stability of an operating point of a realistic model of a synchronous generator with constant field current connected to an infinite bus are derived. The analysis is conducted by employing the recently proposed concept of input-to-state stability (ISS)-Leonov functions, which is an extension of the powerful cell structure principle developed by Leonov and Noldus to the ISS framework. Compared with the original ideas of Leonov and Noldus, the ISS-Leonov approach has the advantage of providing additional robustness guarantees. The efficiency of the derived sufficient conditions is illustrated via numerical experiments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Input parameters to codes which analyze LMFBR wire-wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, J.T.; Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-12-01

    This report provides a current summary of recommended values of key input parameters required by ENERGY code analysis of LMFBR wire wrapped bundles. This data is based on the interpretation of experimental results from the MIT and other available laboratory programs

  14. Regional Capital Inputs in Chinese Industry and Manufacturing, 1978-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lili; Szirmai, Adam

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides new estimates of capital inputs in the Chinese economy. Estimates are made for the total economy (1953-2003), for the industrial sector (1978-2003) and for the manufacturing sector (1985-2003). The estimates for industry and manufacturing are broken down by thirty regions. The

  15. Development of a Math Input Interface with Flick Operation for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakahara, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Developing online test environments for e-learning for mobile devices will be useful to increase drill practice opportunities. In order to provide a drill practice environment for calculus using an online math test system, such as STACK, we develop a flickable math input interface that can be easily used on mobile devices. The number of taps…

  16. The Economic Impact of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland: Evidence from Disaggregated Input-Output Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiantao; Larkin, Charles; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    While there has been a long history of modelling the economic impact of higher education institutions (HEIs), little research has been undertaken in the context of Ireland. This paper provides, for the first time, a disaggregated input-output table for Ireland's higher education sector. The picture painted overall is a higher education sector that…

  17. Effects of shade and input management on economic performance of small-scale Peruvian coffee systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezeer, Rosalien E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374336865; Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571979; Boot, René G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069412928; Junginger, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Verweij, Pita A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843

    2018-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry systems provide a number of ecosystem services that might help sustain the production of multiple crops, improve farmers’ livelihoods and conserve biodiversity. A major drawback of agroforestry coffee systems is the perceived lower economic performance compared to high-input

  18. Hydrogen ion input to the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, during the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene E. Likens; F. Herbert Bormann; John S. Eaton; Robert S. Pierce; Noye M. Johnson

    1976-01-01

    Being downwind of eastern and midwestern industrial centers, the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest offers a prime location to monitor long-term trends in atmospheric chemistry. Continuous measurements of precipitation chemistry during the last 10 years provide a measure of recent changes in precipitation inputs of hydrogen ion. The weighted average pH of precipitation...

  19. Input-Admittance Passivity Compliance for Grid-Connected Converters with LCL Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Freijedo, Francisco D.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a design methodology and its experimental validation for the input-admittance passivity compliance of LCL grid-connected converters. The designs of the LCL filter parameters and discrete controller are addressed systematically, and suitable design guidelines are provided......-admittance passivity compliance....

  20. Effect of plantar cutaneous inputs on center of pressure during quiet stance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that mechanical facilitation of sensation on the plantar soles enhanced postural stability in older adults. The results show that plantar cutaneous inputs provide information that leads to reduced postural sway in healthy older adults. This could have implications in clinical and rehabilitative areas.

  1. How Salient Are Onomatopoeia in the Early Input? A Prosodic Analysis of Infant-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine E.; Vihman, Marilyn; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    Onomatopoeia are frequently identified amongst infants' earliest words (Menn & Vihman, 2011), yet few authors have considered why this might be, and even fewer have explored this phenomenon empirically. Here we analyze mothers' production of onomatopoeia in infant-directed speech (IDS) to provide an input-based perspective on these forms.…

  2. WIMS-D use by ZfK - Data input, experience, and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, H.

    1983-05-01

    The report provides users of the ZfK-version (EC-1055 computer) of the cell program WIMS-D with all necessary information to compile by oneself input data sets. By means of 10 examples which comprise a large number of the practically most important program options the data compilation is explained. Some experience in using special options is given. (author)

  3. Effect of Heat Input on Inclusion Evolution Behavior in Heat-Affected Zone of EH36 Shipbuilding Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jincheng; Zou, Xiaodong; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Wang, Cong

    2018-03-01

    The effects of heat input parameters on inclusion and microstructure characteristics have been investigated using welding thermal simulations. Inclusion features from heat-affected zones (HAZs) were profiled. It was found that, under heat input of 120 kJ/cm, Al-Mg-Ti-O-(Mn-S) composite inclusions can act effectively as nucleation sites for acicular ferrites. However, this ability disappears when the heat input is increased to 210 kJ/cm. In addition, confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) was used to document possible inclusion-microstructure interactions, shedding light on how inclusions assist beneficial transformations toward property enhancement.

  4. The use of passive membrane samplers to assess organic contaminant inputs at five coastal sites in west Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Pamela L.; Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt; D'antonio, Nicole

    2017-07-26

    Five passive membrane samplers were deployed for 28 continuous days at select sites along and near the west Maui coastline to assess organic compounds and contaminant inputs to diverse, shallow coral reef ecosystems. Daily and weekly fluctuations in such inputs were captured on the membranes using integrative sampling. The distribution of organic compounds observed at these five coastal sites showed considerable variation; with high concentrations of terrestrially sourced organic compounds such as C29 sterols and high molecular weight n-alkanes at the strongly groundwater-influenced Kahekili vent site. In comparison, the coastal sites were presumably influenced more by seasonal surface and stream water runoff and therefore had marine-sourced organic compounds and fewer pharmaceuticals and personal care products. The direct correlation to upstream land-use practices was not obvious and may require additional wet-season sampling. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products as well as flame retardants were detected at all sites, and the Kahekili vent site had the highest number of detections. Planned future work must also determine the organic compound and contaminant concentrations adsorbed onto water column particulate matter, because it may also be an important vector for contaminant transport to coral reef ecosystems. The impact of contaminants per individual (such as fecundity and metabolism) as well as per community (such as species abundance and diversity) is necessary for an accurate assessment of environmental stress. Results presented herein provide current contaminant inputs to select nearshore environments along the west Maui coastline captured during the dry season, and they can be useful to aid potential future evaluations and (or) comparisons.

  5. Analytical model for advective-dispersive transport involving flexible boundary inputs, initial distributions and zero-order productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Li, Loretta Y.; Lai, Keng-Hsin; Liang, Ching-Ping

    2017-11-01

    A novel solution method is presented which leads to an analytical model for the advective-dispersive transport in a semi-infinite domain involving a wide spectrum of boundary inputs, initial distributions, and zero-order productions. The novel solution method applies the Laplace transform in combination with the generalized integral transform technique (GITT) to obtain the generalized analytical solution. Based on this generalized analytical expression, we derive a comprehensive set of special-case solutions for some time-dependent boundary distributions and zero-order productions, described by the Dirac delta, constant, Heaviside, exponentially-decaying, or periodically sinusoidal functions as well as some position-dependent initial conditions and zero-order productions specified by the Dirac delta, constant, Heaviside, or exponentially-decaying functions. The developed solutions are tested against an analytical solution from the literature. The excellent agreement between the analytical solutions confirms that the new model can serve as an effective tool for investigating transport behaviors under different scenarios. Several examples of applications, are given to explore transport behaviors which are rarely noted in the literature. The results show that the concentration waves resulting from the periodically sinusoidal input are sensitive to dispersion coefficient. The implication of this new finding is that a tracer test with a periodic input may provide additional information when for identifying the dispersion coefficients. Moreover, the solution strategy presented in this study can be extended to derive analytical models for handling more complicated problems of solute transport in multi-dimensional media subjected to sequential decay chain reactions, for which analytical solutions are not currently available.

  6. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  7. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). Some documents in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available when this report is issued. This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA), but access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develops input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the input parameters. The purpose of this analysis is to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis develops values of parameters associated with many features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the reference biosphere (DTN: M00303SEPFEPS2.000 [162452]), which are addressed in the biosphere model (BSC 2003 [160699]). The treatment of these FEPs is described in BSC (2003 [160699], Section 6.2). Parameter values

  8. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-06-27

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). Some documents in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available when this report is issued. This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA), but access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develops input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the input parameters. The purpose of this analysis is to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis develops values of parameters associated with many features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the reference biosphere (DTN: M00303SEPFEPS2.000 [162452]), which are addressed in the biosphere model (BSC 2003 [160699]). The treatment of these FEPs is described in BSC (2003 [160699

  9. Quantifying input uncertainty in an assemble-to-order system simulation with correlated input variables of mixed types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akçay, A.E.; Biller, B.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an assemble-to-order production system where the product demands and the time since the last customer arrival are not independent. The simulation of this system requires a multivariate input model that generates random input vectors with correlated discrete and continuous components. In

  10. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  11. The functional upregulation of piriform cortex is associated with cross-modal plasticity in loss of whisker tactile inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Ye

    Full Text Available Cross-modal plasticity is characterized as the hypersensitivity of remaining modalities after a sensory function is lost in rodents, which ensures their awareness to environmental changes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cross-modal sensory plasticity remain unclear. We aim to study the role of different types of neurons in cross-modal plasticity.In addition to behavioral tasks in mice, whole-cell recordings at the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and their two-photon imaging, were conducted in piriform cortex. We produced a mouse model of cross-modal sensory plasticity that olfactory function was upregulated by trimming whiskers to deprive their sensory inputs. In the meantime of olfactory hypersensitivity, pyramidal neurons and excitatory synapses were functionally upregulated, as well as GABAergic cells and inhibitory synapses were downregulated in piriform cortex from the mice of cross-modal sensory plasticity, compared with controls. A crosswire connection between barrel cortex and piriform cortex was established in cross-modal plasticity.An upregulation of pyramidal neurons and a downregulation of GABAergic neurons strengthen the activities of neuronal networks in piriform cortex, which may be responsible for olfactory hypersensitivity after a loss of whisker tactile input. This finding provides the clues for developing therapeutic strategies to promote sensory recovery and substitution.

  12. Reinforcement-Learning-Based Robust Controller Design for Continuous-Time Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-07-01

    The design of stabilizing controller for uncertain nonlinear systems with control constraints is a challenging problem. The constrained-input coupled with the inability to identify accurately the uncertainties motivates the design of stabilizing controller based on reinforcement-learning (RL) methods. In this paper, a novel RL-based robust adaptive control algorithm is developed for a class of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems subject to input constraints. The robust control problem is converted to the constrained optimal control problem with appropriately selecting value functions for the nominal system. Distinct from typical action-critic dual networks employed in RL, only one critic neural network (NN) is constructed to derive the approximate optimal control. Meanwhile, unlike initial stabilizing control often indispensable in RL, there is no special requirement imposed on the initial control. By utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, the closed-loop optimal control system and the estimated weights of the critic NN are proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded. In addition, the derived approximate optimal control is verified to guarantee the uncertain nonlinear system to be stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the present approach.

  13. Process Debottlenecking and Retrofit of Palm Oil Milling Process via Inoperability Input-Output Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Tan May

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in crude palm oil (CPO demand, resulting in palm oil mills (POMs seizing the opportunity to increase CPO production to make more profits. A series of equipment are designed to operate in their optimum capacities in the current existing POMs. Some equipment may be limited by their maximum design capacities when there is a need to increase CPO production, resulting in process bottlenecks. In this research, a framework is developed to provide stepwise procedures on identifying bottlenecks and retrofitting a POM process to cater for the increase in production capacity. This framework adapts an algebraic approach known as Inoperability Input-Output Modelling (IIM. To illustrate the application of the framework, an industrial POM case study was solved using LINGO software in this work, by maximising its production capacity. Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR analysis was also performed to assess the economic feasibility. As results, the Screw Press was identified as the bottleneck. The retrofitting recommendation was to purchase an additional Screw Press to cater for the new throughput with BCR of 54.57. It was found the POM to be able to achieve the maximum targeted production capacity of 8,139.65 kg/hr of CPO without any bottlenecks.

  14. Effects of allochthonous inputs in the control of infectious disease of prey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Infected predator–prey model with allochthonous inputs is proposed. •Stability and persistence conditions are derived. •Bifurcation is determined with respect to allochthonous inputs. •Results show that system can not be disease free without allochthonous inputs. •Hopf and its continuation bifurcation is analysed numerically. -- Abstract: Allochthonous inputs are important sources of productivity in many food webs and their influences on food chain model demand further investigations. In this paper, assuming the existence of allochthonous inputs for intermediate predator, a food chain model is formulated with disease in the prey. The stability and persistence conditions of the equilibrium points are determined. Extinction criterion for infected prey population is obtained. It is shown that suitable amount of allochthonous inputs to intermediate predator can control infectious disease of prey population, provided initial intermediate predator population is above a critical value. This critical intermediate population size increases monotonically with the increase of infection rate. It is also shown that control of infectious disease of prey is possible in some cases of seasonally varying contact rate. Dynamical behaviours of the model are investigated numerically through one and two parameter bifurcation analysis using MATCONT 2.5.1 package. The occurrence of Hopf and its continuation curves are noted with the variation of infection rate and allochthonous food availability. The continuation curves of limit point cycle and Neimark Sacker bifurcation are drawn by varying the rate of infection and allochthonous inputs. This study introduces a novel natural non-toxic method for controlling infectious disease of prey in a food chain model

  15. Convergent input from brainstem coincidence detectors onto delay-sensitive neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, D; Jiang, D; Shackleton, T M; Palmer, A R

    1998-08-01

    Responses of low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized guinea pigs were studied with binaural beats to assess their mean best interaural phase (BP) to a range of stimulating frequencies. Phase plots (stimulating frequency vs BP) were produced, from which measures of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) for each neuron were obtained. The CD provides an estimate of the difference in travel time from each ear to coincidence-detector neurons in the brainstem. The CP indicates the mechanism underpinning the coincidence detector responses. A linear phase plot indicates a single, constant delay between the coincidence-detector inputs from the two ears. In more than half (54 of 90) of the neurons, the phase plot was not linear. We hypothesized that neurons with nonlinear phase plots received convergent input from brainstem coincidence detectors with different CDs. Presentation of a second tone with a fixed, unfavorable delay suppressed the response of one input, linearizing the phase plot and revealing other inputs to be relatively simple coincidence detectors. For some neurons with highly complex phase plots, the suppressor tone altered BP values, but did not resolve the nature of the inputs. For neurons with linear phase plots, the suppressor tone either completely abolished their responses or reduced their discharge rate with no change in BP. By selectively suppressing inputs with a second tone, we are able to reveal the nature of underlying binaural inputs to IC neurons, confirming the hypothesis that the complex phase plots of many IC neurons are a result of convergence from simple brainstem coincidence detectors.

  16. Modeling of heat transfer into a heat pipe for a localized heat input zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A general model is presented for heat transfer into a heat pipe using a localized heat input. Conduction in the wall of the heat pipe and boiling in the interior structure are treated simultaneously. The model is derived from circumferential heat transfer in a cylindrical heat pipe evaporator and for radial heat transfer in a circular disk with boiling from the interior surface. A comparison is made with data for a localized heat input zone. Agreement between the theory and the model is good. This model can be used for design purposes if a boiling correlation is available. The model can be extended to provide improved predictions of heat pipe performance

  17. Automation of RELAP5 input calibration and code validation using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Viet-Anh; Kööp, Kaspar; Grishchenko, Dmitry; Vorobyev, Yury; Kudinov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    SRQ of primary interest. The ranges of the input parameter were defined based on the experimental data and results of the calibration process. Then GA was used in order to identify combinations of the uncertain input parameters that provide maximum deviation of code prediction results from the experimental data. Such approach provides a conservative estimate of the possible discrepancy between the code result and the experimental data.

  18. Automation of RELAP5 input calibration and code validation using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Viet-Anh, E-mail: vaphung@kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Vorobyev, Yury, E-mail: yura3510@gmail.com [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    SRQ of primary interest. The ranges of the input parameter were defined based on the experimental data and results of the calibration process. Then GA was used in order to identify combinations of the uncertain input parameters that provide maximum deviation of code prediction results from the experimental data. Such approach provides a conservative estimate of the possible discrepancy between the code result and the experimental data.

  19. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  20. Genetic algorithm based input selection for a neural network function approximator with applications to SSME health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Charles C.; Dhawan, Atam P.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A genetic algorithm is used to select the inputs to a neural network function approximator. In the application considered, modeling critical parameters of the space shuttle main engine (SSME), the functional relationship between measured parameters is unknown and complex. Furthermore, the number of possible input parameters is quite large. Many approaches have been used for input selection, but they are either subjective or do not consider the complex multivariate relationships between parameters. Due to the optimization and space searching capabilities of genetic algorithms they were employed to systematize the input selection process. The results suggest that the genetic algorithm can generate parameter lists of high quality without the explicit use of problem domain knowledge. Suggestions for improving the performance of the input selection process are also provided.

  1. Estimated anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the land surface of the conterminous United States--1992, 1997, and 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to each county in the conterminous United States and to the watersheds of 495 surface-water sites studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program were quantified for the years 1992, 1997, and 2002. Estimates of inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus from biological fixation by crops (for nitrogen only), human consumption, crop production for human consumption, animal production for human consumption, animal consumption, and crop production for animal consumption for each county are provided in a tabular dataset. These county-level estimates were allocated to the watersheds of the surface-water sites to estimate watershed-level inputs from the same sources; these estimates also are provided in a tabular dataset, together with calculated estimates of net import of food and net import of feed and previously published estimates of inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, and recoverable manure. The previously published inputs are provided for each watershed so that final estimates of total anthropogenic nutrient inputs could be calculated. Estimates of total anthropogenic inputs are presented together with previously published estimates of riverine loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus for reference.

  2. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  3. Multiple-Input Subject-Specific Modeling of Plasma Glucose Concentration for Feedforward Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Kaylee; Cinar, Ali; Mei, Yong; Roggendorf, Amy; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Quinn, Laurie; Rollins, Derrick K

    2014-11-26

    The ability to accurately develop subject-specific, input causation models, for blood glucose concentration (BGC) for large input sets can have a significant impact on tightening control for insulin dependent diabetes. More specifically, for Type 1 diabetics (T1Ds), it can lead to an effective artificial pancreas (i.e., an automatic control system that delivers exogenous insulin) under extreme changes in critical disturbances. These disturbances include food consumption, activity variations, and physiological stress changes. Thus, this paper presents a free-living, outpatient, multiple-input, modeling method for BGC with strong causation attributes that is stable and guards against overfitting to provide an effective modeling approach for feedforward control (FFC). This approach is a Wiener block-oriented methodology, which has unique attributes for meeting critical requirements for effective, long-term, FFC.

  4. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation¹

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bixler, Nathan E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  5. Augmented Input Reveals Word Deafness in a Man with Frontotemporal Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gibbons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 57 year old, right handed, English speaking man initially diagnosed with progressive aphasia. Language assessment revealed inconsistent performance in key areas. Expressive language was reduced to a few short, perseverative phrases. Speech was severely apraxic. Primary modes of communication included gesture, pointing, gaze, physical touch and leading. Responses were 100% accurate when he was provided with written words, with random or inaccurate responses for strictly auditory/verbal input. When instructions to subsequent neuropsychological tests were written instead of spoken, performance improved markedly. A comprehensive audiology assessment revealed no hearing impairment. Neuroimaging was unremarkable. Neurobehavioral evaluation utilizing written input led to diagnoses of word deafness and frontotemporal dementia, resulting in very different management. We highlight the need for alternative modes of language input for assessment and treatment of patients with language comprehension symptoms.

  6. Graphical user interface for input output characterization of single variable and multivariable highly nonlinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrukh Adnan Khan M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Graphical User Interface (GUI software utility for the input/output characterization of single variable and multivariable nonlinear systems by obtaining the sinusoidal input describing function (SIDF of the plant. The software utility is developed on MATLAB R2011a environment. The developed GUI holds no restriction on the nonlinearity type, arrangement and system order; provided that output(s of the system is obtainable either though simulation or experiments. An insight to the GUI and its features are presented in this paper and example problems from both single variable and multivariable cases are demonstrated. The formulation of input/output behavior of the system is discussed and the nucleus of the MATLAB command underlying the user interface has been outlined. Some of the industries that would benefit from this software utility includes but not limited to aerospace, defense technology, robotics and automotive.

  7. Metocean input data for drift models applications: Loustic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michon, P.; Bossart, C.; Cabioc'h, M.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time monitoring and crisis management of oil slicks or floating structures displacement require a good knowledge of local winds, waves and currents used as input data for operational drift models. Fortunately, thanks to world-wide and all-weather coverage, satellite measurements have recently enabled the introduction of new methods for the remote sensing of the marine environment. Within a French joint industry project, a procedure has been developed using basically satellite measurements combined to metocean models in order to provide marine operators' drift models with reliable wind, wave and current analyses and short term forecasts. Particularly, a model now allows the calculation of the drift current, under the joint action of wind and sea-state, thus radically improving the classical laws. This global procedure either directly uses satellite wind and waves measurements (if available on the study area) or indirectly, as calibration of metocean models results which are brought to the oil slick or floating structure location. The operational use of this procedure is reported here with an example of floating structure drift offshore from the Brittany coasts

  8. Task analysis: How far are we from usable PRA input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Blackman, H.S.; Hinton, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews data collected at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for three DOE-owned reactors (the Advanced Test Reactor, the Power Burst Facility, and the Loss of Fluids Test Reactor) in order to identify usable Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) input. Task analytic procedures involve the determination of manning and skill levels as a means of determining communication requirements, in assessing job performance aids, and in assessing the accuracy and completeness of emergency and maintenance procedures. The least understood aspect in PRA and plant reliability models is the human factor. A number of examples from the data base are discussed and offered as a means of providing more meaningful data than has been available to PRA analysts in the past. It is concluded that the plant hardware-procedures-personnel interfaces are essential to safe and efficient plant operations and that task analysis is a reasonably sound way of achieving a qualitative method for identifying those tasks most strongly associated with task difficulty, severity of consequence, and error probability

  9. The impact of bathymetry input on flood simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, M.; Cohen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Flood prediction and mitigation systems are inevitable for improving public safety and community resilience all over the worldwide. Hydraulic simulations of flood events are becoming an increasingly efficient tool for studying and predicting flood events and susceptibility. A consistent limitation of hydraulic simulations of riverine dynamics is the lack of information about river bathymetry as most terrain data record water surface elevation. The impact of this limitation on the accuracy on hydraulic simulations of flood has not been well studies over a large range of flood magnitude and modeling frameworks. Advancing our understanding of this topic is timely given emerging national and global efforts for developing automated flood predictions systems (e.g. NOAA National Water Center). Here we study the response of flood simulation to the incorporation of different bathymetry and floodplain surveillance source. Different hydraulic models are compared, Mike-Flood, a 2D hydrodynamic model, and GSSHA, a hydrology/hydraulics model. We test a hypothesis that the impact of inclusion/exclusion of bathymetry data on hydraulic model results will vary in its magnitude as a function of river size. This will allow researcher and stake holders more accurate predictions of flood events providing useful information that will help local communities in a vulnerable flood zone to mitigate flood hazards. Also, it will help to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of different modeling frameworks and gage their dependency on detailed bathymetry input data.

  10. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  11. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  12. IMPORT COMPONENTS AND IMPORT MULTIPLIERS IN INDONESIAN ECONOMY: WORLD INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchdie Muchdie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper calculates, presents and discusses on import components and the impact of final demand change on Indonesian imports using Indonesian 36 sector input-output tables of years: 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 from World Input-Output Tables. The results showed that firstly, Indonesian import components of input were, on average, more than 20 percent; meaning that input that locally provided were less than 80 percent. Secondly, Indonesian import of input had increased significantly from US$ 36,011 million in 2000 to US$ 151,505 million in 2014. Thirdly, Indonesian imports have been dominated by Sector-3: Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco products, Sector-4: Manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel and leather products, Sector-24: Construction, Sector-25: Wholesale and retail trade and repair, and Sector-26: Transportation and post services. Fourthly, by country of origin, Indonesian imports have been dominated by Japan, Korea, the USA, Australia, and China. Imports from Australia, Japan, and the US have been decreased significantly, but import from China has steadily increased. Finally, highest sectoral import multipliers occurred if final demands change in Sector-1: Crop and animal production, forestry, fishing and aquaculture, Sector-2: Mining and quarrying, Sector-23: Water collection; sewerage; waste collection, treatment and disposal activities, and Sector-30: Real estate activities, but there was no significant difference of import multipliers for country origin of import.

  13. Pandemic recovery analysis using the dynamic inoperability input-output model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joost R; Orsi, Mark J; Bond, Erik J

    2009-12-01

    Economists have long conceptualized and modeled the inherent interdependent relationships among different sectors of the economy. This concept paved the way for input-output modeling, a methodology that accounts for sector interdependencies governing the magnitude and extent of ripple effects due to changes in the economic structure of a region or nation. Recent extensions to input-output modeling have enhanced the model's capabilities to account for the impact of an economic perturbation; two such examples are the inoperability input-output model((1,2)) and the dynamic inoperability input-output model (DIIM).((3)) These models introduced sector inoperability, or the inability to satisfy as-planned production levels, into input-output modeling. While these models provide insights for understanding the impacts of inoperability, there are several aspects of the current formulation that do not account for complexities associated with certain disasters, such as a pandemic. This article proposes further enhancements to the DIIM to account for economic productivity losses resulting primarily from workforce disruptions. A pandemic is a unique disaster because the majority of its direct impacts are workforce related. The article develops a modeling framework to account for workforce inoperability and recovery factors. The proposed workforce-explicit enhancements to the DIIM are demonstrated in a case study to simulate a pandemic scenario in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

  14. PCC/SRC, PCC and SRC Calculation from Multivariate Input for Sensitivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Shortencarier, M.J.; Johnson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PCC/SRC is designed for use in conjunction with sensitivity analyses of complex computer models. PCC/SRC calculates the partial correlation coefficients (PCC) and the standardized regression coefficients (SRC) from the multivariate input to, and output from, a computer model. 2 - Method of solution: PCC/SRC calculates the coefficients on either the original observations or on the ranks of the original observations. These coefficients provide alternative measures of the relative contribution (importance) of each of the various input variables to the observed variations in output. Relationships between the coefficients and differences in their interpretations are identified. If the computer model output has an associated time or spatial history, PCC/SRC will generate a graph of the coefficients over time or space for each input-variable, output- variable combination of interest, indicating the importance of each input value over time or space. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 100 observations, 100 different time steps or intervals between successive dependent variable readings, 50 independent variables (model input), 20 dependent variables (model output). 10 ordered triples specifying intervals between dependent variable readings

  15. Aspects of input processing in the numerical control of electron beam machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    A high-performance Numerical Control has been developed for an Electron Beam Machine. The system is structured into 3 hierarchial levels: Input Processing, Realtime Processing (such as Geometry Interpolation) and the Interfaces to the Electron Beam Machine. The author considers the Input Processing. In conventional Numerical Controls the Interfaces to the control is given by the control language as defined in DIN 66025. State of the art in NC-technology offers programming systems of differing competence covering the spectra between manual programming in the control language to highly sophisticated systems such as APT. This software interface has been used to define an Input Processor that in cooperation with the Hostcomputer meets the requirements of a sophisticated NC-system but at the same time provides a modest stand-alone system with all the basic functions such as interactive program-editing, program storage, program execution simultaneous with the development of another program, etc. Software aspects such as adapting DIN 66025 for Electron Beam Machining, organisation and modularisation of Input Processor Software has been considered and solutions have been proposed. Hardware aspects considered are interconnections of the Input Processor with the Host and the Realtime Processors. Because of economical and development-time considerations, available software and hardware has been liberally used and own development has been kept to a minimum. The proposed system is modular in software and hardware and therefore very flexible and open-ended to future expansion. (Auth.)

  16. Barrier island forest ecosystem: role of meteorologic nutrient inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art, H W; Bormann, F H; Voigt, G K; Woodwell, G M

    1974-04-05

    The Sunken Forest, located on Fire Island, a barrier island in the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island, New York, is an ecosystem in which most of the basic cation input is in the form of salt spray. This meteorologic input is sufficient to compensate for the lack of certain nutrients in the highly weathered sandy soils. In other ecosystems these nutrients are generally supplied by weathering of soil particles. The compensatory effect of meteorologic input allows for primary production rates in the Sunken Forest similar to those of inland temperate forests.

  17. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...... used protection mechanisms: patents and trademarks. We argue that this complexity makes the threat of imitation less predictable, and thus makes knowledge protection more important. By analyzing survey data of 938 German firms, we find that patents are more important for firms in industries with higher...... knowledge input complexity. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics and not the level of knowledge input complexity positively affect the importance of trademarks....

  18. ORIGNATE: PC input processor for ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    ORIGNATE is a personal computer program that serves as a user- friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor fuel depletion and decay cases. Output from ORIGNATE is a card-image input file that may be uploaded to a mainframe computer to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGNATE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking

  19. I-125 input into antibodies molecules specific to australian antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, A. M.; Chistyakov, P.G.; Garajshina, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    There are experimental data on I-125 input into antibodies molecules specific to superficial antigen of hepatitis B virus (australian antigen). Three ways of input are submitted: with the help of T chloramine usage, Bolton-Hunter Reagent and with the help of iodogen. There are also comparative characteristics of iodized products obtained: molar radioactivity, radiochemical frequency, immuno - reactivity. The report also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the used methods for inputting I-125 into antibodies to australian antigen in order to study the possibility of creating radio immunological test system for detecting superficial antigen of B hepatitis

  20. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.