Zavitsas, Andreas A
2012-08-23
Viscosities of aqueous solutions of many highly soluble hydrophilic solutes with hydroxyl and amino groups are examined with a focus on improving the concentration range over which Einstein's relationship between solution viscosity and solute volume, V, is applicable accurately. V is the hydrodynamic effective volume of the solute, including any water strongly bound to it and acting as a single entity with it. The widespread practice is to relate the relative viscosity of solute to solvent, η/η(0), to V/V(tot), where V(tot) is the total volume of the solution. For solutions that are not infinitely dilute, it is shown that the volume ratio must be expressed as V/V(0), where V(0) = V(tot) - V. V(0) is the volume of water not bound to the solute, the "free" water solvent. At infinite dilution, V/V(0) = V/V(tot). For the solutions examined, the proportionality constant between the relative viscosity and volume ratio is shown to be 2.9, rather than the 2.5 commonly used. To understand the phenomena relating to viscosity, the hydrodynamic effective volume of water is important. It is estimated to be between 54 and 85 cm(3). With the above interpretations of Einstein's equation, which are consistent with his stated reasoning, the relation between the viscosity and volume ratio remains accurate to much higher concentrations than those attainable with any of the other relations examined that express the volume ratio as V/V(tot).
Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.
Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F
2014-04-01
The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.
Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations
Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Barrett, A.B.; Seth, A.K.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Lamme, V.A.F.
2014-01-01
The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the
An accurate and precise representation of drug ingredients.
Hanna, Josh; Bian, Jiang; Hogan, William R
2016-01-01
In previous work, we built the Drug Ontology (DrOn) to support comparative effectiveness research use cases. Here, we have updated our representation of ingredients to include both active ingredients (and their strengths) and excipients. Our update had three primary lines of work: 1) analysing and extracting excipients, 2) analysing and extracting strength information for active ingredients, and 3) representing the binding of active ingredients to cytochrome P450 isoenzymes as substrates and inhibitors of those enzymes. To properly differentiate between excipients and active ingredients, we conducted an ontological analysis of the roles that various ingredients, including excipients, have in drug products. We used the value specification model of the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations to represent strengths of active ingredients and then analyzed RxNorm to extract excipient and strength information and modeled them according to the results of our analysis. We also analyzed and defined dispositions of molecules used in aggregate as active ingredients to bind cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Our analysis of excipients led to 17 new classes representing the various roles that excipients can bear. We then extracted excipients from RxNorm and added them to DrOn for branded drugs. We found excipients for 5,743 branded drugs, covering ~27% of the 21,191 branded drugs in DrOn. Our analysis of active ingredients resulted in another new class, active ingredient role. We also extracted strengths for all types of tablets, capsules, and caplets, resulting in strengths for 5,782 drug forms, covering ~41% of the 14,035 total drug forms and accounting for ~97 % of the 5,970 tablets, capsules, and caplets in DrOn. We represented binding-as-substrate and binding-as-inhibitor dispositions to two cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP2C19 and CYP2D6) and linked these dispositions to 65 compounds. It is now possible to query DrOn automatically for all drug products that contain active
Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations
Sicat, Ronell B.
2015-11-25
The resolutions of acquired image and volume data are ever increasing. However, the resolutions of commodity display devices remain limited. This leads to an increasing gap between data and display resolutions. To bridge this gap, the standard approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i.e., the output, and not the full size of the input. Multi-resolution representations, such as image mipmaps, and volume octrees, are crucial in providing these operations direct access to any subset of the data at any resolution corresponding to the output. Despite its widespread use, this standard approach has some shortcomings in three important application areas, namely non-linear image operations, multi-resolution volume rendering, and large-scale image exploration. This dissertation presents new multi-resolution representations for large-scale images and volumes that address these shortcomings. Standard multi-resolution representations require low-pass pre-filtering for anti- aliasing. However, linear pre-filters do not commute with non-linear operations. This becomes problematic when applying non-linear operations directly to any coarse resolution levels in standard representations. Particularly, this leads to inaccurate output when applying non-linear image operations, e.g., color mapping and detail-aware filters, to multi-resolution images. Similarly, in multi-resolution volume rendering, this leads to inconsistency artifacts which manifest as erroneous differences in rendering outputs across resolution levels. To address these issues, we introduce the sparse pdf maps and sparse pdf volumes representations for large-scale images and volumes, respectively. These representations sparsely encode continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of multi-resolution pixel
Fishing site mapping using local knowledge provides accurate and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Accurate fishing ground maps are necessary for fisheries monitoring. In Velondriake locally managed marine area (LMMA) we observed that the nomenclature of shared fishing sites (FS) is villages dependent. Additionally, the level of illiteracy makes data collection more complicated, leading to data collectors improvising ...
Do detour tasks provide accurate assays of inhibitory control?
Whiteside, Mark A.; Laker, Philippa R.; Beardsworth, Christine E.
2018-01-01
Transparent Cylinder and Barrier tasks are used to purportedly assess inhibitory control in a variety of animals. However, we suspect that performances on these detour tasks are influenced by non-cognitive traits, which may result in inaccurate assays of inhibitory control. We therefore reared pheasants under standardized conditions and presented each bird with two sets of similar tasks commonly used to measure inhibitory control. We recorded the number of times subjects incorrectly attempted to access a reward through transparent barriers, and their latencies to solve each task. Such measures are commonly used to infer the differential expression of inhibitory control. We found little evidence that their performances were consistent across the two different Putative Inhibitory Control Tasks (PICTs). Improvements in performance across trials showed that pheasants learned the affordances of each specific task. Critically, prior experience of transparent tasks, either Barrier or Cylinder, also improved subsequent inhibitory control performance on a novel task, suggesting that they also learned the general properties of transparent obstacles. Individual measures of persistence, assayed in a third task, were positively related to their frequency of incorrect attempts to solve the transparent inhibitory control tasks. Neophobia, Sex and Body Condition had no influence on individual performance. Contrary to previous studies of primates, pheasants with poor performance on PICTs had a wider dietary breadth assayed using a free-choice task. Our results demonstrate that in systems or taxa where prior experience and differences in development cannot be accounted for, individual differences in performance on commonly used detour-dependent PICTS may reveal more about an individual's prior experience of transparent objects, or their motivation to acquire food, than providing a reliable measure of their inhibitory control. PMID:29593115
Fast and accurate grid representations for atom-based docking with partner flexibility.
de Vries, Sjoerd J; Zacharias, Martin
2017-06-30
Macromolecular docking methods can broadly be divided into geometric and atom-based methods. Geometric methods use fast algorithms that operate on simplified, grid-like molecular representations, while atom-based methods are more realistic and flexible, but far less efficient. Here, a hybrid approach of grid-based and atom-based docking is presented, combining precalculated grid potentials with neighbor lists for fast and accurate calculation of atom-based intermolecular energies and forces. The grid representation is compatible with simultaneous multibody docking and can tolerate considerable protein flexibility. When implemented in our docking method ATTRACT, grid-based docking was found to be ∼35x faster. With the OPLSX forcefield instead of the ATTRACT coarse-grained forcefield, the average speed improvement was >100x. Grid-based representations may allow atom-based docking methods to explore large conformational spaces with many degrees of freedom, such as multiple macromolecules including flexibility. This increases the domain of biological problems to which docking methods can be applied. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Issack, Bilkiss B; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas
2005-08-22
An approach for the inclusion of geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations is introduced. An important aspect of the approach is that Cartesian coordinates are used throughout. We devised an algorithm for the constrained sampling of initial conditions through the use of multivariate Gaussian distribution based on a projected Hessian. We also propose an approach for the constrained evaluation of the so-called Herman-Kluk prefactor in its exact log-derivative form. Sample calculations are performed for free and constrained rare-gas trimers. The results show that the proposed approach provides an accurate evaluation of the reduction in zero-point energy. Exact basis set calculations are used to assess the accuracy of the semiclassical results. Since Cartesian coordinates are used, the approach is general and applicable to a variety of molecular and atomic systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molto-Caracena, T.; Vendrell Vidal, E.; Goncalves, J.G.M.; Peerani, P.; )
2015-01-01
Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have much potential for training applications. Success relies on the capacity to provide a real-time immersive effect to a trainee. For a training application to be an effective/meaningful tool, 3D realistic scenarios are not enough. Indeed, it is paramount having sufficiently accurate models of the behaviour of the instruments to be used by a trainee. This will enable the required level of user's interactivity. Specifically, when dealing with simulation of radioactive sources, a VR model based application must compute the dose rate with equivalent accuracy and in about the same time as a real instrument. A conflicting requirement is the need to provide a smooth visual rendering enabling spatial interactivity and interaction. This paper presents a VR based prototype which accurately computes the dose rate of radioactive and nuclear sources that can be selected from a wide library. Dose measurements reflect local conditions, i.e., presence of (a) shielding materials with any shape and type and (b) sources with any shape and dimension. Due to a novel way of representing radiation sources, the system is fast enough to grant the necessary user interactivity. The paper discusses the application of this new method and its advantages in terms of time setting, cost and logistics. (author)
Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations
Sicat, Ronell Barrera
2015-01-01
approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimler, Frank; Fechner, Susanne; Rodenberg, Alexander; Brixner, Tobias; Tannor, David J
2009-01-01
We recently introduced the von Neumann picture, a joint time-frequency representation, for describing ultrashort laser pulses. The method exploits a discrete phase-space lattice of nonorthogonal Gaussians to represent the pulses; an arbitrary pulse shape can be represented on this lattice in a one-to-one manner. Although the representation was originally defined for signals with an infinite continuous spectrum, it can be adapted to signals with discrete and finite spectrum with great computational savings, provided that discretization and truncation effects are handled with care. In this paper, we present three methods that avoid loss of accuracy due to these effects. The approach has immediate application to the representation and manipulation of femtosecond laser pulses produced by a liquid-crystal mask with a discrete and finite number of pixels.
Elkbuli, Adel; Godelman, Steven; Miller, Ashley; Boneva, Dessy; Bernal, Eileen; Hai, Shaikh; McKenney, Mark
2018-05-01
Clinical documentation can be an underappreciated. Trauma Centers (TCs) are now routinely evaluated for quality performance. TCs with poor documentation may not accurately reflect actual injury burden or comorbidities and can impact accuracy of mortality measures. Markers exist to adjust crude death rates for injury severity: observed over expected deaths (O/E) adjust for injury; Case Mix Index (CMI) reflects disease burden, and Severity of Illness (SOI) measures organ dysfunction. We aim to evaluate the impact of implementing a Clinical Documentation Improvement Program (CDIP) on reported outcomes. Review of 2-years of prospectively collected data for trauma patients, during the implementation of CDIP. A two-group prospective observational study design was used to evaluate the pre-implementation and the post-implementation phase of improved clinical documentation. T-test and Chi-Squared were used with significance defined as p deaths out of 1419 (3.45%), while post-implementation period, had 38 deaths out of 1454 (2.61%), (non-significant). There was however, a significant difference between O/E ratios. In the pre-phase, the O/E was 1.36 and 0.70 in the post-phase (p < 0.001). The two groups also differed on CMI with a pre-group mean of 2.48 and a post-group of 2.87 (p < 0.001), indicating higher injury burden in the post-group. SOI started at 2.12 and significantly increased to 2.91, signifying more organ system dysfunction (p < 0.018). Improved clinical documentation results in improved accuracy of measures of mortality, injury severity, and comorbidities and a more accurate reflection in O/E mortality ratios, CMI, and SOI. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Helb, Danica A; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Felgner, Philip L; Skinner, Jeff; Hubbard, Alan; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Kamya, Moses R; Beeson, James G; Tappero, Jordan; Smith, David L; Crompton, Peter D; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Drakeley, Christopher J; Greenhouse, Bryan
2015-08-11
Tools to reliably measure Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) exposure in individuals and communities are needed to guide and evaluate malaria control interventions. Serologic assays can potentially produce precise exposure estimates at low cost; however, current approaches based on responses to a few characterized antigens are not designed to estimate exposure in individuals. Pf-specific antibody responses differ by antigen, suggesting that selection of antigens with defined kinetic profiles will improve estimates of Pf exposure. To identify novel serologic biomarkers of malaria exposure, we evaluated responses to 856 Pf antigens by protein microarray in 186 Ugandan children, for whom detailed Pf exposure data were available. Using data-adaptive statistical methods, we identified combinations of antibody responses that maximized information on an individual's recent exposure. Responses to three novel Pf antigens accurately classified whether an individual had been infected within the last 30, 90, or 365 d (cross-validated area under the curve = 0.86-0.93), whereas responses to six antigens accurately estimated an individual's malaria incidence in the prior year. Cross-validated incidence predictions for individuals in different communities provided accurate stratification of exposure between populations and suggest that precise estimates of community exposure can be obtained from sampling a small subset of that community. In addition, serologic incidence predictions from cross-sectional samples characterized heterogeneity within a community similarly to 1 y of continuous passive surveillance. Development of simple ELISA-based assays derived from the successful selection strategy outlined here offers the potential to generate rich epidemiologic surveillance data that will be widely accessible to malaria control programs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, V.
2004-02-01
The use of customer energy information and its importance in building business-to-business and business-to-consumer demographic profiles, and the role of certified meter data management agents, i.e. companies that have created infrastructures to manage large volumes of energy data that can be used to drive marketing to energy customers, is discussed. Short and long-term load management planning, distribution planning, outage management and demand response programs, efforts to streamline billing and create revenue-generating value-added services, are just some of the areas that can benefit from comprehensively collected and accurate consumer data. The article emphasizes the process of certification, the benefits certified meter data management companies can provide to utilities as well as to consumers, their role in disaster recovery management, and characteristics of the way such companies bring the benefits of their operations to their client utilities and consumers. 1 tab.
Chan, Wing Cheuk; Papaconstantinou, Dean; Lee, Mildred; Telfer, Kendra; Jo, Emmanuel; Drury, Paul L; Tobias, Martin
2018-05-01
To validate the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH) Virtual Diabetes Register (VDR) using longitudinal laboratory results and to develop an improved algorithm for estimating diabetes prevalence at a population level. The assigned diabetes status of individuals based on the 2014 version of the MoH VDR is compared to the diabetes status based on the laboratory results stored in the Auckland regional laboratory result repository (TestSafe) using the New Zealand diabetes diagnostic criteria. The existing VDR algorithm is refined by reviewing the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the each of the VDR algorithm rules individually and as a combination. The diabetes prevalence estimate based on the original 2014 MoH VDR was 17% higher (n = 108,505) than the corresponding TestSafe prevalence estimate (n = 92,707). Compared to the diabetes prevalence based on TestSafe, the original VDR has a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 76% and negative predictive value of 98%. The modified VDR algorithm has improved the positive predictive value by 6.1% and the specificity by 1.4% with modest reductions in sensitivity of 2.2% and negative predictive value of 0.3%. At an aggregated level the overall diabetes prevalence estimated by the modified VDR is 5.7% higher than the corresponding estimate based on TestSafe. The Ministry of Health Virtual Diabetes Register algorithm has been refined to provide a more accurate diabetes prevalence estimate at a population level. The comparison highlights the potential value of a national population long term condition register constructed from both laboratory results and administrative data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Little, Daniel
2006-01-01
...). The reason this is so is due to hierarchies that we take for granted. By hierarchies I mean that there is a layer of representation of us as individuals, as military professional, as members of a military unit and as citizens of an entire nation...
2006-09-01
two weeks to arrive. Source: http://beergame.mit.edu/ Permission Granted – MIT Supply Chain Forum 2005 Professor Sterman –Sloan School of...Management - MITSource: http://web.mit.edu/jsterman/www/ SDG /beergame.html Rules of Engagement The MIT Beer Game Simulation 04-04 Slide Number 10 Professor...Sterman –Sloan School of Management - MITSource: http://web.mit.edu/jsterman/www/ SDG /beergame.html What is the Significance of Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Eeckman
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a new representation of the effect of altitude on precipitation that represents spatial and temporal variability in precipitation in the Everest region. Exclusive observation data are used to infer a piecewise linear function for the relation between altitude and precipitation and significant seasonal variations are highlighted. An original ensemble approach is applied to provide non-deterministic water budgets for middle and high-mountain catchments. Physical processes at the soil–atmosphere interface are represented through the Interactions Soil–Biosphere–Atmosphere (ISBA surface scheme. Uncertainties associated with the model parametrization are limited by the integration of in situ measurements of soils and vegetation properties. Uncertainties associated with the representation of the orographic effect are shown to account for up to 16 % of annual total precipitation. Annual evapotranspiration is shown to represent 26 % ± 1 % of annual total precipitation for the mid-altitude catchment and 34% ± 3 % for the high-altitude catchment. Snowfall contribution is shown to be neglectable for the mid-altitude catchment, and it represents up to 44 % ± 8 % of total precipitation for the high-altitude catchment. These simulations on the local scale enhance current knowledge of the spatial variability in hydroclimatic processes in high- and mid-altitude mountain environments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Campbell, Duncan J; Nussberger, Juerg; Stowasser, Michael
2009-01-01
into focus the differences in information provided by activity assays and immunoassays for renin and prorenin measurement and has drawn attention to the need for precautions to ensure their accurate measurement. CONTENT: Renin activity assays and immunoassays provide related but different information...... provided by these assays and of the precautions necessary to ensure their accuracy....
Castagnoli, Giuseppe
2018-03-01
The usual representation of quantum algorithms, limited to the process of solving the problem, is physically incomplete. We complete it in three steps: (i) extending the representation to the process of setting the problem, (ii) relativizing the extended representation to the problem solver to whom the problem setting must be concealed, and (iii) symmetrizing the relativized representation for time reversal to represent the reversibility of the underlying physical process. The third steps projects the input state of the representation, where the problem solver is completely ignorant of the setting and thus the solution of the problem, on one where she knows half solution (half of the information specifying it when the solution is an unstructured bit string). Completing the physical representation shows that the number of computation steps (oracle queries) required to solve any oracle problem in an optimal quantum way should be that of a classical algorithm endowed with the advanced knowledge of half solution.
Friedman, Lee; Harvey, Robert J.
1986-01-01
Job-naive raters provided with job descriptive information made Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ratings which were validated against ratings of job analysts who were also job content experts. None of the reduced job descriptive information conditions enabled job-naive raters to obtain either acceptable levels of convergent validity with…
A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system
Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob
2013-01-01
Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001 PMID:24137541
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diwan, Vaibhav; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smets, Barth F.
2018-01-01
amplicon sequencing and from guild targeted approaches. The universal amplicon sequencing provided 1) accurate estimates of nitrifier composition, 2) clustering of the samples based on these compositions consistent with sample origin, 3) estimates of the relative abundance of the guilds correlated...
Fullerton, Simon; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Berry, Narelle
2014-01-01
Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n = 2026) were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children's video game time. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as "sedentary" may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.
Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Barman, Ishan
2012-01-01
We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future.
Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan
2012-01-01
We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405
Ikkai, Akiko; McCollough, Andrew W; Vogel, Edward K
2010-04-01
Visual working memory (VWM) helps to temporarily represent information from the visual environment and is severely limited in capacity. Recent work has linked various forms of neural activity to the ongoing representations in VWM. One piece of evidence comes from human event-related potential studies, which find a sustained contralateral negativity during the retention period of VWM tasks. This contralateral delay activity (CDA) has previously been shown to increase in amplitude as the number of memory items increases, up to the individual's working memory capacity limit. However, significant alternative hypotheses remain regarding the true nature of this activity. Here we test whether the CDA is modulated by the perceptual requirements of the memory items as well as whether it is determined by the number of locations that are being attended within the display. Our results provide evidence against these two alternative accounts and instead strongly support the interpretation that this activity reflects the current number of objects that are being represented in VWM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hursin, Mathieu; Xiao Shanjie; Jevremovic, Tatjana
2006-01-01
This paper summarizes the theoretical and numerical aspects of the AGENT code methodology accurately applied for detailed three-dimensional (3D) multigroup steady-state modeling of neutron interactions in complex heterogeneous reactor domains. For the first time we show the fine-mesh neutron scalar flux distribution in Purdue research reactor (that was built over forty years ago). The AGENT methodology is based on the unique combination of the three theories: the method of characteristics (MOC) used to simulate the neutron transport in two-dimensional (2D) whole core heterogeneous calculation, the theory of R-functions used as a mathematical tool to describe the true geometry and fuse with the MOC equations, and one-dimensional (1D) higher-order diffusion correction of 2D transport model to account for full 3D heterogeneous whole core representation. The synergism between the radial 2D transport and the 1D axial transport (to take into account the axial neutron interactions and leakage), called the 2D/1D method (used in DeCART and CHAPLET codes), provides a 3D computational solution. The unique synergism between the AGENT geometrical algorithm capable of modeling any current or future reactor core geometry and 3D neutron transport methodology is described in details. The 3D AGENT accuracy and its efficiency are demonstrated showing the eigenvalues, point-wise flux and reaction rate distributions in representative reactor geometries. The AGENT code, comprising this synergism, represents a building block of the computational system, called the virtual reactor. Its main purpose is to perform 'virtual' experiments and demonstrations of various mainly university research reactor experiments
Pusch , Andreas; Martin , Olivier; Coquillart , Sabine
2011-01-01
Session: Developing new tools and technologies - Abstracts to be published in a regular issue of the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking (indexed in MedLine and PsychInfo): http://online.liebertpub.com/loi/CYBER; International audience; This paper introduces the technical foundations of a system designed to embed a lightweight, faithful and spatially manipulable representation of the user's hand into an otherwise virtual world (aka Augmented Virtuality, AV). A highly intui...
García-Vela, A.
2000-05-01
A definition of a quantum-type phase-space distribution is proposed in order to represent the initial state of the system in a classical dynamics simulation. The central idea is to define an initial quantum phase-space state of the system as the direct product of the coordinate and momentum representations of the quantum initial state. The phase-space distribution is then obtained as the square modulus of this phase-space state. The resulting phase-space distribution closely resembles the quantum nature of the system initial state. The initial conditions are sampled with the distribution, using a grid technique in phase space. With this type of sampling the distribution of initial conditions reproduces more faithfully the shape of the original phase-space distribution. The method is applied to generate initial conditions describing the three-dimensional state of the Ar-HCl cluster prepared by ultraviolet excitation. The photodissociation dynamics is simulated by classical trajectories, and the results are compared with those of a wave packet calculation. The classical and quantum descriptions are found in good agreement for those dynamical events less subject to quantum effects. The classical result fails to reproduce the quantum mechanical one for the more strongly quantum features of the dynamics. The properties and applicability of the phase-space distribution and the sampling technique proposed are discussed.
Weiss, N; Venot, M; Verdonk, F; Chardon, A; Le Guennec, L; Llerena, M C; Raimbourg, Q; Taldir, G; Luque, Y; Fagon, J-Y; Guerot, E; Diehl, J-L
2015-05-01
The accurate prediction of outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of major importance. The recently described Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) is well adapted to mechanically ventilated patients and does not depend on verbal response. To evaluate the ability of FOUR assessed by intensivists to accurately predict outcome in OHCA. We prospectively identified patients admitted for OHCA with a Glasgow Coma Scale below 8. Neurological assessment was performed daily. Outcome was evaluated at 6 months using Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Categories (GP-CPC). Eighty-five patients were included. At 6 months, 19 patients (22%) had a favorable outcome, GP-CPC 1-2, and 66 (78%) had an unfavorable outcome, GP-CPC 3-5. Compared to both brainstem responses at day 3 and evolution of Glasgow Coma Scale, evolution of FOUR score over the three first days was able to predict unfavorable outcome more precisely. Thus, absence of improvement or worsening from day 1 to day 3 of FOUR had 0.88 (0.79-0.97) specificity, 0.71 (0.66-0.76) sensitivity, 0.94 (0.84-1.00) PPV and 0.54 (0.49-0.59) NPV to predict unfavorable outcome. Similarly, the brainstem response of FOUR score at 0 evaluated at day 3 had 0.94 (0.89-0.99) specificity, 0.60 (0.50-0.70) sensitivity, 0.96 (0.92-1.00) PPV and 0.47 (0.37-0.57) NPV to predict unfavorable outcome. The absence of improvement or worsening from day 1 to day 3 of FOUR evaluated by intensivists provides an accurate prognosis of poor neurological outcome in OHCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Frazee, Richard C; Matejicka, Anthony V; Abernathy, Stephen W; Davis, Matthew; Isbell, Travis S; Regner, Justin L; Smith, Randall W; Jupiter, Daniel C; Papaconstantinou, Harry T
2015-04-01
Case mix index (CMI) is calculated to determine the relative value assigned to a Diagnosis-Related Group. Accurate documentation of patient complications and comorbidities and major complications and comorbidities changes CMI and can affect hospital reimbursement and future pay for performance metrics. Starting in 2010, a physician panel concurrently reviewed the documentation of the trauma/acute care surgeons. Clarifications of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services term-specific documentation were made by the panel, and the surgeon could incorporate or decline the clinical queries. A retrospective review of trauma/acute care inpatients was performed. The mean severity of illness, risk of mortality, and CMI from 2009 were compared with the 3 subsequent years. Mean length of stay and mean Injury Severity Score by year were listed as measures of patient acuity. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and t-test, with p reimbursement and more accurately stratify outcomes measures for care providers. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martín Scarnatto
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The proposal for the next project is to analyse the phenomenon of the Body at the College, understood that, as a social construction, producer and reproducer of cultural senses. Most studies on Youth and Education have been concerned about issues related to desertion, the lack of interest, the possibilities of access and retention, social class and type of education, training and its relation to the market of work, but omitting or minimizing analysis regarding the status of youth. In recent years, several studies have begun to investigate how "filters" youth in school and how this institution questions and build youth. The line at which our project is located. The main objective is to observe and discover the characteristics that adopt the corporal practices of youth subjects, transiting the daily life of a privately run religious school in the city of La Plata, analyzing uses and representations that unfold in different sceneries of interaction. It ascribed to the need to analyze the logic of youth acting to understand the new and varied forms of participation in High School level. As the project takes on a provisional nature and not definitive, thus the theoretical lines of this ongoing investigation, expressed in the body of this article, reflect the provisional status of the construction of the research object. Located in the qualitative perspective-ethnographic in principle we should "suspend" any theory to "get into the field", but aware of the impossibility of this methodological principle, we believe appropriate to address some theoretical approaches to "confess" our position and allow us to develop categories, even though flexible, will be put into "dialogue" with reality.
Using Fuzzy Linguistic Representations to Provide Explanatory Semantics for Data Warehouses
Feng, L.; Dillon, Tharam S.
A data warehouse integrates large amounts of extracted and summarized data from multiple sources for direct querying and analysis. While it provides decision makers with easy access to such historical and aggregate data, the real meaning of the data has been ignored. For example, "whether a total
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tweya Hannock
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART is crucial for measuring program success and accurate drug forecasting. However, compiling data from patient registers to measure retention in ART is labour-intensive. To address this challenge, we conducted a pilot study in Malawi to assess whether patient ART retention could be determined using pharmacy records as compared to estimates of retention based on standardized paper- or electronic based cohort reports. Methods Twelve ART facilities were included in the study: six used paper-based registers and six used electronic data systems. One ART facility implemented an electronic data system in quarter three and was included as a paper-based system facility in quarter two only. Routine patient retention cohort reports, paper or electronic, were collected from facilities for both quarter two [April–June] and quarter three [July–September], 2010. Pharmacy stock data were also collected from the 12 ART facilities over the same period. Numbers of ART continuation bottles recorded on pharmacy stock cards at the beginning and end of each quarter were documented. These pharmacy data were used to calculate the total bottles dispensed to patients in each quarter with intent to estimate the number of patients retained on ART. Information for time required to determine ART retention was gathered through interviews with clinicians tasked with compiling the data. Results Among ART clinics with paper-based systems, three of six facilities in quarter two and four of five facilities in quarter three had similar numbers of patients retained on ART comparing cohort reports to pharmacy stock records. In ART clinics with electronic systems, five of six facilities in quarter two and five of seven facilities in quarter three had similar numbers of patients retained on ART when comparing retention numbers from electronically generated cohort reports to pharmacy stock records. Among
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Fullerton
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n=2026 were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Results. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children’s video game time. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as “sedentary” may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.
Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui
2005-10-01
The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.
Leon, Piera; Rivellini, Roberta; Giudici, Fabiola; Sciuto, Antonio; Pirozzi, Felice; Corcione, Francesco
2017-04-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate if 3-dimensional high-definition (3D) vision in laparoscopy can prompt advantages over conventional 2D high-definition vision in hiatal hernia (HH) repair. Between September 2012 and September 2015, we randomized 36 patients affected by symptomatic HH to undergo surgery; 17 patients underwent 2D laparoscopic HH repair, whereas 19 patients underwent the same operation in 3D vision. No conversion to open surgery occurred. Overall operative time was significantly reduced in the 3D laparoscopic group compared with the 2D one (69.9 vs 90.1 minutes, P = .006). Operative time to perform laparoscopic crura closure did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. We observed a tendency to a faster crura closure in the 3D group in the subgroup of patients with mesh positioning (7.5 vs 8.9 minutes, P = .09). Nissen fundoplication was faster in the 3D group without mesh positioning ( P = .07). 3D vision in laparoscopic HH repair helps surgeon's visualization and seems to lead to operative time reduction. Advantages can result from the enhanced spatial perception of narrow spaces. Less operative time and more accurate surgery translate to benefit for patients and cost savings, compensating the high costs of the 3D technology. However, more data from larger series are needed to firmly assess the advantages of 3D over 2D vision in laparoscopic HH repair.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ariel E. Marcy
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Background Advances in 3D shape capture technology have made powerful shape analyses, such as geometric morphometrics, more feasible. While the highly accurate micro-computed tomography (µCT scanners have been the “gold standard,” recent improvements in 3D surface scanners may make this technology a faster, portable, and cost-effective alternative. Several studies have already compared the two devices but all use relatively large specimens such as human crania. Here we perform shape analyses on Australia’s smallest rodent to test whether a 3D scanner produces similar results to a µCT scanner. Methods We captured 19 delicate mouse (Pseudomys delicatulus crania with a µCT scanner and a 3D scanner for geometric morphometrics. We ran multiple Procrustes ANOVAs to test how variation due to scan device compared to other sources such as biologically relevant variation and operator error. We quantified operator error as levels of variation and repeatability. Further, we tested if the two devices performed differently at classifying individuals based on sexual dimorphism. Finally, we inspected scatterplots of principal component analysis (PCA scores for non-random patterns. Results In all Procrustes ANOVAs, regardless of factors included, differences between individuals contributed the most to total variation. The PCA plots reflect this in how the individuals are dispersed. Including only the symmetric component of shape increased the biological signal relative to variation due to device and due to error. 3D scans showed a higher level of operator error as evidenced by a greater spread of their replicates on the PCA, a higher level of multivariate variation, and a lower repeatability score. However, the 3D scan and µCT scan datasets performed identically in classifying individuals based on intra-specific patterns of sexual dimorphism. Discussion Compared to µCT scans, we find that even low resolution 3D scans of very small specimens are
Manigart, Olivier; Boeras, Debrah I; Karita, Etienne; Hawkins, Paulina A; Vwalika, Cheswa; Makombe, Nathan; Mulenga, Joseph; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric
2012-12-01
A critical step in HIV-1 transmission studies is the rapid and accurate identification of epidemiologically linked transmission pairs. To date, this has been accomplished by comparison of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified nucleotide sequences from potential transmission pairs, which can be cost-prohibitive for use in resource-limited settings. Here we describe a rapid, cost-effective approach to determine transmission linkage based on the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA), and validate this approach by comparison to nucleotide sequencing. A total of 102 HIV-1-infected Zambian and Rwandan couples, with known linkage, were analyzed by gp41-HMA. A 400-base pair fragment within the envelope gp41 region of the HIV proviral genome was PCR amplified and HMA was applied to both partners' amplicons separately (autologous) and as a mixture (heterologous). If the diversity between gp41 sequences was low (<5%), a homoduplex was observed upon gel electrophoresis and the transmission was characterized as having occurred between partners (linked). If a new heteroduplex formed, within the heterologous migration, the transmission was determined to be unlinked. Initial blind validation of gp-41 HMA demonstrated 90% concordance between HMA and sequencing with 100% concordance in the case of linked transmissions. Following validation, 25 newly infected partners in Kigali and 12 in Lusaka were evaluated prospectively using both HMA and nucleotide sequences. Concordant results were obtained in all but one case (97.3%). The gp41-HMA technique is a reliable and feasible tool to detect linked transmissions in the field. All identified unlinked results should be confirmed by sequence analyses.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard
2012-01-01
, and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...
Boundary representation modelling techniques
2006-01-01
Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.
Introduction to representation theory
Etingof, Pavel; Hensel, Sebastian; Liu, Tiankai; Schwendner, Alex
2011-01-01
Very roughly speaking, representation theory studies symmetry in linear spaces. It is a beautiful mathematical subject which has many applications, ranging from number theory and combinatorics to geometry, probability theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum field theory. The goal of this book is to give a "holistic" introduction to representation theory, presenting it as a unified subject which studies representations of associative algebras and treating the representation theories of groups, Lie algebras, and quivers as special cases. Using this approach, the book covers a number of standard topics in the representation theories of these structures. Theoretical material in the book is supplemented by many problems and exercises which touch upon a lot of additional topics; the more difficult exercises are provided with hints. The book is designed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. It should be accessible to students with a strong background in linear algebra and a basic k...
Functional representations for quantized fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackiw, R.
1988-01-01
This paper provides information on Representing transformations in quantum theory bosonic quantum field theories: Schrodinger Picture; Represnting Transformations in Bosonic Quantum Field Theory; Two-Dimensional Conformal Transformations, Schrodinger picture representation, Fock space representation, Inequivalent Schrodinger picture representations; Discussion, Self-Dual and Other Models; Field Theory in de Sitter Space. Fermionic Quantum Field Theories: Schroedinger Picture; Schrodinger Picture Representation for Two-Dimensional; Conformal Transformations; Fock Space Dynamics in the Schrodinger Picture; Fock Space Evaluation of Anomalous Current and Conformal Commutators
On the Benefits of Divergent Search for Evolved Representations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehman, Joel; Risi, Sebastian; Stanley, Kenneth O
2012-01-01
Evolved representations in evolutionary computation are often fragile, which can impede representation-dependent mechanisms such as self-adaptation. In contrast, evolved representations in nature are robust, evolvable, and creatively exploit available representational features. This paper provide...
Standard model of knowledge representation
Yin, Wensheng
2016-09-01
Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.
Schiffler, Ralf
2014-01-01
This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....
Karpilovsky, G
1994-01-01
This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves
2011-01-01
Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...
Nakano, Kikuo; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Mito, Mineyo; Seno, Misato; Sunada, Shoji
2018-02-27
Without explicit prognostic information, patients may overestimate their life expectancy and make poor choices at the end of life. We sought to design the Japanese version of an information aid (IA) to provide accurate information on prognosis to patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to assess the effects of the IA on hope, psychosocial status, and perception of curability. We developed the Japanese version of an IA, which provided information on survival and cure rates as well as numerical survival estimates for patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy. We then assessed the pre- and post-intervention effects of the IA on hope, anxiety, and perception of curability and treatment benefits. A total of 20 (95%) of 21 patients (65% male; median age, 72 years) completed the IA pilot test. Based on the results, scores on the Distress and Impact Thermometer screening tool for adjustment disorders and major depression tended to decrease (from 4.5 to 2.5; P = 0.204), whereas no significant changes were seen in scores for anxiety on the Japanese version of the Support Team Assessment Schedule or in scores on the Hearth Hope Index (from 41.9 to 41.5; p = 0.204). The majority of the patients (16/20, 80%) had high expectations regarding the curative effects of chemotherapy. The Japanese version of the IA appeared to help patients with NSCLC maintain hope, and did not increase their anxiety when they were given explicit prognostic information; however, the IA did not appear to help such patients understand the goal of chemotherapy. Further research is needed to test the findings in a larger sample and measure the outcomes of explicit prognostic information on hope, psychological status, and perception of curability.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mullins, Michael
Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current...... representation? How is virtual reality used in public participation and how do virtual environments affect participatory decision making? How does VR thus affect the physical world of built environment? Given the practical collaborative possibilities of immersive technology, how can they best be implemented...
Advances in visual representation of molecular potentials.
Du, Qi-Shi; Huang, Ri-Bo; Chou, Kuo-Chen
2010-06-01
The recent advances in visual representations of molecular properties in 3D space are summarized, and their applications in molecular modeling study and rational drug design are introduced. The visual representation methods provide us with detailed insights into protein-ligand interactions, and hence can play a major role in elucidating the structure or reactivity of a biomolecular system. Three newly developed computation and visualization methods for studying the physical and chemical properties of molecules are introduced, including their electrostatic potential, lipophilicity potential and excess chemical potential. The newest application examples of visual representations in structure-based rational drug are presented. The 3D electrostatic potentials, calculated using the empirical method (EM-ESP), in which the classical Coulomb equation and traditional atomic partial changes are discarded, are highly consistent with the results by the higher level quantum chemical method. The 3D lipophilicity potentials, computed by the heuristic molecular lipophilicity potential method based on the principles of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, are more accurate and reliable than those by using the traditional empirical methods. The 3D excess chemical potentials, derived by the reference interaction site model-hypernetted chain theory, provide a new tool for computational chemistry and molecular modeling. For structure-based drug design, the visual representations of molecular properties will play a significant role in practical applications. It is anticipated that the new advances in computational chemistry will stimulate the development of molecular modeling methods, further enriching the visual representation techniques for rational drug design, as well as other relevant fields in life science.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoff da Silva, J.M.; Rogerio, R.J.B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Villalobos, C.H.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)
2017-07-15
A systematic study of the spinor representation by means of the fermionic physical space is accomplished and implemented. The spinor representation space is shown to be constrained by the Fierz-Pauli-Kofink identities among the spinor bilinear covariants. A robust geometric and topological structure can be manifested from the spinor space, wherein the first and second homotopy groups play prominent roles on the underlying physical properties, associated to fermionic fields. The mapping that changes spinor fields classes is then exemplified, in an Einstein-Dirac system that provides the spacetime generated by a fermion. (orig.)
Mobilities and Representations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thelle, Mikkel
2017-01-01
to consider how they and their peers are currently confronting representations of mobility. This is particularly timely given the growing academic focus on practices, material mediation, and nonrepresentational theories, as well as on bodily reactions, emotions, and feelings that, according to those theories......As the centerpiece of the eighth T2M yearbook, the following interview about representations of mobility signals a new and exciting focus area for Mobility in History. In future issues we hope to include reviews that grapple more with how mobilities have been imagined and represented in the arts......, literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars...
Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals
Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.
LOCALLY REFINED SPLINES REPRESENTATION FOR GEOSPATIAL BIG DATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Dokken
2015-08-01
Full Text Available When viewed from distance, large parts of the topography of landmasses and the bathymetry of the sea and ocean floor can be regarded as a smooth background with local features. Consequently a digital elevation model combining a compact smooth representation of the background with locally added features has the potential of providing a compact and accurate representation for topography and bathymetry. The recent introduction of Locally Refined B-Splines (LR B-splines allows the granularity of spline representations to be locally adapted to the complexity of the smooth shape approximated. This allows few degrees of freedom to be used in areas with little variation, while adding extra degrees of freedom in areas in need of more modelling flexibility. In the EU fp7 Integrating Project IQmulus we exploit LR B-splines for approximating large point clouds representing bathymetry of the smooth sea and ocean floor. A drastic reduction is demonstrated in the bulk of the data representation compared to the size of input point clouds. The representation is very well suited for exploiting the power of GPUs for visualization as the spline format is transferred to the GPU and the triangulation needed for the visualization is generated on the GPU according to the viewing parameters. The LR B-splines are interoperable with other elevation model representations such as LIDAR data, raster representations and triangulated irregular networks as these can be used as input to the LR B-spline approximation algorithms. Output to these formats can be generated from the LR B-spline applications according to the resolution criteria required. The spline models are well suited for change detection as new sensor data can efficiently be compared to the compact LR B-spline representation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergeev, Alexey; Herman, Michael F.
2006-01-01
The behavior of an initial value representation surface hopping wave function is examined. Since this method is an initial value representation for the semiclassical solution of the time independent Schroedinger equation for nonadiabatic problems, it has computational advantages over the primitive surface hopping wave function. The primitive wave function has been shown to provide transition probabilities that accurately compare with quantum results for model problems. The analysis presented in this work shows that the multistate initial value representation surface hopping wave function should approach the primitive result in asymptotic regions and provide transition probabilities with the same level of accuracy for scattering problems as the primitive method
Accurate quantum chemical calculations
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.
Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goker Erdogan
2015-11-01
Full Text Available People learn modality-independent, conceptual representations from modality-specific sensory signals. Here, we hypothesize that any system that accomplishes this feat will include three components: a representational language for characterizing modality-independent representations, a set of sensory-specific forward models for mapping from modality-independent representations to sensory signals, and an inference algorithm for inverting forward models-that is, an algorithm for using sensory signals to infer modality-independent representations. To evaluate this hypothesis, we instantiate it in the form of a computational model that learns object shape representations from visual and/or haptic signals. The model uses a probabilistic grammar to characterize modality-independent representations of object shape, uses a computer graphics toolkit and a human hand simulator to map from object representations to visual and haptic features, respectively, and uses a Bayesian inference algorithm to infer modality-independent object representations from visual and/or haptic signals. Simulation results show that the model infers identical object representations when an object is viewed, grasped, or both. That is, the model's percepts are modality invariant. We also report the results of an experiment in which different subjects rated the similarity of pairs of objects in different sensory conditions, and show that the model provides a very accurate account of subjects' ratings. Conceptually, this research significantly contributes to our understanding of modality invariance, an important type of perceptual constancy, by demonstrating how modality-independent representations can be acquired and used. Methodologically, it provides an important contribution to cognitive modeling, particularly an emerging probabilistic language-of-thought approach, by showing how symbolic and statistical approaches can be combined in order to understand aspects of human perception.
Attention and Representational Momentum
Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J
1995-01-01
Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.
An accurate method for the determination of unlike potential parameters from thermal diffusion data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Geubeily, S.
1997-01-01
A new method is introduced by means of which the unlike intermolecular potential parameters can be determined from the experimental measurements of the thermal diffusion factor as a function of temperature. The method proved to be easy, accurate, and applicable two-, three-, and four-parameter potential functions whose collision integrals are available. The potential parameters computed by this method are found to provide a faith full representation of the thermal diffusion data under consideration. 3 figs., 4 tabs
Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay
2011-11-01
We recently proposed a bias correction approach to evaluate accurate estimation of the odds ratio (OR) of genetic variants associated with a secondary phenotype, in which the secondary phenotype is associated with the primary disease, based on the original case-control data collected for the purpose of studying the primary disease. As reported in this communication, we further investigated the type I error probabilities and powers of the proposed approach, and compared the results to those obtained from logistic regression analysis (with or without adjustment for the primary disease status). We performed a simulation study based on a frequency-matching case-control study with respect to the secondary phenotype of interest. We examined the empirical distribution of the natural logarithm of the corrected OR obtained from the bias correction approach and found it to be normally distributed under the null hypothesis. On the basis of the simulation study results, we found that the logistic regression approaches that adjust or do not adjust for the primary disease status had low power for detecting secondary phenotype associated variants and highly inflated type I error probabilities, whereas our approach was more powerful for identifying the SNP-secondary phenotype associations and had better-controlled type I error probabilities. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Impossibility Theorem in Proportional Representation Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpov, Alexander
2010-01-01
The study examines general axiomatics of Balinski and Young and analyzes existed proportional representation methods using this approach. The second part of the paper provides new axiomatics based on rational choice models. New system of axioms is applied to study known proportional representation systems. It is shown that there is no proportional representation method satisfying a minimal set of the axioms (monotonicity and neutrality).
Towards accurate emergency response behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sargent, T.O.
1981-01-01
Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gláucia Alexandre Formozo
2010-04-01
Rio de Janeiro and the subject 20 nursing assistants and 20 nurses. The data collection took place through semi-structured and used for its analysis software ALCESTE 4.7. Among the nursing assistants were characterized about the content of the daily nursing care provided to patients with HIV/AIDS, whereas the nurses have content back to their quality of life. Thus it was concluded that the social representation of nursing assistants is anchored in the practical elements of daily care, while nurses anchored in the knowledge reified.
Paired structures in knowledge representation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Montero, J.; Bustince, H.; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo
2016-01-01
In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here...... of the relationships between several existing knowledge representation formalisms, providing a basis from which more expressive models can be later developed....
A roadmap for improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models.
Rogers, Alistair; Medlyn, Belinda E; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Bonan, Gordon; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Dietze, Michael C; Kattge, Jens; Leakey, Andrew D B; Mercado, Lina M; Niinemets, Ülo; Prentice, I Colin; Serbin, Shawn P; Sitch, Stephen; Way, Danielle A; Zaehle, Sönke
2017-01-01
Accurate representation of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) is essential for robust projections of global change. However, current representations vary markedly between TBMs, contributing uncertainty to projections of global carbon fluxes. Here we compared the representation of photosynthesis in seven TBMs by examining leaf and canopy level responses of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation (A) to key environmental variables: light, temperature, CO 2 concentration, vapor pressure deficit and soil water content. We identified research areas where limited process knowledge prevents inclusion of physiological phenomena in current TBMs and research areas where data are urgently needed for model parameterization or evaluation. We provide a roadmap for new science needed to improve the representation of photosynthesis in the next generation of terrestrial biosphere and Earth system models. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.
Representations of commonsense knowledge
Davis, Ernest
1990-01-01
Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot
Factorizations and physical representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Revzen, M; Khanna, F C; Mann, A; Zak, J
2006-01-01
A Hilbert space in M dimensions is shown explicitly to accommodate representations that reflect the decomposition of M into prime numbers. Representations that exhibit the factorization of M into two relatively prime numbers: the kq representation (Zak J 1970 Phys. Today 23 51), and related representations termed q 1 q 2 representations (together with their conjugates) are analysed, as well as a representation that exhibits the complete factorization of M. In this latter representation each quantum number varies in a subspace that is associated with one of the prime numbers that make up M
Spectrally accurate contour dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.
1994-01-01
We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deslattes, R.D.
1987-01-01
Heavy ion accelerators are the most flexible and readily accessible sources of highly charged ions. These having only one or two remaining electrons have spectra whose accurate measurement is of considerable theoretical significance. Certain features of ion production by accelerators tend to limit the accuracy which can be realized in measurement of these spectra. This report aims to provide background about spectroscopic limitations and discuss how accelerator operations may be selected to permit attaining intrinsically limited data
Indexed variation graphs for efficient and accurate resistome profiling.
Rowe, Will P M; Winn, Martyn D
2018-05-14
Antimicrobial resistance remains a major threat to global health. Profiling the collective antimicrobial resistance genes within a metagenome (the "resistome") facilitates greater understanding of antimicrobial resistance gene diversity and dynamics. In turn, this can allow for gene surveillance, individualised treatment of bacterial infections and more sustainable use of antimicrobials. However, resistome profiling can be complicated by high similarity between reference genes, as well as the sheer volume of sequencing data and the complexity of analysis workflows. We have developed an efficient and accurate method for resistome profiling that addresses these complications and improves upon currently available tools. Our method combines a variation graph representation of gene sets with an LSH Forest indexing scheme to allow for fast classification of metagenomic sequence reads using similarity-search queries. Subsequent hierarchical local alignment of classified reads against graph traversals enables accurate reconstruction of full-length gene sequences using a scoring scheme. We provide our implementation, GROOT, and show it to be both faster and more accurate than a current reference-dependent tool for resistome profiling. GROOT runs on a laptop and can process a typical 2 gigabyte metagenome in 2 minutes using a single CPU. Our method is not restricted to resistome profiling and has the potential to improve current metagenomic workflows. GROOT is written in Go and is available at https://github.com/will-rowe/groot (MIT license). will.rowe@stfc.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Competition and Cooperation among Relational Memory Representations.
Schwarb, Hillary; Watson, Patrick D; Campbell, Kelsey; Shander, Christopher L; Monti, Jim M; Cooke, Gillian E; Wang, Jane X; Kramer, Arthur F; Cohen, Neal J
2015-01-01
Mnemonic processing engages multiple systems that cooperate and compete to support task performance. Exploring these systems' interaction requires memory tasks that produce rich data with multiple patterns of performance sensitive to different processing sub-components. Here we present a novel context-dependent relational memory paradigm designed to engage multiple learning and memory systems. In this task, participants learned unique face-room associations in two distinct contexts (i.e., different colored buildings). Faces occupied rooms as determined by an implicit gender-by-side rule structure (e.g., male faces on the left and female faces on the right) and all faces were seen in both contexts. In two experiments, we use behavioral and eye-tracking measures to investigate interactions among different memory representations in both younger and older adult populations; furthermore we link these representations to volumetric variations in hippocampus and ventromedial PFC among older adults. Overall, performance was very accurate. Successful face placement into a studied room systematically varied with hippocampal volume. Selecting the studied room in the wrong context was the most typical error. The proportion of these errors to correct responses positively correlated with ventromedial prefrontal volume. This novel task provides a powerful tool for investigating both the unique and interacting contributions of these systems in support of relational memory.
Spectral representations of neutron-star equations of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindblom, Lee
2010-01-01
Methods are developed for constructing spectral representations of cold (barotropic) neutron-star equations of state. These representations are faithful in the sense that every physical equation of state has a representation of this type and conversely every such representation satisfies the minimal thermodynamic stability criteria required of any physical equation of state. These spectral representations are also efficient, in the sense that only a few spectral coefficients are generally required to represent neutron-star equations of state quiet accurately. This accuracy and efficiency is illustrated by constructing spectral fits to a large collection of 'realistic' neutron-star equations of state.
Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.
This paper reviews work on the representation of knowledge from within psychology and artificial intelligence. The work covers the nature of representation, the distinction between the represented world and the representing world, and significant issues concerned with propositional, analogical, and superpositional representations. Specific topics…
On Representation in Information Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph E. Brenner
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Semiotics is widely applied in theories of information. Following the original triadic characterization of reality by Peirce, the linguistic processes involved in information—production, transmission, reception, and understanding—would all appear to be interpretable in terms of signs and their relations to their objects. Perhaps the most important of these relations is that of the representation-one, entity, standing for or representing some other. For example, an index—one of the three major kinds of signs—is said to represent something by being directly related to its object. My position, however, is that the concept of symbolic representations having such roles in information, as intermediaries, is fraught with the same difficulties as in representational theories of mind. I have proposed an extension of logic to complex real phenomena, including mind and information (Logic in Reality; LIR, most recently at the 4th International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science (Beijing, August, 2010. LIR provides explanations for the evolution of complex processes, including information, that do not require any entities other than the processes themselves. In this paper, I discuss the limitations of the standard relation of representation. I argue that more realistic pictures of informational systems can be provided by reference to information as an energetic process, following the categorial ontology of LIR. This approach enables naïve, anti-realist conceptions of anti-representationalism to be avoided, and enables an approach to both information and meaning in the same novel logical framework.
Representation theory of lattice current algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekseev, A.Yu.; Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich; Faddeev, L.D.; Froehlich, L.D.; Schomerus, V.; Kyoto Univ.
1996-04-01
Lattice current algebras were introduced as a regularization of the left-and right moving degrees of freedom in the WZNW model. They provide examples of lattice theories with a local quantum symmetry U q (G). Their representation theory is studied in detail. In particular, we construct all irreducible representations along with a lattice analogue of the fusion product for representations of the lattice current algebra. It is shown that for an arbitrary number of lattice sites, the representation categories of the lattice current algebras agree with their continuum counterparts. (orig.)
Representation of heading direction in far and near head space
Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den
2003-01-01
Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye
Evolved Representation and Computational Creativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashraf Fouad Hafez Ismail
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Advances in science and technology have influenced designing activity in architecture throughout its history. Observing the fundamental changes to architectural designing due to the substantial influences of the advent of the computing era, we now witness our design environment gradually changing from conventional pencil and paper to digital multi-media. Although designing is considered to be a unique human activity, there has always been a great dependency on design aid tools. One of the greatest aids to architectural design, amongst the many conventional and widely accepted computational tools, is the computer-aided object modeling and rendering tool, commonly known as a CAD package. But even though conventional modeling tools have provided designers with fast and precise object handling capabilities that were not available in the pencil-and-paper age, they normally show weaknesses and limitations in covering the whole design process.In any kind of design activity, the design worked on has to be represented in some way. For a human designer, designs are for example represented using models, drawings, or verbal descriptions. If a computer is used for design work, designs are usually represented by groups of pixels (paintbrush programs, lines and shapes (general-purpose CAD programs or higher-level objects like ‘walls’ and ‘rooms’ (purpose-specific CAD programs.A human designer usually has a large number of representations available, and can use the representation most suitable for what he or she is working on. Humans can also introduce new representations and thereby represent objects that are not part of the world they experience with their sensory organs, for example vector representations of four and five dimensional objects. In design computing on the other hand, the representation or representations used have to be explicitly defined. Many different representations have been suggested, often optimized for specific design domains
Connectivity in the regular polytope representation
Thompson, R.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.
2009-01-01
In order to be able to draw inferences about real world phenomena from a representation expressed in a digital computer, it is essential that the representation should have a rigorously correct algebraic structure. It is also desirable that the underlying algebra be familiar, and provide a close
Semantic representation of reported measurements in radiology.
Oberkampf, Heiner; Zillner, Sonja; Overton, James A; Bauer, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Alexander; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias
2016-01-22
efficient comparison of measured findings from consecutive examinations. The implementation of RECIST guidelines with SPARQL enhances the quality of the selection and comparison of target lesions as well as the corresponding treatment response evaluation. The developed MCI enables an accurate integrated representation of reported measurements and medical knowledge. Thus, measurements can be automatically classified and integrated in different decision processes. The structured representation is suitable for improved integration of clinical findings during decision-making. The proposed ReportViewer provides a longitudinal overview of the measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrie, Christopher; Emerson, Joseph
2008-01-01
Several finite-dimensional quasi-probability representations of quantum states have been proposed to study various problems in quantum information theory and quantum foundations. These representations are often defined only on restricted dimensions and their physical significance in contexts such as drawing quantum-classical comparisons is limited by the non-uniqueness of the particular representation. Here we show how the mathematical theory of frames provides a unified formalism which accommodates all known quasi-probability representations of finite-dimensional quantum systems. Moreover, we show that any quasi-probability representation is equivalent to a frame representation and then prove that any such representation of quantum mechanics must exhibit either negativity or a deformed probability calculus. (fast track communication)
Equipment upgrade - Accurate positioning of ion chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doane, Harry J.; Nelson, George W.
1990-01-01
Five adjustable clamps were made to firmly support and accurately position the ion Chambers, that provide signals to the power channels for the University of Arizona TRIGA reactor. The design requirements, fabrication procedure and installation are described
Understanding representations in design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Susanne
1998-01-01
Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations...... and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding...
Canadian consumer issues in accurate and fair electricity metering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2000-07-01
The Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC), located in Ottawa, participates in regulatory proceedings concerning electricity and natural gas to support public and consumer interest. PIAC provides legal representation, research and policy support and public advocacy. A study aimed toward the determination of the issues at stake for residential electricity consumers in the provision of fair and accurate electricity metering, was commissioned by Measurement Canada in consultation with Industry Canada's Consumer Affairs. The metering of electricity must be carried out in a fair and efficient manner for all residential consumers. The Electricity, Gas and Inspection Act was developed to ensure compliance with standards for measuring instrumentation. The accurate metering of electricity through the distribution systems for electricity in Canada represents the main focus of this study and report. The role played by Measurement Canada and the increased efficiencies of service delivery by Measurement Canada or the changing of electricity market conditions are of special interest. The role of Measurement Canada was explained, as were the concerns of residential consumers. A comparison was then made between the interests of residential consumers and those of commercial and industrial electricity consumers in electricity metering. Selected American and Commonwealth jurisdictions were reviewed in light of their electricity metering practices. A section on compliance and conflict resolution was included, in addition to a section on the use of voluntary codes for compliance and conflict resolution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre
2017-01-01
We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles...
[Children with developmental coordination disorder have difficulty with action representation].
Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila
The study of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has emerged as a vibrant line of inquiry over the last two decades. The literature indicates quite clearly that children with DCD display deficits with an array of perceptual-motor and daily living skills. The movements of children with DCD are often described as clumsy and uncoordinated and lead to difficulties with performing many of the activities of daily living and sports that typically developing children perform easily. It has been hypothesized, based on limited research, that an underlying problem is a deficit in generating and/or monitoring an action representation termed the internal modeling deficit hypothesis. According to the hypothesis, children with DCD have significant limitations in their ability to accurately generate and utilize internal models of motor planning and control. The focus of this review is on one of the methods used to examine action representation-motor imagery, which theorists argue provides a window into the process of action representation. Included are research methods and possible brain structures involved. An addition, a paradigm unique with this population-estimation of reachability (distance) via motor imagery, will be described.
Changing predictions, stable recognition: Children's representations of downward incline motion.
Hast, Michael; Howe, Christine
2017-11-01
Various studies to-date have demonstrated children hold ill-conceived expressed beliefs about the physical world such as that one ball will fall faster than another because it is heavier. At the same time, they also demonstrate accurate recognition of dynamic events. How these representations relate is still unresolved. This study examined 5- to 11-year-olds' (N = 130) predictions and recognition of motion down inclines. Predictions were typically in error, matching previous work, but children largely recognized correct events as correct and rejected incorrect ones. The results also demonstrate while predictions change with increasing age, recognition shows signs of stability. The findings provide further support for a hybrid model of object representations and argue in favour of stable core cognition existing alongside developmental changes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children's predictions of physical events show limitations in accuracy Their recognition of such events suggests children may use different knowledge sources in their reasoning What the present study adds? Predictions fluctuate more strongly than recognition, suggesting stable core cognition But recognition also shows some fluctuation, arguing for a hybrid model of knowledge representation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Group and representation theory
Vergados, J D
2017-01-01
This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...
Representations of Multiple-Valued Logic Functions
Stankovic, Radomir S
2012-01-01
Compared to binary switching functions, multiple-valued functions offer more compact representations of the information content of signals modeled by logic functions and, therefore, their use fits very well in the general settings of data compression attempts and approaches. The first task in dealing with such signals is to provide mathematical methods for their representation in a way that will make their application in practice feasible.Representation of Multiple-Valued Logic Functions is aimed at providing an accessible introduction to these mathematical techniques that are necessary for ap
Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions.
Thornton, Mark A; Tamir, Diana I
2017-06-06
Successful social interactions depend on people's ability to predict others' future actions and emotions. People possess many mechanisms for perceiving others' current emotional states, but how might they use this information to predict others' future states? We hypothesized that people might capitalize on an overlooked aspect of affective experience: current emotions predict future emotions. By attending to regularities in emotion transitions, perceivers might develop accurate mental models of others' emotional dynamics. People could then use these mental models of emotion transitions to predict others' future emotions from currently observable emotions. To test this hypothesis, studies 1-3 used data from three extant experience-sampling datasets to establish the actual rates of emotional transitions. We then collected three parallel datasets in which participants rated the transition likelihoods between the same set of emotions. Participants' ratings of emotion transitions predicted others' experienced transitional likelihoods with high accuracy. Study 4 demonstrated that four conceptual dimensions of mental state representation-valence, social impact, rationality, and human mind-inform participants' mental models. Study 5 used 2 million emotion reports on the Experience Project to replicate both of these findings: again people reported accurate models of emotion transitions, and these models were informed by the same four conceptual dimensions. Importantly, neither these conceptual dimensions nor holistic similarity could fully explain participants' accuracy, suggesting that their mental models contain accurate information about emotion dynamics above and beyond what might be predicted by static emotion knowledge alone.
Visual representation of spatiotemporal structure
Schill, Kerstin; Zetzsche, Christoph; Brauer, Wilfried; Eisenkolb, A.; Musto, A.
1998-07-01
The processing and representation of motion information is addressed from an integrated perspective comprising low- level signal processing properties as well as higher-level cognitive aspects. For the low-level processing of motion information we argue that a fundamental requirement is the existence of a spatio-temporal memory. Its key feature, the provision of an orthogonal relation between external time and its internal representation, is achieved by a mapping of temporal structure into a locally distributed activity distribution accessible in parallel by higher-level processing stages. This leads to a reinterpretation of the classical concept of `iconic memory' and resolves inconsistencies on ultra-short-time processing and visual masking. The spatial-temporal memory is further investigated by experiments on the perception of spatio-temporal patterns. Results on the direction discrimination of motion paths provide evidence that information about direction and location are not processed and represented independent of each other. This suggests a unified representation on an early level, in the sense that motion information is internally available in form of a spatio-temporal compound. For the higher-level representation we have developed a formal framework for the qualitative description of courses of motion that may occur with moving objects.
Covariant representations of nuclear *-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, S.M.
1978-01-01
Extensions of the Csup(*)-algebra theory for covariant representations to nuclear *-algebra are considered. Irreducible covariant representations are essentially unique, an invariant state produces a covariant representation with stable vacuum, and the usual relation between ergodic states and covariant representations holds. There exist construction and decomposition theorems and a possible relation between derivations and covariant representations
Locally analytic vectors in representations of locally
Emerton, Matthew J
2017-01-01
The goal of this memoir is to provide the foundations for the locally analytic representation theory that is required in three of the author's other papers on this topic. In the course of writing those papers the author found it useful to adopt a particular point of view on locally analytic representation theory: namely, regarding a locally analytic representation as being the inductive limit of its subspaces of analytic vectors (of various "radii of analyticity"). The author uses the analysis of these subspaces as one of the basic tools in his study of such representations. Thus in this memoir he presents a development of locally analytic representation theory built around this point of view. The author has made a deliberate effort to keep the exposition reasonably self-contained and hopes that this will be of some benefit to the reader.
Evaluation, Use, and Refinement of Knowledge Representations through Acquisition Modeling
Pearl, Lisa
2017-01-01
Generative approaches to language have long recognized the natural link between theories of knowledge representation and theories of knowledge acquisition. The basic idea is that the knowledge representations provided by Universal Grammar enable children to acquire language as reliably as they do because these representations highlight the…
Representation theory of finite monoids
Steinberg, Benjamin
2016-01-01
This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J. E.; Eddy, M. J.; Sutton, T. M.; Altomari, T. J.
2007-01-01
Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces - a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation. (authors)
Helsy, I.; Maryamah; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.
2017-09-01
This study aimed to describe the application of teaching materials, analyze the increase in the ability of students to connect the three levels of representation and student responses after application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. The method used quasi one-group pretest-posttest design to 71 students. The results showed the application of teaching materials carried 88% with very good category. A significant increase ability to connect the three levels of representation of students after the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry with t-value > t-crit (11.402 > 1.991). Recapitulation N-gain pretest and posttest showed relatively similar for all groups is 0.6 criterion being achievement. Students gave a positive response to the application of multiple representations based teaching materials chemistry. Students agree teaching materials used in teaching chemistry (88%), and agrees teaching materials to provide convenience in connecting the three levels of representation (95%).
Computing Visible-Surface Representations,
1985-03-01
Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems
Distinguishing Representations as Origin and Representations as Input: Roles for Individual Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan C.W. Edwards
2016-09-01
Full Text Available It is widely perceived that there is a problem in giving a naturalistic account of mental representation that deals adequately with meaning, interpretation or significance (semantic content. It is suggested here that this problem may arise partly from the conflation of two vernacular senses of representation: representation-as-origin and representation-as-input. The flash of a neon sign may in one sense represent a popular drink, but to function as representation it must provide an input to a ‘consumer’ in the street. The arguments presented draw on two principles – the neuron doctrine and the need for a venue for ‘presentation’ or ‘reception’ of a representation at a specified site, consistent with the locality principle. It is also argued that domains of representation cannot be defined by signal traffic, since they can be expected to include ‘null’ elements based on non-firing cells. In this analysis, mental representations-as-origin are distributed patterns of cell firing. Each firing cell is given semantic value in its own right - some form of atomic propositional significance – since different axonal branches may contribute to integration with different populations of signals at different downstream sites. Representations-as-input are patterns of local co-arrival of signals in the form of synaptic potentials in dendrites. Meaning then draws on the relationships between active and null inputs, forming ‘scenarios’ comprising a molecular combination of ‘premises’ from which a new output with atomic propositional significance is generated. In both types of representation, meaning, interpretation or significance pivots on events in an individual cell. (This analysis only applies to ‘occurrent’ representations based on current neural activity. The concept of representations-as-input emphasises the need for a ‘consumer’ of a representation and the dependence of meaning on the co-relationships involved in an
Accurate thickness measurement of graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T
2016-01-01
Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Koťátko, Petr
2014-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), s. 282-302 ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : representation * proposition * truth-conditions * belief-ascriptions * reference * externalism * fiction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...
Polynomial representations of GLn
Green, James A; Erdmann, Karin
2007-01-01
The first half of this book contains the text of the first edition of LNM volume 830, Polynomial Representations of GLn. This classic account of matrix representations, the Schur algebra, the modular representations of GLn, and connections with symmetric groups, has been the basis of much research in representation theory. The second half is an Appendix, and can be read independently of the first. It is an account of the Littelmann path model for the case gln. In this case, Littelmann's 'paths' become 'words', and so the Appendix works with the combinatorics on words. This leads to the repesentation theory of the 'Littelmann algebra', which is a close analogue of the Schur algebra. The treatment is self- contained; in particular complete proofs are given of classical theorems of Schensted and Knuth.
Polynomial representations of GLN
Green, James A
1980-01-01
The first half of this book contains the text of the first edition of LNM volume 830, Polynomial Representations of GLn. This classic account of matrix representations, the Schur algebra, the modular representations of GLn, and connections with symmetric groups, has been the basis of much research in representation theory. The second half is an Appendix, and can be read independently of the first. It is an account of the Littelmann path model for the case gln. In this case, Littelmann's 'paths' become 'words', and so the Appendix works with the combinatorics on words. This leads to the repesentation theory of the 'Littelmann algebra', which is a close analogue of the Schur algebra. The treatment is self- contained; in particular complete proofs are given of classical theorems of Schensted and Knuth.
Procedural Media Representation
Henrysson, Anders
2002-01-01
We present a concept for using procedural techniques to represent media. Procedural methods allow us to represent digital media (2D images, 3D environments etc.) with very little information and to render it photo realistically. Since not all kind of content can be created procedurally, traditional media representations (bitmaps, polygons etc.) must be used as well. We have adopted an object-based media representation where an object can be represented either with a procedure or with its trad...
Wavelet representation of the nuclear dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la
1997-12-31
The study of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach named DYWAN, based on the projection methods of statistical physics and on the mathematical theory of wavelets. Strongly compressed representations of the nuclear systems are obtained with an accurate description of the wave functions and of their antisymmetrization. The results of the approach are illustrated for the ground state description as well as for the dissipative dynamics of nuclei at intermediate energies. (K.A.). 52 refs.
Wavelet representation of the nuclear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la.
1997-01-01
The study of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach named DYWAN, based on the projection methods of statistical physics and on the mathematical theory of wavelets. Strongly compressed representations of the nuclear systems are obtained with an accurate description of the wave functions and of their antisymmetrization. The results of the approach are illustrated for the ground state description as well as for the dissipative dynamics of nuclei at intermediate energies. (K.A.)
Shared Representations and the Translation Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael
2015-01-01
The purpose of the present chapter is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The chapter revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re...
Shared Representations and the Translation Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The paper revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re...
Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.
Prinz, Wolfgang
2014-03-01
Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Democracy and Representation in Paraguay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liliana Rocío Duarte-Recalde
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This article reviews the electoral accountability dimension as a constitutive mechanism of Paraguayan democracy since 1989, analyzing the factors that limit the representation contained in the administration of the Paraguayan government as a result of the electoral process. We provide an analytic contrast between the democratic principles that guide the Paraguayan electoral institutions and the way their designs are enforced, identifying the gap between formal and informal rules as determinants of political representation. We also describe the barriers that prevent effective access of the population to political participation and competition, the advantages possessed by traditional political parties and interest groups, as well as their implications for democracy. We also review the degree to which elected officials are representative of historically excluded social groups as a result, emphasizing the way women, indigenous and peasant communities have potentially limited power to exercise political influence due to limitations to participation by structural and institutional factors.
Quantum control and representation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibort, A; Perez-Pardo, J M
2009-01-01
A new notion of controllability for quantum systems that takes advantage of the linear superposition of quantum states is introduced. We call such a notion von Neumann controllability, and it is shown that it is strictly weaker than the usual notion of pure state and operator controllability. We provide a simple and effective characterization of it by using tools from the theory of unitary representations of Lie groups. In this sense, we are able to approach the problem of control of quantum states from a new perspective, that of the theory of unitary representations of Lie groups. A few examples of physical interest and the particular instances of compact and nilpotent dynamical Lie groups are discussed
Efficient Interaction Recognition through Positive Action Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Hu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to decompose two-person interaction into a Positive Action and a Negative Action for more efficient behavior recognition. A Positive Action plays the decisive role in a two-person exchange. Thus, interaction recognition can be simplified to Positive Action-based recognition, focusing on an action representation of just one person. Recently, a new depth sensor has become widely available, the Microsoft Kinect camera, which provides RGB-D data with 3D spatial information for quantitative analysis. However, there are few publicly accessible test datasets using this camera, to assess two-person interaction recognition approaches. Therefore, we created a new dataset with six types of complex human interactions (i.e., named K3HI, including kicking, pointing, punching, pushing, exchanging an object, and shaking hands. Three types of features were extracted for each Positive Action: joint, plane, and velocity features. We used continuous Hidden Markov Models (HMMs to evaluate the Positive Action-based interaction recognition method and the traditional two-person interaction recognition approach with our test dataset. Experimental results showed that the proposed recognition technique is more accurate than the traditional method, shortens the sample training time, and therefore achieves comprehensive superiority.
Knowledge representation and use. II. Representations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lauriere, J L
1982-03-01
The use of computers is less and less restricted to numerical and data processing. On the other hand, current software mostly contains algorithms on universes with complete information. The paper discusses a different family of programs: expert systems are designed as aids in human reasoning in various specific areas. Symbolic knowledge manipulation, uncertain and incomplete deduction capabilities, natural communication with humans in non-procedural ways are their essential features. This part is mainly a reflection and a debate about the various modes of acquisition and representation of human knowledge. 32 references.
The accurate particle tracer code
Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun
2017-11-01
The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.
Operator representations of frames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh
2017-01-01
of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show......The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...
Ontological Representation of Light Wave Camera Data to Support Vision-Based AmI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Manuel Molina
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in technologies for capturing video data have opened a vast amount of new application areas in visual sensor networks. Among them, the incorporation of light wave cameras on Ambient Intelligence (AmI environments provides more accurate tracking capabilities for activity recognition. Although the performance of tracking algorithms has quickly improved, symbolic models used to represent the resulting knowledge have not yet been adapted to smart environments. This lack of representation does not allow to take advantage of the semantic quality of the information provided by new sensors. This paper advocates for the introduction of a part-based representational level in cognitive-based systems in order to accurately represent the novel sensors’ knowledge. The paper also reviews the theoretical and practical issues in part-whole relationships proposing a specific taxonomy for computer vision approaches. General part-based patterns for human body and transitive part-based representation and inference are incorporated to an ontology-based previous framework to enhance scene interpretation in the area of video-based AmI. The advantages and new features of the model are demonstrated in a Social Signal Processing (SSP application for the elaboration of live market researches.
Xie, Tian; Grossman, Jeffrey C.
2018-04-01
The use of machine learning methods for accelerating the design of crystalline materials usually requires manually constructed feature vectors or complex transformation of atom coordinates to input the crystal structure, which either constrains the model to certain crystal types or makes it difficult to provide chemical insights. Here, we develop a crystal graph convolutional neural networks framework to directly learn material properties from the connection of atoms in the crystal, providing a universal and interpretable representation of crystalline materials. Our method provides a highly accurate prediction of density functional theory calculated properties for eight different properties of crystals with various structure types and compositions after being trained with 1 04 data points. Further, our framework is interpretable because one can extract the contributions from local chemical environments to global properties. Using an example of perovskites, we show how this information can be utilized to discover empirical rules for materials design.
Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking
Fiantika, F. R.
2017-04-01
This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto De Rubertis
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This article will discuss about the physiological genesis of representation and then it will illustrate the developments, especially in evolutionary perspective, and it will show how these are mainly a result of accidental circumstances, rather than of deliberate intention of improvement. In particular, it will be argue that the representation has behaved like a meme that has arrived to its own progressive evolution coming into symbiosis with the different cultures in which it has spread, and using in this activity human work “unconsciously”. Finally it will be shown how in this action the geometry is an element key, linked to representation both to construct images using graphics operations and to erect buildings using concrete operations.
Post-representational cartography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rob Kitchin
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.
Introduction to computer data representation
Fenwick, Peter
2014-01-01
Introduction to Computer Data Representation introduces readers to the representation of data within computers. Starting from basic principles of number representation in computers, the book covers the representation of both integer and floating point numbers, and characters or text. It comprehensively explains the main techniques of computer arithmetic and logical manipulation. The book also features chapters covering the less usual topics of basic checksums and 'universal' or variable length representations for integers, with additional coverage of Gray Codes, BCD codes and logarithmic repre
Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis
Mahadevan, Sridhar
2008-01-01
Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu
Additive and polynomial representations
Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick
1971-01-01
Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz
Can numerical simulations accurately predict hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid films?
Denner, Fabian; Charogiannis, Alexandros; Pradas, Marc; van Wachem, Berend G. M.; Markides, Christos N.; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2014-11-01
Understanding the dynamics of hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows is an active field of research in fluid dynamics and non-linear science in general. Numerical simulations offer a powerful tool to study hydrodynamic instabilities in film flows and can provide deep insights into the underlying physical phenomena. However, the direct comparison of numerical results and experimental results is often hampered by several reasons. For instance, in numerical simulations the interface representation is problematic and the governing equations and boundary conditions may be oversimplified, whereas in experiments it is often difficult to extract accurate information on the fluid and its behavior, e.g. determine the fluid properties when the liquid contains particles for PIV measurements. In this contribution we present the latest results of our on-going, extensive study on hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows, which includes direct numerical simulations, low-dimensional modelling as well as experiments. The major focus is on wave regimes, wave height and wave celerity as a function of Reynolds number and forcing frequency of a falling liquid film. Specific attention is paid to the differences in numerical and experimental results and the reasons for these differences. The authors are grateful to the EPSRC for their financial support (Grant EP/K008595/1).
A course in finite group representation theory
Webb, Peter
2016-01-01
This graduate-level text provides a thorough grounding in the representation theory of finite groups over fields and rings. The book provides a balanced and comprehensive account of the subject, detailing the methods needed to analyze representations that arise in many areas of mathematics. Key topics include the construction and use of character tables, the role of induction and restriction, projective and simple modules for group algebras, indecomposable representations, Brauer characters, and block theory. This classroom-tested text provides motivation through a large number of worked examples, with exercises at the end of each chapter that test the reader's knowledge, provide further examples and practice, and include results not proven in the text. Prerequisites include a graduate course in abstract algebra, and familiarity with the properties of groups, rings, field extensions, and linear algebra.
Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim
2011-11-01
Understanding bonding is fundamental to success in chemistry. A number of alternative conceptions related to chemical bonding have been reported in the literature. Research suggests that many alternative conceptions held by chemistry students result from previous teaching; if teachers are explicit in the use of representations and explain their content-specific forms and functions, this might be avoided. The development of an understanding of and ability to use multiple representations is crucial to students' understanding of chemical bonding. This paper draws on data from a larger study involving two Year 11 chemistry classes (n = 27, n = 22). It explores the contribution of explicit instruction about multiple representations to students' understanding and representation of chemical bonding. The instructional strategies were documented using audio-recordings and the teacher-researcher's reflection journal. Pre-test-post-test comparisons showed an improvement in conceptual understanding and representational competence. Analysis of the students' texts provided further evidence of the students' ability to use multiple representations to explain macroscopic phenomena on the molecular level. The findings suggest that explicit instruction about representational form and function contributes to the enhancement of representational competence and conceptual understanding of bonding in chemistry. However, the scaffolding strategies employed by the teacher play an important role in the learning process. This research has implications for professional development enhancing teachers' approaches to these aspects of instruction around chemical bonding.
Going beyond representational anthropology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, Ida Wentzel
Going beyond representational anthropology: Re-presenting bodily, emotional and virtual practices in everyday life. Separated youngsters and families in Greenland Greenland is a huge island, with a total of four high-schools. Many youngsters (age 16-18) move far away from home in order to get...
Reflection on Political Representation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kusche, Isabel
2017-01-01
This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...
Social representations about cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreja Cirila Škufca
2003-09-01
Full Text Available In this article we are presenting the results of the comparison study on social representations and causal attributions about cancer. We compared a breast cancer survivors group and control group without own experience of cancer of their own. Although social representations about cancer differ in each group, they are closely related to the concept of suffering, dying and death. We found differences in causal attribution of cancer. In both groups we found a category of risky behavior, which attributes a responsibility for a disease to an individual. Besides these factors we found predominate stress and psychological influences in cancer survivors group. On the other hand control group indicated factors outside the ones control e.g. heredity and environmental factors. Representations about a disease inside person's social space are important in co-shaping the individual process of coping with own disease. Since these representations are not always coherent with the knowledge of modern medicine their knowledge and appreciation in the course of treatment is of great value. We find the findingss of applied social psychology important as starting points in the therapeutic work with patients.
Tervo, Juuso
2012-01-01
In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…
Women and political representation.
Rathod, P B
1999-01-01
A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.
Multimedia ontology representation and applications
Chaudhury, Santanu; Ghosh, Hiranmay
2015-01-01
The result of more than 15 years of collective research, Multimedia Ontology: Representation and Applications provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the nature of media data and the principles involved in its interpretation. The book presents a unified approach to recent advances in multimedia and explains how a multimedia ontology can fill the semantic gap between concepts and the media world. It relays real-life examples of implementations in different domains to illustrate how this gap can be filled.The book contains information that helps with building semantic, content-based
Statistical representation of quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montina, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2007-05-15
In the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, the state is described by an abstract wave function in the representation space. Conversely, in a realistic interpretation, the quantum state is replaced by a probability distribution of physical quantities. Bohm mechanics is a consistent example of realistic theory, where the wave function and the particle positions are classically defined quantities. Recently, we proved that the probability distribution in a realistic theory cannot be a quadratic function of the quantum state, in contrast to the apparently obvious suggestion given by the Born rule for transition probabilities. Here, we provide a simplified version of this proof.
Multi-representation ability of students on the problem solving physics
Theasy, Y.; Wiyanto; Sujarwata
2018-03-01
Accuracy in representing knowledge possessed by students will show how the level of student understanding. The multi-representation ability of students on the problem solving of physics has been done through qualitative method of grounded theory model and implemented on physics education student of Unnes academic year 2016/2017. Multiforms of representation used are verbal (V), images/diagrams (D), graph (G), and mathematically (M). High and low category students have an accurate use of graphical representation (G) of 83% and 77.78%, and medium category has accurate use of image representation (D) equal to 66%.
Applications of the representation of the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian by means of special functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valluri, S.R.; Lamm, D.R.; Mielniczuk, W.J.
1993-01-01
A convenient series representation for the real part of the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian density of quantum electrodynamics for arbitrary nonvanishing electric fields, E, and magnetic fields, B, has been previously provided by Mielniczuk. Using this representation, numerical information for the Lagrangian is presented for the range 0 cr ≤ 5 and 0 cr ≤ 10 (subscript cr stands for critical) with the electric and magnetic fields parallel and E cr ∼ 1.7 X 10 16 V cm -1 and B cr ∼ 4.4 X 10 13 G. It was found that for a fixed electric field, the Lagrangian is monotonically increasing with increasing magnetic field strength. However, for a fixed magnetic field, the Lagrangian exhibits a positively valued maximum before turning monotonically decreasing with increasing electric field strength. Further, the series representation is extended to the case of vanishing electric or magnetic field. Numerical results for these special cases are in very close agreement with previous results, which indicated a maximum value for the Lagrangian density for B = 0 at E/E cr ∼ 3. Also, the techniques developed for deriving the real part of the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian are applied to the imaginary part to deduce a similar, convenient series representation that agrees with the previous results derived by others for the special case of a vanishing magnetic field. Possible applications of this Lagrangian to quantum chromodynamics are discussed. This series representation will be of use in calculations of a quantum-electrodynamical field energy density in the absence of real charges, and for calculations of polarization and magnetization of the vacuum. More accurate calculations of the cross-section scattering of light by light in the presence of a constant, homogeneous magnetic and (or) electric field are possible with the aid of this series representation. (author)
Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations
Madl, Tamas; Franklin, Stan; Chen, Ke; Trappl, Robert; Montaldi, Daniela
2016-01-01
It has been suggested that the map-like representations that support human spatial memory are fragmented into sub-maps with local reference frames, rather than being unitary and global. However, the principles underlying the structure of these ‘cognitive maps’ are not well understood. We propose that the structure of the representations of navigation space arises from clustering within individual psychological spaces, i.e. from a process that groups together objects that are close in these spaces. Building on the ideas of representational geometry and similarity-based representations in cognitive science, we formulate methods for learning dissimilarity functions (metrics) characterizing participants’ psychological spaces. We show that these learned metrics, together with a probabilistic model of clustering based on the Bayesian cognition paradigm, allow prediction of participants’ cognitive map structures in advance. Apart from insights into spatial representation learning in human cognition, these methods could facilitate novel computational tools capable of using human-like spatial concepts. We also compare several features influencing spatial memory structure, including spatial distance, visual similarity and functional similarity, and report strong correlations between these dimensions and the grouping probability in participants’ spatial representations, providing further support for clustering in spatial memory. PMID:27347681
Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Yaghmaie
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ali Bagheri, Mohammad; Gao, Qigang; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera
2015-01-01
the performance of an ensemble of action learning techniques, each performing the recognition task from a different per- spective. The underlying idea is that instead of aiming a very sophisticated and powerful representation/learning technique, we can learn action categories using a set of relatively simple...... to improve the recognition perfor- mance, a powerful combination strategy is utilized based on the Dempster-Shafer theory, which can effectively make use of diversity of base learners trained on different sources of information. The recognition results of the individual clas- sifiers are compared with those...... obtained from fusing the classifiers’ output, showing enhanced performance of the proposed methodology....
Zieliński, Tomasz G.
2017-11-01
The paper proposes and investigates computationally-efficient microstructure representations for sound absorbing fibrous media. Three-dimensional volume elements involving non-trivial periodic arrangements of straight fibres are examined as well as simple two-dimensional cells. It has been found that a simple 2D quasi-representative cell can provide similar predictions as a volume element which is in general much more geometrically accurate for typical fibrous materials. The multiscale modelling allowed to determine the effective speeds and damping of acoustic waves propagating in such media, which brings up a discussion on the correlation between the speed, penetration range and attenuation of sound waves. Original experiments on manufactured copper-wire samples are presented and the microstructure-based calculations of acoustic absorption are compared with the corresponding experimental results. In fact, the comparison suggested the microstructure modifications leading to representations with non-uniformly distributed fibres.
Prather, Edward
2018-01-01
Astronomy education researchers in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona have been investigating a new framework for getting students to engage in discussions about fundamental astronomy topics. This framework is intended to also provide students with explicit feedback on the correctness and coherency of their mental models on these topics. This framework builds upon our prior efforts to create productive Pedagogical Discipline Representations (PDR). Students are asked to work collaboratively to generate their own representations (drawings, graphs, data tables, etc.) that reflect important characteristics of astrophysical scenarios presented in class. We have found these representation tasks offer tremendous insight into the broad range of ideas and knowledge students possess after instruction that includes both traditional lecture and actively learning strategies. In particular, we find that some of our students are able to correctly answer challenging multiple-choice questions on topics, however, they struggle to accurately create representations of these same topics themselves. Our work illustrates that some of our students are not developing a robust level of discipline fluency with many core ideas in astronomy, even after engaging with active learning strategies.
Tsilimantou, Elisavet; Delegou, Ekaterini; Ioannidis, Charalabos; Moropoulou, Antonia
2016-08-01
In this paper, the documentation of an historic building registered as Cultural Heritage asset is presented. The aim of the survey is to create a 3D geometric representation of a historic building and in accordance with multidisciplinary study extract useful information regarding the extent of degradation, constructions' durability etc. For the implementation of the survey, a combination of different types of acquisition technologies is used. The project focuses on the study of Villa Klonaridi, in Athens, Greece. For the complete documentation of the building, conventional topography, photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques is combined. Close range photogrammetric techniques are used for the acquisition of the façades and architectural details. One of the main objectives is the development of an accurate 3D model, where the photorealistic representation of the building is achieved, along with the decay pathology, historical phases and architectural components. In order to achieve a suitable graphical representation for the study of the material and decay patterns beyond the 2D representation, 3D modelling and additional information modelling is performed for comparative analysis. The study provides various conclusions regarding the scale of deterioration obtained by the 2D and 3D analysis respectively. Considering the variation in material and decay patterns, comparative results are obtained regarding the degradation of the building. Overall, the paper describes a process performed on a Historic Building, where the 3D digital acquisition of the monuments' structure is realized with the combination of close range surveying and laser scanning methods.
Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...
Braids as a representation space of SU(5)
Cartin, Daniel
2015-06-01
The standard model of particle physics provides very accurate predictions of phenomena occurring at the sub-atomic level, but the reason for the choice of symmetry group and the large number of particles considered elementary is still unknown. Along the lines of previous preon models positing a substructure to explain these aspects, Bilson-Thompson showed how the first family of elementary particles is realized as the crossings of braids made of three strands, with charges resulting from twists of those strands with certain conditions; in this topological model, there are only two distinct neutrino states. Modeling the particles as braids implies these braids must be the representation space of a Lie algebra, giving the symmetries of the standard model. In this paper, this representation is made explicit, obtaining the raising operators associated with the Lie algebra of SU(5), one of the earliest grand unified theories. Because the braids form a group, the action of these operators are braids themselves, leading to their identification as gauge bosons. Possible choices for the other two families are also given. Although this realization of particles as braids is lacking a dynamical framework, it is very suggestive, especially when considered as a natural method of adding matter to loop quantum gravity.
2011-01-01
Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full
The Interaction between Semantic Representation and Episodic Memory.
Fang, Jing; Rüther, Naima; Bellebaum, Christian; Wiskott, Laurenz; Cheng, Sen
2018-02-01
The experimental evidence on the interrelation between episodic memory and semantic memory is inconclusive. Are they independent systems, different aspects of a single system, or separate but strongly interacting systems? Here, we propose a computational role for the interaction between the semantic and episodic systems that might help resolve this debate. We hypothesize that episodic memories are represented as sequences of activation patterns. These patterns are the output of a semantic representational network that compresses the high-dimensional sensory input. We show quantitatively that the accuracy of episodic memory crucially depends on the quality of the semantic representation. We compare two types of semantic representations: appropriate representations, which means that the representation is used to store input sequences that are of the same type as those that it was trained on, and inappropriate representations, which means that stored inputs differ from the training data. Retrieval accuracy is higher for appropriate representations because the encoded sequences are less divergent than those encoded with inappropriate representations. Consistent with our model prediction, we found that human subjects remember some aspects of episodes significantly more accurately if they had previously been familiarized with the objects occurring in the episode, as compared to episodes involving unfamiliar objects. We thus conclude that the interaction with the semantic system plays an important role for episodic memory.
Constructing visual representations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh
2014-01-01
tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...
Naturalising Representational Content
Shea, Nicholas
2014-01-01
This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661
Knowledge Representation and Ontologies
Grimm, Stephan
Knowledge representation and reasoning aims at designing computer systems that reason about a machine-interpretable representation of the world. Knowledge-based systems have a computational model of some domain of interest in which symbols serve as surrogates for real world domain artefacts, such as physical objects, events, relationships, etc. [1]. The domain of interest can cover any part of the real world or any hypothetical system about which one desires to represent knowledge for com-putational purposes. A knowledge-based system maintains a knowledge base, which stores the symbols of the computational model in the form of statements about the domain, and it performs reasoning by manipulating these symbols. Applications can base their decisions on answers to domain-relevant questions posed to a knowledge base.
A polygon soup representation for free viewpoint video
Colleu, T.; Pateux, S.; Morin, L.; Labit, C.
2010-02-01
This paper presents a polygon soup representation for multiview data. Starting from a sequence of multi-view video plus depth (MVD) data, the proposed representation takes into account, in a unified manner, different issues such as compactness, compression, and intermediate view synthesis. The representation is built in two steps. First, a set of 3D quads is extracted using a quadtree decomposition of the depth maps. Second, a selective elimination of the quads is performed in order to reduce inter-view redundancies and thus provide a compact representation. Moreover, the proposed methodology for extracting the representation allows to reduce ghosting artifacts. Finally, an adapted compression technique is proposed that limits coding artifacts. The results presented on two real sequences show that the proposed representation provides a good trade-off between rendering quality and data compactness.
Europe representations in textbooks
Brennetot , Arnaud
2011-01-01
This EuroBroadMap working paper presents an analysis of textbooks dealing with the representations of Europe and European Union. In most of these textbooks from secondary school, the teaching of the geography of Europe precedes the evocation of the EU. Europe is often depicted as a given object, reduced to a number of structural aspects (relief, climate, demography, traditional cultures, economic activities, etc.) whose only common point is their location within conventional boundaries. Such ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole B.
2016-01-01
Dette kapitel gennemgår den såkaldte ”Non-Representational Theory” (NRT), der primært er kendt fra den Angelsaksiske humangeografi, og som særligt er blevet fremført af den engelske geograf Nigel Thrift siden midten af 2000 årtiet. Da positionen ikke kan siges at være specielt homogen vil kapitlet...
Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation
Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro
2011-01-01
This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.
Pioneers of representation theory
Curtis, Charles W
1999-01-01
The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...
Cohen-Macaulay representations
Leuschke, Graham J
2012-01-01
This book is a comprehensive treatment of the representation theory of maximal Cohen-Macaulay (MCM) modules over local rings. This topic is at the intersection of commutative algebra, singularity theory, and representations of groups and algebras. Two introductory chapters treat the Krull-Remak-Schmidt Theorem on uniqueness of direct-sum decompositions and its failure for modules over local rings. Chapters 3-10 study the central problem of classifying the rings with only finitely many indecomposable MCM modules up to isomorphism, i.e., rings of finite CM type. The fundamental material--ADE/simple singularities, the double branched cover, Auslander-Reiten theory, and the Brauer-Thrall conjectures--is covered clearly and completely. Much of the content has never before appeared in book form. Examples include the representation theory of Artinian pairs and Burban-Drozd's related construction in dimension two, an introduction to the McKay correspondence from the point of view of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules, Au...
Factors affecting the representation of objects in distributed attention
Maxwell, Tricia Lesley
2011-01-01
Our phenomenological experience of what we see around us is of an accurate representation. However, such information is widely distributed in the brain so necessitates that some form of co-ordination of this information takes place to enable a coherent view of the world. The most prominently researched theory is Feature Integration Theory (Treisman, 1993). This proposes that accurate binding is dependent on the current spatial distribution of attention. Individual objects compete for attentio...
In defense of abstract conceptual representations.
Binder, Jeffrey R
2016-08-01
An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.
Highly Accurate Prediction of Jobs Runtime Classes
Reiner-Benaim, Anat; Grabarnick, Anna; Shmueli, Edi
2016-01-01
Separating the short jobs from the long is a known technique to improve scheduling performance. In this paper we describe a method we developed for accurately predicting the runtimes classes of the jobs to enable this separation. Our method uses the fact that the runtimes can be represented as a mixture of overlapping Gaussian distributions, in order to train a CART classifier to provide the prediction. The threshold that separates the short jobs from the long jobs is determined during the ev...
Hierarchical Representation Learning for Kinship Verification.
Kohli, Naman; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Noore, Afzel; Majumdar, Angshul
2017-01-01
Kinship verification has a number of applications such as organizing large collections of images and recognizing resemblances among humans. In this paper, first, a human study is conducted to understand the capabilities of human mind and to identify the discriminatory areas of a face that facilitate kinship-cues. The visual stimuli presented to the participants determine their ability to recognize kin relationship using the whole face as well as specific facial regions. The effect of participant gender and age and kin-relation pair of the stimulus is analyzed using quantitative measures such as accuracy, discriminability index d' , and perceptual information entropy. Utilizing the information obtained from the human study, a hierarchical kinship verification via representation learning (KVRL) framework is utilized to learn the representation of different face regions in an unsupervised manner. We propose a novel approach for feature representation termed as filtered contractive deep belief networks (fcDBN). The proposed feature representation encodes relational information present in images using filters and contractive regularization penalty. A compact representation of facial images of kin is extracted as an output from the learned model and a multi-layer neural network is utilized to verify the kin accurately. A new WVU kinship database is created, which consists of multiple images per subject to facilitate kinship verification. The results show that the proposed deep learning framework (KVRL-fcDBN) yields the state-of-the-art kinship verification accuracy on the WVU kinship database and on four existing benchmark data sets. Furthermore, kinship information is used as a soft biometric modality to boost the performance of face verification via product of likelihood ratio and support vector machine based approaches. Using the proposed KVRL-fcDBN framework, an improvement of over 20% is observed in the performance of face verification.
Representations of affine Hecke algebras
Xi, Nanhua
1994-01-01
Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest
When Is Network Lasso Accurate?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Jung
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The “least absolute shrinkage and selection operator” (Lasso method has been adapted recently for network-structured datasets. In particular, this network Lasso method allows to learn graph signals from a small number of noisy signal samples by using the total variation of a graph signal for regularization. While efficient and scalable implementations of the network Lasso are available, only little is known about the conditions on the underlying network structure which ensure network Lasso to be accurate. By leveraging concepts of compressed sensing, we address this gap and derive precise conditions on the underlying network topology and sampling set which guarantee the network Lasso for a particular loss function to deliver an accurate estimate of the entire underlying graph signal. We also quantify the error incurred by network Lasso in terms of two constants which reflect the connectivity of the sampled nodes.
The Accurate Particle Tracer Code
Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi
2016-01-01
The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusio...
Surveyable Representations, the "Lecture on Ethics", and Moral Philosophy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin De Mesel
2014-12-01
Full Text Available I argue that it is possible and useful for moral philosophy to provide surveyable representations (as the later Wittgenstein understands the concept of moral vocabulary. I proceed in four steps. First, I present two dominant interpretations of the concept “surveyable representation”. Second, I use these interpretations as a background against which I present my own interpretation. Third, I use my interpretation to support the claim that Wittgenstein’s “Lecture on Ethics” counts as an example of a surveyable representation. I conclude that, since the lecture qualifies as a surveyable representation, it is possible to provide surveyable representations of moral vocabulary. Fourth, I argue that it is useful for contemporary moral philosophy to provide surveyable representations, because it may help to dissolve problems in current debates. I provide an example of such a debate, namely, the debate between cognitivists and non-cognivitists.
Madden, Sean Patrick
difficult type of representation for students to interpret. Most subjects scored higher on representational competence when engaged in creating graphs and sketches than when evaluating provided representations. This study suggests that students may benefit from an instruction that emphasizes heuristic use of multiple representations in chemistry problem solving. An instructional strategy that makes use of a variety of representations and requires students to create their own representations may have measurable benefits to chemistry students.
Categorification and higher representation theory
Beliakova, Anna
2017-01-01
The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...
Inversion of Auditory Spectrograms, Traditional Spectrograms, and Other Envelope Representations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Decorsière, Remi Julien Blaise; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; MacDonald, Ewen
2015-01-01
Envelope representations such as the auditory or traditional spectrogram can be defined by the set of envelopes from the outputs of a filterbank. Common envelope extraction methods discard information regarding the fast fluctuations, or phase, of the signal. Thus, it is difficult to invert, or re...... to the framework is proposed, which leads to a more accurate inversion of traditional spectrograms...
Stereotypes and Representations of Aging in the Media
Mason, Susan E.; Darnell, Emily A.; Prifti, Krisiola
2010-01-01
How are older adults presented in print and in the electronic media? Are they underrepresented? Are they accurately portrayed? Based on our examination of several forms of media over a four-month period, we discuss the role of the media in shaping our views on aging. Quantitative and qualitative analyses reveal that media representations often…
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ngodock, Hans E; Smith, Scott R; Jacobs, Gregg A
2007-01-01
... (LCE) in the Gulf of Mexico. It was reported that the representer method was more accurate than its ensemble counterparts, yet it had difficulties fitting the data in the last month of the 4-month assimilation window...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loddegaard, Anne
2012-01-01
out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...... Satan episode in Under Satan’s Sun is neither a break with the seriousness nor with the realism of the Catholic novel. On the basis of Tvetan Todorov’s definition of the traditional fantastic tale, the analysis shows that only the beginning of the fantastic episode follows Todorov’s definition...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loddegaard, Anne
2009-01-01
out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...... Satan episode in Under Satan’s Sun is neither a break with the seriousness nor with the realism of the Catholic novel. On the basis of Tvetan Todorov’s definition of the traditional fantastic tale, the analysis shows that only the beginning of the fantastic episode follows Todorov’s definition...
Between Representation and Eternity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Atzbach, Rainer
2016-01-01
This paper seeks to explore how prayer and praying practice are reflected in archaeological sources. Apart from objects directly involved in the personal act of praying, such as rosaries and praying books, churches and religious foundations played a major role in the medieval system of intercession....... At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...
Representations in Calculus: Two Contrasting Cases.
Aspinwall, Leslie; Shaw, Kenneth L.
2002-01-01
Illustrates the contrasting thinking processes of two beginning calculus students' geometric and analytic schemes for the derivative function. Suggests that teachers can enhance students' understanding by continuing to demonstrate how different representations of the same mathematical concept provide additional information. (KHR)
Cuts of Feynman Integrals in Baikov representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frellesvig, Hjalte; Papadopoulos, Costas G.
2017-01-01
Based on the Baikov representation, we present a systematic approach to compute cuts of Feynman Integrals, appropriately defined in d dimensions. The information provided by these computations may be used to determine the class of functions needed to analytically express the full integrals.
Cuts of Feynman Integrals in Baikov representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frellesvig, Hjalte; Papadopoulos, Costas G. [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, NCSR ‘Demokritos’,P.O. Box 60037, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 (Greece)
2017-04-13
Based on the Baikov representation, we present a systematic approach to compute cuts of Feynman Integrals, appropriately defined in d dimensions. The information provided by these computations may be used to determine the class of functions needed to analytically express the full integrals.
Investigating self-representation with virtual reality
Ma, Ke
2016-01-01
The main issue addressed in this thesis is the degree to which the representation of our body is flexible, and what possible implication this has. By using the virtual hand illusion (VHI) paradigm, we provided evidence for a dissociation between subjective ownership perception and the skin
Taylor, Roger S.; Grundstrom, Erika D.
2011-01-01
Given that astronomy heavily relies on visual representations it is especially likely for individuals to assume that instructional materials, such as visual representations of the Earth-Moon system (EMS), would be relatively accurate. However, in our research, we found that images in middle-school textbooks and educational webpages were commonly…
Accurate determination of antenna directivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dich, Mikael
1997-01-01
The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...
Social Representations of Intelligence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Zubieta
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions.
Secure and Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections and Sparse Representations.
Pillai, Jaishanker K; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama; Ratha, Nalini K
2011-09-01
Noncontact biometrics such as face and iris have additional benefits over contact-based biometrics such as fingerprint and hand geometry. However, three important challenges need to be addressed in a noncontact biometrics-based authentication system: ability to handle unconstrained acquisition, robust and accurate matching, and privacy enhancement without compromising security. In this paper, we propose a unified framework based on random projections and sparse representations, that can simultaneously address all three issues mentioned above in relation to iris biometrics. Our proposed quality measure can handle segmentation errors and a wide variety of possible artifacts during iris acquisition. We demonstrate how the proposed approach can be easily extended to handle alignment variations and recognition from iris videos, resulting in a robust and accurate system. The proposed approach includes enhancements to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable iris templates. Results on public data sets show significant benefits of the proposed approach.
Representation of human behaviour in probabilistic safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whittingham, R.B.
1991-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the representation of human behaviour in probabilistic safety assessment. Human performance problems which may result in errors leading to accidents are considered in terms of methods of identification using task analysis, screening analysis of critical errors, representation and quantification of human errors in fault trees and event trees and error reduction measures. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs
Groupoid extensions of mapping class representations for bordered surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Penner, Robert
2009-01-01
by explicit formulae depending upon six essential cases, and the kernel and image of the groupoid representation are computed. Furthermore, this provides groupoid extensions of any representation of the mapping class group that factors through its action on the fundamental group of the surface including...
Studying Action Representation in Children via Motor Imagery
Gabbard, Carl
2009-01-01
The use of motor imagery is a widely used experimental paradigm for the study of cognitive aspects of action planning and control in adults. Furthermore, there are indications that motor imagery provides a window into the process of action representation. These notions complement internal model theory suggesting that such representations allow…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wendy Furlan
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Objective – To determine how successfulthe link resolver, SFX, is in meeting the expectations of library users and librarians.Design – Analysis of an online user survey, library staff focus groups, retrospective analysis of system statistics, and test searches.Setting – Two California State University campus libraries in the United States: Northbridge, with over 31,000 students on campus, and San Marcos, with over 7,300 students on campus.Subjects – A total of 453 online survey responses were submitted from library users, 421 from Northbridge and 32 from SanMarcos. Twenty librarians took part in the focus groups conducted with library staff consisting of 14 of the 23 librarians from Northbridge (2 from technical services and 12 from public services, and 6 of the 10 San Marcos librarians (3 from technical services and 3 from public services. No further information was provided on the characteristics of the subjects.Methods – An online survey was offered to users of the two campus libraries for a two week period in May 2004. The survey consisted of 8 questions, 7 fixed response and 1 free text. Survey distribution was enabled via a different mechanism at each campus. The Northbridge library offered the survey to users via a pop‐up window each time the SFX service was clicked on, while the San Marcos library presented the survey as a link from the library’s home page. Survey responses from both campuses were combined and analysed together. Focus groups were conducted with librarians from each campus library on April 20th, 21st, and 29th, 2004. Librarians attended focus groups only with others from their own campus. Statistics were gathered from each campus’ local SFX system for the 3‐month period from September 14, 2004, to December 14,2004. Statistics from each campus were combined for analysis. The authors also conducted 224 test searches over the 3‐month period from July to September, 2004.Main results – Analysis of the
Sparse Representations of Hyperspectral Images
Swanson, Robin J.
2015-01-01
Hyperspectral image data has long been an important tool for many areas of sci- ence. The addition of spectral data yields significant improvements in areas such as object and image classification, chemical and mineral composition detection, and astronomy. Traditional capture methods for hyperspectral data often require each wavelength to be captured individually, or by sacrificing spatial resolution. Recently there have been significant improvements in snapshot hyperspectral captures using, in particular, compressed sensing methods. As we move to a compressed sensing image formation model the need for strong image priors to shape our reconstruction, as well as sparse basis become more important. Here we compare several several methods for representing hyperspectral images including learned three dimensional dictionaries, sparse convolutional coding, and decomposable nonlocal tensor dictionaries. Addi- tionally, we further explore their parameter space to identify which parameters provide the most faithful and sparse representations.
Sparse Representations of Hyperspectral Images
Swanson, Robin J.
2015-11-23
Hyperspectral image data has long been an important tool for many areas of sci- ence. The addition of spectral data yields significant improvements in areas such as object and image classification, chemical and mineral composition detection, and astronomy. Traditional capture methods for hyperspectral data often require each wavelength to be captured individually, or by sacrificing spatial resolution. Recently there have been significant improvements in snapshot hyperspectral captures using, in particular, compressed sensing methods. As we move to a compressed sensing image formation model the need for strong image priors to shape our reconstruction, as well as sparse basis become more important. Here we compare several several methods for representing hyperspectral images including learned three dimensional dictionaries, sparse convolutional coding, and decomposable nonlocal tensor dictionaries. Addi- tionally, we further explore their parameter space to identify which parameters provide the most faithful and sparse representations.
Uniformly bounded representations of the Lorentz groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brega, A.O.
1982-01-01
For the Lorentz group G = SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to 2) the author constructs a family of uniformly bounded representations by means of analytically continuing a certain normalization of the unitary principal series. The method the author uses relies on an analysis of various operators under a Mellin transform and extends earlier work of E.N. Wilson. In a series of papers Kunze and Stein initiated the theory of uniformly bounded representations of semisimple Lie groups; the starting point is the unitary principal series T(sigma,s) obtained in a certain subgroup M of G and a purely imaginary number s. From there Kunze and Stein constructed families of representations R(sigma,s) depending analytically on a parameter s in a domain D of C containing the imaginary axis which are unitarily equilvalent to T(sigma,s) for s contained in the set of imaginary numbers and whose operator norms are uniformly bounded for each s in D. In the case of the Lorentz groups SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to2) and the trivial representation 1 of M, E.N. Wilson obtained such a family R(1,s) for the domain D = [s contained in the set of C: absolute value Re(s) Vertical Bar2]. For this domain D and for any representation sigma of M the author provides a family R(sigma,s) of uniformly bounded representations analytically continuing T(sigma,s), thereby generalizing Wilson's work. The author has also investigated certain symmetry properties of the representations R(sigma,s) under the action of the Weyl group. The trivial representation is Weyl group invariant and the family R(1,s) obtained by Wilson satisfies R(1,s) = R(1,-s) reflecting this. Obtained was the analogous result R(sigma,s) = R(sigma,-s) for some well known representations sigma that are Weyl group invariant. This involves the explicit computation of certain constants arising in the Fourier transforms of intertwining operators
Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi
2015-02-01
With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.
Accurate Modeling of Advanced Reflectarrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Min
to the conventional phase-only optimization technique (POT), the geometrical parameters of the array elements are directly optimized to fulfill the far-field requirements, thus maintaining a direct relation between optimization goals and optimization variables. As a result, better designs can be obtained compared...... of the incident field, the choice of basis functions, and the technique to calculate the far-field. Based on accurate reference measurements of two offset reflectarrays carried out at the DTU-ESA Spherical NearField Antenna Test Facility, it was concluded that the three latter factors are particularly important...... using the GDOT to demonstrate its capabilities. To verify the accuracy of the GDOT, two offset contoured beam reflectarrays that radiate a high-gain beam on a European coverage have been designed and manufactured, and subsequently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility...
Parental representations of transsexuals.
Parker, G; Barr, R
1982-06-01
The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered.
Computer aided surface representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnhill, R.E.
1990-02-19
The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.
The representation of neutron polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrne, J.
1979-01-01
Neutron beam polarization representation is discussed under the headings; transfer matrices, coherent parity violation for neutrons, neutron spin rotation in helical magnetic fields, polarization and interference. (UK)
Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals
Honda, Masaaki
Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.
Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asad Masood Khattak
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems.
Chen, Minjie
2009-01-01
The sheer amount of American children's and young adult literature, boasting an outpouring of 5,000 titles every year, often amazes a person who is new to this field. Not only is a large proportion of these books of high printing and binding quality, but, at a quick glance, among them is also a pleasant diversity of genre, format, targeted age…
Cognitive, perceptual and action-oriented representations of falling objects.
Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2005-01-01
We interact daily with moving objects. How accurate are our predictions about objects' motions? What sources of information do we use? These questions have received wide attention from a variety of different viewpoints. On one end of the spectrum are the ecological approaches assuming that all the information about the visual environment is present in the optic array, with no need to postulate conscious or unconscious representations. On the other end of the spectrum are the constructivist approaches assuming that a more or less accurate representation of the external world is built in the brain using explicit or implicit knowledge or memory besides sensory inputs. Representations can be related to naive physics or to context cue-heuristics or to the construction of internal copies of environmental invariants. We address the issue of prediction of objects' fall at different levels. Cognitive understanding and perceptual judgment of simple Newtonian dynamics can be surprisingly inaccurate. By contrast, motor interactions with falling objects are often very accurate. We argue that the pragmatic action-oriented behaviour and the perception-oriented behaviour may use different modes of operation and different levels of representation.
Robust and accurate vectorization of line drawings.
Hilaire, Xavier; Tombre, Karl
2006-06-01
This paper presents a method for vectorizing the graphical parts of paper-based line drawings. The method consists of separating the input binary image into layers of homogeneous thickness, skeletonizing each layer, segmenting the skeleton by a method based on random sampling, and simplifying the result. The segmentation method is robust with a best bound of 50 percent noise reached for indefinitely long primitives. Accurate estimation of the recognized vector's parameters is enabled by explicitly computing their feasibility domains. Theoretical performance analysis and expression of the complexity of the segmentation method are derived. Experimental results and comparisons with other vectorization systems are also provided.
Accurate Energy Consumption Modeling of IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH Using Dual-BandOpenMote Hardware.
Daneels, Glenn; Municio, Esteban; Van de Velde, Bruno; Ergeerts, Glenn; Weyn, Maarten; Latré, Steven; Famaey, Jeroen
2018-02-02
The Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode of the IEEE 802.15.4e amendment aims to improve reliability and energy efficiency in industrial and other challenging Internet-of-Things (IoT) environments. This paper presents an accurate and up-to-date energy consumption model for devices using this IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH mode. The model identifies all network-related CPU and radio state changes, thus providing a precise representation of the device behavior and an accurate prediction of its energy consumption. Moreover, energy measurements were performed with a dual-band OpenMote device, running the OpenWSN firmware. This allows the model to be used for devices using 2.4 GHz, as well as 868 MHz. Using these measurements, several network simulations were conducted to observe the TSCH energy consumption effects in end-to-end communication for both frequency bands. Experimental verification of the model shows that it accurately models the consumption for all possible packet sizes and that the calculated consumption on average differs less than 3% from the measured consumption. This deviation includes measurement inaccuracies and the variations of the guard time. As such, the proposed model is very suitable for accurate energy consumption modeling of TSCH networks.
Diabatic and adiabatic representations for atomic collision processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delos, J.B.; Thorson, W.R.
1979-01-01
A consistent general definition of diabatic representations has not previously been given, even though many practical examples of such representations have been constructed for specific problems. Such a definition is provided in this paper. Beginning with a classical trajectory formulation, we describe the form and behavior of velocity-dependent couplings in slow collisions, including the effects of electron-translation factors (ETF's). We compare the couplings arising from atomic representations and atomic ETF's with those arising from molecular representations and ''switching function'' ETF's. We show that a unique set of switching functions makes the two descriptions identical in their effects. We then show that an acceptable general definition of a diabatic representation is provided by the condition P+A=0, where P is the usual nonadiabatic coupling matrix and A represents corrections to it arising from electron translation factors (ETF's). Two distinct types of diabatic representation result, depending on the definition taken for A. States that undergo no deformation are called F diabatic; those that have no velocity-dependent couplings are called M diabatic. Finally, we discuss the properties of representations that are partially diabatic and partially adiabatic, and we give some rules for the construction of representations that should be nearly optimal for describing many types of collision processes
Congruence properties of induced representations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei
In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations...
Factorial representations of path groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albeverio, S.; Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Testard, D.; Vershik, A.
1983-11-01
We give the reduction of the energy representation of the group of mappings from I = [ 0,1 ], S 1 , IRsub(+) or IR into a compact semi simple Lie group G. For G = SU(2) we prove the factoriality of the representation, which is of type III in the case I = IR
Using Integer Manipulatives: Representational Determinism
Bossé, Michael J.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla
2016-01-01
Teachers and students commonly use various concrete representations during mathematical instruction. These representations can be utilized to help students understand mathematical concepts and processes, increase flexibility of thinking, facilitate problem solving, and reduce anxiety while doing mathematics. Unfortunately, the manner in which some…
Knowledge Representation: A Brief Review.
Vickery, B. C.
1986-01-01
Reviews different structures and techniques of knowledge representation: structure of database records and files, data structures in computer programming, syntatic and semantic structure of natural language, knowledge representation in artificial intelligence, and models of human memory. A prototype expert system that makes use of some of these…
International agreements on commercial representation
Slanař, Jan
2014-01-01
The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.
Scientific Representation and Science Learning
Matta, Corrado
2014-01-01
In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…
Lambrey, Simon; Berthoz, Alain
2007-09-01
Numerous data in the literature provide evidence for gender differences in spatial orientation. In particular, it has been suggested that spatial representations of large-scale environments are more accurate in terms of metric information in men than in women but are richer in landmark information in women than in men. One explanatory hypothesis is that men and women differ in terms of navigational processes they used in daily life. The present study investigated this hypothesis by distinguishing two navigational processes: spatial updating by self-motion and landmark-based orientation. Subjects were asked to perform a pointing task in three experimental conditions, which differed in terms of reliability of the external landmarks that could be used. Two groups of subjects were distinguished, a mobile group and an immobile group, in which spatial updating of environmental locations did not have the same degree of importance for the correct performance of the pointing task. We found that men readily relied on an internal egocentric representation of where landmarks were expected to be in order to perform the pointing task, a representation that could be updated during self-motion (spatial updating). In contrast, women seemed to take their bearings more readily on the basis of the stable landmarks of the external world. We suggest that this gender difference in spatial orientation is not due to differences in information processing abilities but rather due to the differences in higher level strategies.
A generalized wavelet extrema representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Jian; Lades, M.
1995-10-01
The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.
Multiple representations in physics education
Duit, Reinders; Fischer, Hans E
2017-01-01
This volume is important because despite various external representations, such as analogies, metaphors, and visualizations being commonly used by physics teachers, educators and researchers, the notion of using the pedagogical functions of multiple representations to support teaching and learning is still a gap in physics education. The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. The following chapters of the book illustrate teaching and learning with respect to applying specific physics multiple representations in different levels of the education system and in different physics topics using analogies and models, different modes, and in reasoning and representational competence. When multiple representations are used in physics for teaching, the expectation is that they should be successful. To ensure this is the case, the implementati...
Islam and Media Representations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Bensalah
2006-04-01
Full Text Available For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconography, the author strives to translate the extreme xenophobic tensions and the identity crystallisations associated with the current media orchestration of Islam, both in theWest and the East. He then evokes the excesses of the media that are found at the origin of many amalgams wisely maintained between Islam, Islamism and Islamic terrorism, underscoring their duplicity and their willingness to put themselves, consciously, in service to deceivers and directors of awareness, who are very active at the heart of the politico-media sphere. After levelling a severe accusation against the harmful drifts of the media, especially in times of crisis and war, the author concludes by asserting that these tools of communication, once they are freed of their masks and invective apparatuses, can be re-appropriated by new words and bya true communication between peoples and cultures.
Chemical thermodynamic representation of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindemer, T.B.; Besmann, T.M.
1984-01-01
The entire data base for the dependence of the nonstoichiometry, x, on temperature and chemical potential of oxygen (oxygen potential) was retrieved from the literature and represented. This data base was interpreted by least-squares analysis using equations derived from the classical thermodynamic theory for the solid solution of a solute in a solvent. For hyperstoichiometric oxide at oxygen potentials more positive than -266700 + 16.5T kJ/mol, the data were best represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 3 O 7 ] solution. For O/U ratios above 2 and oxygen potentials below this boundary, a [UO 2 ]-[U 2 O 4 . 5 ] solution represented the data. The data were represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 1 / 3 ] solution. The resulting equations represent the experimental ln(PO 2 ) - ln(x) behavior and can be used in thermodynamic calculations to predict phase boundary compositions consistent with the literature. Collectively, the present analysis permits a mathematical representation of the behavior of the total data base
On functional representations of the conformal algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosten, Oliver J.
2017-07-15
Starting with conformally covariant correlation functions, a sequence of functional representations of the conformal algebra is constructed. A key step is the introduction of representations which involve an auxiliary functional. It is observed that these functionals are not arbitrary but rather must satisfy a pair of consistency equations corresponding to dilatation and special conformal invariance. In a particular representation, the former corresponds to the canonical form of the exact renormalization group equation specialized to a fixed point whereas the latter is new. This provides a concrete understanding of how conformal invariance is realized as a property of the Wilsonian effective action and the relationship to action-free formulations of conformal field theory. Subsequently, it is argued that the conformal Ward Identities serve to define a particular representation of the energy-momentum tensor. Consistency of this construction implies Polchinski's conditions for improving the energy-momentum tensor of a conformal field theory such that it is traceless. In the Wilsonian approach, the exactly marginal, redundant field which generates lines of physically equivalent fixed points is identified as the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. (orig.)
Representations of stem cell clinics on Twitter.
Kamenova, Kalina; Reshef, Amir; Caulfield, Timothy
2014-12-01
The practice of travelling abroad to receive unproven and unregulated stem cell treatments has become an increasingly problematic global phenomenon known as 'stem cell tourism'. In this paper, we examine representations of nine major clinics and providers of such treatments on the microblogging network Twitter. We collected and conducted a content analysis of Twitter posts (n = 363) by these establishments and by other users mentioning them, focusing specifically on marketing claims about treatment procedures and outcomes, discussions of safety and efficacy of stem cell transplants, and specific representations of patients' experiences. Our analysis has shown that there were explicit claims or suggestions of benefits associated with unproven stem cell treatments in approximately one third of the tweets and that patients' experiences, whenever referenced, were presented as invariably positive and as testimonials about the efficacy of stem cell transplants. Furthermore, the results indicated that the tone of most tweets (60.2 %) was overwhelmingly positive and there were rarely critical discussions about significant health risks associated with unproven stem cell therapies. When placed in the context of past research on the problems associated with the marketing of unproven stem cell therapies, this analysis of representations on Twitter suggests that discussions in social media have also remained largely uncritical of the stem cell tourism phenomenon, with inaccurate representations of risks and benefits for patients.
Unilateral vestibular loss impairs external space representation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liliane Borel
Full Text Available The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal and far (extrapersonal spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation, and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss.
Multiscale wavelet representations for mammographic feature analysis
Laine, Andrew F.; Song, Shuwu
1992-12-01
This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis through multiresolution representations. We show that efficient (nonredundant) representations may be identified from digital mammography and used to enhance specific mammographic features within a continuum of scale space. The multiresolution decomposition of wavelet transforms provides a natural hierarchy in which to embed an interactive paradigm for accomplishing scale space feature analysis. Choosing wavelets (or analyzing functions) that are simultaneously localized in both space and frequency, results in a powerful methodology for image analysis. Multiresolution and orientation selectivity, known biological mechanisms in primate vision, are ingrained in wavelet representations and inspire the techniques presented in this paper. Our approach includes local analysis of complete multiscale representations. Mammograms are reconstructed from wavelet coefficients, enhanced by linear, exponential and constant weight functions localized in scale space. By improving the visualization of breast pathology we can improve the changes of early detection of breast cancers (improve quality) while requiring less time to evaluate mammograms for most patients (lower costs).
Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2011-01-01
A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stewart, Ian B.; Arendt, Dustin L.; Bell, Eric B.; Volkova, Svitlana
2017-05-17
Language in social media is extremely dynamic: new words emerge, trend and disappear, while the meaning of existing words can fluctuate over time. This work addresses several important tasks of visualizing and predicting short term text representation shift, i.e. the change in a word’s contextual semantics. We study the relationship between short-term concept drift and representation shift on a large social media corpus – VKontakte collected during the Russia-Ukraine crisis in 2014 – 2015. We visualize short-term representation shift for example keywords and build predictive models to forecast short-term shifts in meaning from previous meaning as well as from concept drift. We show that short-term representation shift can be accurately predicted up to several weeks in advance and that visualization provides insight into meaning change. Our approach can be used to explore and characterize specific aspects of the streaming corpus during crisis events and potentially improve other downstream classification tasks including real-time event forecasting in social media.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Yang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available An accurate and comprehensive representation of an observation task is a prerequisite in disaster monitoring to achieve reliable sensor observation planning. However, the extant disaster event or task information models do not fully satisfy the observation requirements for the accurate and efficient planning of remote-sensing satellite sensors. By considering the modeling requirements for a disaster observation task, we propose an observation task chain (OTChain representation model that includes four basic OTChain segments and eight-tuple observation task metadata description structures. A prototype system, namely OTChainManager, is implemented to provide functions for modeling, managing, querying, and visualizing observation tasks. In the case of flood water monitoring, we use a flood remote-sensing satellite sensor observation task for the experiment. The results show that the proposed OTChain representation model can be used in modeling process-owned flood disaster observation tasks. By querying and visualizing the flood observation task instances in the Jinsha River Basin, the proposed model can effectively express observation task processes, represent personalized observation constraints, and plan global remote-sensing satellite sensor observations. Compared with typical observation task information models or engines, the proposed OTChain representation model satisfies the information demands of the OTChain and its processes as well as impels the development of a long time-series sensor observation scheme.
Representation of Probability Density Functions from Orbit Determination using the Particle Filter
Mashiku, Alinda K.; Garrison, James; Carpenter, J. Russell
2012-01-01
Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain estimates of the state and the statistical information of its region of uncertainty. In order to obtain an accurate representation of the probability density function (PDF) that incorporates higher order statistical information, we propose the use of nonlinear estimation methods such as the Particle Filter. The Particle Filter (PF) is capable of providing a PDF representation of the state estimates whose accuracy is dependent on the number of particles or samples used. For this method to be applicable to real case scenarios, we need a way of accurately representing the PDF in a compressed manner with little information loss. Hence we propose using the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as a non-Gaussian dimensional reduction method that is capable of maintaining higher order statistical information obtained using the PF. Methods such as the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are based on utilizing up to second order statistics, hence will not suffice in maintaining maximum information content. Both the PCA and the ICA are applied to two scenarios that involve a highly eccentric orbit with a lower apriori uncertainty covariance and a less eccentric orbit with a higher a priori uncertainty covariance, to illustrate the capability of the ICA in relation to the PCA.
Representations of Lie algebras and partial differential equations
Xu, Xiaoping
2017-01-01
This book provides explicit representations of finite-dimensional simple Lie algebras, related partial differential equations, linear orthogonal algebraic codes, combinatorics and algebraic varieties, summarizing the author’s works and his joint works with his former students. Further, it presents various oscillator generalizations of the classical representation theorem on harmonic polynomials, and highlights new functors from the representation category of a simple Lie algebra to that of another simple Lie algebra. Partial differential equations play a key role in solving certain representation problems. The weight matrices of the minimal and adjoint representations over the simple Lie algebras of types E and F are proved to generate ternary orthogonal linear codes with large minimal distances. New multi-variable hypergeometric functions related to the root systems of simple Lie algebras are introduced in connection with quantum many-body systems in one dimension. In addition, the book identifies certai...
Wiese, Eliane S.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
2017-01-01
This paper proposes "grounded feedback" as a way to provide implicit verification when students are working with a novel representation. In grounded feedback, students' responses are in the target, to-be-learned representation, and those responses are reflected in a more-accessible linked representation that is intrinsic to the domain.…
3D Maps Representation Using GNG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vicente Morell
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Current RGB-D sensors provide a big amount of valuable information for mobile robotics tasks like 3D map reconstruction, but the storage and processing of the incremental data provided by the different sensors through time quickly become unmanageable. In this work, we focus on 3D maps representation and propose the use of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG network as a model to represent 3D input data. GNG method is able to represent the input data with a desired amount of neurons or resolution while preserving the topology of the input space. Experiments show how GNG method yields a better input space adaptation than other state-of-the-art 3D map representation methods.
A Possible Neural Representation of Mathematical Group Structures.
Pomi, Andrés
2016-09-01
Every cognitive activity has a neural representation in the brain. When humans deal with abstract mathematical structures, for instance finite groups, certain patterns of activity are occurring in the brain that constitute their neural representation. A formal neurocognitive theory must account for all the activities developed by our brain and provide a possible neural representation for them. Associative memories are neural network models that have a good chance of achieving a universal representation of cognitive phenomena. In this work, we present a possible neural representation of mathematical group structures based on associative memory models that store finite groups through their Cayley graphs. A context-dependent associative memory stores the transitions between elements of the group when multiplied by each generator of a given presentation of the group. Under a convenient election of the vector basis mapping the elements of the group in the neural activity, the input of a vector corresponding to a generator of the group collapses the context-dependent rectangular matrix into a virtual square permutation matrix that is the matrix representation of the generator. This neural representation corresponds to the regular representation of the group, in which to each element is assigned a permutation matrix. This action of the generator on the memory matrix can also be seen as the dissection of the corresponding monochromatic subgraph of the Cayley graph of the group, and the adjacency matrix of this subgraph is the permutation matrix corresponding to the generator.
An evaluation of space time cube representation of spatiotemporal patterns.
Kristensson, Per Ola; Dahlbäck, Nils; Anundi, Daniel; Björnstad, Marius; Gillberg, Hanna; Haraldsson, Jonas; Mårtensson, Ingrid; Nordvall, Mathias; Ståhl, Josefine
2009-01-01
Space time cube representation is an information visualization technique where spatiotemporal data points are mapped into a cube. Information visualization researchers have previously argued that space time cube representation is beneficial in revealing complex spatiotemporal patterns in a data set to users. The argument is based on the fact that both time and spatial information are displayed simultaneously to users, an effect difficult to achieve in other representations. However, to our knowledge the actual usefulness of space time cube representation in conveying complex spatiotemporal patterns to users has not been empirically validated. To fill this gap, we report on a between-subjects experiment comparing novice users' error rates and response times when answering a set of questions using either space time cube or a baseline 2D representation. For some simple questions, the error rates were lower when using the baseline representation. For complex questions where the participants needed an overall understanding of the spatiotemporal structure of the data set, the space time cube representation resulted in on average twice as fast response times with no difference in error rates compared to the baseline. These results provide an empirical foundation for the hypothesis that space time cube representation benefits users analyzing complex spatiotemporal patterns.
Signal and image representation in combined spaces
Zeevi, Yehoshua; Chui, Charles K
1997-01-01
This volume explains how the recent advances in wavelet analysis provide new means for multiresolution analysis and describes its wide array of powerful tools. The book covers variations of the windowed Fourier transform, constructions of special waveforms suitable for specific tasks, the use of redundant representations in reconstruction and enhancement, applications of efficient numerical compression as a tool for fast numerical analysis, and approximation properties of various waveforms in different contexts.
Assessment of representational competence in kinematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Klein
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A two-tier instrument for representational competence in the field of kinematics (KiRC is presented, designed for a standard (1st year calculus-based introductory mechanics course. It comprises 11 multiple choice (MC and 7 multiple true-false (MTF questions involving multiple representational formats, such as graphs, pictures, and formal (mathematical expressions (1st tier. Furthermore, students express their answer confidence for selected items, providing additional information (2nd tier. Measurement characteristics of KiRC were assessed in a validation sample (pre- and post-test, N=83 and N=46, respectively, including usefulness for measuring learning gain. Validity is checked by interviews and by benchmarking KiRC against related measures. Values for item difficulty, discrimination, and consistency are in the desired ranges; in particular, a good reliability was obtained (KR20=0.86. Confidence intervals were computed and a replication study yielded values within the latter. For practical and research purposes, KiRC as a diagnostic tool goes beyond related extant instruments both for the representational formats (e.g., mathematical expressions and for the scope of content covered (e.g., choice of coordinate systems. Together with the satisfactory psychometric properties it appears a versatile and reliable tool for assessing students’ representational competency in kinematics (and of its potential change. Confidence judgments add further information to the diagnostic potential of the test, in particular for representational misconceptions. Moreover, we present an analytic result for the question—arising from guessing correction or educational considerations—of how the total effect size (Cohen’s d varies upon combination of two test components with known individual effect sizes, and then discuss the results in the case of KiRC (MC and MTF combination. The introduced method of test combination analysis can be applied to any test
Assessment of representational competence in kinematics
Klein, P.; Müller, A.; Kuhn, J.
2017-06-01
A two-tier instrument for representational competence in the field of kinematics (KiRC) is presented, designed for a standard (1st year) calculus-based introductory mechanics course. It comprises 11 multiple choice (MC) and 7 multiple true-false (MTF) questions involving multiple representational formats, such as graphs, pictures, and formal (mathematical) expressions (1st tier). Furthermore, students express their answer confidence for selected items, providing additional information (2nd tier). Measurement characteristics of KiRC were assessed in a validation sample (pre- and post-test, N =83 and N =46 , respectively), including usefulness for measuring learning gain. Validity is checked by interviews and by benchmarking KiRC against related measures. Values for item difficulty, discrimination, and consistency are in the desired ranges; in particular, a good reliability was obtained (KR 20 =0.86 ). Confidence intervals were computed and a replication study yielded values within the latter. For practical and research purposes, KiRC as a diagnostic tool goes beyond related extant instruments both for the representational formats (e.g., mathematical expressions) and for the scope of content covered (e.g., choice of coordinate systems). Together with the satisfactory psychometric properties it appears a versatile and reliable tool for assessing students' representational competency in kinematics (and of its potential change). Confidence judgments add further information to the diagnostic potential of the test, in particular for representational misconceptions. Moreover, we present an analytic result for the question—arising from guessing correction or educational considerations—of how the total effect size (Cohen's d ) varies upon combination of two test components with known individual effect sizes, and then discuss the results in the case of KiRC (MC and MTF combination). The introduced method of test combination analysis can be applied to any test comprising
Accurate control testing for clay liner permeability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitchell, R J
1991-08-01
Two series of centrifuge tests were carried out to evaluate the use of centrifuge modelling as a method of accurate control testing of clay liner permeability. The first series used a large 3 m radius geotechnical centrifuge and the second series a small 0.5 m radius machine built specifically for research on clay liners. Two permeability cells were fabricated in order to provide direct data comparisons between the two methods of permeability testing. In both cases, the centrifuge method proved to be effective and efficient, and was found to be free of both the technical difficulties and leakage risks normally associated with laboratory permeability testing of fine grained soils. Two materials were tested, a consolidated kaolin clay having an average permeability coefficient of 1.2{times}10{sup -9} m/s and a compacted illite clay having a permeability coefficient of 2.0{times}10{sup -11} m/s. Four additional tests were carried out to demonstrate that the 0.5 m radius centrifuge could be used for linear performance modelling to evaluate factors such as volumetric water content, compaction method and density, leachate compatibility and other construction effects on liner leakage. The main advantages of centrifuge testing of clay liners are rapid and accurate evaluation of hydraulic properties and realistic stress modelling for performance evaluations. 8 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.
Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification
Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter
Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.
Number theory via Representation theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-11-09
Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.
(Self)-representations on youtube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo
This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can...... be distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how certain forms of representation can be identified as representations of the self (Turkle 1995, Scannell...... 1996, Walker 2005) and further how these forms must be comprehended within a context of technological constrains, institutional structures and social as well as economical practices on YouTube (Burgess and Green 2009, Van Dijck 2009). It is argued that these different contexts play a vital part...
Solitons and theory of representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulish, P.P.
1985-01-01
Problems on the theory of group representations finding application in constructing the quantum variant of the inverse scattering problem are discussed. The multicomponent nonlinear Shroedinger equation is considered as a main example of nonlinear evolution equations (NEE)
Computer representation of molecular surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Max, N.L.
1981-01-01
This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered
Accurate computation of Mathieu functions
Bibby, Malcolm M
2013-01-01
This lecture presents a modern approach for the computation of Mathieu functions. These functions find application in boundary value analysis such as electromagnetic scattering from elliptic cylinders and flat strips, as well as the analogous acoustic and optical problems, and many other applications in science and engineering. The authors review the traditional approach used for these functions, show its limitations, and provide an alternative ""tuned"" approach enabling improved accuracy and convergence. The performance of this approach is investigated for a wide range of parameters and mach
Object-based attention: strength of object representation and attentional guidance.
Shomstein, Sarah; Behrmann, Marlene
2008-01-01
Two or more features belonging to a single object are identified more quickly and more accurately than are features belonging to different objects--a finding attributed to sensory enhancement of all features belonging to an attended or selected object. However, several recent studies have suggested that this "single-object advantage" may be a product of probabilistic and configural strategic prioritizations rather than of object-based perceptual enhancement per se, challenging the underlying mechanism that is thought to give rise to object-based attention. In the present article, we further explore constraints on the mechanisms of object-based selection by examining the contribution of the strength of object representations to the single-object advantage. We manipulated factors such as exposure duration (i.e., preview time) and salience of configuration (i.e., objects). Varying preview time changes the magnitude of the object-based effect, so that if there is ample time to establish an object representation (i.e., preview time of 1,000 msec), then both probability and configuration (i.e., objects) guide attentional selection. If, however, insufficient time is provided to establish a robust object-based representation, then only probabilities guide attentional selection. Interestingly, at a short preview time of 200 msec, when the two objects were sufficiently different from each other (i.e., different colors), both configuration and probability guided attention selection. These results suggest that object-based effects can be explained both in terms of strength of object representations (established at longer exposure durations and by pictorial cues) and probabilistic contingencies in the visual environment.
Functional representations of integrable hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert
2006-01-01
We consider a general framework for integrable hierarchies in Lax form and derive certain universal equations from which 'functional representations' of particular hierarchies (such as KP, discrete KP, mKP, AKNS), i.e. formulations in terms of functional equations, are systematically and quite easily obtained. The formalism genuinely applies to hierarchies where the dependent variables live in a noncommutative (typically matrix) algebra. The obtained functional representations can be understood as 'noncommutative' analogues of 'Fay identities' for the KP hierarchy
Twardowski And Representationalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryan Hickerson
2009-10-01
Full Text Available My task in this paper is twofold. On the one hand, I want to provide an account of Twardowski’s treatment of content, as can be found in his book Zur Lehre vom Inhalt und Gegenstand der Vorstellungen (1894. I will devote most of my attention to motivating Twardowski's theory. In conclusion I will provide a defense of the theory.
From the Osterwalder canvas to an alternative business model representation
Verrue, Johan
2015-01-01
The Osterwalder business model canvas (BMC) is used by many entrepreneurs, managers, consultants and business schools. In our research we have investigated whether the canvas is a valid instrument for gaining an in-depth, accurate insight into business models. Therefore we have performed initial multiple case study research which concluded that the canvas does not generate valid business model (BM) representations. In our second multiple case study, we have constructed an alternative BM frame...
Can Measured Synergy Excitations Accurately Construct Unmeasured Muscle Excitations?
Bianco, Nicholas A; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J
2018-01-01
Accurate prediction of muscle and joint contact forces during human movement could improve treatment planning for disorders such as osteoarthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Recent studies suggest that muscle synergies, a low-dimensional representation of a large set of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals (henceforth called "muscle excitations"), may reduce the redundancy of muscle excitation solutions predicted by optimization methods. This study explores the feasibility of using muscle synergy information extracted from eight muscle EMG signals (henceforth called "included" muscle excitations) to accurately construct muscle excitations from up to 16 additional EMG signals (henceforth called "excluded" muscle excitations). Using treadmill walking data collected at multiple speeds from two subjects (one healthy, one poststroke), we performed muscle synergy analysis on all possible subsets of eight included muscle excitations and evaluated how well the calculated time-varying synergy excitations could construct the remaining excluded muscle excitations (henceforth called "synergy extrapolation"). We found that some, but not all, eight-muscle subsets yielded synergy excitations that achieved >90% extrapolation variance accounted for (VAF). Using the top 10% of subsets, we developed muscle selection heuristics to identify included muscle combinations whose synergy excitations achieved high extrapolation accuracy. For 3, 4, and 5 synergies, these heuristics yielded extrapolation VAF values approximately 5% lower than corresponding reconstruction VAF values for each associated eight-muscle subset. These results suggest that synergy excitations obtained from experimentally measured muscle excitations can accurately construct unmeasured muscle excitations, which could help limit muscle excitations predicted by muscle force optimizations.
Blocks of tame representation type and related algebras
Erdmann, Karin
1990-01-01
This monograph studies algebras that are associated to blocks of tame representation type. Over the past few years, a range of new results have been obtained and a comprehensive account of these is provided here to- gether with some new proofs of known results. Some general theory of algebras is also presented, as a means of understanding the subject. The book is addressed to researchers and graduate students interested in the links between representations of finite-dimensional algebras and modular group representation theory. The basic properties of modules and finite-dimensional algebras are assumed known.
Representations of the infinite symmetric group
Borodin, Alexei
2016-01-01
Representation theory of big groups is an important and quickly developing part of modern mathematics, giving rise to a variety of important applications in probability and mathematical physics. This book provides the first concise and self-contained introduction to the theory on the simplest yet very nontrivial example of the infinite symmetric group, focusing on its deep connections to probability, mathematical physics, and algebraic combinatorics. Following a discussion of the classical Thoma's theorem which describes the characters of the infinite symmetric group, the authors describe explicit constructions of an important class of representations, including both the irreducible and generalized ones. Complete with detailed proofs, as well as numerous examples and exercises which help to summarize recent developments in the field, this book will enable graduates to enhance their understanding of the topic, while also aiding lecturers and researchers in related areas.
Semiclassical propagation: Hilbert space vs. Wigner representation
Gottwald, Fabian; Ivanov, Sergei D.
2018-03-01
A unified viewpoint on the van Vleck and Herman-Kluk propagators in Hilbert space and their recently developed counterparts in Wigner representation is presented. Based on this viewpoint, the Wigner Herman-Kluk propagator is conceptually the most general one. Nonetheless, the respective semiclassical expressions for expectation values in terms of the density matrix and the Wigner function are mathematically proven here to coincide. The only remaining difference is a mere technical flexibility of the Wigner version in choosing the Gaussians' width for the underlying coherent states beyond minimal uncertainty. This flexibility is investigated numerically on prototypical potentials and it turns out to provide neither qualitative nor quantitative improvements. Given the aforementioned generality, utilizing the Wigner representation for semiclassical propagation thus leads to the same performance as employing the respective most-developed (Hilbert-space) methods for the density matrix.
Homological methods, representation theory, and cluster algebras
Trepode, Sonia
2018-01-01
This text presents six mini-courses, all devoted to interactions between representation theory of algebras, homological algebra, and the new ever-expanding theory of cluster algebras. The interplay between the topics discussed in this text will continue to grow and this collection of courses stands as a partial testimony to this new development. The courses are useful for any mathematician who would like to learn more about this rapidly developing field; the primary aim is to engage graduate students and young researchers. Prerequisites include knowledge of some noncommutative algebra or homological algebra. Homological algebra has always been considered as one of the main tools in the study of finite-dimensional algebras. The strong relationship with cluster algebras is more recent and has quickly established itself as one of the important highlights of today’s mathematical landscape. This connection has been fruitful to both areas—representation theory provides a categorification of cluster algebras, wh...
Uncertainty representation of grey numbers and grey sets.
Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Sifeng; John, Robert
2014-09-01
In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, are defined to give a comprehensive representation of uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate that the proposed uncertainty measurement can give an effective representation of both absolute and relative uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. The relationships between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are also analyzed from the point of view of the proposed uncertainty representation. The analysis demonstrates that grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets provide different but overlapping models for uncertainty representation in sets.
Multiscale Representations Phase II
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bar-Yam, Yaneer
2004-01-01
.... Multiscale analysis provides an analytic tool that can be applied to evaluating force capabilities as well as the relevance of designs for technological innovations to support force structures and their modernization...
Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact
Cam, Hasan
2015-05-01
Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.
Towards Building a Uniform Cloud Database Representation for Data Interchange
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreica Alina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes design principles for data representation and simplification in order to design cloud services for data exchange between various information systems. We use equivalence algorithms and canonical representation in the cloud database. The solution we describe brings important advantages in organizational / entity communication and cooperation, with important societal benefits and can be provided within cloud architectures. The generic design principles we apply bring important advantages in the design of the interchange services.
Decoding Decoders: Finding Optimal Representation Spaces for Unsupervised Similarity Tasks
Zhelezniak, Vitalii; Busbridge, Dan; Shen, April; Smith, Samuel L.; Hammerla, Nils Y.
2018-01-01
Experimental evidence indicates that simple models outperform complex deep networks on many unsupervised similarity tasks. We provide a simple yet rigorous explanation for this behaviour by introducing the concept of an optimal representation space, in which semantically close symbols are mapped to representations that are close under a similarity measure induced by the model's objective function. In addition, we present a straightforward procedure that, without any retraining or architectura...
An Alternate Graphical Representation of Periodic table of Chemical Elements
Abubakr, Mohd
2009-01-01
Periodic table of chemical elements symbolizes an elegant graphical representation of symmetry at atomic level and provides an overview on arrangement of electrons. It started merely as tabular representation of chemical elements, later got strengthened with quantum mechanical description of atomic structure and recent studies have revealed that periodic table can be formulated using SO(4,2)* SU(2) group. IUPAC, the governing body in Chemistry, doesn't approve any periodic table as a standard...
On Behavioral Equivalence of Rational Representations
Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, JC; Hara, S; Ohta, Y; Fujioka, H
2010-01-01
This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems In general. the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel representations and image representations Two kernel
Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual Reasoning
2016-06-01
of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into the neural mechanism...provides critical evidence of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into...From - To) ;run.- ~01~ Final!Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual
Social representations of female orgasm.
Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène
2009-01-01
This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.
An introduction to quiver representations
Derksen, Harm
2017-01-01
This book is an introduction to the representation theory of quivers and finite dimensional algebras. It gives a thorough and modern treatment of the algebraic approach based on Auslander-Reiten theory as well as the approach based on geometric invariant theory. The material in the opening chapters is developed starting slowly with topics such as homological algebra, Morita equivalence, and Gabriel's theorem. Next, the book presents Auslander-Reiten theory, including almost split sequences and the Auslander-Reiten transform, and gives a proof of Kac's generalization of Gabriel's theorem. Once this basic material is established, the book goes on with developing the geometric invariant theory of quiver representations. The book features the exposition of the saturation theorem for semi-invariants of quiver representations and its application to Littlewood-Richardson coefficients. In the final chapters, the book exposes tilting modules, exceptional sequences and a connection to cluster categories. The book is su...
Preon representations and composite models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Kyungsik
1982-01-01
This is a brief report on the preon models which are investigated by In-Gyu Koh, A. N. Schellekens and myself and based on complex, anomaly-free and asymptotically free representations of SU(3) to SU(8), SO(4N+2) and E 6 with no more than two different preons. Complete list of the representations that are complex anomaly-free and asymptotically free has been given by E. Eichten, I.-G. Koh and myself. The assumptions made about the ground state composites and the role of Fermi statistics to determine the metaflavor wave functions are discussed in some detail. We explain the method of decompositions of tensor products with definite permutation properties which has been developed for this purpose by I.-G. Koh, A.N. Schellekens and myself. An example based on an anomaly-free representation of the confining metacolor group SU(5) is discussed
Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.
Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah
2007-06-01
In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.
Digital models for architectonical representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Brusaporci
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.
Asymptotical representation of discrete groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishchenko, A.S.; Mohammad, N.
1995-08-01
If one has a unitary representation ρ: π → U(H) of the fundamental group π 1 (M) of the manifold M then one can do may useful things: 1. To construct a natural vector bundle over M; 2. To construct the cohomology groups with respect to the local system of coefficients; 3. To construct the signature of manifold M with respect to the local system of coefficients; and others. In particular, one can write the Hirzebruch formula which compares the signature with the characteristic classes of the manifold M, further based on this, find the homotopy invariant characteristic classes (i.e. the Novikov conjecture). Taking into account that the family of known representations is not sufficiently large, it would be interesting to extend this family to some larger one. Using the ideas of A.Connes, M.Gromov and H.Moscovici a proper notion of asymptotical representation is defined. (author). 7 refs
Vivid Representations and Their Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kengo Miyazono
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Sinhababu’s Humean Nature contains many interesting and important ideas, but in this short commentary I focus on the idea of vivid representations. Sinhababu inherits his idea of vivid representations from Hume’s discussions, in particular his discussion of calm and violent passions. I am sympathetic to the idea of developing Hume’s insight that has been largely neglected by philosophers. I believe that Sinhababu and Hume are on the right track. What I do in this short commentary is to raise some questions about the details. The aim of asking these questions is not to challenge Sinhababu’s proposal (at least his main ideas, but rather to point at some interesting issues arising out of his proposal. The questions are about (1 the nature of vividness, (2 the effects of vivid representations, and (3 Sinhababu’s account of alief cases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, K., E-mail: karol.kowalski@pnnl.gov; Bhaskaran-Nair, K.; Shelton, W. A. [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, K8-91, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)
2014-09-07
In this paper we discuss a new formalism for producing an analytic coupled-cluster (CC) Green's function for an N-electron system by shifting the poles of similarity transformed Hamiltonians represented in N − 1 and N + 1 electron Hilbert spaces. Simple criteria are derived for the states in N − 1 and N + 1 electron spaces that are then corrected in the spectral resolution of the corresponding matrix representations of the similarity transformed Hamiltonian. The accurate description of excited state processes within a Green's function formalism would be of significant importance to a number of scientific communities ranging from physics and chemistry to engineering and the biological sciences. This is because the Green's function methodology provides a direct path for not only calculating properties whose underlying origins come from coupled many-body interactions but also provides a straightforward path for calculating electron transport, response, and correlation functions that allows for a direct link with experiment. As a special case of this general formulation, we discuss the application of this technique for Green's function defined by the CC with singles and doubles representation of the ground-state wave function.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, K. [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, K8-91, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Bhaskaran-Nair, K. [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, K8-91, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Shelton, W. A. [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, K8-91, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
2014-09-07
In this paper we discuss a new formalism for producing an analytic coupled-cluster (CC) Green's function for an N-electron system by shifting the poles of similarity transformed Hamiltonians represented in N - 1 and N + 1 electron Hilbert spaces. Simple criteria are derived for the states in N - 1 and N + 1 electron spaces that are then corrected in the spectral resolution of the corresponding matrix representations of the similarity transformed Hamiltonian. The accurate description of excited state processes within a Green's function formalism would be of significant importance to a number of scientific communities ranging from physics and chemistry to engineering and the biological sciences. This is because the Green's function methodology provides a direct path for not only calculating properties whose underlying origins come from coupled many-body interactions but also provides a straightforward path for calculating electron transport, response, and correlation functions that allows for a direct link with experiment. Finally, as a special case of this general formulation, we discuss the application of this technique for Green's function defined by the CC with singles and doubles representation of the ground-state wave function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowalski, K.; Bhaskaran-Nair, K.; Shelton, W. A.
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss a new formalism for producing an analytic coupled-cluster (CC) Green's function for an N-electron system by shifting the poles of similarity transformed Hamiltonians represented in N − 1 and N + 1 electron Hilbert spaces. Simple criteria are derived for the states in N − 1 and N + 1 electron spaces that are then corrected in the spectral resolution of the corresponding matrix representations of the similarity transformed Hamiltonian. The accurate description of excited state processes within a Green's function formalism would be of significant importance to a number of scientific communities ranging from physics and chemistry to engineering and the biological sciences. This is because the Green's function methodology provides a direct path for not only calculating properties whose underlying origins come from coupled many-body interactions but also provides a straightforward path for calculating electron transport, response, and correlation functions that allows for a direct link with experiment. As a special case of this general formulation, we discuss the application of this technique for Green's function defined by the CC with singles and doubles representation of the ground-state wave function
Charon, Rita; Hermann, Nellie; Devlin, Michael J
2016-03-01
Medical educators increasingly have embraced literary and narrative means of pedagogy, such as the use of learning portfolios, reading works of literature, reflective writing, and creative writing, to teach interpersonal and reflective aspects of medicine. Outcomes studies of such pedagogies support the hypotheses that narrative training can deepen the clinician's attention to a patient and can help to establish the clinician's affiliation with patients, colleagues, teachers, and the self. In this article, the authors propose that creative writing in particular is useful in the making of the physician. Of the conceptual frameworks that explain why narrative training is helpful for clinicians, the authors focus on aesthetic theories to articulate the mechanisms through which creative and reflective writing may have dividends in medical training. These theories propose that accurate perception requires representation and that representation requires reception, providing a rationale for teaching clinicians and trainees how to represent what they perceive in their clinical work and how to read one another's writings. The authors then describe the narrative pedagogy used at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Because faculty must read what their students write, they receive robust training in close reading. From this training emerged the Reading Guide for Reflective Writing, which has been useful to clinicians as they develop their skills as close readers. This institution-wide effort to teach close reading and creative writing aims to equip students and faculty with the prerequisites to provide attentive, empathic clinical care.
Charon, Rita; Hermann, Nellie; Devlin, Michael J.
2015-01-01
Medical educators increasingly have embraced literary and narrative means of pedagogy, such as the use of learning portfolios, reading works of literature, reflective writing, and creative writing, to teach interpersonal and reflective aspects of medicine. Outcomes studies of such pedagogies support the hypotheses that narrative training can deepen the clinician's attention to a patient and can help to establish the clinician's affiliation with patients, colleagues, teachers, and the self. In this article, the authors propose that creative writing in particular is useful in the making of the physician. Of the conceptual frameworks that explain why narrative training is helpful for clinicians, the authors focus on aesthetic theories to articulate the mechanisms through which creative and reflective writing may have dividends in medical training. These theories propose that accurate perception requires representation and that representation requires reception, providing a rationale for teaching clinicians and trainees how to represent what they perceive in their clinical work and how to read one another's writings. The authors then describe the narrative pedagogy used at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Since faculty must read what their students write, they receive robust training in close reading. From this training emerged the Reading Guide for Reflective Writing, which has been useful to clinicians as they develop their skills as close readers. This institution-wide effort to teach close reading and creative writing aims to equip students and faculty with the pre-requisites to provide attentive, empathic clinical care. PMID:26200577
Zhao, Chao; Jiang, Jingchi; Guan, Yi; Guo, Xitong; He, Bin
2018-05-01
Electronic medical records (EMRs) contain medical knowledge that can be used for clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to develop a general system that can extract and represent knowledge contained in EMRs to support three CDS tasks-test recommendation, initial diagnosis, and treatment plan recommendation-given the condition of a patient. We extracted four kinds of medical entities from records and constructed an EMR-based medical knowledge network (EMKN), in which nodes are entities and edges reflect their co-occurrence in a record. Three bipartite subgraphs (bigraphs) were extracted from the EMKN, one to support each task. One part of the bigraph was the given condition (e.g., symptoms), and the other was the condition to be inferred (e.g., diseases). Each bigraph was regarded as a Markov random field (MRF) to support the inference. We proposed three graph-based energy functions and three likelihood-based energy functions. Two of these functions are based on knowledge representation learning and can provide distributed representations of medical entities. Two EMR datasets and three metrics were utilized to evaluate the performance. As a whole, the evaluation results indicate that the proposed system outperformed the baseline methods. The distributed representation of medical entities does reflect similarity relationships with respect to knowledge level. Combining EMKN and MRF is an effective approach for general medical knowledge representation and inference. Different tasks, however, require individually designed energy functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gendered Representations of Fandom
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gürsimsek, Ödül A
2016-01-01
Lost is a transgeneric, transmedia television drama that aired from 2004 to 2010, a period which coincided with the emergence of several participatory online Web 2.0 platforms including blogs, forums, YouTube, and Twitter. Thus, Lost audiences used various platforms to form communities and discuss...... the show. This chapter analyzes the discursive practices of audiences that compose the transgeneric audience discourse of Lost, and the tensions that arise when romance fans and science fiction/mystery fans are situated in conflicted positions regarding certain storylines. The analysis provides a critical...
The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.
1987-01-01
Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction
Morality constrains the default representation of what is possible.
Phillips, Jonathan; Cushman, Fiery
2017-05-02
The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition. Collectively, these studies differentiate explicit reasoning about possibilities from default implicit representations, demonstrate that human adults often default to treating immoral and irrational events as impossible, and provide a case study of high-level cognitive judgments relying on default implicit representations of possibility rather than explicit deliberation.
(Self)-representations on youtube
Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo
2011-01-01
This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can be distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how ...
Concepts, ontologies, and knowledge representation
Jakus, Grega; Omerovic, Sanida; Tomažic, Sašo
2013-01-01
Recording knowledge in a common framework that would make it possible to seamlessly share global knowledge remains an important challenge for researchers. This brief examines several ideas about the representation of knowledge addressing this challenge. A widespread general agreement is followed that states uniform knowledge representation should be achievable by using ontologies populated with concepts. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of the three introduced topics, following a uniform outline: definition, organization, and use. This brief is intended for those who want to get to know
Thinking together with material representations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend
2014-01-01
of an experiment. Qualitative micro-analyses of the group interactions motivate a taxonomy of different roles that the material representations play in the joint epistemic processes: illustration, elaboration and exploration. Firstly, the LEGO blocks were used to illustrate already well-formed ideas in support......-down and bottom-up cognitive processes and division of cognitive labor.......How do material representations such as models, diagrams and drawings come to shape and aid collective, epistemic processes? This study investigated how groups of participants spontaneously recruited material objects (in this case LEGO blocks) to support collective creative processes in the context...
2009-09-01
Resources and Performance. Action Group 19. Representation of Human Behavior. Lanchester , F. W. (1916). Aircraft in warfare . The dawn of the fourth...Operations and non-kinetic warfare . The second keynote presentation, by Mr. Mike Greenley, CAE Inc. provided an industry perspective, noting the need for...concentrated on tactical-conventional warfare and the emergence of world-wide “irregular warfare ” and “small wars” drive the present and future need
Invariant recognition drives neural representations of action sequences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Tacchetti
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Recognizing the actions of others from visual stimuli is a crucial aspect of human perception that allows individuals to respond to social cues. Humans are able to discriminate between similar actions despite transformations, like changes in viewpoint or actor, that substantially alter the visual appearance of a scene. This ability to generalize across complex transformations is a hallmark of human visual intelligence. Advances in understanding action recognition at the neural level have not always translated into precise accounts of the computational principles underlying what representations of action sequences are constructed by human visual cortex. Here we test the hypothesis that invariant action discrimination might fill this gap. Recently, the study of artificial systems for static object perception has produced models, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs, that achieve human level performance in complex discriminative tasks. Within this class, architectures that better support invariant object recognition also produce image representations that better match those implied by human and primate neural data. However, whether these models produce representations of action sequences that support recognition across complex transformations and closely follow neural representations of actions remains unknown. Here we show that spatiotemporal CNNs accurately categorize video stimuli into action classes, and that deliberate model modifications that improve performance on an invariant action recognition task lead to data representations that better match human neural recordings. Our results support our hypothesis that performance on invariant discrimination dictates the neural representations of actions computed in the brain. These results broaden the scope of the invariant recognition framework for understanding visual intelligence from perception of inanimate objects and faces in static images to the study of human perception of action sequences.
Diagrammatic representation and reasoning
Meyer, Bernd; Olivier, Patrick
2002-01-01
Diagrams are essential in most fields of human activity. There is substan tial interest in diagrams and their use in many academic disciplines for the potential benefits they may confer on a wide range of tasks. Are we now in a position to claim that we have a science of diagrams-that is, a science which takes the nature of diagrams and their use as the central phenom ena of interest? If we have a science of diagrams it is certainly constituted from multiple disciplines, including cognitive science, psychology, artificial intelligence, logic, mathematics, and others. If there is a science of diagrams, then like other sciences there is an appli cations, or engineering, discipline that exists alongside the science. Applica tions and engineering provide tests of the theories and principles discovered by the science and extend the scope of the phenomena to be studied by gen erating new uses of diagrams, new media for presenting diagrams, or novel classes of diagram. This applications and engineering sid...
Accurate modeling and evaluation of microstructures in complex materials
Tahmasebi, Pejman
2018-02-01
Accurate characterization of heterogeneous materials is of great importance for different fields of science and engineering. Such a goal can be achieved through imaging. Acquiring three- or two-dimensional images under different conditions is not, however, always plausible. On the other hand, accurate characterization of complex and multiphase materials requires various digital images (I) under different conditions. An ensemble method is presented that can take one single (or a set of) I(s) and stochastically produce several similar models of the given disordered material. The method is based on a successive calculating of a conditional probability by which the initial stochastic models are produced. Then, a graph formulation is utilized for removing unrealistic structures. A distance transform function for the Is with highly connected microstructure and long-range features is considered which results in a new I that is more informative. Reproduction of the I is also considered through a histogram matching approach in an iterative framework. Such an iterative algorithm avoids reproduction of unrealistic structures. Furthermore, a multiscale approach, based on pyramid representation of the large Is, is presented that can produce materials with millions of pixels in a matter of seconds. Finally, the nonstationary systems—those for which the distribution of data varies spatially—are studied using two different methods. The method is tested on several complex and large examples of microstructures. The produced results are all in excellent agreement with the utilized Is and the similarities are quantified using various correlation functions.
Representations of quantum bicrossproduct algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arratia, Oscar; Olmo, Mariano A del
2002-01-01
We present a method to construct induced representations of quantum algebras which have a bicrossproduct structure. We apply this procedure to some quantum kinematical algebras in (1+1) dimensions with this kind of structure: null-plane quantum Poincare algebra, non-standard quantum Galilei algebra and quantum κ-Galilei algebra
Reusable Lexical Representations for Idioms
Odijk, J.E.J.M.
2004-01-01
In this paper I introduce (1) a technically simple and highly theory-independent way for lexically representing flexible idiomatic expressions, and (2) a procedure to incorporate these lexical representations in a wide variety of NLP systems. The method is based on Structural EQuivalence Classes
Symmetric group representations and Z
Adve, Anshul; Yong, Alexander
2017-01-01
We discuss implications of the following statement about the representation theory of symmetric groups: every integer appears infinitely often as an irreducible character evaluation, and every nonnegative integer appears infinitely often as a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient and as a Kronecker coefficient.
Guideline Knowledge Representation Model (GLIKREM)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Buchtela, David; Peleška, Jan; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana; Zvolský, Miroslav
2008-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-23 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : knowledge representation * GLIF model * guidelines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/articles/200812/34/1.html
Conceptual Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oldager, Steen Nikolaj
2003-01-01
One of the main areas in knowledge representation and logic-based artificial intelligence concerns logical formalisms that can be used for representing and reasoning with concepts. For almost 30 years, since research in this area began, the issue of intensionality has had a special status...
Octonionic matrix representation and electromagnetism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chanyal, B. C. [Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus, Almora (India)
2014-12-15
Keeping in mind the important role of octonion algebra, we have obtained the electromagnetic field equations of dyons with an octonionic 8 x 8 matrix representation. In this paper, we consider the eight - dimensional octonionic space as a combination of two (external and internal) four-dimensional spaces for the existence of magnetic monopoles (dyons) in a higher-dimensional formalism. As such, we describe the octonion wave equations in terms of eight components from the 8 x 8 matrix representation. The octonion forms of the generalized potential, fields and current source of dyons in terms of 8 x 8 matrix are discussed in a consistent manner. Thus, we have obtained the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations of dyons from an 8x8 matrix representation of the octonion wave equations in a compact and consistent manner. The generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations are fully symmetric Maxwell equations and allow for the possibility of magnetic charges and currents, analogous to electric charges and currents. Accordingly, we have obtained the octonionic Dirac wave equations in an external field from the matrix representation of the octonion-valued potentials of dyons.
Realizations of the canonical representation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Traditionally, the canonical representation is realized on the Hilbert space ... Fix a decomposition R2n = Rn × Rn ..... to an orthonormal basis {ψ1,ψ2,. ..... [7] Vemuri M K, A non-commutative Sobolev inequality and its application to spectral.
Non-Hermitian Heisenberg representation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 379, č. 36 (2015), s. 2013-2017 ISSN 0375-9601 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * Non-Hermitian representation of observables * Generalized Heisenberg equations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2015
Adaptive representations for reinforcement learning
Whiteson, S.
2010-01-01
This book presents new algorithms for reinforcement learning, a form of machine learning in which an autonomous agent seeks a control policy for a sequential decision task. Since current methods typically rely on manually designed solution representations, agents that automatically adapt their own
Representational Momentum in Older Adults
Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.
2011-01-01
Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…
The representation of inherent properties.
Prasada, Sandeep
2014-10-01
Research on the representation of generic knowledge suggests that inherent properties can have either a principled or a causal connection to a kind. The type of connection determines whether the outcome of the storytelling process will include intuitions of inevitability and a normative dimension and whether it will ground causal explanations.
Representation and redistribution in federations.
Dragu, Tiberiu; Rodden, Jonathan
2011-05-24
Many of the world's most populous democracies are political unions composed of states or provinces that are unequally represented in the national legislature. Scattered empirical studies, most of them focusing on the United States, have discovered that overrepresented states appear to receive larger shares of the national budget. Although this relationship is typically attributed to bargaining advantages associated with greater legislative representation, an important threat to empirical identification stems from the fact that the representation scheme was chosen by the provinces. Thus, it is possible that representation and fiscal transfers are both determined by other characteristics of the provinces in a specific country. To obtain an improved estimate of the relationship between representation and redistribution, we collect and analyze provincial-level data from nine federations over several decades, taking advantage of the historical process through which federations formed and expanded. Controlling for a variety of country- and province-level factors and using a variety of estimation techniques, we show that overrepresented provinces in political unions around the world are rather dramatically favored in the distribution of resources.
Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai
2004-01-01
We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...... solely on an orthogonal polynomial basis is adequate, provided the Gauss-Lobatto or Gauss-Radau quadrature rule is used. This ensures that the mesh contains the singular points and by simply discarding the DVR functions corresponding to those points, all matrix elements become well behaved. the boundary...
Students' Development of Representational Competence Through the Sense of Touch
Magana, Alejandra J.; Balachandran, Sadhana
2017-06-01
Electromagnetism is an umbrella encapsulating several different concepts like electric current, electric fields and forces, and magnetic fields and forces, among other topics. However, a number of studies in the past have highlighted the poor conceptual understanding of electromagnetism concepts by students even after instruction. This study aims to identify novel forms of "hands-on" instruction that can result in representational competence and conceptual gain. Specifically, this study aimed to identify if the use of visuohaptic simulations can have an effect on student representations of electromagnetic-related concepts. The guiding questions is How do visuohaptic simulations influence undergraduate students' representations of electric forces? Participants included nine undergraduate students from science, technology, or engineering backgrounds who participated in a think-aloud procedure while interacting with a visuohaptic simulation. The think-aloud procedure was divided in three stages, a prediction stage, a minimally visual haptic stage, and a visually enhanced haptic stage. The results of this study suggest that students' accurately characterized and represented the forces felt around a particle, line, and ring charges either in the prediction stage, a minimally visual haptic stage or the visually enhanced haptic stage. Also, some students accurately depicted the three-dimensional nature of the field for each configuration in the two stages that included a tactile mode, where the point charge was the most challenging one.
Dingari, Narahara Chari; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan; Horowitz, Gary Leigh
2012-01-01
We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications...
Fiber diffraction of skin and nails provides an accurate diagnosis of malignancies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, Veronica J.
2009-01-01
An early diagnosis of malignancies correlates directly with a better prognosis. Yet for many malignancies there are no readily available, noninvasive, cost-effective diagnostic tests with patients often presenting too late for effective treatment. This article describes for the first time the use of fiber diffraction patterns of skin or fingernails, using X-ray sources, as a biometric diagnostic method for detecting neoplastic disorders including but not limited to melanoma, breast, colon and prostate cancers. With suitable further development, an early low-cost, totally noninvasive yet reliable diagnostic test could be conducted on a regular basis in local radiology facilities, as a confirmatory test for other diagnostic procedures or as a mass screening test using suitable small angle X-ray beam-lines at synchrotrons.
Do wavelet filters provide more accurate estimates of reverberation times at low frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sobreira Seoane, Manuel A.; Pérez Cabo, David; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2016-01-01
It has been amply demonstrated in the literature that it is not possible to measure acoustic decays without significant errors for low BT values (narrow filters and or low reverberation times). Recently, it has been shown how the main source of distortion in the time envelope of the acoustic deca...
The protection of warranties and representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, C.D.; Thusoo, N.
1999-01-01
Most acquisition contracts within the oil and gas industry consist of representations and warranties. The legal distinction between representations and warranties was explained as follows: a representation is a statement of fact made by the representor before making the contract, but a warranty is a statement of fact which forms part of the terms of the contract. The paper outlines the nature of a representation or warranty and explains why certain warranties are not given. The protection offered by representations and warranties in breach of contract cases is also explained. Suggestions are offered for increasing protection by representations and warranties. 22 refs
Orlov, Tanya; Zohary, Ehud
2018-01-17
We typically recognize visual objects using the spatial layout of their parts, which are present simultaneously on the retina. Therefore, shape extraction is based on integration of the relevant retinal information over space. The lateral occipital complex (LOC) can represent shape faithfully in such conditions. However, integration over time is sometimes required to determine object shape. To study shape extraction through temporal integration of successive partial shape views, we presented human participants (both men and women) with artificial shapes that moved behind a narrow vertical or horizontal slit. Only a tiny fraction of the shape was visible at any instant at the same retinal location. However, observers perceived a coherent whole shape instead of a jumbled pattern. Using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis, we searched for brain regions that encode temporally integrated shape identity. We further required that the representation of shape should be invariant to changes in the slit orientation. We show that slit-invariant shape information is most accurate in the LOC. Importantly, the slit-invariant shape representations matched the conventional whole-shape representations assessed during full-image runs. Moreover, when the same slit-dependent shape slivers were shuffled, thereby preventing their spatiotemporal integration, slit-invariant shape information was reduced dramatically. The slit-invariant representation of the various shapes also mirrored the structure of shape perceptual space as assessed by perceptual similarity judgment tests. Therefore, the LOC is likely to mediate temporal integration of slit-dependent shape views, generating a slit-invariant whole-shape percept. These findings provide strong evidence for a global encoding of shape in the LOC regardless of integration processes required to generate the shape percept. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual objects are recognized through spatial integration of features available simultaneously on
Calculation of accurate small angle X-ray scattering curves from coarse-grained protein models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stovgaard, Kasper; Andreetta, Christian; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper
2010-01-01
, which is paramount for structure determination based on statistical inference. Results: We present a method for the efficient calculation of accurate SAXS curves based on the Debye formula and a set of scattering form factors for dummy atom representations of amino acids. Such a method avoids......DBN. This resulted in a significant improvement in the decoy recognition performance. In conclusion, the presented method shows great promise for use in statistical inference of protein structures from SAXS data....
Aesthetic Forms of Data Representation in Qualitative Family Therapy Research
Piercy, Fred P.; Benson, Kristen
2005-01-01
In this article we provide a rationale for using alternative, aesthetic methods of qualitative representation (e.g., creative writing, art, music, performance, poetry) in qualitative family therapy research. We also provide illustrative examples of methods that bring findings to life, and involve the audience in reflecting on their meaning. One…
Vector space representation of array antenna pattern synthesis problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Jian; Roederer, A.G
1991-01-01
and to visualize the optimization process. The vector space approach described provides a very powerful representation of the array pattern synthesis problems. It is not only general, since many parameters are represented under one model, but also helps to visualize the problem. The proposed approach provides...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thuburn, J.; Woollings, T.J.
2005-01-01
Accurate representation of different kinds of wave motion is essential for numerical models of the atmosphere, but is sensitive to details of the discretization. In this paper, numerical dispersion relations are computed for different vertical discretizations of the compressible Euler equations and compared with the analytical dispersion relation. A height coordinate, an isentropic coordinate, and a terrain-following mass-based coordinate are considered, and, for each of these, different choices of prognostic variables and grid staggerings are considered. The discretizations are categorized according to whether their dispersion relations are optimal, are near optimal, have a single zero-frequency computational mode, or are problematic in other ways. Some general understanding of the factors that affect the numerical dispersion properties is obtained: heuristic arguments concerning the normal mode structures, and the amount of averaging and coarse differencing in the finite difference scheme, are shown to be useful guides to which configurations will be optimal; the number of degrees of freedom in the discretization is shown to be an accurate guide to the existence of computational modes; there is only minor sensitivity to whether the equations for thermodynamic variables are discretized in advective form or flux form; and an accurate representation of acoustic modes is found to be a prerequisite for accurate representation of inertia-gravity modes, which, in turn, is found to be a prerequisite for accurate representation of Rossby modes
Arthropods in modern resins reveal if amber accurately recorded forest arthropod communities.
Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M; Delclòs, Xavier; Clapham, Matthew E; Arillo, Antonio; Peris, David; Jäger, Peter; Stebner, Frauke; Peñalver, Enrique
2018-05-07
Amber is an organic multicompound derivative from the polymerization of resin of diverse higher plants. Compared with other modes of fossil preservation, amber records the anatomy of and ecological interactions between ancient soft-bodied organisms with exceptional fidelity. However, it is currently suggested that ambers do not accurately record the composition of arthropod forest paleocommunities, due to crucial taphonomic biases. We evaluated the effects of taphonomic processes on arthropod entrapment by resin from the plant Hymenaea , one of the most important resin-producing trees and a producer of tropical Cenozoic ambers and Anthropocene (or subfossil) resins. We statistically compared natural entrapment by Hymenaea verrucosa tree resin with the ensemble of arthropods trapped by standardized entomological traps around the same tree species. Our results demonstrate that assemblages in resin are more similar to those from sticky traps than from malaise traps, providing an accurate representation of the arthropod fauna living in or near the resiniferous tree, but not of entire arthropod forest communities. Particularly, arthropod groups such as Lepidoptera, Collembola, and some Diptera are underrepresented in resins. However, resin assemblages differed slightly from sticky traps, perhaps because chemical compounds in the resins attract or repel specific insect groups. Ground-dwelling or flying arthropods that use the tree-trunk habitat for feeding or reproduction are also well represented in the resin assemblages, implying that fossil inclusions in amber can reveal fundamental information about biology of the past. These biases have implications for the paleoecological interpretation of the fossil record, principally of Cenozoic amber with angiosperm origin.
Am I who I say I am? Unobtrusive self-representation and personality recognition on Facebook.
Hall, Margeret; Caton, Simon
2017-01-01
Across social media platforms users (sub)consciously represent themselves in a way which is appropriate for their intended audience. This has unknown impacts on studies with unobtrusive designs based on digital (social) platforms, and studies of contemporary social phenomena in online settings. A lack of appropriate methods to identify, control for, and mitigate the effects of self-representation, the propensity to express socially responding characteristics or self-censorship in digital settings, hinders the ability of researchers to confidently interpret and generalize their findings. This article proposes applying boosted regression modelling to fill this research gap. A case study of paid Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (n = 509) is presented where workers completed psychometric surveys and provided anonymized access to their Facebook timelines. Our research finds indicators of self-representation on Facebook, facilitating suggestions for its mitigation. We validate the use of LIWC for Facebook personality studies, as well as find discrepancies with extant literature about the use of LIWC-only approaches in unobtrusive designs. Using survey data and LIWC sentiment categories as predictors, the boosted regression model classified the Five Factor personality model with an average accuracy of 74.6%. The contribution of this work is an accurate prediction of psychometric information based on short, informal text.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qing Xie
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The partial discharge (PD detection of electrical equipment is important for the safe operation of power system. The ultrasonic signal generated by the PD in the oil is a broadband signal. However, most methods of the array signal processing are used for the narrowband signal at present, and the effect of some methods for processing wideband signals is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to find new broadband signal processing methods to improve detection ability of the PD source. In this paper, the direction of arrival (DOA estimation method based on sparse representation of eigenvector is proposed, and this method can further reduce the noise interference. Moreover, the simulation results show that this direction finding method is feasible for broadband signal and thus improve the following positioning accuracy of the three-array localization method. And experimental results verify that the direction finding method based on sparse representation of eigenvector is feasible for the ultrasonic array, which can achieve accurate estimation of direction of arrival and improve the following positioning accuracy. This can provide important guidance information for the equipment maintenance in the practical application.
Am I who I say I am? Unobtrusive self-representation and personality recognition on Facebook
2017-01-01
Across social media platforms users (sub)consciously represent themselves in a way which is appropriate for their intended audience. This has unknown impacts on studies with unobtrusive designs based on digital (social) platforms, and studies of contemporary social phenomena in online settings. A lack of appropriate methods to identify, control for, and mitigate the effects of self-representation, the propensity to express socially responding characteristics or self-censorship in digital settings, hinders the ability of researchers to confidently interpret and generalize their findings. This article proposes applying boosted regression modelling to fill this research gap. A case study of paid Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (n = 509) is presented where workers completed psychometric surveys and provided anonymized access to their Facebook timelines. Our research finds indicators of self-representation on Facebook, facilitating suggestions for its mitigation. We validate the use of LIWC for Facebook personality studies, as well as find discrepancies with extant literature about the use of LIWC-only approaches in unobtrusive designs. Using survey data and LIWC sentiment categories as predictors, the boosted regression model classified the Five Factor personality model with an average accuracy of 74.6%. The contribution of this work is an accurate prediction of psychometric information based on short, informal text. PMID:28926569
Am I who I say I am? Unobtrusive self-representation and personality recognition on Facebook.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margeret Hall
Full Text Available Across social media platforms users (subconsciously represent themselves in a way which is appropriate for their intended audience. This has unknown impacts on studies with unobtrusive designs based on digital (social platforms, and studies of contemporary social phenomena in online settings. A lack of appropriate methods to identify, control for, and mitigate the effects of self-representation, the propensity to express socially responding characteristics or self-censorship in digital settings, hinders the ability of researchers to confidently interpret and generalize their findings. This article proposes applying boosted regression modelling to fill this research gap. A case study of paid Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (n = 509 is presented where workers completed psychometric surveys and provided anonymized access to their Facebook timelines. Our research finds indicators of self-representation on Facebook, facilitating suggestions for its mitigation. We validate the use of LIWC for Facebook personality studies, as well as find discrepancies with extant literature about the use of LIWC-only approaches in unobtrusive designs. Using survey data and LIWC sentiment categories as predictors, the boosted regression model classified the Five Factor personality model with an average accuracy of 74.6%. The contribution of this work is an accurate prediction of psychometric information based on short, informal text.
Virtual terrain: a security-based representation of a computer network
Holsopple, Jared; Yang, Shanchieh; Argauer, Brian
2008-03-01
Much research has been put forth towards detection, correlating, and prediction of cyber attacks in recent years. As this set of research progresses, there is an increasing need for contextual information of a computer network to provide an accurate situational assessment. Typical approaches adopt contextual information as needed; yet such ad hoc effort may lead to unnecessary or even conflicting features. The concept of virtual terrain is, therefore, developed and investigated in this work. Virtual terrain is a common representation of crucial information about network vulnerabilities, accessibilities, and criticalities. A virtual terrain model encompasses operating systems, firewall rules, running services, missions, user accounts, and network connectivity. It is defined as connected graphs with arc attributes defining dynamic relationships among vertices modeling network entities, such as services, users, and machines. The virtual terrain representation is designed to allow feasible development and maintenance of the model, as well as efficacy in terms of the use of the model. This paper will describe the considerations in developing the virtual terrain schema, exemplary virtual terrain models, and algorithms utilizing the virtual terrain model for situation and threat assessment.
A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.
Yip, Din-Yan
1997-01-01
Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…
Novel multi-beam radiometers for accurate ocean surveillance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.
2014-01-01
Novel antenna architectures for real aperture multi-beam radiometers providing high resolution and high sensitivity for accurate sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean vector wind (OVW) measurements are investigated. On the basis of the radiometer requirements set for future SST/OVW missions...
Finite-Dimensional Representations for Controlled Diffusions with Delay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Federico, Salvatore, E-mail: salvatore.federico@unimi.it [Università di Milano, Dipartimento di Economia, Management e Metodi Quantitativi (Italy); Tankov, Peter, E-mail: tankov@math.univ-paris-diderot.fr [Université Paris Diderot, Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires (France)
2015-02-15
We study stochastic delay differential equations (SDDE) where the coefficients depend on the moving averages of the state process. As a first contribution, we provide sufficient conditions under which the solution of the SDDE and a linear path functional of it admit a finite-dimensional Markovian representation. As a second contribution, we show how approximate finite-dimensional Markovian representations may be constructed when these conditions are not satisfied, and provide an estimate of the error corresponding to these approximations. These results are applied to optimal control and optimal stopping problems for stochastic systems with delay.
A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad
Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene......Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....
New fission-neutron-spectrum representation for ENDF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madland, D.G.
1982-04-01
A new representation of the prompt fission neutron spectrum is proposed for use in the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF). The proposal is made because a new theory exists by which the spectrum can be accurately predicted as a function of the fissioning nucleus and its excitation energy. Thus, prompt fission neutron spectra can be calculated for cases where no measurements exist or where measurements are not possible. The mathematical formalism necessary for application of the new theory within ENDF is presented and discussed for neutron-induced fission and spontaneous fission. In the case of neutron-induced fission, expressions are given for the first-chance, second-chance, third-chance, and fourth-chance fission components of the spectrum together with that for the total spectrum. An ENDF format is proposed for the new fission spectrum representation, and an example of the use of the format is given
Schematic representation of case study research designs.
Rosenberg, John P; Yates, Patsy M
2007-11-01
The paper is a report of a study to demonstrate how the use of schematics can provide procedural clarity and promote rigour in the conduct of case study research. Case study research is a methodologically flexible approach to research design that focuses on a particular case - whether an individual, a collective or a phenomenon of interest. It is known as the 'study of the particular' for its thorough investigation of particular, real-life situations and is gaining increased attention in nursing and social research. However, the methodological flexibility it offers can leave the novice researcher uncertain of suitable procedural steps required to ensure methodological rigour. This article provides a real example of a case study research design that utilizes schematic representation drawn from a doctoral study of the integration of health promotion principles and practices into a palliative care organization. The issues discussed are: (1) the definition and application of case study research design; (2) the application of schematics in research; (3) the procedural steps and their contribution to the maintenance of rigour; and (4) the benefits and risks of schematics in case study research. The inclusion of visual representations of design with accompanying explanatory text is recommended in reporting case study research methods.
48 CFR 2009.570-4 - Representation.
2010-10-01
... type required by the organizational conflicts of interest representation provisions has previously been... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-4 Representation... whether situations or relationships exist which may constitute organizational conflicts of interest with...
Court representation in Russia before 1917 (historical aspect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin V. Ilyashenko
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Objective basing on the research and analysis of the legislation historical legal sources and other materials to study the process of formation and development of the institution of legal representation in Russia before 1917. Methods the theoretical basis of research is the works of Russian scientists on various aspects of formation development and functioning of the institution of legal representation in Russia from ancient times till 1917. The methodological basis of the research is general scientific methods historical formallogical system and general logical methods analysis synthesis induction and deduction synthesis analogy abstraction. Historicallegal formallegal logicallegal comparative legal methods were applied in the study. The author used the retrospective approach to the study of the issues of legal representation in Russia. Results basing on analysis of normative legal acts regulating relations in the sphere of judicial representation and various doctrinal sources the author has examined the process of the formation and development of the legal representation institution in Russia before 1917 raised the question of providing legal assistance in prerevolutionary Russia. An analogy is drawn between the prerevolutionary legal regulation of the legal representation institution and the modern legislation regulating this legal institution. The conclusion is made about the inadequacy of prerevolutionary legislation regulating relations in the sphere of judicial representation as well as the modern legal regulation of relations in this sphere. It is established that the judicial reform of 1864 improved regulation in this sphere but still did not solve all the problems in this area. The relevance of the study is due to the topicality and the constitutional importance of legal representation for the entire Russian society the need to examine the origins of this legal phenomenon as well as the fact that the institution of legal representation
Reliability in the Location of Hindlimb Motor Representations in Fischer-344 Rats
Frost, Shawn B.; Iliakova, Maria; Dunham, Caleb; Barbay, Scott; Arnold, Paul; Nudo, Randolph J.
2014-01-01
Object The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using a common laboratory rat strain for locating cortical motor representations of the hindlimb reliably. Methods Intracortical Microstimulation (ICMS) techniques were used to derive detailed maps of the hindlimb motor representations in six adult Fischer-344 rats. Results The organization of the hindlimb movement representation, while variable across individuals in topographic detail, displayed several commonalities. The hindlimb representation was positioned posterior to the forelimb motor representation and postero-lateral to the motor trunk representation. The areal extent of the hindlimb representation across the cortical surface averaged 2.00 +/− 0.50 mm2. Superimposing individual maps revealed an overlapping area measuring 0.35 mm2, indicating that the location of the hindlimb representation can be predicted reliably based on stereotactic coordinates. Across the sample of rats, the hindlimb representation was found 1.25–3.75 mm posterior to Bregma, with an average center location ~ 2.6 mm posterior to Bregma. Likewise, the hindlimb representation was found 1–3.25 mm lateral to the midline, with an average center location ~ 2 mm lateral to midline. Conclusions The location of the cortical hindlimb motor representation in Fischer-344 rats can be reliably located based on its stereotactic position posterior to Bregma and lateral to the longitudinal skull suture at midline. The ability to accurately predict the cortical localization of functional hindlimb territories in a rodent model is important, as such animal models are being used increasingly in the development of brain-computer interfaces for restoration of function after spinal cord injury. PMID:23725395
Frost, Shawn B; Iliakova, Maria; Dunham, Caleb; Barbay, Scott; Arnold, Paul; Nudo, Randolph J
2013-08-01
The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using a common laboratory rat strain for reliably locating cortical motor representations of the hindlimb. Intracortical microstimulation techniques were used to derive detailed maps of the hindlimb motor representations in 6 adult Fischer-344 rats. The organization of the hindlimb movement representation, while variable across individual rats in topographic detail, displayed several commonalities. The hindlimb representation was positioned posterior to the forelimb motor representation and posterolateral to the motor trunk representation. The areal extent of the hindlimb representation across the cortical surface averaged 2.00 ± 0.50 mm(2). Superimposing individual maps revealed an overlapping area measuring 0.35 mm(2), indicating that the location of the hindlimb representation can be predicted reliably based on stereotactic coordinates. Across the sample of rats, the hindlimb representation was found 1.25-3.75 mm posterior to the bregma, with an average center location approximately 2.6 mm posterior to the bregma. Likewise, the hindlimb representation was found 1-3.25 mm lateral to the midline, with an average center location approximately 2 mm lateral to the midline. The location of the cortical hindlimb motor representation in Fischer-344 rats can be reliably located based on its stereotactic position posterior to the bregma and lateral to the longitudinal skull suture at midline. The ability to accurately predict the cortical localization of functional hindlimb territories in a rodent model is important, as such animal models are being increasingly used in the development of brain-computer interfaces for restoration of function after spinal cord injury.
Time representations in social science.
Schulz, Yvan
2012-12-01
Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.
Berry phase in Heisenberg representation
Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.
1994-01-01
We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.
Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M
2007-08-07
A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.
Experience representation in information systems
Kaczmarek, Jan
2014-01-01
This thesis looks into the ways subjective dimension of experience could be represented in artificial, non-biological systems, in particular information systems. The pivotal assumption is that experience as opposed to mainstream thinking in information science is not equal to knowledge, so that experience is a broader term which encapsulates both knowledge and subjective, affective component of experience, which so far has not been properly embraced by knowledge representation theories. This ...
Experience representation in information systems
Kaczmarek, Jan
2014-01-01
This thesis looks into the ways subjective dimension of experience could be represented in artificial, non-biological systems, in particular information systems. The pivotal assumption is that experience as opposed to mainstream thinking in information science is not equal to knowledge, so that experience is a broader term which encapsulates both knowledge and subjective, affective component of experience, which so far has not been properly embraced by knowledge representation theories. Th...
Generalized oscillator representations for Calogero Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyutin, I V; Voronov, B L
2013-01-01
This paper is a natural continuation of the previous paper (Gitman et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 425204), where oscillator representations for nonnegative Calogero Hamiltonians with coupling constant α ⩾ − 1/4 were constructed. In this paper, we present generalized oscillator representations for all Calogero Hamiltonians with α ⩾ − 1/4. These representations are generally highly nonunique, but there exists an optimum representation for each Hamiltonian. (comment)
Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models
Corker, K.
1992-01-01
Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods
Learning semantic histopathological representation for basal cell carcinoma classification
Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Rueda, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo
2013-03-01
Diagnosis of a histopathology glass slide is a complex process that involves accurate recognition of several structures, their function in the tissue and their relation with other structures. The way in which the pathologist represents the image content and the relations between those objects yields a better and accurate diagnoses. Therefore, an appropriate semantic representation of the image content will be useful in several analysis tasks such as cancer classification, tissue retrieval and histopahological image analysis, among others. Nevertheless, to automatically recognize those structures and extract their inner semantic meaning are still very challenging tasks. In this paper we introduce a new semantic representation that allows to describe histopathological concepts suitable for classification. The approach herein identify local concepts using a dictionary learning approach, i.e., the algorithm learns the most representative atoms from a set of random sampled patches, and then models the spatial relations among them by counting the co-occurrence between atoms, while penalizing the spatial distance. The proposed approach was compared with a bag-of-features representation in a tissue classification task. For this purpose, 240 histological microscopical fields of view, 24 per tissue class, were collected. Those images fed a Support Vector Machine classifier per class, using 120 images as train set and the remaining ones for testing, maintaining the same proportion of each concept in the train and test sets. The obtained classification results, averaged from 100 random partitions of training and test sets, shows that our approach is more sensitive in average than the bag-of-features representation in almost 6%.
Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.
Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam
2016-06-01
We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems. © The Author(s) 2016.
Facilitating Mathematical Practices through Visual Representations
Murata, Aki; Stewart, Chana
2017-01-01
Effective use of mathematical representation is key to supporting student learning. In "Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All" (NCTM 2014), "use and connect mathematical representations" is one of the effective Mathematics Teaching Practices. By using different representations, students examine concepts…
Computability and Representations of the Zero Set
P.J. Collins (Pieter)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractIn this note we give a new representation for closed sets under which the robust zero set of a function is computable. We call this representation the component cover representation. The computation of the zero set is based on topological index theory, the most powerful tool for finding
Lifts of matroid representations over partial fields
Pendavingh, R.A.; Zwam, van S.H.M.
2010-01-01
There exist several theorems which state that when a matroid is representable over distinct fields F1,...,Fk , it is also representable over other fields. We prove a theorem, the Lift Theorem, that implies many of these results. First, parts of Whittle's characterization of representations of
Equivalence of rational representations of behaviors
Gottimukkala, Sasanka; Fiaz, Shaik; Trentelman, H.L.
This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems. In general, the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel and image representations. Two kernel
Compact representations for the design of quantum logic
Niemann, Philipp
2017-01-01
This book discusses modern approaches and challenges of computer-aided design (CAD) of quantum circuits with a view to providing compact representations of quantum functionality. Focusing on the issue of quantum functionality, it presents Quantum Multiple-Valued Decision Diagrams (QMDDs – a means of compactly and efficiently representing and manipulating quantum logic. For future quantum computers, going well beyond the size of present-day prototypes, the manual design of quantum circuits that realize a given (quantum) functionality on these devices is no longer an option. In order to keep up with the technological advances, methods need to be provided which, similar to the design and synthesis of conventional circuits, automatically generate a circuit description of the desired functionality. To this end, an efficient representation of the desired quantum functionality is of the essence. While straightforward representations are restricted due to their (exponentially) large matrix descriptions and other de...
Converting biomolecular modelling data based on an XML representation.
Sun, Yudong; McKeever, Steve
2008-08-25
Biomolecular modelling has provided computational simulation based methods for investigating biological processes from quantum chemical to cellular levels. Modelling such microscopic processes requires atomic description of a biological system and conducts in fine timesteps. Consequently the simulations are extremely computationally demanding. To tackle this limitation, different biomolecular models have to be integrated in order to achieve high-performance simulations. The integration of diverse biomolecular models needs to convert molecular data between different data representations of different models. This data conversion is often non-trivial, requires extensive human input and is inevitably error prone. In this paper we present an automated data conversion method for biomolecular simulations between molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics models. Our approach is developed around an XML data representation called BioSimML (Biomolecular Simulation Markup Language). BioSimML provides a domain specific data representation for biomolecular modelling which can effciently support data interoperability between different biomolecular simulation models and data formats.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars
2016-01-01
with knowledge representations and communications with domain experts. The results presented in the paper are therefore aimed to provide insight into the impact from using visual knowledge representations techniques in PCSs projects. The findings indicate that use of visual knowledge representations techniques...... in PCSs projects will result in improved quality of maintenance and development support for the knowledge base and improved quality of the communication with domain experts....
Fast and accurate computation of projected two-point functions
Grasshorn Gebhardt, Henry S.; Jeong, Donghui
2018-01-01
We present the two-point function from the fast and accurate spherical Bessel transformation (2-FAST) algorithm1Our code is available at https://github.com/hsgg/twoFAST. for a fast and accurate computation of integrals involving one or two spherical Bessel functions. These types of integrals occur when projecting the galaxy power spectrum P (k ) onto the configuration space, ξℓν(r ), or spherical harmonic space, Cℓ(χ ,χ'). First, we employ the FFTLog transformation of the power spectrum to divide the calculation into P (k )-dependent coefficients and P (k )-independent integrations of basis functions multiplied by spherical Bessel functions. We find analytical expressions for the latter integrals in terms of special functions, for which recursion provides a fast and accurate evaluation. The algorithm, therefore, circumvents direct integration of highly oscillating spherical Bessel functions.
Contingent sounds change the mental representation of one's finger length.
Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Vakali, Maria; Fairhurst, Merle T; Mandrigin, Alisa; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; Deroy, Ophelia
2017-07-18
Mental body-representations are highly plastic and can be modified after brief exposure to unexpected sensory feedback. While the role of vision, touch and proprioception in shaping body-representations has been highlighted by many studies, the auditory influences on mental body-representations remain poorly understood. Changes in body-representations by the manipulation of natural sounds produced when one's body impacts on surfaces have recently been evidenced. But will these changes also occur with non-naturalistic sounds, which provide no information about the impact produced by or on the body? Drawing on the well-documented capacity of dynamic changes in pitch to elicit impressions of motion along the vertical plane and of changes in object size, we asked participants to pull on their right index fingertip with their left hand while they were presented with brief sounds of rising, falling or constant pitches, and in the absence of visual information of their hands. Results show an "auditory Pinocchio" effect, with participants feeling and estimating their finger to be longer after the rising pitch condition. These results provide the first evidence that sounds that are not indicative of veridical movement, such as non-naturalistic sounds, can induce a Pinocchio-like change in body-representation when arbitrarily paired with a bodily action.
Graph Regularized Auto-Encoders for Image Representation.
Yiyi Liao; Yue Wang; Yong Liu
2017-06-01
Image representation has been intensively explored in the domain of computer vision for its significant influence on the relative tasks such as image clustering and classification. It is valuable to learn a low-dimensional representation of an image which preserves its inherent information from the original image space. At the perspective of manifold learning, this is implemented with the local invariant idea to capture the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold embedded in the high-dimensional input space. Inspired by the recent successes of deep architectures, we propose a local invariant deep nonlinear mapping algorithm, called graph regularized auto-encoder (GAE). With the graph regularization, the proposed method preserves the local connectivity from the original image space to the representation space, while the stacked auto-encoders provide explicit encoding model for fast inference and powerful expressive capacity for complex modeling. Theoretical analysis shows that the graph regularizer penalizes the weighted Frobenius norm of the Jacobian matrix of the encoder mapping, where the weight matrix captures the local property in the input space. Furthermore, the underlying effects on the hidden representation space are revealed, providing insightful explanation to the advantage of the proposed method. Finally, the experimental results on both clustering and classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our GAE as well as the correctness of the proposed theoretical analysis, and it also suggests that GAE is a superior solution to the current deep representation learning techniques comparing with variant auto-encoders and existing local invariant methods.
Frames, operator representations, and open problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh
2018-01-01
, a topic that has recently attracted considerably interest within harmonic analysis. The goal of the paper is twofold, namely, that experts in operator theory will explore the potential of frames, and that frame theory will benefit from insight provided by the operator theory community.......A frame in a Hilbert space H is a countable collection of elements in H that allows each f Ïµ H to be expanded as an (infinite) linear combination of the frame elements. Frames generalize the wellknown orthonormal bases, but provide much more exibility and can often be constructed with properties...... that are not possible for orthonormal bases. We will present the basic facts in frame theory with focus on their operator theoretical characterizations and discuss open problems concerning representations of frames in terms of iterations of a fixed operator. These problems come up in the context of dynamical sampling...
LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J
2011-01-28
We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.
Alternative approach to nuclear data representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruet, J.; Brown, D.; Beck, B.; McNabb, D.P.
2006-01-01
This paper considers an approach for representing nuclear data that is qualitatively different from the approach currently adopted by the nuclear science community. Specifically, we examine a representation in which complicated data is described through collections of distinct and self-contained simple data structures. This structure-based representation is compared with the ENDF and ENDL formats, which can be roughly characterized as dictionary-based representations. A pilot data representation for replacing the format currently used at LLNL is presented. Examples are given as is a discussion of promises and shortcomings associated with moving from traditional dictionary-based formats to a structure-rich or class-like representation
On the phase space representations. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polubarinov, I.V.
1978-01-01
The Dirac representation theory deals usually with the amplitude formalism of the quantum theory. An introduction is given into a theory of some other representations, which are applicable in the density matrix formalism and can naturally be called phase space representations (PSR). They use terms of phase space variables (x and p simultaneously) and give a description, close to the classical phase space description. Definitions and algebraic properties are given in quantum mechanics for such PSRs as the Wigner representation, coherent state representation and others. Completeness relations of a matrix type are used as a starting point. The case of quantum field theory is also outlined
Elementary student teachers' science content representations
Zembal-Saul, Carla; Krajcik, Joseph; Blumenfeld, Phyllis
2002-08-01
This purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which three prospective teachers who had early opportunities to teach science would approach representing science content within the context of their student teaching experiences. The study is framed in the literature on pedagogical content knowledge and learning to teach. A situated perspective on cognition is applied to better understand the influence of context and the role of the cooperating teacher. The three participants were enrolled in an experimental teacher preparation program designed to enhance the teaching of science at the elementary level. Qualitative case study design guided the collection, organization, and analysis of data. Multiple forms of data associated with student teachers' content representations were collected, including audiotaped planning and reflection interviews, written lesson plans and reflections, and videotaped teaching experiences. Broad analysis categories were developed and refined around the subconstructs of content representation (i.e., knowledge of instructional strategies that promote learning and knowledge of students and their requirements for meaningful science learning). Findings suggest that when prospective teachers are provided with opportunities to apply and reflect substantively on their developing considerations for supporting children's science learning, they are able to maintain a subject matter emphasis. However, in the absence of such opportunities, student teachers abandon their subject matter emphasis, even when they have had extensive background and experiences addressing subject-specific considerations for teaching and learning.
Large margin image set representation and classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-07-06
In this paper, we propose a novel image set representation and classification method by maximizing the margin of image sets. The margin of an image set is defined as the difference of the distance to its nearest image set from different classes and the distance to its nearest image set of the same class. By modeling the image sets by using both their image samples and their affine hull models, and maximizing the margins of the images sets, the image set representation parameter learning problem is formulated as an minimization problem, which is further optimized by an expectation - maximization (EM) strategy with accelerated proximal gradient (APG) optimization in an iterative algorithm. To classify a given test image set, we assign it to the class which could provide the largest margin. Experiments on two applications of video-sequence-based face recognition demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art image set classification methods in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency.
Large margin image set representation and classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Alzahrani, Majed A.; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel image set representation and classification method by maximizing the margin of image sets. The margin of an image set is defined as the difference of the distance to its nearest image set from different classes and the distance to its nearest image set of the same class. By modeling the image sets by using both their image samples and their affine hull models, and maximizing the margins of the images sets, the image set representation parameter learning problem is formulated as an minimization problem, which is further optimized by an expectation - maximization (EM) strategy with accelerated proximal gradient (APG) optimization in an iterative algorithm. To classify a given test image set, we assign it to the class which could provide the largest margin. Experiments on two applications of video-sequence-based face recognition demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art image set classification methods in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency.
Towards New Mappings between Emotion Representation Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agnieszka Landowska
2018-02-01
Full Text Available There are several models for representing emotions in affect-aware applications, and available emotion recognition solutions provide results using diverse emotion models. As multimodal fusion is beneficial in terms of both accuracy and reliability of emotion recognition, one of the challenges is mapping between the models of affect representation. This paper addresses this issue by: proposing a procedure to elaborate new mappings, recommending a set of metrics for evaluation of the mapping accuracy, and delivering new mapping matrices for estimating the dimensions of a Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance model from Ekman’s six basic emotions. The results are based on an analysis using three datasets that were constructed based on affect-annotated lexicons. The new mappings were obtained with linear regression learning methods. The proposed mappings showed better results on the datasets in comparison with the state-of-the-art matrix. The procedure, as well as the proposed metrics, might be used, not only in evaluation of the mappings between representation models, but also in comparison of emotion recognition and annotation results. Moreover, the datasets are published along with the paper and new mappings might be created and evaluated using the proposed methods. The study results might be interesting for both researchers and developers, who aim to extend their software solutions with affect recognition techniques.
Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups
Huerfano, Ruth Stella
I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.
Wigner representation in scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remler, E.A.
1975-01-01
The basic equations of quantum scattering are translated into the Wigner representation. This puts quantum mechanics in the form of a stochastic process in phase space. Instead of complex valued wavefunctions and transition matrices, one now works with real-valued probability distributions and source functions, objects more responsive to physical intuition. Aside from writing out certain necessary basic expressions, the main purpose is to develop and stress the interpretive picture associated with this representation and to derive results used in applications published elsewhere. The quasiclassical guise assumed by the formalism lends itself particularly to approximations of complex multiparticle scattering problems is laid. The foundation for a systematic application of statistical approximations to such problems. The form of the integral equation for scattering as well as its mulitple scattering expansion in this representation are derived. Since this formalism remains unchanged upon taking the classical limit, these results also constitute a general treatment of classical multiparticle collision theory. Quantum corrections to classical propogators are discussed briefly. The basic approximation used in the Monte Carlo method is derived in a fashion that allows for future refinement and includes bound state production. The close connection that must exist between inclusive production of a bound state and of its constituents is brought out in an especially graphic way by this formalism. In particular one can see how comparisons between such cross sections yield direct physical insight into relevant production mechanisms. A simple illustration of scattering by a bound two-body system is treated. Simple expressions for single- and double-scattering contributions to total and differential cross sections, as well as for all necessary shadow corrections thereto, are obtained and compared to previous results of Glauber and Goldberger
Sanz López, Josep Maria
2017-10-09
A growing academic discussion has focused on how, in a globalized world, LGBTQ identities are shaped and influenced by different and international actors, such as the media. This article analyzes how LGBTQ people from a rural region of a Western country-Spain-feel toward their representations on TV series from English-speaking countries. Employing a qualitative approach, this research aims to depict whether the academic conceptualizations to analyze these identity conformation processes are accurate. In addition, it explores how dominating media representations are being adapted in a region that, although within the West, can serve a context of a very different nature. The results found that a major rejection of the TV series representations among participants can suggest both an inaccuracy of the conceptualizations used by some scholars to understand LGBTQ flows and a problematic LGBTQ representation in media products that goes beyond regions and spaces.
Spectral representation in stochastic quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazato, Hiromichi.
1988-10-01
A spectral representation of stationary 2-point functions is investigated based on the operator formalism in stochastic quantization. Assuming the existence of asymptotic non-interacting fields, we can diagonalize the total Hamiltonian in terms of asymptotic fields and show that the correlation length along the fictious time is proportional to the physical mass expected in the usual field theory. A relation between renormalization factors in the operator formalism is derived as a byproduct and its validity is checked with the perturbative results calculated in this formalism. (orig.)
A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad
Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene...
Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes
Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana
2012-01-01
Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs…
Interaction and Representational Integration: Evidence from Speech Errors
Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa
2011-01-01
We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated…
Towards a universal representation for audio information retrieval and analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Troelsgaard, Rasmus; Larsen, Jan
2013-01-01
A fundamental and general representation of audio and music which integrates multi-modal data sources is important for both application and basic research purposes. In this paper we address this challenge by proposing a multi-modal version of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model which provides a...
The Representation of Bilingual Mental Lexicon and English Vocabulary Acquisition
Ying, Zhang
2017-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the theories on the organization and development of L1 mental lexicon and the representation mode of bilingual mental lexicon. It analyzes the structure and characteristics of Chinese EFL learners and their problems in English vocabulary acquisition. On the basis of this, it suggests that English vocabulary…
Towards a Script-Based Representation Language for Educational Films.
Parkes, Alan P.
1987-01-01
Discusses aspects of the syntax and semantics of film, and presents a scenario for the use of film by intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) systems. An outline of a representation language for educational films on videodisc is presented, and an appendix provides conceptual graphs that explain notations used in examples. (Author/LRW)
A permutations representation that knows what " Eulerian" means
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Mantaci
2001-12-01
Full Text Available Eulerian numbers (and ``Alternate Eulerian numbers'' are often interpreted as distributions of statistics defined over the Symmetric group. The main purpose of this paper is to define a way to represent permutations that provides some other combinatorial interpretations of these numbers. This representation uses a one-to-one correspondence between permutations and the so-called subexceedant functions.
Social Representation of Intercultural Exchange in an International University
Kudo, Kazuhiro
2016-01-01
This paper provides an interpretive investigation into the social representation of intercultural exchange at one of the newly established international universities in Japan. The author conducted quasi-structured interviews with 5 staff members and 22 students to gain insight into their perceptions of intercultural exchange and interactions. The…
Narrative representations of caregivers and self in maltreated pre-schoolers.
Toth, S L; Cicchetti, D; Macfie, J; Maughan, A; VanMeenen, K
2000-12-01
This study examined narrative representations of parents and of self, as well as child behavior during the assessment, in maltreated (N = 56) and demographically comparable non-maltreated (N = 37) pre-school-aged children in a one-year longitudinal study. Maltreated children evidenced more negative representations of parents and of self at Time 2, including the juxta-position of both a negative and a grandiose self. Over time there was a marginal interaction such that maltreated children portrayed fewer disciplining parent representations and nonmaltreated children portrayed more. Also over time, maltreated children portrayed marginally more grandiose self-representations and nonmaltreated children fewer. Furthermore, maltreated children demonstrated less responsivity to the examiner over time and nonmaltreated children demonstrated more. The deleterious effects of maltreatment on representations of self and of others, especially as development proceeds, are discussed, and the importance of providing attachment-informed intervention prior to the consolidation of these negative representations is highlighted.
Unbounded representations of symmetry groups in gauge quantum field theory. II. Integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voelkel, A.H.
1986-01-01
Within the gauge quantum field theory of the Wightman--Garding type, the integration of representations of Lie algebras is investigated. By means of the covariance condition (substitution rules) for the basic fields, it is shown that a form skew-symmetric representation of a Lie algebra can be integrated to a form isometric and in general unbounded representation of the universal covering group of a corresponding Lie group provided the conditions (Nelson, Sternheimer, etc.), which are well known for the case of Hilbert or Banach representations, hold. If a form isometric representation leaves the subspace from which the physical Hilbert space is obtained via factorization and completion invariant, then the same is proved to be true for its differential. Conversely, a necessary and sufficient condition is derived for the transmission of the invariance of this subspace under a form skew-symmetric representation of a Lie algebra to its integral
Apparatus for producing a visual representation of a radiographic scan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hounsfield, G.N.
1976-01-01
An apparatus is disclosed for providing a visual representation of the absorption or transmission coefficients of the elements of a two dimensional matrix of elements notionally defined in a cross-sectional plane through a body. The representation is in the form of an analogue display comprising superimposed lines of information scanned on the surface of a suitable screen, the brightness of each line being indicative of the absorption suffered by penetrating radiation on traversing a respective path through said plane of the body. The orientation of each scanned line depends on the orientation of the respective path with respect to the body. 7 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures
Minimal Representations and Reductive Dual Pairs in Conformal Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, Ivan
2010-01-01
A minimal representation of a simple non-compact Lie group is obtained by 'quantizing' the minimal nilpotent coadjoint orbit of its Lie algebra. It provides context for Roger Howe's notion of a reductive dual pair encountered recently in the description of global gauge symmetry of a (4-dimensional) conformal observable algebra. We give a pedagogical introduction to these notions and point out that physicists have been using both minimal representations and dual pairs without naming them and hence stand a chance to understand their theory and to profit from it.
Approximate representations of propagators in an external field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fried, H.M.
1979-01-01
A method of forming approximate representations for propagators with external field dependence is suggested and discussed in the context of potential scattering. An integro-differential equation in D+1 variables, where D represents the dimensionality of Euclidian space-time, is replaced by a Volterra equation in one variable. Approximate solutions to the latter provide a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck representation, containing the effects of all powers of hard-potential interactions, each modified by a characteristic soft-potential dependence [fr
More accurate picture of human body organs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolar, J.
1985-01-01
Computerized tomography and nucler magnetic resonance tomography (NMRT) are revolutionary contributions to radiodiagnosis because they allow to obtain a more accurate image of human body organs. The principles are described of both methods. Attention is mainly devoted to NMRT which has clinically only been used for three years. It does not burden the organism with ionizing radiation. (Ha)
Fast and accurate methods for phylogenomic analyses
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Warnow Tandy
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Species phylogenies are not estimated directly, but rather through phylogenetic analyses of different gene datasets. However, true gene trees can differ from the true species tree (and hence from one another due to biological processes such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and gene duplication and loss, so that no single gene tree is a reliable estimate of the species tree. Several methods have been developed to estimate species trees from estimated gene trees, differing according to the specific algorithmic technique used and the biological model used to explain differences between species and gene trees. Relatively little is known about the relative performance of these methods. Results We report on a study evaluating several different methods for estimating species trees from sequence datasets, simulating sequence evolution under a complex model including indels (insertions and deletions, substitutions, and incomplete lineage sorting. The most important finding of our study is that some fast and simple methods are nearly as accurate as the most accurate methods, which employ sophisticated statistical methods and are computationally quite intensive. We also observe that methods that explicitly consider errors in the estimated gene trees produce more accurate trees than methods that assume the estimated gene trees are correct. Conclusions Our study shows that highly accurate estimations of species trees are achievable, even when gene trees differ from each other and from the species tree, and that these estimations can be obtained using fairly simple and computationally tractable methods.
Accurate overlaying for mobile augmented reality
Pasman, W; van der Schaaf, A; Lagendijk, RL; Jansen, F.W.
1999-01-01
Mobile augmented reality requires accurate alignment of virtual information with objects visible in the real world. We describe a system for mobile communications to be developed to meet these strict alignment criteria using a combination of computer vision. inertial tracking and low-latency
Accurate activity recognition in a home setting
van Kasteren, T.; Noulas, A.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.
2008-01-01
A sensor system capable of automatically recognizing activities would allow many potential ubiquitous applications. In this paper, we present an easy to install sensor network and an accurate but inexpensive annotation method. A recorded dataset consisting of 28 days of sensor data and its
Highly accurate surface maps from profilometer measurements
Medicus, Kate M.; Nelson, Jessica D.; Mandina, Mike P.
2013-04-01
Many aspheres and free-form optical surfaces are measured using a single line trace profilometer which is limiting because accurate 3D corrections are not possible with the single trace. We show a method to produce an accurate fully 2.5D surface height map when measuring a surface with a profilometer using only 6 traces and without expensive hardware. The 6 traces are taken at varying angular positions of the lens, rotating the part between each trace. The output height map contains low form error only, the first 36 Zernikes. The accuracy of the height map is ±10% of the actual Zernike values and within ±3% of the actual peak to valley number. The calculated Zernike values are affected by errors in the angular positioning, by the centering of the lens, and to a small effect, choices made in the processing algorithm. We have found that the angular positioning of the part should be better than 1?, which is achievable with typical hardware. The centering of the lens is essential to achieving accurate measurements. The part must be centered to within 0.5% of the diameter to achieve accurate results. This value is achievable with care, with an indicator, but the part must be edged to a clean diameter.
A new image representation for compact and secure communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A.N.
2004-01-01
In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.
Advanced Time-Frequency Representation in Voice Signal Analysis
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Dariusz Mika
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The most commonly used time-frequency representation of the analysis in voice signal is spectrogram. This representation belongs in general to Cohen's class, the class of time-frequency energy distributions. From the standpoint of properties of the resolution spectrogram representation is not optimal. In Cohen class representations are known which have a better resolution properties. All of them are created by smoothing the Wigner-Ville'a (WVD distribution characterized by the best resolution, however, the biggest harmful interference. Used smoothing functions decide about a compromise between the properties of resolution and eliminating harmful interference term. Another class of time-frequency energy distributions is the affine class of distributions. From the point of view of readability of analysis the best properties are known so called Redistribution of energy caused by the use of a general methodology referred to as reassignment to any time-frequency representation. Reassigned distributions efficiently combine a reduction of the interference terms provided by a well adapted smoothing kernel and an increased concentration of the signal components.
Unpacking physics representations: Towards an appreciation of disciplinary affordance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias Fredlund
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This theoretical article problematizes the access to disciplinary knowledge that different physics representations have the possibility to provide; that is, their disciplinary affordances. It is argued that historically such access has become increasingly constrained for students as physics representations have been rationalized over time. Thus, the case is made that such rationalized representations, while powerful for communication from a disciplinary point of view, manifest as learning challenges for students. The proposal is illustrated using a vignette from a student discussion in the physics laboratory about circuit connections for an experimental investigation of the charging and discharging of a capacitor. It is concluded that in order for students to come to appreciate the disciplinary affordances of representations, more attention needs to be paid to their “unpacking.” Building on this conclusion, two questions are proposed that teachers can ask themselves in order to begin to unpack the representations that they use in their teaching. The paper ends by proposing directions for future research in this area.
Representations of HIV/AIDS management in South African newspapers.
Campbell, Catherine; Gibbs, Andy
2008-07-01
In South Africa, numerous strong policy statements emphasise the importance of involving communities in HIV/AIDS management, yet in practice such involvement tends to be tokenistic and minimal. Social representations in the public sphere constitute the symbolic dimension within which responses to HIV and AIDS are conceptualised and transformed into action. Through an analysis of newspaper articles, we explore the dominant representations of HIV/AIDS management circulating in the South African public sphere and examine how community engagement is depicted. We highlight the way media representations reflect narrow understandings of HIV and AIDS as a predominantly medical problem, while depicting HIV/AIDS management as a top-down activity dominated by prominent individuals, such as national leaders, health professionals and philanthropists, thus marginalising the role played by communities, who are often depicted as passive recipients of interventions by active outsiders. These representations fail to reflect the key role played by members of grassroots communities in responding to the HIV epidemic. Such representations provide flawed conceptual tools for shaping responses to the epidemic, given that HIV-related programmes are unlikely to have optimal outcomes unless they resonate with the perceived needs and interests of their target communities, as we contend that effective HIV/AIDS management is best achieved through active participation by communities in HIV/AIDS management strategies. We discuss the implications of a more 'civic-minded journalism.'
A Knowledge-Based Representation Scheme for Environmental Science Models
Keller, Richard M.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
One of the primary methods available for studying environmental phenomena is the construction and analysis of computational models. We have been studying how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to assist in the development and use of environmental science models within the context of NASA-sponsored activities. We have identified several high-utility areas as potential targets for research and development: model development; data visualization, analysis, and interpretation; model publishing and reuse, training and education; and framing, posing, and answering questions. Central to progress on any of the above areas is a representation for environmental models that contains a great deal more information than is present in a traditional software implementation. In particular, a traditional software implementation is devoid of any semantic information that connects the code with the environmental context that forms the background for the modeling activity. Before we can build AI systems to assist in model development and usage, we must develop a representation for environmental models that adequately describes a model's semantics and explicitly represents the relationship between the code and the modeling task at hand. We have developed one such representation in conjunction with our work on the SIGMA (Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modeling Assistant) environment. The key feature of the representation is that it provides a semantic grounding for the symbols in a set of modeling equations by linking those symbols to an explicit representation of the underlying environmental scenario.
The Making of Sami Ethnography: Contested Authorities and Negotiated Representations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristin Kuutma
2011-03-01
Full Text Available This contribution analyzes the interplay of ethnographic and poetic agendas, the negotiation of synergetic or conflicting objectives in the production and editing of a seminal representation of the Sámi, Muitalus sámiid birra. My main focus is on the collaborative effort of the publication process, to investigate the emergence and negotiation of representational authority, of cultural poetics, of social and cultural critique, in order to defy the preconception of a passive informant of a cultural experience. The Sámi narrator Johan Turi is discussed, instead, as an active agent in providing a voice to the Sámi people in the collaborative process of ethnography writing. My approach is interdisciplinary, being inspired by different inquiries in anthropology and cultural history, while adding a subjective interpretation in discerning the production of a multifaceted ethnographic representation, both by the cultural insider and the inquisitive outsider.
Lie groups, lie algebras, and representations an elementary introduction
Hall, Brian
2015-01-01
This textbook treats Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representations in an elementary but fully rigorous fashion requiring minimal prerequisites. In particular, the theory of matrix Lie groups and their Lie algebras is developed using only linear algebra, and more motivation and intuition for proofs is provided than in most classic texts on the subject. In addition to its accessible treatment of the basic theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, the book is also noteworthy for including: a treatment of the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula and its use in place of the Frobenius theorem to establish deeper results about the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras motivation for the machinery of roots, weights and the Weyl group via a concrete and detailed exposition of the representation theory of sl(3;C) an unconventional definition of semisimplicity that allows for a rapid development of the structure theory of semisimple Lie algebras a self-contained construction of the representations of compac...
Higher representations and multijet resonances at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Jason; Thomas, Brooks; Rajaraman, Arvind
2011-01-01
The CMS Collaboration has recently conducted a search for trijet resonances in multijet events at the LHC. Motivated in part by this analysis, we examine the phenomenology of exotic particles transforming under higher representations of SU(3) color, focusing on those representations which intrinsically prohibit decays to fewer than three jets. We determine the LHC discovery reach for a particle transforming in a representation of this sort and discuss several additional theoretical and phenomenological constraints which apply to such a particle. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such a particle can provide a consistent explanation for a trijet excess (an invariant-mass peak of roughly 375 GeV) observed in the recent CMS study.
Abstraction/Representation Theory for heterotic physical computing.
Horsman, D C
2015-07-28
We give a rigorous framework for the interaction of physical computing devices with abstract computation. Device and program are mediated by the non-logical representation relation; we give the conditions under which representation and device theory give rise to commuting diagrams between logical and physical domains, and the conditions for computation to occur. We give the interface of this new framework with currently existing formal methods, showing in particular its close relationship to refinement theory, and the implications for questions of meaning and reference in theoretical computer science. The case of hybrid computing is considered in detail, addressing in particular the example of an Internet-mediated social machine, and the abstraction/representation framework used to provide a formal distinction between heterotic and hybrid computing. This forms the basis for future use of the framework in formal treatments of non-standard physical computers. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
An accurate projection algorithm for array processor based SPECT systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Cool, S.L.
1985-01-01
A data re-projection algorithm has been developed for use in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on an array processor based computer system. The algorithm makes use of an accurate representation of pixel activity (uniform square pixel model of intensity distribution), and is rapidly performed due to the efficient handling of an array based algorithm and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on parallel processing hardware. The algorithm consists of using a pixel driven nearest neighbour projection operation to an array of subdivided projection bins. This result is then convolved with the projected uniform square pixel distribution before being compressed to original bin size. This distribution varies with projection angle and is explicitly calculated. The FFT combined with a frequency space multiplication is used instead of a spatial convolution for more rapid execution. The new algorithm was tested against other commonly used projection algorithms by comparing the accuracy of projections of a simulated transverse section of the abdomen against analytically determined projections of that transverse section. The new algorithm was found to yield comparable or better standard error and yet result in easier and more efficient implementation on parallel hardware. Applications of the algorithm include iterative reconstruction and attenuation correction schemes and evaluation of regions of interest in dynamic and gated SPECT
Representation theory a first course
Fulton, William
1991-01-01
The primary goal of these lectures is to introduce a beginner to the finite dimensional representations of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Since this goal is shared by quite a few other books, we should explain in this Preface how our approach differs, although the potential reader can probably see this better by a quick browse through the book. Representation theory is simple to define: it is the study of the ways in which a given group may act on vector spaces. It is almost certainly unique, however, among such clearly delineated subjects, in the breadth of its interest to mathematicians. This is not surprising: group actions are ubiquitous in 20th century mathematics, and where the object on which a group acts is not a vector space, we have learned to replace it by one that is {e. g. , a cohomology group, tangent space, etc. }. As a consequence, many mathematicians other than specialists in the field {or even those who think they might want to be} come in contact with the subject in various ways. It is for ...
Quiver representations and quiver varieties
Jr, Alexander Kirillov
2016-01-01
This book is an introduction to the theory of quiver representations and quiver varieties, starting with basic definitions and ending with Nakajima's work on quiver varieties and the geometric realization of Kac-Moody Lie algebras. The first part of the book is devoted to the classical theory of quivers of finite type. Here the exposition is mostly self-contained and all important proofs are presented in detail. The second part contains the more recent topics of quiver theory that are related to quivers of infinite type: Coxeter functor, tame and wild quivers, McKay correspondence, and representations of Euclidean quivers. In the third part, topics related to geometric aspects of quiver theory are discussed, such as quiver varieties, Hilbert schemes, and the geometric realization of Kac-Moody algebras. Here some of the more technical proofs are omitted; instead only the statements and some ideas of the proofs are given, and the reader is referred to original papers for details. The exposition in the book requ...
Spacetime representation of topological phononics
Deymier, Pierre A.; Runge, Keith; Lucas, Pierre; Vasseur, Jérôme O.
2018-05-01
Non-conventional topology of elastic waves arises from breaking symmetry of phononic structures either intrinsically through internal resonances or extrinsically via application of external stimuli. We develop a spacetime representation based on twistor theory of an intrinsic topological elastic structure composed of a harmonic chain attached to a rigid substrate. Elastic waves in this structure obey the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations and possesses spinorial character. We demonstrate the mapping between straight line trajectories of these elastic waves in spacetime and the twistor complex space. The twistor representation of these Dirac phonons is related to their topological and fermion-like properties. The second topological phononic structure is an extrinsic structure composed of a one-dimensional elastic medium subjected to a moving superlattice. We report an analogy between the elastic behavior of this time-dependent superlattice, the scalar quantum field theory and general relativity of two types of exotic particle excitations, namely temporal Dirac phonons and temporal ghost (tachyonic) phonons. These phonons live on separate sides of a two-dimensional frequency space and are delimited by ghost lines reminiscent of the conventional light cone. Both phonon types exhibit spinorial amplitudes that can be measured by mapping the particle behavior to the band structure of elastic waves.
Spatial Representation of Ordinal Information
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Meng eZhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Right hand responds faster than left hand when shown larger numbers and vice-versa when shown smaller numbers (the SNARC effect. Accumulating evidence suggests that the SNARC effect may not be exclusive for numbers and can be extended to other ordinal sequences (e.g., months or letters in the alphabet as well. In this study, we tested the SNARC effect with a non-numerically ordered sequence: The Chinese notations for the color spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet. Chinese color word sequence reserves relatively weak ordinal information, because each element color in the sequence normally appears in non-sequential contexts, making it ideal to test the spatial organization of sequential information that was stored in the long-term memory. This study found a reliable SNARC-like effect for Chinese color words (deciding whether the presented color word was before or after the reference color word green, suggesting that, without access to any quantitative information or exposure to any previous training, ordinal representation can still activate a sense of space. The results support that weak ordinal information without quantitative magnitude encoded in the long-term memory can activate spatial representation in a comparison task.
Spatial Representation of Ordinal Information.
Zhang, Meng; Gao, Xuefei; Li, Baichen; Yu, Shuyuan; Gong, Tianwei; Jiang, Ting; Hu, Qingfen; Chen, Yinghe
2016-01-01
Right hand responds faster than left hand when shown larger numbers and vice-versa when shown smaller numbers (the SNARC effect). Accumulating evidence suggests that the SNARC effect may not be exclusive for numbers and can be extended to other ordinal sequences (e.g., months or letters in the alphabet) as well. In this study, we tested the SNARC effect with a non-numerically ordered sequence: the Chinese notations for the color spectrum (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet). Chinese color word sequence reserves relatively weak ordinal information, because each element color in the sequence normally appears in non-sequential contexts, making it ideal to test the spatial organization of sequential information that was stored in the long-term memory. This study found a reliable SNARC-like effect for Chinese color words (deciding whether the presented color word was before or after the reference color word "green"), suggesting that, without access to any quantitative information or exposure to any previous training, ordinal representation can still activate a sense of space. The results support that weak ordinal information without quantitative magnitude encoded in the long-term memory can activate spatial representation in a comparison task.
Cortical representations of communication sounds.
Heiser, Marc A; Cheung, Steven W
2008-10-01
This review summarizes recent research into cortical processing of vocalizations in animals and humans. There has been a resurgent interest in this topic accompanied by an increased number of studies using animal models with complex vocalizations and new methods in human brain imaging. Recent results from such studies are discussed. Experiments have begun to reveal the bilateral cortical fields involved in communication sound processing and the transformations of neural representations that occur among those fields. Advances have also been made in understanding the neuronal basis of interaction between developmental exposures and behavioral experiences with vocalization perception. Exposure to sounds during the developmental period produces large effects on brain responses, as do a variety of specific trained tasks in adults. Studies have also uncovered a neural link between the motor production of vocalizations and the representation of vocalizations in cortex. Parallel experiments in humans and animals are answering important questions about vocalization processing in the central nervous system. This dual approach promises to reveal microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic principles of large-scale dynamic interactions between brain regions that underlie the complex phenomenon of vocalization perception. Such advances will yield a greater understanding of the causes, consequences, and treatment of disorders related to speech processing.
Visual representations of Iranian transgenders.
Shakerifar, Elhum
2011-01-01
Transsexuality in Iran has gained much attention and media coverage in the past few years, particularly in its questionable depiction as a permitted loophole for homosexuality, which is prohibited under Iran's Islamic-inspired legal system. Of course, attention in the West is also encouraged by the “shock” that sex change is available in Iran, a country that Western media and society delights in portraying as monolithically repressive. As a result, Iranian filmmakers inevitably have their own agendas, which are unsurprisingly brought into the film making process—from a desire to sell a product that will appeal to the Western market, to films that endorse specific socio-political agendas. This paper is an attempt to situate sex change and representations of sex change in Iran within a wider theoretical framework than the frequently reiterated conflation with homosexuality, and to open and engage with a wider debate concerning transsexuality in Iran, as well as to specifically analyze the representation of transexuality, in view of its current prominent presence in media.
Real representations of Lie groups and a theorem of H. Pittie
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freitas, R.
1992-01-01
In this paper, we prove a structure theorem of the real representation ring RO(T) as a module over the real representation ring RO(G), where G is a compact, connected and simply connected Lie group and T is a maximal torus of G. This provides a real version to a theorem of H. Pittie. (author). 24 refs
Nicolich, Lorraine McCune; And Others
This collection of conference abstracts focuses on new directions for research on mental representation and early language development. One page summaries are provided on the following topics: Mental Representation and Initial Language Learning, by Lorraine M. Nicolich; Critical Issues in Language and Cognitive Development, by Roberta Corrigan;…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serge B. Provost
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a simplified representation of the exact density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. The odd and even moments of R are also obtained in closed forms. Being expressed in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions, the resulting representations are readily computable. Some numerical examples corroborate the validity of the results derived herein.
Characterising expert representations during real-time action : A Skill Theory application to soccer
Den Hartigh, Ruud J. R.; Van Der Steen, Steffie; De Meij, Mart; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Geert, Paul L. C.
2014-01-01
In various domains, experts are found to possess elaborate domain-specific representations they developed over years. In this study, we provide the first systematic attempt to characterise the short-term representations among individuals with different expertise levels. We showed videos of soccer
Continuous Distributed Representation of Biological Sequences for Deep Proteomics and Genomics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ehsaneddin Asgari
Full Text Available We introduce a new representation and feature extraction method for biological sequences. Named bio-vectors (BioVec to refer to biological sequences in general with protein-vectors (ProtVec for proteins (amino-acid sequences and gene-vectors (GeneVec for gene sequences, this representation can be widely used in applications of deep learning in proteomics and genomics. In the present paper, we focus on protein-vectors that can be utilized in a wide array of bioinformatics investigations such as family classification, protein visualization, structure prediction, disordered protein identification, and protein-protein interaction prediction. In this method, we adopt artificial neural network approaches and represent a protein sequence with a single dense n-dimensional vector. To evaluate this method, we apply it in classification of 324,018 protein sequences obtained from Swiss-Prot belonging to 7,027 protein families, where an average family classification accuracy of 93%±0.06% is obtained, outperforming existing family classification methods. In addition, we use ProtVec representation to predict disordered proteins from structured proteins. Two databases of disordered sequences are used: the DisProt database as well as a database featuring the disordered regions of nucleoporins rich with phenylalanine-glycine repeats (FG-Nups. Using support vector machine classifiers, FG-Nup sequences are distinguished from structured protein sequences found in Protein Data Bank (PDB with a 99.8% accuracy, and unstructured DisProt sequences are differentiated from structured DisProt sequences with 100.0% accuracy. These results indicate that by only providing sequence data for various proteins into this model, accurate information about protein structure can be determined. Importantly, this model needs to be trained only once and can then be applied to extract a comprehensive set of information regarding proteins of interest. Moreover, this representation can be
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten
2012-01-01
Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active...... related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein...... sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally...
Analytic representations of Yang–Mills amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bourjaily, Jacob L., E-mail: bourjaily@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Feng, Bo [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou City, 310027 (China)
2016-12-15
Scattering amplitudes in Yang–Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space—fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Möbius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is the foundations of a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang–Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.
Knowledge representation for decision support systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Methlie, L.B.
1985-01-01
This book is organized into three sections in accordance with the structure of the conference program. First section contains four major papers which were commissioned by the Programme Committee to set the tone for the conference and to provide a structured source of relevant material from contributing disciplines. The second section contains specific papers submitted to the conference, and concerned with the following topics of specific interest: epistemological issues for decision support systems (DSS), capturing organizational knowledge for DSS, complementarity between human and formal DSS, and representations for adaption. The third section contains the short papers on any topic of relevance to the theme of the conference. It is hoped that the two working conferences organized by WG 8.3 will contribute to the development of a coherent knowledge and understanding of the class of computerized information systems called Decision Support Systems. (Auth.)
Proportional representation apportionment methods and their applications
Pukelsheim, Friedrich
2017-01-01
The book offers an in-depth study of the translation of vote counts into seat numbers in proportional representation systems – an approach guided by practical needs. It also provides plenty of empirical instances illustrating the results. It analyzes in detail the 2014 elections to the European Parliament in the 28 member states, as well as the 2009 and 2013 elections to the German Bundestag. This second edition is a complete revision and expanded version of the first edition published in 2014, and many empirical election results that serve as examples have been updated. Further, a final chapter has been added assembling biographical sketches and authoritative quotes from individuals who pioneered the development of apportionment methodology. The mathematical exposition and the interrelations with political science and constitutional jurisprudence make this an apt resource for interdisciplinary courses and seminars on electoral systems and apportionment methods.
A Model of Representational Spaces in Human Cortex.
Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Hanke, Michael; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Connolly, Andrew C; Ramadge, Peter J; Haxby, James V
2016-06-01
Current models of the functional architecture of human cortex emphasize areas that capture coarse-scale features of cortical topography but provide no account for population responses that encode information in fine-scale patterns of activity. Here, we present a linear model of shared representational spaces in human cortex that captures fine-scale distinctions among population responses with response-tuning basis functions that are common across brains and models cortical patterns of neural responses with individual-specific topographic basis functions. We derive a common model space for the whole cortex using a new algorithm, searchlight hyperalignment, and complex, dynamic stimuli that provide a broad sampling of visual, auditory, and social percepts. The model aligns representations across brains in occipital, temporal, parietal, and prefrontal cortices, as shown by between-subject multivariate pattern classification and intersubject correlation of representational geometry, indicating that structural principles for shared neural representations apply across widely divergent domains of information. The model provides a rigorous account for individual variability of well-known coarse-scale topographies, such as retinotopy and category selectivity, and goes further to account for fine-scale patterns that are multiplexed with coarse-scale topographies and carry finer distinctions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Lu
Full Text Available Modern cochlear implant (CI users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.
Accurate estimation of indoor travel times
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan
2014-01-01
The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...
On accurate determination of contact angle
Concus, P.; Finn, R.
1992-01-01
Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.
Software Estimation: Developing an Accurate, Reliable Method
2011-08-01
based and size-based estimates is able to accurately plan, launch, and execute on schedule. Bob Sinclair, NAWCWD Chris Rickets , NAWCWD Brad Hodgins...Office by Carnegie Mellon University. SMPSP and SMTSP are service marks of Carnegie Mellon University. 1. Rickets , Chris A, “A TSP Software Maintenance...Life Cycle”, CrossTalk, March, 2005. 2. Koch, Alan S, “TSP Can Be the Building blocks for CMMI”, CrossTalk, March, 2005. 3. Hodgins, Brad, Rickets
Accurate multiplicity scaling in isotopically conjugate reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golokhvastov, A.I.
1989-01-01
The generation of accurate scaling of mutiplicity distributions is presented. The distributions of π - mesons (negative particles) and π + mesons in different nucleon-nucleon interactions (PP, NP and NN) are described by the same universal function Ψ(z) and the same energy dependence of the scale parameter which determines the stretching factor for the unit function Ψ(z) to obtain the desired multiplicity distribution. 29 refs.; 6 figs
Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions
Thornton, Mark A.; Tamir, Diana I.
2017-01-01
Successful social interactions depend on people’s ability to predict others’ future actions and emotions. People possess many mechanisms for perceiving others’ current emotional states, but how might they use this information to predict others’ future states? We hypothesized that people might capitalize on an overlooked aspect of affective experience: current emotions predict future emotions. By attending to regularities in emotion transitions, perceivers might develop accurate mental models of others’ emotional dynamics. People could then use these mental models of emotion transitions to predict others’ future emotions from currently observable emotions. To test this hypothesis, studies 1–3 used data from three extant experience-sampling datasets to establish the actual rates of emotional transitions. We then collected three parallel datasets in which participants rated the transition likelihoods between the same set of emotions. Participants’ ratings of emotion transitions predicted others’ experienced transitional likelihoods with high accuracy. Study 4 demonstrated that four conceptual dimensions of mental state representation—valence, social impact, rationality, and human mind—inform participants’ mental models. Study 5 used 2 million emotion reports on the Experience Project to replicate both of these findings: again people reported accurate models of emotion transitions, and these models were informed by the same four conceptual dimensions. Importantly, neither these conceptual dimensions nor holistic similarity could fully explain participants’ accuracy, suggesting that their mental models contain accurate information about emotion dynamics above and beyond what might be predicted by static emotion knowledge alone. PMID:28533373
Braid group representation on quantum computation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aziz, Ryan Kasyfil, E-mail: kasyfilryan@gmail.com [Department of Computational Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia); Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan, E-mail: ntan@math.itb.ac.id [Algebra Research Group, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
There are many studies about topological representation of quantum computation recently. One of diagram representation of quantum computation is by using ZX-Calculus. In this paper we will make a diagrammatical scheme of Dense Coding. We also proved that ZX-Calculus diagram of maximally entangle state satisfies Yang-Baxter Equation and therefore, we can construct a Braid Group representation of set of maximally entangle state.
Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta
2014-01-01
Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....
Social representations of climate change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BOY, D.
2013-01-01
Each year since 2000, the French 'ADEME' (Agency for Environment and Energy Management) conducts a survey on the social representations of greenhouse effect and global warming. This survey is administered by telephone to a representative sample of the French population. The information gathered in the database can answer a series of basic questions concerning public perception in this area. What do the concepts of 'greenhouse effect' and 'global warming' mean for the public? To what extent do people think there is a consensus among scientists to explain these phenomena? Is responsibility for human action clearly established? What kind of solutions, based on public regulation or private initiative can help to remedy this situation? Finally, what were the major changes in public opinion over this 12 years period? (author)
Standardization of beam line representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carey, David C.
1998-01-01
Standardization of beam line representations means that a single set of data can be used in many situations to represent a beam line. This set of data should be the same no matter what the program to be run or the calculation to be made. We have concerned ourselves with three types of standardization: (1) The same set of data should be usable by different programs. (2) The inclusion of other items in the data, such as calculations to be done, units to be used, or preliminary specifications, should be in a notation similar to the lattice specification. (3) A single set of data should be used to represent a given beam line, no matter what is being modified or calculated. The specifics of what is to be modified or calculated can be edited into the data as part of the calculation. These three requirements all have aspects not previously discussed in a public forum. Implementations into TRANSPORT will be discussed
Standardization of beam line representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carey, David C.
1999-01-01
Standardization of beam line representations means that a single set of data can be used in many situations to represent a beam line. This set of data should be the same no matter what the program to be run or the calculation to be made. We have concerned ourselves with three types of standardization: (1) The same set of data should be usable by different programs. (2) The inclusion of other items in the data, such as calculations to be done, units to be used, or preliminary specifications, should be in a notation similar to the lattice specification. (3) A single set of data should be used to represent a given beam line, no matter what is being modified or calculated. The specifics of what is to be modified or calculated can be edited into the data as part of the calculation. These three requirements all have aspects not previously discussed in a public forum. Implementations into TRANSPORT will be discussed
Style representation in design grammars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland
2012-01-01
The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...
Local normality properties of some infrared representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doplicher, S.; Spera, M.
1983-01-01
We consider the positive energy representations of the algebra of quasilocal observables for the free massless Majorana field described in preceding papers. We show that by an appropriate choice of the (partially) occupied one particle modes we can find irreducible, type IIsub(infinite) or IIIsub(lambda) representations in this class which are unitarily equivalent to the vacuum representation when restricted to any forward light cone and disjoint from it when restricted to any backward light cone, or conversely. We give an elementary explicit proof of local normality of each representation in the above class. (orig.)
Distorted representation in visual tourism research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin Trandberg
2016-01-01
how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data....... The paper exemplifies distorted representation through three impressionistic tales derived from ethnographic research on the European rail travel phenomenon: interrail.......Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations...
Taking representation seriously: rethinking bioethics through Clint Eastwood's Million Dollar Baby.
Braswell, Harold
2011-06-01
In this article, I propose a new model for understanding the function of representation in bioethics. Bioethicists have traditionally judged representations according to a mimetic paradigm, in which representations of bioethical dilemmas are assessed based on their correspondence to the "reality" of bioethics itself. In this article, I argue that this mimetic paradigm obscures the interaction between representation and reality and diverts bioethicists from analyzing the tensions in the representational object itself. I propose an anti-mimetic model of representation that is attuned to how representations can both maintain and potentially subvert dominant conceptions of bioethics. I illustrate this model through a case study of Clint Eastwood's film Million Dollar Baby. By focusing attention on the film's lack of adherence bioethical procedures and medical science, critics missed how an analysis of its representational logic provides a means of reimagining both bioethics and medical practice. In my conclusion, I build off this case study to assess how an incorporation of representational studies can deepen-and be deepened by-recent calls for interdisciplinarity in bioethics.
Brayanov, Jordan B; Press, Daniel Z; Smith, Maurice A
2012-10-24
Actions can be planned in either an intrinsic (body-based) reference frame or an extrinsic (world-based) frame, and understanding how the internal representations associated with these frames contribute to the learning of motor actions is a key issue in motor control. We studied the internal representation of this learning in human subjects by analyzing generalization patterns across an array of different movement directions and workspaces after training a visuomotor rotation in a single movement direction in one workspace. This provided a dense sampling of the generalization function across intrinsic and extrinsic reference frames, which allowed us to dissociate intrinsic and extrinsic representations and determine the manner in which they contributed to the motor memory for a trained action. A first experiment showed that the generalization pattern reflected a memory that was intermediate between intrinsic and extrinsic representations. A second experiment showed that this intermediate representation could not arise from separate intrinsic and extrinsic learning. Instead, we find that the representation of learning is based on a gain-field combination of local representations in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates. This gain-field representation generalizes between actions by effectively computing similarity based on the (Mahalanobis) distance across intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates and is in line with neural recordings showing mixed intrinsic-extrinsic representations in motor and parietal cortices.
A Representation System User Interface for Knowledge Base Designers
Fikes, Richard E.
1982-01-01
A major strength of frame-based knowledge representation languages is their ability to provide the knowledge base designer with a concise and intuitively appealing means expression. The claim of intuitive appeal is based on the observation that the object -centered style of description provided by these languages often closely matches a designer's understanding of the domain being modeled and therefore lessens the burden of reformulation involved in developing a formal description. To be effe...
Knowledge representation within information systems in manufacturing environments
Sharif, Amir M
2004-01-01
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Representing knowledge as information content alone is insufficient in providing us with an understanding of the world around us. A combination of context as well as reasoning of the information content is fundamental to representing knowledge in an information system. Knowledge Representation is typically concerned with providing structures and theories that are used as a basis for intellige...
Shared liking and association valence for representational art but not abstract art.
Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Pullen, Sarah J; Kirkham, Julie
2015-01-01
We examined the finding that aesthetic evaluations are more similar across observers for representational images than for abstract images. It has been proposed that a difference in convergence of observers' tastes is due to differing levels of shared semantic associations (Vessel & Rubin, 2010). In Experiment 1, student participants rated 20 representational and 20 abstract artworks. We found that their judgments were more similar for representational than abstract artworks. In Experiment 2, we replicated this finding, and also found that valence ratings given to associations and meanings provided in response to the artworks converged more across observers for representational than for abstract art. Our empirical work provides insight into processes that may underlie the observation that taste for representational art is shared across individual observers, while taste for abstract art is more idiosyncratic.
Dweck, Carol S
2017-11-01
Drawing on both classic and current approaches, I propose a theory that integrates motivation, personality, and development within one framework, using a common set of principles and mechanisms. The theory begins by specifying basic needs and by suggesting how, as people pursue need-fulfilling goals, they build mental representations of their experiences (beliefs, representations of emotions, and representations of action tendencies). I then show how these needs, goals, and representations can serve as the basis of both motivation and personality, and can help to integrate disparate views of personality. The article builds on this framework to provide a new perspective on development, particularly on the forces that propel development and the roles of nature and nurture. I argue throughout that the focus on representations provides an important entry point for change and growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beatriz Diuk
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among vocabulary knowledge, phonological representations and phonological sensitivity in 80 Spanish-speaking preschool children from middle- and low-SES families. Significant social class differences were obtained on all tasks except syllable matching. Regression analyses were carried out to test the predictive power of vocabulary knowledge and accuracy of phonological representations on the phonological sensitivity measures. Receptive vocabulary predicted rhyme identification. Syllable matching was predicted by a task tapping accuracy of phonological representations. The fact that rhyme identification was predicted by vocabulary knowledge but syllable matching was predicted by a measure tapping accuracy of phonological representations in both groups suggests that early lexical development sets the stage for the development of the lower levels of phonological sensitivity but identification of smaller units requires more accurate and segmented phonological representations.
Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene
2018-01-01
This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; M age = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
An accurate determination of the flux within a slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.; Lapenta, G.
1993-01-01
During the past decade, several articles have been written concerning accurate solutions to the monoenergetic neutron transport equation in infinite and semi-infinite geometries. The numerical formulations found in these articles were based primarily on the extensive theoretical investigations performed by the open-quotes transport greatsclose quotes such as Chandrasekhar, Busbridge, Sobolev, and Ivanov, to name a few. The development of numerical solutions in infinite and semi-infinite geometries represents an example of how mathematical transport theory can be utilized to provide highly accurate and efficient numerical transport solutions. These solutions, or analytical benchmarks, are useful as open-quotes industry standards,close quotes which provide guidance to code developers and promote learning in the classroom. The high accuracy of these benchmarks is directly attributable to the rapid advancement of the state of computing and computational methods. Transport calculations that were beyond the capability of the open-quotes supercomputersclose quotes of just a few years ago are now possible at one's desk. In this paper, we again build upon the past to tackle the slab problem, which is of the next level of difficulty in comparison to infinite media problems. The formulation is based on the monoenergetic Green's function, which is the most fundamental transport solution. This method of solution requires a fast and accurate evaluation of the Green's function, which, with today's computational power, is now readily available
The role of spatial boundaries in shaping long-term event representations.
Horner, Aidan J; Bisby, James A; Wang, Aijing; Bogus, Katrina; Burgess, Neil
2016-09-01
When remembering the past, we typically recall 'events' that are bounded in time and space. However, as we navigate our environment our senses receive a continuous stream of information. How do we create discrete long-term episodic memories from continuous input? Although previous research has provided evidence for a role of spatial boundaries in the online segmentation of our sensory experience within working memory, it is not known how this segmentation contributes to subsequent long-term episodic memory. Here we show that the presence of a spatial boundary at encoding (a doorway between two rooms) impairs participants' later ability to remember the order that objects were presented in. A sequence of two objects presented in the same room in a virtual reality environment is more accurately remembered than a sequence of two objects presented in adjoining rooms. The results are captured by a simple model in which items are associated to a context representation that changes gradually over time, and changes more rapidly when crossing a spatial boundary. We therefore provide the first evidence that the structure of long-term episodic memory is shaped by the presence of a spatial boundary and provide constraints on the nature of the interaction between working memory and long-term memory. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
LGBT Representations on Facebook : Representations of the Self and the Content
Chu, Yawen
2017-01-01
The topic of LGBT rights has been increasingly discussed and debated over recent years. More and more scholars show their interests in the field of LGBT representations in media. However, not many studies involved LGBT representations in social media. This paper explores LGBT representations on Facebook by analysing posts on an open page and in a private group, including both representations of the self as the identity of sexual minorities, content that is displayed on Facebook and the simila...
Accurate genotyping across variant classes and lengths using variant graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sibbesen, Jonas Andreas; Maretty, Lasse; Jensen, Jacob Malte
2018-01-01
of read k-mers to a graph representation of the reference and variants to efficiently perform unbiased, probabilistic genotyping across the variation spectrum. We demonstrate that BayesTyper generally provides superior variant sensitivity and genotyping accuracy relative to existing methods when used...... collecting a set of candidate variants across discovery methods, individuals and databases, and then realigning the reads to the variants and reference simultaneously. However, this realignment problem has proved computationally difficult. Here, we present a new method (BayesTyper) that uses exact alignment...... to integrate variants across discovery approaches and individuals. Finally, we demonstrate that including a ‘variation-prior’ database containing already known variants significantly improves sensitivity....
The first accurate description of an aurora
Schröder, Wilfried
2006-12-01
As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.
Accurate Charge Densities from Powder Diffraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bindzus, Niels; Wahlberg, Nanna; Becker, Jacob
Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction has in recent years advanced to a level, where it has become realistic to probe extremely subtle electronic features. Compared to single-crystal diffraction, it may be superior for simple, high-symmetry crystals owing to negligible extinction effects and minimal...... peak overlap. Additionally, it offers the opportunity for collecting data on a single scale. For charge densities studies, the critical task is to recover accurate and bias-free structure factors from the diffraction pattern. This is the focal point of the present study, scrutinizing the performance...
Arbitrarily accurate twin composite π -pulse sequences
Torosov, Boyan T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2018-04-01
We present three classes of symmetric broadband composite pulse sequences. The composite phases are given by analytic formulas (rational fractions of π ) valid for any number of constituent pulses. The transition probability is expressed by simple analytic formulas and the order of pulse area error compensation grows linearly with the number of pulses. Therefore, any desired compensation order can be produced by an appropriate composite sequence; in this sense, they are arbitrarily accurate. These composite pulses perform equally well as or better than previously published ones. Moreover, the current sequences are more flexible as they allow total pulse areas of arbitrary integer multiples of π .
Systematization of Accurate Discrete Optimization Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Ovchinnikov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The object of study of this paper is to define accurate methods for solving combinatorial optimization problems of structural synthesis. The aim of the work is to systemize the exact methods of discrete optimization and define their applicability to solve practical problems.The article presents the analysis, generalization and systematization of classical methods and algorithms described in the educational and scientific literature.As a result of research a systematic presentation of combinatorial methods for discrete optimization described in various sources is given, their capabilities are described and properties of the tasks to be solved using the appropriate methods are specified.
A Highly Accurate Approach for Aeroelastic System with Hysteresis Nonlinearity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. C. Cui
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an accurate approach, based on the precise integration method, to solve the aeroelastic system of an airfoil with a pitch hysteresis. A major procedure for achieving high precision is to design a predictor-corrector algorithm. This algorithm enables accurate determination of switching points resulting from the hysteresis. Numerical examples show that the results obtained by the presented method are in excellent agreement with exact solutions. In addition, the high accuracy can be maintained as the time step increases in a reasonable range. It is also found that the Runge-Kutta method may sometimes provide quite different and even fallacious results, though the step length is much less than that adopted in the presented method. With such high computational accuracy, the presented method could be applicable in dynamical systems with hysteresis nonlinearities.
FATHERS' AND MOTHERS' REPRESENTATIONS OF THE INFANT: ASSOCIATIONS WITH PRENATAL RISK FACTORS.
Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A
2015-01-01
Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kisslinger, J.
2005-01-01
The paper presents a new simple and accurate numerical field-line mapping technique providing a high-quality representation of field lines as required by a Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport in the complex magnetic boundaries of three-dimensional (3D) toroidal fusion devices. Using a toroidal sequence of precomputed 3D finite flux-tube meshes, the method advances field lines through a simple bilinear, forward/backward symmetric interpolation at the interfaces between two adjacent flux tubes. It is a reversible field-line mapping (RFLM) algorithm ensuring a continuous and unique reconstruction of field lines at any point of the 3D boundary. The reversibility property has a strong impact on the efficiency of modeling the highly anisotropic plasma edge transport in general closed or open configurations of arbitrary ergodicity as it avoids artificial cross-field diffusion of the fast parallel transport. For stellarator-symmetric magnetic configurations, which are the standard case for stellarators, the reversibility additionally provides an average cancellation of the radial interpolation errors of field lines circulating around closed magnetic flux surfaces. The RFLM technique has been implemented in the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE and is used routinely for plasma transport modeling in the boundaries of several low-shear and high-shear stellarators as well as in the boundary of a tokamak with 3D magnetic edge perturbations
A multiple regression analysis for accurate background subtraction in 99Tcm-DTPA renography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Middleton, G.W.; Thomson, W.H.; Davies, I.H.; Morgan, A.
1989-01-01
A technique for accurate background subtraction in 99 Tc m -DTPA renography is described. The technique is based on a multiple regression analysis of the renal curves and separate heart and soft tissue curves which together represent background activity. It is compared, in over 100 renograms, with a previously described linear regression technique. Results show that the method provides accurate background subtraction, even in very poorly functioning kidneys, thus enabling relative renal filtration and excretion to be accurately estimated. (author)
Improving Representational Competence with Concrete Models
Stieff, Mike; Scopelitis, Stephanie; Lira, Matthew E.; DeSutter, Dane
2016-01-01
Representational competence is a primary contributor to student learning in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines and an optimal target for instruction at all educational levels. We describe the design and implementation of a learning activity that uses concrete models to improve students' representational competence and…
Numerical Magnitude Representations Influence Arithmetic Learning
Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.
2008-01-01
This study examined whether the quality of first graders' (mean age = 7.2 years) numerical magnitude representations is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to their arithmetic learning. The children's pretest numerical magnitude representations were found to be correlated with their pretest arithmetic knowledge and to be…
Representations of the Magnitudes of Fractions
Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S.
2010-01-01
We tested whether adults can use integrated, analog, magnitude representations to compare the values of fractions. The only previous study on this question concluded that even college students cannot form such representations and instead compare fraction magnitudes by representing numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers. However,…
Drawings as Representations of Children's Conceptions
Ehrlen, Karin
2009-01-01
Drawings are often used to obtain an idea of children's conceptions. Doing so takes for granted an unambiguous relation between conceptions and their representations in drawings. This study was undertaken to gain knowledge of the relation between children's conceptions and their representation of these conceptions in drawings. A theory of…
Dynamic representations on the interactive whiteboard
van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan; de Vries, Erica; Scheiter, Katharina
2012-01-01
In this study we assessed whether presenting dynamic representations on an IWB would lead to better learning gains compared to presenting static representations. Participants were 7-8 year old primary school children learning about views (N = 151) and the water cycle (N = 182). The results showed
An Axiomatic Representation of System Dynamics
Baianu, I
2004-01-01
An axiomatic representation of system dynamics is introduced in terms of categories, functors, organismal supercategories, limits and colimits of diagrams. Specific examples are considered in Complex Systems Biology, such as ribosome biogenesis and Hormonal Control in human subjects. "Fuzzy" Relational Structures are also proposed for flexible representations of biological system dynamics and organization.
A Distributional Representation Model For Collaborative Filtering
Junlin, Zhang; Heng, Cai; Tongwen, Huang; Huiping, Xue
2015-01-01
In this paper, we propose a very concise deep learning approach for collaborative filtering that jointly models distributional representation for users and items. The proposed framework obtains better performance when compared against current state-of-art algorithms and that made the distributional representation model a promising direction for further research in the collaborative filtering.
Freeform surface descriptions. Part I: Mathematical representations
Broemel, Anika; Lippmann, Uwe; Gross, Herbert
2017-10-01
Optical systems can benefit strongly from freeform surfaces; however, the choice of the right surface representation is not trivial and many aspects must be considered. In this work, we discuss the general approach classical globally defined representations, as well as the basic mathematics and properties of the most commonly used descriptions and present a new description developed by us for describing freeform surfaces.
Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations
1988-05-01
Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to
Phase space representations for spin23
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polubarinov, I.V.
1991-01-01
General properties of spin matrices and density ones are considered for any spin s. For spin 2 3 phase space representations are constructed. Representations, similar to the Bell one, for the correlator of projections of two spins 2 3 in the singlet state are found. Quantum analogs of the Bell inequality are obtained. 14 refs
Geometric Representations for Discrete Fourier Transforms
Cambell, C. W.
1986-01-01
Simple geometric representations show symmetry and periodicity of discrete Fourier transforms (DFT's). Help in visualizing requirements for storing and manipulating transform value in computations. Representations useful in any number of dimensions, but particularly in one-, two-, and three-dimensional cases often encountered in practice.
Klein Topological Field Theories from Group Representations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey A. Loktev
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We show that any complex (respectively real representation of finite group naturally generates a open-closed (respectively Klein topological field theory over complex numbers. We relate the 1-point correlator for the projective plane in this theory with the Frobenius-Schur indicator on the representation. We relate any complex simple Klein TFT to a real division ring.
Minimal representations and Freudenthal triple systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, D.
2004-01-01
Unitary representations of noncompact Lie groups have long been sought in physics. The first nice concrete construction was found by Dirac in connection with the anti-de Sitter group. Some subsequent generalizations will be described, in particular the minimal representation thought to be relevant to realising duality in supergravity superstring theories. A relation to Freudenthal triple systems will be described. (author)
Parts, Cavities, and Object Representation in Infancy
Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole
2011-01-01
Part representation is not only critical to object perception but also plays a key role in a number of basic visual cognition functions, such as figure-ground segregation, allocation of attention, and memory for shapes. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the development of part representation. If parts are fundamental components of object shape…
Constitutionalising the Right Legal Representation at CCMA ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...
Student Teachers' Knowledge about Chemical Representations
Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka
2017-01-01
Chemical representations serve as a communication tool not only in exchanges between scientists but also in chemistry lessons. The goals of the present study were to measure the extent of student teachers' knowledge about chemical representations, focusing on chemical formulae and structures in particular, and to explore which factors related to…
Algebraic and analytic methods in representation theory
Schlichtkrull, Henrik
1996-01-01
This book is a compilation of several works from well-recognized figures in the field of Representation Theory. The presentation of the topic is unique in offering several different points of view, which should makethe book very useful to students and experts alike.Presents several different points of view on key topics in representation theory, from internationally known experts in the field
ON REGRESSION REPRESENTATIONS OF STOCHASTIC-PROCESSES
RUSCHENDORF, L; DEVALK, [No Value
We construct a.s. nonlinear regression representations of general stochastic processes (X(n))n is-an-element-of N. As a consequence we obtain in particular special regression representations of Markov chains and of certain m-dependent sequences. For m-dependent sequences we obtain a constructive
Providing Music Notation Services over Internet
Solomon , Mike; Fober , Dominique; Orlarey , Yann; Letz , Stéphane
2014-01-01
International audience; The GUIDO project gathers a textual format for music representation, a rendering engine operating on this format, and a library providing a high level support for all the services related to the GUIDO format and it's graphic rendering. The project includes now an HTTP server that allows users to access the musical-score-related functions in the API of the GUIDOEngine library via uniform resource identifiers (URIs). This article resumes the core tenants of the REST arch...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Xiankun; Cui, Yan; Hu, Jianjun; Xu, Guangyin; Yu, Yongchang
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Lambert W-function based exact representation (LBER) is presented for double diode model (DDM). • Fitness difference between LBER and DDM is verified by reported parameter values. • The proposed LBER can better represent the I–V and P–V characteristics of solar cells. • Parameter extraction difference between LBER and DDM is validated by two algorithms. • The parameter values extracted from LBER are more accurate than those from DDM. - Abstract: Accurate modeling and parameter extraction of solar cells play an important role in the simulation and optimization of PV systems. This paper presents a Lambert W-function based exact representation (LBER) for traditional double diode model (DDM) of solar cells, and then compares their fitness and parameter extraction performance. Unlike existing works, the proposed LBER is rigorously derived from DDM, and in LBER the coefficients of Lambert W-function are not extra parameters to be extracted or arbitrary scalars but the vectors of terminal voltage and current of solar cells. The fitness difference between LBER and DDM is objectively validated by the reported parameter values and experimental I–V data of a solar cell and four solar modules from different technologies. The comparison results indicate that under the same parameter values, the proposed LBER can better represent the I–V and P–V characteristics of solar cells and provide a closer representation to actual maximum power points of all module types. Two different algorithms are used to compare the parameter extraction performance of LBER and DDM. One is our restart-based bound constrained Nelder-Mead (rbcNM) algorithm implemented in Matlab, and the other is the reported R_c_r-IJADE algorithm executed in Visual Studio. The comparison results reveal that, the parameter values extracted from LBER using two algorithms are always more accurate and robust than those from DDM despite more time consuming. As an improved version of DDM, the
Accurate shear measurement with faint sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao
2015-01-01
For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys
How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A
2004-01-01
I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K eff , for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chocholoušová, Jana; Feig, M.
2006-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 6 (2006), s. 719-729 ISSN 0192-8651 Keywords : molecular surface * generalized Born formalisms * molecular dynamic simulations Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.893, year: 2006
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Yang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Normally, polarimetric SAR classification is a high-dimensional nonlinear mapping problem. In the realm of pattern recognition, sparse representation is a very efficacious and powerful approach. As classical descriptors of polarimetric SAR, covariance and coherency matrices are Hermitian semidefinite and form a Riemannian manifold. Conventional Euclidean metrics are not suitable for a Riemannian manifold, and hence, normal sparse representation classification cannot be applied to polarimetric SAR directly. This paper proposes a new land cover classification approach for polarimetric SAR. There are two principal novelties in this paper. First, a Stein kernel on a Riemannian manifold instead of Euclidean metrics, combined with sparse representation, is employed for polarimetric SAR land cover classification. This approach is named Stein-sparse representation-based classification (SRC. Second, using simultaneous sparse representation and reasonable assumptions of the correlation of representation among different frequency bands, Stein-SRC is generalized to simultaneous Stein-SRC for multi-frequency polarimetric SAR classification. These classifiers are assessed using polarimetric SAR images from the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR sensor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and the Electromagnetics Institute Synthetic Aperture Radar (EMISAR sensor of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU. Experiments on single-band and multi-band data both show that these approaches acquire more accurate classification results in comparison to many conventional and advanced classifiers.
Exploration of solids based on representation systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Publio Suárez Sotomonte
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This article refers to some of the findings of a research project implemented as a teaching strategy to generate environments for the learning of platonic and archimedean solids, with a group of eighth grade students. This strategy was based on the meaningful learning approach and on the use of representation systems using the ontosemiotic approach in mathematical education, as a framework for the construction of mathematical concepts. This geometry teaching strategy adopts the stages of exploration, representation-modeling, formal construction and study of applications. It uses concrete, physical and tangible materials for origami, die making, and structures for the construction of threedimensional solids considered external tangible solid representation systems, as well as computer based educational tools to design dynamic geometry environments as intangible external representation systems.These strategies support both the imagination and internal systems of representation, fundamental to the comprehension of geometry concepts.
Operator representation for effective realistic interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Dennis; Feldmeier, Hans; Neff, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)
2013-07-01
We present a method to derive an operator representation from the partial wave matrix elements of effective realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. This method allows to employ modern effective interactions, which are mostly given in matrix element representation, also in nuclear many-body methods requiring explicitly the operator representation, for example ''Fermionic Molecular Dynamics'' (FMD). We present results for the operator representation of effective interactions obtained from the Argonne V18 potential with the Uenitary Correlation Operator Method'' (UCOM) and the ''Similarity Renormalization Group'' (SRG). Moreover, the operator representation allows a better insight in the nonlocal structure of the potential: While the UCOM transformed potential only shows a quadratic momentum dependence, the momentum dependence of SRG transformed potentials is beyond such a simple polynomial form.
ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honda, Masazumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.
ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi
2013-06-01
We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.
When data representation compromise data security
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Dahl, Mads Ronald
WHEN DATA REPRESENTATION COMPROMISE DATA SECURITY The workflow of transforming data into informative representations makes extensive usage of computers and software. Scientists have a conventional tradition for producing publications that include tables and graphs as data representations....... These representations can be used for multiple purposes such as publications in journals, teaching and conference material. But when created, stored and distributed in a digital form there is a risk of compromising data security. Data beyond the once used specifically to create the representation can be included...... on the internet over many years? A new legislation proposed in 2012 by the European Commission on protection of personal data will be implemented from 2015. The new law will impose sanction options ranging from a warning to a fine up to 100.000.000 EUR. We argue that this new law will lead to especially...
AIC identifies optimal representation of longitudinal dietary variables.
VanBuren, John; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Marshall, Teresa; Warren, John; Levy, Steven M
2017-09-01
The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a well-known tool for variable selection in multivariable modeling as well as a tool to help identify the optimal representation of explanatory variables. However, it has been discussed infrequently in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of AIC in determining the optimal representation of dietary variables in a longitudinal dental study. The Iowa Fluoride Study enrolled children at birth and dental examinations were conducted at ages 5, 9, 13, and 17. Decayed or filled surfaces (DFS) trend clusters were created based on age 13 DFS counts and age 13-17 DFS increments. Dietary intake data (water, milk, 100 percent-juice, and sugar sweetened beverages) were collected semiannually using a food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to predict DFS cluster membership (n=344). Multiple approaches could be used to represent the dietary data including averaging across all collected surveys or over different shorter time periods to capture age-specific trends or using the individual time points of dietary data. AIC helped identify the optimal representation. Averaging data for all four dietary variables for the whole period from age 9.0 to 17.0 provided a better representation in the multivariable full model (AIC=745.0) compared to other methods assessed in full models (AICs=750.6 for age 9 and 9-13 increment dietary measurements and AIC=762.3 for age 9, 13, and 17 individual measurements). The results illustrate that AIC can help researchers identify the optimal way to summarize information for inclusion in a statistical model. The method presented here can be used by researchers performing statistical modeling in dental research. This method provides an alternative approach for assessing the propriety of variable representation to significance-based procedures, which could potentially lead to improved research in the dental community. © 2017 American
An Equivalent LMI Representation of Bounded Real Lemma for Continuous-Time Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xie Wei
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract An equivalent linear matrix inequality (LMI representation of bounded real lemma (BRL for linear continuous-time systems is introduced. As to LTI system including polytopic-type uncertainties, by using a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function, there are several LMIs-based formulations for the analysis and synthesis of performance. All of these representations only provide us with different sufficient conditions. Compared with previous methods, this new representation proposed here provides us the possibility to obtain better results. Finally, some numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness of proposed method.
Multi-representation based on scientific investigation for enhancing students’ representation skills
Siswanto, J.; Susantini, E.; Jatmiko, B.
2018-03-01
This research aims to implementation learning physics with multi-representation based on the scientific investigation for enhancing students’ representation skills, especially on the magnetic field subject. The research design is one group pretest-posttest. This research was conducted in the department of mathematics education, Universitas PGRI Semarang, with the sample is students of class 2F who take basic physics courses. The data were obtained by representation skills test and documentation of multi-representation worksheet. The Results show gain analysis value of .64 which means some medium improvements. The result of t-test (α = .05) is shows p-value = .001. This learning significantly improves students representation skills.
Mental Representations in Art Discourse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katja Sudec
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper starts by examining the content included in the museum environment, where I write about the type of relations that emerge in a museum or artistic setting. This is followed by an observation of a social act (socialising and a chapter on the use of food in an artistic venue. At the end, I address art education via the format that I developed at the 6th Berlin Biennale. This is followed by an overview of the cognitive model of the fort-da game based on Freud’s theory via two discourse models. Here, I address discourse on art works in the form of a lecture or reading, where the art space is fictitiously present, and then move on to discuss discourse on art works in real, “present” art space. This is followed by a section on actions (Handlungen in German and methods supporting the fort-da model. The last part of the article examines the issue of “mental representations”, defining and explaining the function of mental representations with regard to the target audience of the blind and visually impaired.
Chemical thermodynamic representations of and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besmann, T.M.; Lindemer, T.B.
1985-01-01
All available oxygen potential-temperature-composition data for the calcium fluorite-structure sup(**) phase were retrieved from the literature and utilized in the development of a binary solid solution representation of the phase. The data and phase relations are found to be best described by a solution of [Pusub(4/3)O 2 ] and [PuO 2 ] with a temperature dependent interaction energy. The fluorite-structure is assumed to be represented by a combination of the binaries and , and thus treated as a solution of [Pusub(4/3)O 2 ], [PuO 2 ], [UO 2 ], and either [U 2 Osub(4.5)] or [U 3 O 7 ]. The resulting equations well reproduce the large amount of oxygen potential-temperature-composition data for the mixed oxide system, all of which were also retrieved from the literature. These models are the first that appear to display the appropriate oxygen potential-temperature-composition and phase relation behavior over the entire range of existence for the phases. (orig.)
Vision and the representation of the surroundings in spatial memory.
Tatler, Benjamin W; Land, Michael F
2011-02-27
One of the paradoxes of vision is that the world as it appears to us and the image on the retina at any moment are not much like each other. The visual world seems to be extensive and continuous across time. However, the manner in which we sample the visual environment is neither extensive nor continuous. How does the brain reconcile these differences? Here, we consider existing evidence from both static and dynamic viewing paradigms together with the logical requirements of any representational scheme that would be able to support active behaviour. While static scene viewing paradigms favour extensive, but perhaps abstracted, memory representations, dynamic settings suggest sparser and task-selective representation. We suggest that in dynamic settings where movement within extended environments is required to complete a task, the combination of visual input, egocentric and allocentric representations work together to allow efficient behaviour. The egocentric model serves as a coding scheme in which actions can be planned, but also offers a potential means of providing the perceptual stability that we experience.
New Hamiltonians for loop quantum cosmology with arbitrary spin representations
Ben Achour, Jibril; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Geiller, Marc
2017-04-01
In loop quantum cosmology, one has to make a choice of SU(2) irreducible representation in which to compute holonomies and regularize the curvature of the connection. The systematic choice made in the literature is to work in the fundamental representation, and very little is known about the physics associated with higher spin labels. This constitutes an ambiguity of which the understanding, we believe, is fundamental for connecting loop quantum cosmology to full theories of quantum gravity like loop quantum gravity, its spin foam formulation, or cosmological group field theory. We take a step in this direction by providing here a new closed formula for the Hamiltonian of flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker models regularized in a representation of arbitrary spin. This expression is furthermore polynomial in the basic variables which correspond to well-defined operators in the quantum theory, takes into account the so-called inverse-volume corrections, and treats in a unified way two different regularization schemes for the curvature. After studying the effective classical dynamics corresponding to single and multiple-spin Hamiltonians, we study the behavior of the critical density when the number of representations is increased and the stability of the difference equations in the quantum theory.
Vision and the representation of the surroundings in spatial memory
Tatler, Benjamin W.; Land, Michael F.
2011-01-01
One of the paradoxes of vision is that the world as it appears to us and the image on the retina at any moment are not much like each other. The visual world seems to be extensive and continuous across time. However, the manner in which we sample the visual environment is neither extensive nor continuous. How does the brain reconcile these differences? Here, we consider existing evidence from both static and dynamic viewing paradigms together with the logical requirements of any representational scheme that would be able to support active behaviour. While static scene viewing paradigms favour extensive, but perhaps abstracted, memory representations, dynamic settings suggest sparser and task-selective representation. We suggest that in dynamic settings where movement within extended environments is required to complete a task, the combination of visual input, egocentric and allocentric representations work together to allow efficient behaviour. The egocentric model serves as a coding scheme in which actions can be planned, but also offers a potential means of providing the perceptual stability that we experience. PMID:21242146
Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.
Kane, Bronach
2012-12-01
Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.
Unsupervised learning of a steerable basis for invariant image representations
Bethge, Matthias; Gerwinn, Sebastian; Macke, Jakob H.
2007-02-01
There are two aspects to unsupervised learning of invariant representations of images: First, we can reduce the dimensionality of the representation by finding an optimal trade-off between temporal stability and informativeness. We show that the answer to this optimization problem is generally not unique so that there is still considerable freedom in choosing a suitable basis. Which of the many optimal representations should be selected? Here, we focus on this second aspect, and seek to find representations that are invariant under geometrical transformations occuring in sequences of natural images. We utilize ideas of 'steerability' and Lie groups, which have been developed in the context of filter design. In particular, we show how an anti-symmetric version of canonical correlation analysis can be used to learn a full-rank image basis which is steerable with respect to rotations. We provide a geometric interpretation of this algorithm by showing that it finds the two-dimensional eigensubspaces of the average bivector. For data which exhibits a variety of transformations, we develop a bivector clustering algorithm, which we use to learn a basis of generalized quadrature pairs (i.e. 'complex cells') from sequences of natural images.
DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan A. Coddington
2016-07-01
, the quality of the underlying database impacts accuracy of results; many outliers in our dataset could be attributed to taxonomic and/or sequencing errors in BOLD and GenBank. It seems that an accurate and complete reference library of families and genera of life could provide accurate higher level taxonomic identifications cheaply and accessibly, within years rather than decades.
Vasconcelos, Raquel O.; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, M. Clara P.; Ladich, Friedrich
2011-01-01
Many fishes rely on their auditory skills to interpret crucial information about predators and prey, and to communicate intraspecifically. Few studies, however, have examined how complex natural sounds are perceived in fishes. We investigated the representation of conspecific mating and agonistic calls in the auditory system of the Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus, and analysed auditory responses to heterospecific signals from ecologically relevant species: a sympatric vocal fish (meagre Argyrosomus regius) and a potential predator (dolphin Tursiops truncatus). Using auditory evoked potential (AEP) recordings, we showed that both sexes can resolve fine features of conspecific calls. The toadfish auditory system was most sensitive to frequencies well represented in the conspecific vocalizations (namely the mating boatwhistle), and revealed a fine representation of duration and pulsed structure of agonistic and mating calls. Stimuli and corresponding AEP amplitudes were highly correlated, indicating an accurate encoding of amplitude modulation. Moreover, Lusitanian toadfish were able to detect T. truncatus foraging sounds and A. regius calls, although at higher amplitudes. We provide strong evidence that the auditory system of a vocal fish, lacking accessory hearing structures, is capable of resolving fine features of complex vocalizations that are probably important for intraspecific communication and other relevant stimuli from the auditory scene. PMID:20861044
The representations of Lie groups and geometric quantizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Qiang
1998-01-01
In this paper we discuss the relation between representations of Lie groups and geometric quantizations. A series of representations of Lie groups are constructed by geometric quantization of coadjoint orbits. Particularly, all representations of compact Lie groups, holomorphic discrete series of representations and spherical representations of reductive Lie groups are constructed by geometric quantizations of elliptic and hyperbolic coadjoint orbits. (orig.)
Balikou, Panagiota; Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Mantas, Asimakis; Moutoussis, Konstantinos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos
2015-11-01
The representation of visual orientation is more accurate for cardinal orientations compared to oblique, and this anisotropy has been hypothesized to reflect a low-level visual process (visual, "class 1" oblique effect). The reproduction of directional and orientation information also leads to a mean error away from cardinal orientations or directions. This anisotropy has been hypothesized to reflect a high-level cognitive process of space categorization (cognitive, "class 2," oblique effect). This space categorization process would be more prominent when the visual representation of orientation degrades such as in the case of working memory with increasing cognitive load, leading to increasing magnitude of the "class 2" oblique effect, while the "class 1" oblique effect would remain unchanged. Two experiments were performed in which an array of orientation stimuli (1-4 items) was presented and then subjects had to realign a probe stimulus within the previously presented array. In the first experiment, the delay between stimulus presentation and probe varied, while in the second experiment, the stimulus presentation time varied. The variable error was larger for oblique compared to cardinal orientations in both experiments reproducing the visual "class 1" oblique effect. The mean error also reproduced the tendency away from cardinal and toward the oblique orientations in both experiments (cognitive "class 2" oblique effect). The accuracy or the reproduced orientation degraded (increasing variable error) and the cognitive "class 2" oblique effect increased with increasing memory load (number of items) in both experiments and presentation time in the second experiment. In contrast, the visual "class 1" oblique effect was not significantly modulated by any one of these experimental factors. These results confirmed the theoretical predictions for the two anisotropies in visual orientation reproduction and provided support for models proposing the categorization of
Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?
Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka
2016-04-01
Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. © 2016 The Author(s).
An accurate nonlinear Monte Carlo collision operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.X.; Okamoto, M.; Nakajima, N.; Murakami, S.
1995-03-01
A three dimensional nonlinear Monte Carlo collision model is developed based on Coulomb binary collisions with the emphasis both on the accuracy and implementation efficiency. The operator of simple form fulfills particle number, momentum and energy conservation laws, and is equivalent to exact Fokker-Planck operator by correctly reproducing the friction coefficient and diffusion tensor, in addition, can effectively assure small-angle collisions with a binary scattering angle distributed in a limited range near zero. Two highly vectorizable algorithms are designed for its fast implementation. Various test simulations regarding relaxation processes, electrical conductivity, etc. are carried out in velocity space. The test results, which is in good agreement with theory, and timing results on vector computers show that it is practically applicable. The operator may be used for accurately simulating collisional transport problems in magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas. (author)
Accurate predictions for the LHC made easy
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
The data recorded by the LHC experiments is of a very high quality. To get the most out of the data, precise theory predictions, including uncertainty estimates, are needed to reduce as much as possible theoretical bias in the experimental analyses. Recently, significant progress has been made in computing Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) computations, including matching to the parton shower, that allow for these accurate, hadron-level predictions. I shall discuss one of these efforts, the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO program, that aims at the complete automation of predictions at the NLO accuracy within the SM as well as New Physics theories. I’ll illustrate some of the theoretical ideas behind this program, show some selected applications to LHC physics, as well as describe the future plans.
Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures
Smith, D.D.
The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.
Accurate Modeling Method for Cu Interconnect
Yamada, Kenta; Kitahara, Hiroshi; Asai, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Hideo; Okada, Norio; Yasuda, Makoto; Oda, Noriaki; Sakurai, Michio; Hiroi, Masayuki; Takewaki, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Sadayuki; Iguchi, Manabu; Minda, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Mieko
This paper proposes an accurate modeling method of the copper interconnect cross-section in which the width and thickness dependence on layout patterns and density caused by processes (CMP, etching, sputtering, lithography, and so on) are fully, incorporated and universally expressed. In addition, we have developed specific test patterns for the model parameters extraction, and an efficient extraction flow. We have extracted the model parameters for 0.15μm CMOS using this method and confirmed that 10%τpd error normally observed with conventional LPE (Layout Parameters Extraction) was completely dissolved. Moreover, it is verified that the model can be applied to more advanced technologies (90nm, 65nm and 55nm CMOS). Since the interconnect delay variations due to the processes constitute a significant part of what have conventionally been treated as random variations, use of the proposed model could enable one to greatly narrow the guardbands required to guarantee a desired yield, thereby facilitating design closure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.
2018-01-01
Highlights: • Paraxial beams are represented in a series expansion in terms of Bessel wave functions. • The coefficients of the series expansion can be analytically determined by using the pattern in the focal plane. • In particular, Gaussian beams and apertured wave fields have been critically examined. • This representation of the wave field is adequate for scattering problems with shaped beams. - Abstract: The evaluation of vector wave fields can be accurately performed by means of diffraction integrals, differential equations and also series expansions. In this paper, a Bessel series expansion which basis relies on the exact solution of the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical coordinates is theoretically developed for the straightforward yet accurate description of low-numerical-aperture focal waves. The validity of this approach is confirmed by explicit application to Gaussian beams and apertured focused fields in the paraxial regime. Finally we discuss how our procedure can be favorably implemented in scattering problems.
Institutional Advertising in the Context of Social Representation Theory: The Case of Coca Cola
MURAT ÇOLPA, Zeynep
2018-01-01
Social representation emergesto provide needs of individuals understanding world. Production of socialrepresentations only can be provided by individuals and groups interact eachother that is generally used in the field of communication. In this respect,this study attempts to analyze the instituional advertising in the context ofsocial representation theory. In this study institutionaladvertising of Coca Cola which is a well-known beverage company is inspectedand evaluated. Three sample of Co...
Using In-Service and Coaching to Increase Teachers' Accurate Use of Research-Based Strategies
Kretlow, Allison G.; Cooke, Nancy L.; Wood, Charles L.
2012-01-01
Increasing the accurate use of research-based practices in classrooms is a critical issue. Professional development is one of the most practical ways to provide practicing teachers with training related to research-based practices. This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers' accurate delivery of…
Geometric information provider platform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meisam Yousefzadeh
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Renovation of existing buildings is known as an essential stage in reduction of the energy loss. Considerable part of renovation process depends on geometric reconstruction of building based on semantic parameters. Following many research projects which were focused on parameterizing the energy usage, various energy modelling methods were developed during the last decade. On the other hand, by developing accurate measuring tools such as laser scanners, the interests of having accurate 3D building models are rapidly growing. But the automation of 3D building generation from laser point cloud or detection of specific objects in that is still a challenge. The goal is designing a platform through which required geometric information can be efficiently produced to support energy simulation software. Developing a reliable procedure which extracts required information from measured data and delivers them to a standard energy modelling system is the main purpose of the project.
Sensor data fusion for textured reconstruction and virtual representation of alpine scenes
Häufel, Gisela; Bulatov, Dimitri; Solbrig, Peter
2017-10-01
The concept of remote sensing is to provide information about a wide-range area without making physical contact with this area. If, additionally to satellite imagery, images and videos taken by drones provide a more up-to-date data at a higher resolution, or accurate vector data is downloadable from the Internet, one speaks of sensor data fusion. The concept of sensor data fusion is relevant for many applications, such as virtual tourism, automatic navigation, hazard assessment, etc. In this work, we describe sensor data fusion aiming to create a semantic 3D model of an extremely interesting yet challenging dataset: An alpine region in Southern Germany. A particular challenge of this work is that rock faces including overhangs are present in the input airborne laser point cloud. The proposed procedure for identification and reconstruction of overhangs from point clouds comprises four steps: Point cloud preparation, filtering out vegetation, mesh generation and texturing. Further object types are extracted in several interesting subsections of the dataset: Building models with textures from UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) videos, hills reconstructed as generic surfaces and textured by the orthophoto, individual trees detected by the watershed algorithm, as well as the vector data for roads retrieved from openly available shapefiles and GPS-device tracks. We pursue geo-specific reconstruction by assigning texture and width to roads of several pre-determined types and modeling isolated trees and rocks using commercial software. For visualization and simulation of the area, we have chosen the simulation system Virtual Battlespace 3 (VBS3). It becomes clear that the proposed concept of sensor data fusion allows a coarse reconstruction of a large scene and, at the same time, an accurate and up-to-date representation of its relevant subsections, in which simulation can take place.
The current practice of using multiple representations in year 4 science classrooms
Chuenmanee, Chanoknat; Thathong, Kongsak
2018-01-01
Multiple representations have been widely used as a reasoning tool for understanding complex scientific concepts. Thus this study attempted to investigate the current practice of using multiple representations on Year 4 science classrooms in terms of modes and levels which appear in curriculum documents, teaching plans, tasks and assessments, teaching practices, and students' behaviors. Indeed, documentary analysis, classroom observation, and interview were used as the data collection methods. First of all, Year 4 science documents were analyzed. Then classroom observation was used as a collecting method to seek what actually happen in the classroom. Finally, in-depth interviews were used to gather more information and obtain meaningful data. The finding reveals that many modes of verbal, visual, and tactile representations within three levels of representations are posed in Year 4 documents. Moreover, according to classroom observations and interviews, there are three main points of applying multiple representations into classrooms. First of all, various modes of representations were used, however, a huge number of them did not come together with the levels. The levels of representations, secondly, macroscopic and cellular levels were introduced into all classrooms while symbolic level was provided only in some classrooms. Finally, the connection of modes and levels pointed out that modes of representations were used without the considerations on the levels of them. So, it seems to be that teaching practice did not meet the aims of curriculum. Therefore, these issues were being considered in order to organize and design the further science lessons.
Learning modulation of odor representations: new findings from Arc-indexed networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qi eYuan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We first review our understanding of odor representations in rodent olfactory bulb and anterior piriform cortex. We then consider learning-induced representation changes. Finally we describe the perspective on network representations gained from examining Arc-indexed odor networks of awake rats. Arc-indexed networks are sparse and distributed, consistent with current views. However Arc provides representations of repeated odors. Arc-indexed repeated odor representations are quite variable. Sparse representations are assumed to be compact and reliable memory codes. Arc suggests this is not necessarily the case. The variability seen is consistent with electrophysiology in awake animals and may reflect top down-cortical modulation of context. Arc-indexing shows that distinct odors share larger than predicted neuron pools. These may be low-threshold neuronal subsets.Learning’s effect on Arc-indexed representations is to increase the stable or overlapping component of rewarded odor representations. This component can decrease for similar odors when their discrimination is rewarded. The learning effects seen are supported by electrophysiology, but mechanisms remain to be elucidated.
Accurate Classification of Chronic Migraine via Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Schwedt, Todd J.; Chong, Catherine D.; Wu, Teresa; Gaw, Nathan; Fu, Yinlin; Li, Jing
2015-01-01
Background The International Classification of Headache Disorders provides criteria for the diagnosis and subclassification of migraine. Since there is no objective gold standard by which to test these diagnostic criteria, the criteria are based on the consensus opinion of content experts. Accurate migraine classifiers consisting of brain structural measures could serve as an objective gold standard by which to test and revise diagnostic criteria. The objectives of this study were to utilize magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain structure for constructing classifiers: 1) that accurately identify individuals as having chronic vs. episodic migraine vs. being a healthy control; and 2) that test the currently used threshold of 15 headache days/month for differentiating chronic migraine from episodic migraine. Methods Study participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging for determination of regional cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and volume. Principal components analysis combined structural measurements into principal components accounting for 85% of variability in brain structure. Models consisting of these principal components were developed to achieve the classification objectives. Ten-fold cross validation assessed classification accuracy within each of the ten runs, with data from 90% of participants randomly selected for classifier development and data from the remaining 10% of participants used to test classification performance. Headache frequency thresholds ranging from 5–15 headache days/month were evaluated to determine the threshold allowing for the most accurate subclassification of individuals into lower and higher frequency subgroups. Results Participants were 66 migraineurs and 54 healthy controls, 75.8% female, with an average age of 36 +/− 11 years. Average classifier accuracies were: a) 68% for migraine (episodic + chronic) vs. healthy controls; b) 67.2% for episodic migraine vs. healthy controls; c) 86.3% for chronic
Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.
Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan
2006-11-01
The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts.
The abstract representations in speech processing.
Cutler, Anne
2008-11-01
Speech processing by human listeners derives meaning from acoustic input via intermediate steps involving abstract representations of what has been heard. Recent results from several lines of research are here brought together to shed light on the nature and role of these representations. In spoken-word recognition, representations of phonological form and of conceptual content are dissociable. This follows from the independence of patterns of priming for a word's form and its meaning. The nature of the phonological-form representations is determined not only by acoustic-phonetic input but also by other sources of information, including metalinguistic knowledge. This follows from evidence that listeners can store two forms as different without showing any evidence of being able to detect the difference in question when they listen to speech. The lexical representations are in turn separate from prelexical representations, which are also abstract in nature. This follows from evidence that perceptual learning about speaker-specific phoneme realization, induced on the basis of a few words, generalizes across the whole lexicon to inform the recognition of all words containing the same phoneme. The efficiency of human speech processing has its basis in the rapid execution of operations over abstract representations.
Interactions between visual working memory representations.
Bae, Gi-Yeul; Luck, Steven J
2017-11-01
We investigated whether the representations of different objects are maintained independently in working memory or interact with each other. Observers were shown two sequentially presented orientations and required to reproduce each orientation after a delay. The sequential presentation minimized perceptual interactions so that we could isolate interactions between memory representations per se. We found that similar orientations were repelled from each other whereas dissimilar orientations were attracted to each other. In addition, when one of the items was given greater attentional priority by means of a cue, the representation of the high-priority item was not influenced very much by the orientation of the low-priority item, but the representation of the low-priority item was strongly influenced by the orientation of the high-priority item. This indicates that attention modulates the interactions between working memory representations. In addition, errors in the reported orientations of the two objects were positively correlated under some conditions, suggesting that representations of distinct objects may become grouped together in memory. Together, these results demonstrate that working-memory representations are not independent but instead interact with each other in a manner that depends on attentional priority.
General regression and representation model for classification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianjun Qian
Full Text Available Recently, the regularized coding-based classification methods (e.g. SRC and CRC show a great potential for pattern classification. However, most existing coding methods assume that the representation residuals are uncorrelated. In real-world applications, this assumption does not hold. In this paper, we take account of the correlations of the representation residuals and develop a general regression and representation model (GRR for classification. GRR not only has advantages of CRC, but also takes full use of the prior information (e.g. the correlations between representation residuals and representation coefficients and the specific information (weight matrix of image pixels to enhance the classification performance. GRR uses the generalized Tikhonov regularization and K Nearest Neighbors to learn the prior information from the training data. Meanwhile, the specific information is obtained by using an iterative algorithm to update the feature (or image pixel weights of the test sample. With the proposed model as a platform, we design two classifiers: basic general regression and representation classifier (B-GRR and robust general regression and representation classifier (R-GRR. The experimental results demonstrate the performance advantages of proposed methods over state-of-the-art algorithms.
Artistic Representation with Pulsed Holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, S
2013-01-01
This thesis describes artistic representation through pulsed holography. One of the prevalent practical problems in making holograms is object movement. Any movement of the object or film, including movement caused by acoustic vibration, has the same fatal results. One way of reducing the chance of movement is by ensuring that the exposure is very quick; using a pulsed laser can fulfill this objective. The attractiveness of using pulsed laser is based on the variety of materials or objects that can be recorded (e.g., liquid material or instantaneous scene of a moving object). One of the most interesting points about pulsed holograms is that some reconstructed images present us with completely different views of the real world. For example, the holographic image of liquid material does not appear fluid; it looks like a piece of hard glass that would produce a sharp sound upon tapping. In everyday life, we are unfamiliar with such an instantaneous scene. On the other hand, soft-textured materials such as a feather or wool differ from liquids when observed through holography. Using a pulsed hologram, we can sense the soft touch of the object or material with the help of realistic three-dimensional (3-D) images. The images allow us to realize the sense of touch in a way that resembles touching real objects. I had the opportunity to use a pulsed ruby laser soon after I started to work in the field of holography in 1979. Since then, I have made pulsed holograms of activities, including pouring water, breaking eggs, blowing soap bubbles, and scattering feathers and popcorn. I have also created holographic art with materials and objects, such as silk fiber, fabric, balloons, glass, flowers, and even the human body. Whenever I create art, I like to present the spectator with a new experience in perception. Therefore, I would like to introduce my experimental artwork through those pulsed holograms.
Artificial limb representation in amputees.
van den Heiligenberg, Fiona M Z; Orlov, Tanya; Macdonald, Scott N; Duff, Eugene P; Henderson Slater, David; Beckmann, Christian F; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Culham, Jody C; Makin, Tamar R
2018-05-01
The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images. This was found even when one-handers were presented with images of active prostheses that share the functionality of the hand but not necessarily its visual features (e.g. a 'hook' prosthesis). Further, we show that daily prosthesis usage determines large-scale inter-network communication across hand-selective areas. This was demonstrated by increased resting state functional connectivity between visual and sensorimotor hand-selective areas, proportional to the intensiveness of everyday prosthesis usage. Further analysis revealed a 3-fold coupling between prosthesis activity, visuomotor connectivity and usage, suggesting a possible role for the motor system in shaping use-dependent representation in visual hand-selective areas, and/or vice versa. Moreover, able-bodied control participants who routinely observe prosthesis usage (albeit less intensively than the prosthesis users) showed significantly weaker associations between degree of prosthesis observation and visual cortex activity or connectivity. Together, our findings suggest that altered daily motor behaviour facilitates prosthesis-related visual processing and shapes communication across hand-selective areas. This neurophysiological substrate for prosthesis embodiment may inspire rehabilitation approaches to improve usage of existing substitutionary devices and aid implementation of future assistive and augmentative technologies.
The construction of the representation in solving a physics problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrique A. Coleoni
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Written solutions of a physics problem provided by high school students in a physics olympiad are analysed. The study was done on the basis of theoretical developments which take into account peculiarities of the understanding of scientific problems. Some errors are typefied according to failures at different levels of the representation process. A categorization is proposed suggesting the possibility of reinterpreting some mistakes made by physics students in problem solving.
Interaction and representational integration: Evidence from speech errors
Goldrick, Matthew; Baker, H. Ross; Murphy, Amanda; Baese-Berk, Melissa
2011-01-01
We examine the mechanisms that support interaction between lexical, phonological and phonetic processes during language production. Studies of the phonetics of speech errors have provided evidence that partially activated lexical and phonological representations influence phonetic processing. We examine how these interactive effects are modulated by lexical frequency. Previous research has demonstrated that during lexical access, the processing of high frequency words is facilitated; in contr...
Data governance for health care providers.
Andronis, Katerina; Moysey, Kevin
2013-01-01
Data governance is characterised from broader definitions of governance. These characteristics are then mapped to a framework that provides a practical representation of the concepts. This representation is further developed with operating models and roles. Several information related scenarios covering both clinical and non-clinical domains are considered in information terms and then related back to the data governance framework. This assists the reader in understanding how data governance would help address the issues or achieve a better outcome. These elements together enable the reader to gain an understanding of the data governance framework and how it applies in practice. Finally, some practical advice is offered for establishing and operating data governance as well as approaches for justifying the investment.
Understanding as Integration of Heterogeneous Representations
Martínez, Sergio F.
2014-03-01
The search for understanding is a major aim of science. Traditionally, understanding has been undervalued in the philosophy of science because of its psychological underpinnings; nowadays, however, it is widely recognized that epistemology cannot be divorced from psychology as sharp as traditional epistemology required. This eliminates the main obstacle to give scientific understanding due attention in philosophy of science. My aim in this paper is to describe an account of scientific understanding as an emergent feature of our mastering of different (causal) explanatory frameworks that takes place through the mastering of scientific practices. Different practices lead to different kinds of representations. Such representations are often heterogeneous. The integration of such representations constitute understanding.
[Social and cultural representations in epilepsy awareness].
Arborio, Sophie
2015-01-01
Representations relating to epilepsy have evolved over the centuries, but the manifestations of epilepsy awaken archaic images linked to death, violence and disgust. Indeed, the generalised epileptic seizure symbolises a rupture with the surrounding environment, "informs it", through the loss of social codes which it causes. The social and cultural context, as well as medical knowledge, influences the representations of the disease. As a result, popular knowledge is founded on the social and cultural representations of a given era, in a given society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Death representation of caregivers in hospice.
Andruccioli, Jessica; Russo, Maria Maffia; Bruschi, Angela; Pedrabissi, Luigi; Sarti, Donatella; Monterubbianesi, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Sabina; Rocconi, Sabina; Raffaeli, William
2012-11-01
In this study, we investigated caregiver's death representation in hospice. The results presented here are a further analysis of the data collected in our previous study, concerning the evaluation of the caregiver in hospice. The data analysis of 24 caregivers of patients hospitalized in Rimini Hospice (Italy) underlined that caregivers avoiding death representation of the patient admitted to hospice had fewer protective factors (52.3%) and more risk factors (47.7%) than caregivers nonavoiding (66.5% and 33.5%, respectively). Caregivers avoiding death representation, moreover, experienced a greater distress (58%) than those nonavoiding (42%).
The influence of signal type on the internal auditory representation of a room
Teret, Elizabeth
Currently, architectural acousticians make no real distinction between a room impulse response and the auditory system's internal representation of a room. With this lack of a good model for the auditory representation of a room, it is indirectly assumed that our internal representation of a room is independent of the sound source needed to make the room characteristics audible. The extent to which this assumption holds true is examined with perceptual tests. Listeners are presented with various pairs of signals (music, speech, and noise) convolved with synthesized impulse responses of different reverberation times. They are asked to adjust the reverberation of one of the signals to match the other. Analysis of the data show that the source signal significantly influences perceived reverberance. Listeners are less accurate when matching reverberation times of varied signals than they are with identical signals. Additional testing shows that perception of reverberation can be linked to the existence of transients in the signal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Saba
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new approach to calculate the complex photonic band structure, both purely dispersive and evanescent Bloch modes of a finite range, of arbitrary three-dimensional photonic crystals. Our method, based on a well-established plane wave expansion and the weak form solution of Maxwell’s equations, computes the Fourier components of periodic structures composed of distinct homogeneous material domains from a triangulated mesh representation of the inter-material interfaces; this allows substantially more accurate representations of the geometry of complex photonic crystals than the conventional representation by a cubic voxel grid. Our method works for general two-phase composite materials, consisting of bi-anisotropic materials with tensor-valued dielectric and magnetic permittivities ε and μ and coupling matrices ς. We demonstrate for the Bragg mirror and a simple cubic crystal closely related to the Kelvin foam that relatively small numbers of Fourier components are sufficient to yield good convergence of the eigenvalues, making this method viable, despite its computational complexity. As an application, we use the single gyroid crystal to demonstrate that the consideration of both conventional and evanescent Bloch modes is necessary to predict the key features of the reflectance spectrum by analysis of the band structure, in particular for light incident along the cubic [111] direction.
Majority members' feelings about political representation of muslim immigrants
Verkuyten, Maykel; Hindriks, Paul; Coenders, Marcel
2016-01-01
In three survey experimental studies among national samples of the native Dutch, we examined feelings towards Muslim immigrants' political party representation. The strategy of disengagement (reject political representation) was evaluated most positively, followed by the descriptive representation
Esque, Jeremy; Cecchini, Marco
2015-04-23
The calculation of the free energy of conformation is key to understanding the function of biomolecules and has attracted significant interest in recent years. Here, we present an improvement of the confinement method that was designed for use in the context of explicit solvent MD simulations. The development involves an additional step in which the solvation free energy of the harmonically restrained conformers is accurately determined by multistage free energy perturbation simulations. As a test-case application, the newly introduced confinement/solvation free energy (CSF) approach was used to compute differences in free energy between conformers of the alanine dipeptide in explicit water. The results are in excellent agreement with reference calculations based on both converged molecular dynamics and umbrella sampling. To illustrate the general applicability of the method, conformational equilibria of met-enkephalin (5 aa) and deca-alanine (10 aa) in solution were also analyzed. In both cases, smoothly converged free-energy results were obtained in agreement with equilibrium sampling or literature calculations. These results demonstrate that the CSF method may provide conformational free-energy differences of biomolecules with small statistical errors (below 0.5 kcal/mol) and at a moderate computational cost even with a full representation of the solvent.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, Katja; Biegler, Franziska; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Pronobis, Wiktor; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2015-01-01
Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstrate prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the 'holy grail' of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. The same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies
Accurate measurements of neutron activation cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semkova, V.
1999-01-01
The applications of some recent achievements of neutron activation method on high intensity neutron sources are considered from the view point of associated errors of cross sections data for neutron induced reaction. The important corrections in -y-spectrometry insuring precise determination of the induced radioactivity, methods for accurate determination of the energy and flux density of neutrons, produced by different sources, and investigations of deuterium beam composition are considered as factors determining the precision of the experimental data. The influence of the ion beam composition on the mean energy of neutrons has been investigated by measurement of the energy of neutrons induced by different magnetically analysed deuterium ion groups. Zr/Nb method for experimental determination of the neutron energy in the 13-15 MeV energy range allows to measure energy of neutrons from D-T reaction with uncertainty of 50 keV. Flux density spectra from D(d,n) E d = 9.53 MeV and Be(d,n) E d = 9.72 MeV are measured by PHRS and foil activation method. Future applications of the activation method on NG-12 are discussed. (author)
Implicit time accurate simulation of unsteady flow
van Buuren, René; Kuerten, Hans; Geurts, Bernard J.
2001-03-01
Implicit time integration was studied in the context of unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction flow. With an explicit second-order Runge-Kutta scheme, a reference solution to compare with the implicit second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme was determined. The time step in the explicit scheme is restricted by both temporal accuracy as well as stability requirements, whereas in the A-stable implicit scheme, the time step has to obey temporal resolution requirements and numerical convergence conditions. The non-linear discrete equations for each time step are solved iteratively by adding a pseudo-time derivative. The quasi-Newton approach is adopted and the linear systems that arise are approximately solved with a symmetric block Gauss-Seidel solver. As a guiding principle for properly setting numerical time integration parameters that yield an efficient time accurate capturing of the solution, the global error caused by the temporal integration is compared with the error resulting from the spatial discretization. Focus is on the sensitivity of properties of the solution in relation to the time step. Numerical simulations show that the time step needed for acceptable accuracy can be considerably larger than the explicit stability time step; typical ratios range from 20 to 80. At large time steps, convergence problems that are closely related to a highly complex structure of the basins of attraction of the iterative method may occur. Copyright