WorldWideScience

Sample records for proven extremely difficult

  1. How to Handle Difficult Parents: Proven Solutions for Teachers. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Suzanne Capek

    2012-01-01

    "How to Handle Difficult Parents" is a funny, but practical, guide to working effectively with parents and avoiding unnecessary conflict. Whether you're a teacher (regular or special education) or a coach, this book will give you practical suggestions regarding what to say and how to say it to parents who question your lesson plans, challenge your…

  2. Rules and technical tricks in extremely difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Drăghici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We remind you of some technical artifices required in order to resolve difficult cases, such as: antegrade laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC, subtotal laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC and the “stairs” clipping of the cystic duct. Also we acknowledge the closing of the cystic duct. We analyzed the medical records of 15251 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed during 1994-2015, with emphasis on: surgical technique, conversion rate, hemorrhage, postoperative bile leaking, iatrogenic MBD injuries and mortality. We divided the cases in 5 study groups, group 1 (1994- 2004 N= 5138, group 2 (2005-2015 N= 10113, group 3 (fundus first cholecystectomies, N=2348, group 4 (retrograde cholecystectomies, N=12889 and group 5 (subtotal laparoscopic cholecystectomy-SLC, N=14 which we compared regarding the main parameters. We prefer to perform a “step by step” clipping each time the length of the clip does not cover all the circumference of the cystic duct. This artifices, is a simple laparoscopic gesture easy to perform and has the advantage of avoiding a large excessive and risky laparoscopic dissection in the vicinity of the main biliary duct. More seldom we appeal to the suture of the cystic stump using the intracorporeal knots or a simple stump ligation with an extracorporeal preformed not. We did not encounter any late or early complications following the implementation of this technical laparoscopic artifice. Laborious laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by a well-trained surgical team ensure the premises of a good performance even while adopting laparoscopic ingenious and difficile gestures that also respect the intraoperatory rules and principals.

  3. Automated metadata, provenance cataloging and navigable interfaces: Ensuring the usefulness of extreme-scale data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, D.P., E-mail: schissel@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Abla, G.; Flanagan, S.M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lee, X. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Romosan, A.; Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stillerman, J.; Wright, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    For scientific research, it is not the mere existence of experimental or simulation data that is important, but the ability to make use of it. This paper presents the results of research to create a data model, infrastructure, and a set of tools that support data tracking, cataloging, and integration across a broad scientific domain. The system is intended to document workflow and data provenance in the widest sense. Combining research on integrated metadata, provenance, and ontology information with research on user interfaces has allowed the construction of early prototype. While using fusion science as a test bed, the system's framework and data model is quite general.

  4. Automated metadata, provenance cataloging and navigable interfaces: Ensuring the usefulness of extreme-scale data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Flanagan, S.M.; Greenwald, M.; Lee, X.; Romosan, A.; Shoshani, A.; Stillerman, J.; Wright, J.

    2014-01-01

    For scientific research, it is not the mere existence of experimental or simulation data that is important, but the ability to make use of it. This paper presents the results of research to create a data model, infrastructure, and a set of tools that support data tracking, cataloging, and integration across a broad scientific domain. The system is intended to document workflow and data provenance in the widest sense. Combining research on integrated metadata, provenance, and ontology information with research on user interfaces has allowed the construction of early prototype. While using fusion science as a test bed, the system's framework and data model is quite general

  5. Difficult to predict early failure after major lower-extremity amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Gebuhr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The successful outcome of a major amputation depends on several factors, including stump wound healing. The purpose of this study was to examine the criteria upon which the index amputation was based and to identify factors associated with early amputation failure after major non......-traumatic lower-extremity amputation. METHODS: We studied a consecutive one-year series of 36 men and 34 women with a median (25-75% quartiles) age of 72 (63-83) years who were treated in an acute orthopaedic ward; 44 below-knee and 26 above-knee amputees of whom 47 had an American Society of Anesthesiologists...... rating above two. Patient characteristics and other factors potentially influencing early amputation failure within 30 days were evaluated. RESULTS: Eleven patients died (16%) and 11 (16%) had a re-amputation at a higher level, whereas four (6%) had a major revision at the same level within 30 days...

  6. Extreme Wind, Rain, Storm Surge, and Flooding: Why Hurricane Impacts are Difficult to Forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 hurricane season is estimated as one of the costliest in the U.S. history. The damage and devastation caused by Hurricane Harvey in Houston, Irma in Florida, and Maria in Puerto Rico are distinctly different in nature. The complexity of hurricane impacts from extreme wind, rain, storm surge, and flooding presents a major challenge in hurricane forecasting. A detailed comparison of the storm impacts from Harvey, Irma, and Maria will be presented using observations and state-of-the-art new generation coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean hurricane forecast model. The author will also provide an overview on what we can expect in terms of advancement in science and technology that can help improve hurricane impact forecast in the near future.

  7. Middle Rio Grande Water Sustainability in Extreme Drought: Using Provenance to Trace Modeling Scenarios Selected by Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Garnica Chavira, L.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.

    2017-12-01

    People living in the vicinity of the middle Rio Grande from Elephant Butte Reservoir in New Mexico through Fort Quitman, Texas, including inhabitants on the Mexican side of the river, are confronted with numerous challenges that include drought, population growth, reduced surface water quality and quantity, declining aquifers, and expected future increases in temperature with more variable precipitation. The transboundary surface water is subject to complex regulation across two U.S. states and two nations (U.S. and Mexico). This presentation will summarize the modeling efforts of a USDA-funded project to characterize potential future solutions for water sustainability while managing agriculture, economic, and human impacts. It will present an online software system designed for rapid, flexible modeling of different climate, policy, and technology scenarios with stakeholders, and the underlying intelligent system that manages model selection, data and parameters, and user choices, and provides a provenance trace based on the W3C PROV standard.

  8. What Makes Difficult History Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Magdalena H.; Terra, Luke

    2018-01-01

    All modern nation-states have periods of difficult history that teachers fail to address or address inadequately. The authors present a framework for defining difficult histories and understanding what makes them difficult. These events 1) are central to a nation's history, 2) contradict accepted histories or values, 3) connect with present…

  9. Flow-Based Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: With information almost effortlessly created and spontaneously available, current progress in Information and Communication Technology (ICT has led to the complication that information must be scrutinized for trustworthiness and provenance. Information systems must become provenance-aware to be satisfactory in accountability, reproducibility, and trustworthiness of data. Background:\tMultiple models for abstract representation of provenance have been proposed to describe entities, people, and activities involved in producing a piece of data, including the Open Provenance Model (OPM and the World Wide Web Consortium. These models lack certain concepts necessary for specifying workflows and encoding the provenance of data products used and generated. Methodology: Without loss of generality, the focus of this paper is on OPM depiction of provenance in terms of a directed graph. We have redrawn several case studies in the framework of our proposed model in order to compare and evaluate it against OPM for representing these cases. Contribution: This paper offers an alternative flow-based diagrammatic language that can form a foundation for modeling of provenance. The model described here provides an (abstract machine-like representation of provenance. Findings: The results suggest a viable alternative in the area of diagrammatic representation for provenance applications. Future Research: Future work will seek to achieve more accurate comparisons with current models in the field.

  10. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  11. Provenance data in social media

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, Geoffrey; Gundecha, Pritam

    2013-01-01

    Social media shatters the barrier to communicate anytime anywhere for people of all walks of life. The publicly available, virtually free information in social media poses a new challenge to consumers who have to discern whether a piece of information published in social media is reliable. For example, it can be difficult to understand the motivations behind a statement passed from one user to another, without knowing the person who originated the message. Additionally, false information can be propagated through social media, resulting in embarrassment or irreversible damages. Provenance data

  12. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  13. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  14. Rosetta Structure Prediction as a Tool for Solving Difficult Molecular Replacement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Molecular replacement (MR), a method for solving the crystallographic phase problem using phases derived from a model of the target structure, has proven extremely valuable, accounting for the vast majority of structures solved by X-ray crystallography. However, when the resolution of data is low, or the starting model is very dissimilar to the target protein, solving structures via molecular replacement may be very challenging. In recent years, protein structure prediction methodology has emerged as a powerful tool in model building and model refinement for difficult molecular replacement problems. This chapter describes some of the tools available in Rosetta for model building and model refinement specifically geared toward difficult molecular replacement cases.

  15. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Seidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index. Both indices were derived from infrared images during a six-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland. In pines from the Spanish and Bulgarian provenances, the stress level differences were significantly lower than in continental pines. Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  16. Innocent Until Proven Guilty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Catherine; Whitaker, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In the criminal justice system, defendants accused of a crime are presumed innocent until proven guilty. Statistical inference in any context is built on an analogous principle: The null hypothesis--often a hypothesis of "no difference" or "no effect"--is presumed true unless there is sufficient evidence against it. In this…

  17. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. “Eczema school” educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504

  18. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  19. [Mouthguards: a difficult choice?

    OpenAIRE

    Reukers, H.A.J.; Damme, P.A. van

    2007-01-01

    It is the dentists' task to advise their patients what type of mouthguard grants the best possible protection. It is generally accepted that off-the-counter mouthguards are not sufficiently protective. These mouthguards are usually ill-fitting and not worn in the mouth but in the sporting shorts' pocket instead. A custom-fabricated mouthguard is proven to offer maximal protection. A mouthguard has to offer adequate protection with high comfort. A composite laminate construction and space betw...

  20. Data Provenance and Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratis D Viglas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Oxford Dictionary defines provenance as “the place of origin, or earliest known history of something.” The term, when transferred to its digital counterpart, has morphed into a more general meaning. It is not only used to refer to the origin of a digital artefact but also to its changes over time. By changes in this context we may not only refer to its digital snapshots but also to the processes that caused and materialised the change. As an example, consider a database record r created at point in time t0; an update u to that record at time t1 causes it to have a value r’. In terms of provenance, we do not only want to record the snapshots (t0, r and (t1, r’ but also the transformation u that when applied to (t0, r results in (t1, r’, that is u(t0, r = (t1, r’.

  1. Provenance Store Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  2. From Provenance Standards and Tools to Queries and Actionable Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludaescher, B.

    2017-12-01

    The W3C PROV standard provides a minimal core for sharing retrospective provenance information for scientific workflows and scripts. PROV extensions such as DataONE's ProvONE model are necessary for linking runtime observables in retrospective provenance records with conceptual-level prospective provenance information, i.e., workflow (or dataflow) graphs. Runtime provenance recorders, such as DataONE's RunManager for R, or noWorkflow for Python capture retrospective provenance automatically. YesWorkflow (YW) is a toolkit that allows researchers to declare high-level prospective provenance models of scripts via simple inline comments (YW-annotations), revealing the computational modules and dataflow dependencies in the script. By combining and linking both forms of provenance, important queries and use cases can be supported that neither provenance model can afford on its own. We present existing and emerging provenance tools developed for the DataONE and SKOPE (Synthesizing Knowledge of Past Environments) projects. We show how the different tools can be used individually and in combination to model, capture, share, query, and visualize provenance information. We also present challenges and opportunities for making provenance information more immediately actionable for the researchers who create it in the first place. We argue that such a shift towards "provenance-for-self" is necessary to accelerate the creation, sharing, and use of provenance in support of transparent, reproducible computational and data science.

  3. Making marketing difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2005-01-01

    embraced by the market-place, while maintaining the old scientific alienation from political life. The case is made that modern science was born ambiguous towards the market-place, and that such ambivalence - relating to different interpretations of the idea of knowledge as a common good - is still...... to be encountered among scientists. Drawing on series of interviews with scientists from bioscience and biotechnology it is argued that, on the one hand, scientists are into marketing and PR exercises; but, on the other hand, they also voice a demand that journalists should make such marketing difficult...

  4. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  5. Dealing with difficult pasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2013-01-01

    develop. I argue that such politically loaded manifestations of difficult pasts are highly significant during post-conflict renegotiations of society. They act as reminders of what happened, a commentary on how far society has – or has not moved on – and the potential for future relations and directions....... Using Robben Island and Long Kesh / Maze as case-studies this paper will explore the physical manifestations of political imprisonment, their experiences in the post-conflict context and reveal contestations of meaning at these dark heritage sites....

  6. Aggregation by Provenance Types: A Technique for Summarising Provenance Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Moreau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As users become confronted with a deluge of provenance data, dedicated techniques are required to make sense of this kind of information. We present Aggregation by Provenance Types, a provenance graph analysis that is capable of generating provenance graph summaries. It proceeds by converting provenance paths up to some length k to attributes, referred to as provenance types, and by grouping nodes that have the same provenance types. The summary also includes numeric values representing the frequency of nodes and edges in the original graph. A quantitative evaluation and a complexity analysis show that this technique is tractable; with small values of k, it can produce useful summaries and can help detect outliers. We illustrate how the generated summaries can further be used for conformance checking and visualization.

  7. Difficult diagnoses in the skeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    The book on difficult diagnoses in the skeletal radiology discusses the path from symptom to diagnoses including image interpretation. Specific case studies concern the skull, the spinal cord, pelvis, shoulder and chest, upper and lower extremities. The used radiological techniques include projecting radiography, computerized tomography, scintiscanning, PET/CT, NNR imaging and ultrasonography.

  8. Empowering Provenance in Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Doerr, Martin; Plexousakis, Dimitris

    The provenance of data has recently been recognized as central to the trust one places in data. This paper presents a novel framework in order to empower provenance in a mediator based data integration system. We use a simple mapping language for mapping schema constructs, between an ontology and relational sources, capable to carry provenance information. This language extends the traditional data exchange setting by translating our mapping specifications into source-to-target tuple generating dependencies (s-t tgds). Then we define formally the provenance information we want to retrieve i.e. annotation, source and tuple provenance. We provide three algorithms to retrieve provenance information using information stored on the mappings and the sources. We show the feasibility of our solution and the advantages of our framework.

  9. Data provenance assurance in the cloud using blockchain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sachin; Red, Val; Kamhoua, Charles; Kwiat, Kevin; Njilla, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    Ever increasing adoption of cloud technology scales up the activities like creation, exchange, and alteration of cloud data objects, which create challenges to track malicious activities and security violations. Addressing this issue requires implementation of data provenance framework so that each data object in the federated cloud environment can be tracked and recorded but cannot be modified. The blockchain technology gives a promising decentralized platform to build tamper-proof systems. Its incorruptible distributed ledger/blockchain complements the need of maintaining cloud data provenance. In this paper, we present a cloud based data provenance framework using block chain which traces data record operations and generates provenance data. We anchor provenance data records into block chain transactions, which provide validation on provenance data and preserve user privacy at the same time. Once the provenance data is uploaded to the global block chain network, it is extremely challenging to tamper the provenance data. Besides, the provenance data uses hashed user identifiers prior to uploading so the blockchain nodes cannot link the operations to a particular user. The framework ensures that the privacy is preserved. We implemented the architecture on ownCloud, uploaded records to blockchain network, stored records in a provenance database and developed a prototype in form of a web service.

  10. Recording Process Documentation for Provenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groth, P.T.; Moreau, L

    2009-01-01

    Scientific and business communities are adopting large-scale distributed systems as a means to solve a wide range of resource-intensive tasks. These communities also have requirements in terms of provenance. We define the provenance of a result produced by a distributed system as the process that

  11. Provenance an introduction to PROV

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The World Wide Web is now deeply intertwined with our lives, and has become a catalyst for a data deluge, making vast amounts of data available online, at a click of a button. With Web 2.0, users are no longer passive consumers, but active publishers and curators of data. Hence, from science to food manufacturing, from data journalism to personal well-being, from social media to art, there is a strong interest in provenance, a description of what influenced an artifact, a data set, a document, a blog, or any resource on the Web and beyond. Provenance is a crucial piece of information that can

  12. LIHTC Difficult to Develop Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Difficult Development Area (DDA) for the Low Income Housing Tax Credit program is an area designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)...

  13. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  14. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Darsow (U.); A. Wollenberg (A.); D. Simon; A. Taieb; T. Werfel; A.P. Oranje (Arnold); C. Gelmetti (C.); Ã. Svensson (Ãke); M. Deleuran (M.); A.M. Calza; F. Giusti; J. Lübbe (Jann); S. Seidenari (Stefania); J. Ring (J.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDifficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for

  15. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  16. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  17. Logical provenance in data-oriented workflows?

    KAUST Repository

    Ikeda, R.

    2013-04-01

    We consider the problem of defining, generating, and tracing provenance in data-oriented workflows, in which input data sets are processed by a graph of transformations to produce output results. We first give a new general definition of provenance for general transformations, introducing the notions of correctness, precision, and minimality. We then determine when properties such as correctness and minimality carry over from the individual transformations\\' provenance to the workflow provenance. We describe a simple logical-provenance specification language consisting of attribute mappings and filters. We provide an algorithm for provenance tracing in workflows where logical provenance for each transformation is specified using our language. We consider logical provenance in the relational setting, observing that for a class of Select-Project-Join (SPJ) transformations, logical provenance specifications encode minimal provenance. We have built a prototype system supporting the features and algorithms presented in the paper, and we report a few preliminary experimental results. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Provenance management in Swift with implementation details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadelha, L. M. R; Clifford, B.; Mattoso, M.; Wilde, M.; Foster, I. (Mathematics and Computer Science); ( CLS-CI); (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro); (National Lab. for Scientific Computing, Brazil); (Univ. of Chicago)

    2011-04-01

    The Swift parallel scripting language allows for the specification, execution and analysis of large-scale computations in parallel and distributed environments. It incorporates a data model for recording and querying provenance information. In this article we describe these capabilities and evaluate interoperability with other systems through the use of the Open Provenance Model. We describe Swift's provenance data model and compare it to the Open Provenance Model. We also describe and evaluate activities performed within the Third Provenance Challenge, which consisted of implementing a specific scientific workflow, capturing and recording provenance information of its execution, performing provenance queries, and exchanging provenance information with other systems. Finally, we propose improvements to both the Open Provenance Model and Swift's provenance system.

  19. File Level Provenance Tracking in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, C D; Paterno, M; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Tanenbaum, W; Riley, D S

    2009-01-01

    The CMS off-line framework stores provenance information within CMS's standard ROOT event data files. The provenance information is used to track how each data product was constructed, including what other data products were read to do the construction. We will present how the framework gathers the provenance information, the efforts necessary to minimise the space used to store the provenance in the file and the tools that will be available to use the provenance.

  20. Management of the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D E; Wiener-Kronish, J P

    1991-09-01

    For clinicians involved in airway management, a plan of action for dealing with the difficult airway or a failed intubation should be developed well in advance of encountering a patient in whom intubation is not routine. When difficulty is anticipated, the equipment necessary for performing a difficult intubation should be immediately available. It also is prudent to have a surgeon skilled in performing a tracheotomy and a criothyroidotomy stand by. The intubation should be attempted in the awake state, preferably using the fiberoptic bronchoscope. The more challenging situation is when the difficult airway is confronted unexpectedly. After the first failed attempt at laryngoscopy, head position should be checked and the patient ventilated with oxygen by mask. A smaller styletted tube and possibly a different laryngoscope blade should be selected for a second attempt at intubation. The fiberoptic bronchoscope and other equipment for difficult intubation should be obtained. A second attempt should then be made. If this is unsuccessful, the patient should be reoxygenated, and assistance including a skilled anesthesiologist and surgeon should be summoned. On a third attempt, traction to the tongue can be applied by an assistant, a tube changer could be used to enter the larynx, or one of the other special techniques previously described can be used. If this third attempt fails, it may be helpful to have a physician more experienced in airway management attempt intubation after oxygen has been administered to the patient. If all attempts are unsuccessful, then invasive techniques to secure the airway will have to be performed.

  1. Automated Generation of Technical Documentation and Provenance for Reproducible Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, B.; Medyckyj-Scott, D.; Spiekermann, R.; Ausseil, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Data provenance and detailed technical documentation are essential components of high-quality reproducible research, however are often only partially addressed during a research project. Recording and maintaining this information during the course of a project can be a difficult task to get right as it is a time consuming and often boring process for the researchers involved. As a result, provenance records and technical documentation provided alongside research results can be incomplete or may not be completely consistent with the actual processes followed. While providing access to the data and code used by the original researchers goes some way toward enabling reproducibility, this does not count as, or replace, data provenance. Additionally, this can be a poor substitute for good technical documentation and is often more difficult for a third-party to understand - particularly if they do not understand the programming language(s) used. We present and discuss a tool built from the ground up for the production of well-documented and reproducible spatial datasets that are created by applying a series of classification rules to a number of input layers. The internal model of the classification rules required by the tool to process the input data is exploited to also produce technical documentation and provenance records with minimal additional user input. Available provenance records that accompany input datasets are incorporated into those that describe the current process. As a result, each time a new iteration of the analysis is performed the documentation and provenance records are re-generated to provide an accurate description of the exact process followed. The generic nature of this tool, and the lessons learned during its creation, have wider application to other fields where the production of derivative datasets must be done in an open, defensible, and reproducible way.

  2. Logical provenance in data-oriented workflows?

    KAUST Repository

    Ikeda, R.; Das Sarma, Akash; Widom, J.

    2013-01-01

    for general transformations, introducing the notions of correctness, precision, and minimality. We then determine when properties such as correctness and minimality carry over from the individual transformations' provenance to the workflow provenance. We

  3. Difficult airway in a patient with Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaculangan, D; Lokhandwala, B; Wlody, D; Gross, R

    2001-02-01

    We report on a patient with Coffin-Siris syndrome and consider a potential association between this condition and difficult intubation. Although this inherited condition is extremely rare, anesthesiologists should be aware of its existence and prepare for potential airway management problems whenever it is encountered.

  4. Difficult physician-patient relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifsteck, S W

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the delivery of health care services in the United States are proceeding so rapidly that many providers are asking how the working relationships between doctors and patients will be effected. Accelerated by cost containment, quality improvement and the growth of managed care, these changes have caused some critics to feel that shorter visits and gatekeeper systems will promote an adversarial relationship between physicians and patients. However, proponents of the changing system feel that better prevention, follow-up care and the attention to customer service these plans can offer will lead to increased patient satisfaction and improved doctor-patient communication. Dedicated to addressing these concerns, the Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication was established in 1987 as a continuing medical education program (CME) focusing on this topic. A half-day workshop on clinician-patient communication to enhance health outcomes was introduced in 1992 and a second workshop, "Difficult' Clinician-Patient Relationships," was developed two years later. The two courses discussed in this article are offered to all physicians, residents, medical students, mid-level providers and other interested staff within the Carle system.

  5. Secure Location Provenance for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    A malicious user should not be able to hide a temporary off-track movement from the claimed location provenance. • A malicious user may want to...Seltzer, “Provenance-aware storage systems,” in Proc. of USENIX ATC. USENIX Association, May 2006, pp. 43–56. [48] D. Bhagwat, L. Chiticariu, W.-C. Tan

  6. Active Provenance in Data-intensive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Mihajlovski, Andrej; Filgueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm

    2017-04-01

    Scientific communities are building platforms where the usage of data-intensive workflows is crucial to conduct their research campaigns. However managing and effectively support the understanding of the 'live' processes, fostering computational steering, sharing and re-use of data and methods, present several bottlenecks. These are often caused by the poor level of documentation on the methods and the data and how users interact with it. This work wants to explore how in such systems, flexibility in the management of the provenance and its adaptation to the different users and application contexts can lead to new opportunities for its exploitation, improving productivity. In particular, this work illustrates a conceptual and technical framework enabling tunable and actionable provenance in data-intensive workflow systems in support of reproducible science. It introduces the concept of Agile data-intensive systems to define the characteristic of our target platform. It shows a novel approach to the integration of provenance mechanisms, offering flexibility in the scale and in the precision of the provenance data collected, ensuring its relevance to the domain of the data-intensive task, fostering its rapid exploitation. The contributions address aspects of the scale of the provenance records, their usability and active role in the research life-cycle. We will discuss the use of dynamically generated provenance types as the approach for the integration of provenance mechanisms into a data-intensive workflow system. Enabling provenance can be transparent to the workflow user and developer, as well as fully controllable and customisable, depending from their expertise and the application's reproducibility, monitoring and validation requirements. The API that allows the realisation and adoption of a provenance type is presented, especially for what concerns the support of provenance profiling, contextualisation and precision. An actionable approach to provenance

  7. Special Section: The third provenance challenge on using the open provenance model for interoperability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmhan, Y; Groth, P.T.; Moreau, L

    2011-01-01

    The third provenance challenge was organized to evaluate the efficacy of the Open Provenance Model (OPM) in representing and sharing provenance with the goal of improving the specification. A data loading scientific workflow that ingests data files into a relational database for the Pan-STARRS sky

  8. Provenance trials of larch in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyutin, L.I. [V.N. Sukachev Inst. of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Some results of provenance trials of larch in Siberia are given. These provenance trials were established in the last thirty years by efforts of V.N. Sukaczev Inst. of Forest. Provenances and species of larch were tested in some field trials distributed over Siberia between Lat. N 52 deg and 66 deg, Long. E 88 deg and 113 deg: near Krasnoyarsk, in Republic Khakasia (an altitudes of 800 and 1200 metres), in the Lower Yenisei near Turukhansk, in the west and south regions of Krasnoyarsk territory, in the Upper Lena, near Chita. 2 refs

  9. Archives and societal provenance Australian essays

    CERN Document Server

    Piggott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Records and archival arrangements in Australia are globally relevant because Australia's indigenous people represent the oldest living culture in the world, and because modern Australia is an ex-colonial society now heavily multicultural in outlook. Archives and Societal Provenance explores this distinctiveness using the theoretical concept of societal provenance as propounded by Canadian archival scholars led by Dr Tom Nesmith. The book's seventeen essays blend new writing and re-workings of earlier work, comprising the fi rst text to apply a societal provenance perspective to a national sett

  10. Provenance trials of larch in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyutin, L I [V.N. Sukachev Inst. of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Some results of provenance trials of larch in Siberia are given. These provenance trials were established in the last thirty years by efforts of V.N. Sukaczev Inst. of Forest. Provenances and species of larch were tested in some field trials distributed over Siberia between Lat. N 52 deg and 66 deg, Long. E 88 deg and 113 deg: near Krasnoyarsk, in Republic Khakasia (an altitudes of 800 and 1200 metres), in the Lower Yenisei near Turukhansk, in the west and south regions of Krasnoyarsk territory, in the Upper Lena, near Chita. 2 refs

  11. A Provenance Tracking Model for Data Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ciobanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For data-centric systems, provenance tracking is particularly important when the system is open and decentralised, such as the Web of Linked Data. In this paper, a concise but expressive calculus which models data updates is presented. The calculus is used to provide an operational semantics for a system where data and updates interact concurrently. The operational semantics of the calculus also tracks the provenance of data with respect to updates. This provides a new formal semantics extending provenance diagrams which takes into account the execution of processes in a concurrent setting. Moreover, a sound and complete model for the calculus based on ideals of series-parallel DAGs is provided. The notion of provenance introduced can be used as a subjective indicator of the quality of data in concurrent interacting systems.

  12. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  13. Model-based Abstraction of Data Provenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2014-01-01

    to bigger models, and the analyses adapt accordingly. Our approach extends provenance both with the origin of data, the actors and processes involved in the handling of data, and policies applied while doing so. The model and corresponding analyses are based on a formal model of spatial and organisational......Identifying provenance of data provides insights to the origin of data and intermediate results, and has recently gained increased interest due to data-centric applications. In this work we extend a data-centric system view with actors handling the data and policies restricting actions....... This extension is based on provenance analysis performed on system models. System models have been introduced to model and analyse spatial and organisational aspects of organisations, to identify, e.g., potential insider threats. Both the models and analyses are naturally modular; models can be combined...

  14. Utilizing Provenance in Reusable Research Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Science is conducted collaboratively, often requiring the sharing of knowledge about computational experiments. When experiments include only datasets, they can be shared using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs or Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs. An experiment, however, seldom includes only datasets, but more often includes software, its past execution, provenance, and associated documentation. The Research Object has recently emerged as a comprehensive and systematic method for aggregation and identification of diverse elements of computational experiments. While a necessary method, mere aggregation is not sufficient for the sharing of computational experiments. Other users must be able to easily recompute on these shared research objects. Computational provenance is often the key to enable such reuse. In this paper, we show how reusable research objects can utilize provenance to correctly repeat a previous reference execution, to construct a subset of a research object for partial reuse, and to reuse existing contents of a research object for modified reuse. We describe two methods to summarize provenance that aid in understanding the contents and past executions of a research object. The first method obtains a process-view by collapsing low-level system information, and the second method obtains a summary graph by grouping related nodes and edges with the goal to obtain a graph view similar to application workflow. Through detailed experiments, we show the efficacy and efficiency of our algorithms.

  15. Model-based Abstraction of Data Provenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    Identifying provenance of data provides insights to the origin of data and intermediate results, and has recently gained increased interest due to data-centric applications. In this work we extend a data-centric system view with actors handling the data and policies restricting actions. This

  16. The PBase Scientific Workflow Provenance Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Cuevas-Vicenttín

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific workflows and their supporting systems are becoming increasingly popular for compute-intensive and data-intensive scientific experiments. The advantages scientific workflows offer include rapid and easy workflow design, software and data reuse, scalable execution, sharing and collaboration, and other advantages that altogether facilitate “reproducible science”. In this context, provenance – information about the origin, context, derivation, ownership, or history of some artifact – plays a key role, since scientists are interested in examining and auditing the results of scientific experiments. However, in order to perform such analyses on scientific results as part of extended research collaborations, an adequate environment and tools are required. Concretely, the need arises for a repository that will facilitate the sharing of scientific workflows and their associated execution traces in an interoperable manner, also enabling querying and visualization. Furthermore, such functionality should be supported while taking performance and scalability into account. With this purpose in mind, we introduce PBase: a scientific workflow provenance repository implementing the ProvONE proposed standard, which extends the emerging W3C PROV standard for provenance data with workflow specific concepts. PBase is built on the Neo4j graph database, thus offering capabilities such as declarative and efficient querying. Our experiences demonstrate the power gained by supporting various types of queries for provenance data. In addition, PBase is equipped with a user friendly interface tailored for the visualization of scientific workflow provenance data, making the specification of queries and the interpretation of their results easier and more effective.

  17. PAV ontology: provenance, authoring and versioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Belhajjame, Khalid; Gray, Alasdair Jg; Goble, Carole; Clark, Tim

    2013-11-22

    Provenance is a critical ingredient for establishing trust of published scientific content. This is true whether we are considering a data set, a computational workflow, a peer-reviewed publication or a simple scientific claim with supportive evidence. Existing vocabularies such as Dublin Core Terms (DC Terms) and the W3C Provenance Ontology (PROV-O) are domain-independent and general-purpose and they allow and encourage for extensions to cover more specific needs. In particular, to track authoring and versioning information of web resources, PROV-O provides a basic methodology but not any specific classes and properties for identifying or distinguishing between the various roles assumed by agents manipulating digital artifacts, such as author, contributor and curator. We present the Provenance, Authoring and Versioning ontology (PAV, namespace http://purl.org/pav/): a lightweight ontology for capturing "just enough" descriptions essential for tracking the provenance, authoring and versioning of web resources. We argue that such descriptions are essential for digital scientific content. PAV distinguishes between contributors, authors and curators of content and creators of representations in addition to the provenance of originating resources that have been accessed, transformed and consumed. We explore five projects (and communities) that have adopted PAV illustrating their usage through concrete examples. Moreover, we present mappings that show how PAV extends the W3C PROV-O ontology to support broader interoperability. The initial design of the PAV ontology was driven by requirements from the AlzSWAN project with further requirements incorporated later from other projects detailed in this paper. The authors strived to keep PAV lightweight and compact by including only those terms that have demonstrated to be pragmatically useful in existing applications, and by recommending terms from existing ontologies when plausible. We analyze and compare PAV with related

  18. MRI of pathology-proven peripheral nerve amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, Gavin A.; Broski, Stephen M.; Howe, Benjamin M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Ringler, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    To highlight the MRI characteristics of pathologically proven amyloidosis involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and determine the utility of MRI in directing targeted biopsy for aiding diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed for patients with pathologically proven PNS amyloidosis who also underwent MRI of the biopsied or excised nerve. MRI signal characteristics, nerve morphology, associated muscular denervation changes, and the presence of multifocal involvement were detailed. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine subtypes of amyloid. Charts were reviewed to gather patient demographics, neurological symptoms and radiologist interpretation. Four men and three women with a mean age of 62 ± 11 years (range 46-76) were identified. All patients had abnormal findings on EMG with mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. All lesions demonstrated diffuse multifocal neural involvement with T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, and variable enhancement on MRI. One lesion exhibited superimposed T2 hypointensity. Six of seven patients demonstrated associated muscular denervation changes. Peripheral nerve amyloidosis is rare, and the diagnosis is difficult because of insidious symptom onset, mixed sensorimotor neurologic deficits, and the potential for a wide variety of nerves affected. On MRI, peripheral nerve involvement is most commonly characterized by T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, variable enhancement, maintenance of the fascicular architecture with fusiform enlargement, multifocal involvement and muscular denervation changes. While this appearance mimics other inflammatory neuropathies, MRI can readily detect neural changes and direct-targeted biopsy, thus facilitating early diagnosis and appropriate management. (orig.)

  19. MRI of pathology-proven peripheral nerve amyloidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Gavin A.; Broski, Stephen M.; Howe, Benjamin M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Ringler, Michael D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To highlight the MRI characteristics of pathologically proven amyloidosis involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and determine the utility of MRI in directing targeted biopsy for aiding diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed for patients with pathologically proven PNS amyloidosis who also underwent MRI of the biopsied or excised nerve. MRI signal characteristics, nerve morphology, associated muscular denervation changes, and the presence of multifocal involvement were detailed. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine subtypes of amyloid. Charts were reviewed to gather patient demographics, neurological symptoms and radiologist interpretation. Four men and three women with a mean age of 62 ± 11 years (range 46-76) were identified. All patients had abnormal findings on EMG with mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. All lesions demonstrated diffuse multifocal neural involvement with T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, and variable enhancement on MRI. One lesion exhibited superimposed T2 hypointensity. Six of seven patients demonstrated associated muscular denervation changes. Peripheral nerve amyloidosis is rare, and the diagnosis is difficult because of insidious symptom onset, mixed sensorimotor neurologic deficits, and the potential for a wide variety of nerves affected. On MRI, peripheral nerve involvement is most commonly characterized by T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, variable enhancement, maintenance of the fascicular architecture with fusiform enlargement, multifocal involvement and muscular denervation changes. While this appearance mimics other inflammatory neuropathies, MRI can readily detect neural changes and direct-targeted biopsy, thus facilitating early diagnosis and appropriate management. (orig.)

  20. Clinical review: Management of difficult airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainly at induction of anesthesia. Nevertheless, claim reports emphasize that airway emergencies, tracheal extubation and/or recovery of anesthesia phases are still associated with death or brain damage, indicating that additional educational support and management strategies to improve patient safety are required. The present brief review analyses specific problems of airway management related to difficult tracheal intubation and to difficult mask ventilation prediction. The review will focus on basic airway management including preoxygenation, and on some oxygenation and tracheal intubation techniques that may be performed to solve a difficult airway. PMID:17184555

  1. Clinical review: management of difficult airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainly at induction of anesthesia. Nevertheless, claim reports emphasize that airway emergencies, tracheal extubation and/or recovery of anesthesia phases are still associated with death or brain damage, indicating that additional educational support and management strategies to improve patient safety are required. The present brief review analyses specific problems of airway management related to difficult tracheal intubation and to difficult mask ventilation prediction. The review will focus on basic airway management including preoxygenation, and on some oxygenation and tracheal intubation techniques that may be performed to solve a difficult airway.

  2. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  3. How Difficult It Is to Be God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Book review of Carlos Iván Degregori, How Difficult It Is to Be God: Shining Path's Politics of War in Peru,1980–1999 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2012)......Book review of Carlos Iván Degregori, How Difficult It Is to Be God: Shining Path's Politics of War in Peru,1980–1999 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2012)...

  4. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research.

  5. The greenhouse effect and extreme weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Kvamstoe, Nils Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    The article asserts that an anthropogenic global warming is occurring. This greenhouse effect is expected to cause more occurrences of extreme weather. It is extremely difficult, however, to relate specific weather catastrophes to global warming with certainty, since such extreme weather conditions are rare historically. The subject is controversial. The article also discusses the public debate and the risk of floods

  6. Study on the effectiveness of Extreme Cold Mist MQL system on turning process of stainless steel AISI 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, A. S.; Hosokawa, A.; Furumoto, T.; Koyano, T.; Hashimoto, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Cutting process of difficult-to-cut material such as stainless steel, generates immensely excessive heat, which is one of the major causes related to shortening tool life and lower quality of surface finish. It is proven that application of cutting fluid during the cutting process of difficult-to-cut material is able to improve the cutting performance, but excessive application of cutting fluid leads to another problem such as increasing processing cost and environmental hazardous pollution of workplace. In the study, Extreme Cold Mist system is designed and tested along with various Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) systems on turning process of stainless steel AISI 316. In the study, it is obtained that, Extreme Cold Mist system is able to reduce cutting force up to 60N and improve the surface roughness of the machined surface significantly.

  7. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  8. Different types of power reactors and provenness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture guides the potential buyer in the selection of a reactor type. Recommended criteria regarding provenness, licensability, and contractual arrangements are defined and discussed. Tabular data summarizing operating experience and commercial availability of units are presented and discussed. The status of small and medium power reactors which are of interest to many developing countries is presented. It is stressed that each prospective buyer will have to establish his own criteria based on specific conditions which will be applied to reactor selection. In all cases it will be found that selection, either pre-selection of bidders or final selection of supplier, will be a fairly complex evaluation. (orig.) [de

  9. Difficult intubation: are you prepared for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, C

    1994-01-01

    The endotracheal intubation of a patient for surgery requires an anaesthetist who is aided by a skilled and experienced helper. This paper explores reasons why some patients are difficult to intubate. Some are predictable on pre-operative assessment and others are not. Suggestions are given on how the helper is useful to the anaesthetist in this potentially critical situation.

  10. Preoperative Ultrasonography as a Predictor of Difficult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patient.[8]. On the basis of ultrasound findings, surgeons can select the cases appropriate for their skills aiming at reducing operative complications and minimizing the waste of operative time.[2]. Based on ... bed-more than 20 min. 4. Spillage of bile and ... gallbladder turned out to be difficult laparoscopically. The positive ...

  11. Preoperative Prediction of Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pujahari[2] [Table 1]. The scores were added up to get a total score and the patients were divided into categories of risks based on the total score [Table 2]. The following operative parameters ... The timing was noted from the first port site incision till the last ports closure. ..... Dhanke PS, Vgane SP. Factors predicting difficult ...

  12. Crisis management during anaesthesia: difficult intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paix, A D; Williamson, J A; Runciman, W B

    2005-06-01

    Anaesthetists may experience difficulty with intubation unexpectedly which may be associated with difficulty in ventilating the patient. If not well managed, there may be serious consequences for the patient. A simple structured approach to this problem was developed to assist the anaesthetist in this difficult situation. To examine the role of a specific sub-algorithm for the management of difficult intubation. The potential performance of a structured approach developed by review of the literature and analysis of each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. There were 147 reports of difficult intubation capable of analysis among the first 4000 incidents reported to AIMS. The difficulty was unexpected in 52% of cases; major physiological changes occurred in 37% of these cases. Saturation fell below 90% in 22% of cases, oesophageal intubation was reported in 19%, and an emergency transtracheal airway was required in 4% of cases. Obesity and limited neck mobility and mouth opening were the most common anatomical contributing factors. The data confirm previously reported failures to predict difficult intubation with existing preoperative clinical tests and suggest an ongoing need to teach a pre-learned strategy to deal with difficult intubation and any associated problem with ventilation. An easy-to-follow structured approach to these problems is outlined. It is recommended that skilled assistance be obtained (preferably another anaesthetist) when difficulty is expected or the patient's cardiorespiratory reserve is low. Patients should be assessed postoperatively to exclude any sequelae and to inform them of the difficulties encountered. These should be clearly documented and appropriate steps taken to warn future anaesthetists.

  13. The long shadows of the difficult past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolnik, Kevin; Busse, Britta; Tholen, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question of how young people today evaluate the Second World War today and how this ‘difficult past’ determines their political attitudes. Furthermore, the channels through which the current young generation in Europe is informed about the events dating back to the first...... half of the twentieth century (e.g. parents and grandparents, schools, the media) are examined. The theoretical basis chosen for addressing these questions is the work of Mannheim (1928) on the formation of successive generations, and the theories of collective memories and identities of Eisenstadt...... and his followers. Our empirical evidence comes from a transnational comparison of young people’s memories of this difficult past in Denmark, Finland and Germany. From a historical perspective a comparison of the three countries is particularly interesting as they played different roles during the Second...

  14. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  15. Clinical review: Management of difficult airways

    OpenAIRE

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainl...

  16. Biopsy-proven childhood glomerulonephritis in Johor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, J J; Pee, S; Thevarajah, B; Yap, Y C; Chin, C K

    2004-06-01

    There has been no published study of biopsy-proven childhood glomerulonephritis in Malaysia. To determine the pattern of childhood glomerulonephritis in Johor, Malaysia from a histopathological perspective and the various indications used for renal biopsy in children. Retrospective study was done of all renal biopsies from children under 16 years of age, received in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor between 1994 and 2001. The histopathological findings were reviewed to determine the pattern of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis. The indications for biopsy, mode of therapy given after biopsy and the clinical outcome were studied. 122 adequate biopsies were received, 9 children had repeat biopsies. Of the 113 biopsies, minimal change disease formed the most common histopathological diagnosis (40.7%) while lupus nephritis formed the most common secondary glomerulonephritis (23.0%). The main indications for biopsy were nephrotic syndrome (50.8%), lupus nephritis (25.4%) and renal impairment (13.1%). The mode of therapy was changed in 59.8% of the children. Of 106 patients followed-up, 84 children were found to have normal renal function in remission or on treatment. 4 patients developed chronic renal impairment and 16 reached end stage renal disease. Five of the 16 children with end stage disease had since died while 11 were on renal replacement therapy. Another 2 patients died of other complications. The pattern of childhood GN in our study tended to reflect the more severe renal parenchymal diseases in children and those requiring more aggressive treatment. This was because of our criteria of selection (indication) for renal biopsy. Renal biopsy where performed appropriately in selected children may not only be a useful investigative tool for histological diagnosis and prognosis but may help clinicians plan the optimal therapy for these children.

  17. MCloud: Secure Provenance for Mobile Cloud Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-03

    Feasibility of Smartphone Clouds, 2015 15th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid). 04-MAY- 15, Shenzhen, China...compromised kernel, with the highest privilege. MCloud context data gathered by smartphone sensors can now be relayed correctly and with integrity...aspects of people’s daily online and physical activities. Yet, in critical settings it is especially difficult to ascertain and assert an acceptable level

  18. Big Data Provenance: Challenges, State of the Art and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianwu; Crawl, Daniel; Purawat, Shweta; Nguyen, Mai; Altintas, Ilkay

    2015-01-01

    Ability to track provenance is a key feature of scientific workflows to support data lineage and reproducibility. The challenges that are introduced by the volume, variety and velocity of Big Data, also pose related challenges for provenance and quality of Big Data, defined as veracity. The increasing size and variety of distributed Big Data provenance information bring new technical challenges and opportunities throughout the provenance lifecycle including recording, querying, sharing and ut...

  19. Tracing where and who provenance in Linked Data: A calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Dezani-Ciancaglini, Mariangiola; Horne, Ross; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2012-01-01

    Linked Data provides some sensible guidelines for publishing and consuming data on the Web. Data published on the Web has no inherent truth, yet its quality can often be assessed based on its provenance. This work introduces a new approach to provenance for Linked Data. The simplest notion of provenance-viz., a named graph indicating where the data is now-is extended with a richer provenance format. The format reflects the behaviour of processes interacting with Linked Data, tracing where the...

  20. Provenance tracking in the ViroLab Virtual Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliś, B.; Bubak, M.; Wach, J.

    2008-01-01

    Provenance describes the process which led to the creation of a piece of data. Tracking provenance of experiment results is essential in modern environments which support conducting of in silico experiments. We present a provenance tracking approach developed as part of the virtual laboratory of the

  1. Irradiation sensibility of different provenances of Jatropha curcas L. seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qing; Xu Congheng; Peng Daiping; Duan Zhubiao; Han Lei; Sun Qixiang; Peng Zhenhua

    2007-01-01

    The irradiation sensibility of 10 provenances of Jatropha curcas L. seeds to 60 Co γ-rays was studied. The results showed that the relationship between relative germination rate of the seeds and the doses of irradiation was negative correlation, and the difference of relative germination rate among different doses treatment was significant at 5% probability level or highly significant at 1% probability level. For seeds of different provenances, the correlation coefficient of linear regression was from -0.89--0.96, and the medial lethal doses (LD 50) of 10 provinces was from 127 Gy to 184 Gy. According to the LD 50, we could divided 10 provinces of J. curcas L. into sensitive provenance, transitional provenances and obtuse provenances. The provenances of Yuanjiang , Yunan (184 Gy) belonged to sensitive provenance; the provenances of Zhenfeng, Guizhou (127 Gy) and the provenances of Yuedong, Hainan (141 Gy) belonged to obtuse provenance; other 7 provenances belonged to transitional provenances. The results provided important experiment basis for germ plasma resources innovation of J. curcas L. (authors)

  2. Provenance research: investigation of genetic diversity associated with geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1963-01-01

    Provenance in forestry refers to the population of trees growing at n particular place of origin. Provenance research defines the genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation associated with geographic source. Information on provenance is important in assuring sources of seed to give well-adapted, productive trees and in directing breeding of...

  3. LQCD workflow execution framework: Models, provenance and fault-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccoli, Luciano; Simone, James N; Kowalkowlski, James B; Dubey, Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Large computing clusters used for scientific processing suffer from systemic failures when operated over long continuous periods for executing workflows. Diagnosing job problems and faults leading to eventual failures in this complex environment is difficult, specifically when the success of an entire workflow might be affected by a single job failure. In this paper, we introduce a model-based, hierarchical, reliable execution framework that encompass workflow specification, data provenance, execution tracking and online monitoring of each workflow task, also referred to as participants. The sequence of participants is described in an abstract parameterized view, which is translated into a concrete data dependency based sequence of participants with defined arguments. As participants belonging to a workflow are mapped onto machines and executed, periodic and on-demand monitoring of vital health parameters on allocated nodes is enabled according to pre-specified rules. These rules specify conditions that must be true pre-execution, during execution and post-execution. Monitoring information for each participant is propagated upwards through the reflex and healing architecture, which consists of a hierarchical network of decentralized fault management entities, called reflex engines. They are instantiated as state machines or timed automatons that change state and initiate reflexive mitigation action(s) upon occurrence of certain faults. We describe how this cluster reliability framework is combined with the workflow execution framework using formal rules and actions specified within a structure of first order predicate logic that enables a dynamic management design that reduces manual administrative workload, and increases cluster-productivity.

  4. Difficult weaning in delayed onset diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively rare and result from either blunt or penetrating trauma. Regardless of the mechanism, diagnosis is often missed and high index of suspicion is vital. The clinical signs associated with a diaphragmatic hernia can range from no outward signs to immediately life-threatening respiratory compromise. Establishing the clinical diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries (DI can be challenging as it is often clinically occult. Accurate diagnosis is critical since missed DI may result in grave sequelae due to herniation and strangulation of displaced intra-abdominal organs. We present a case of polytrauma with rib fracture and delayed appearance of diaphragmatic hernia manifesting as difficult weaning from ventilatory support.

  5. Foreign body aspiration masquerading as difficult asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to assess patients of difficult/therapy resistant asthma carefully in order to identify whether there are any correctable factors that may contribute to their poor control. It is critical to make a diagnosis of asthma and to exclude other airway diseases. A 65-years-old lady presented with repeated acute episodes of dyspnoea and wheezing. She was on regular medication for bronchial asthma for 18 years. There was no history of foreign body aspiration or loss of consciousness. Her chest radiograph was normal. She showed poor response to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB showed intracordal cyst of the left vocal cord and 1cm size irregular piece of betel nut in right main bronchus, which was removed endoscopically with the help of dormia basket, following which her condition improved and asthma was controlled on inhaled bronchodilators.

  6. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  7. Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodymyr, S

    1987-07-01

    1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project.

  8. The reentry catheter: a second chance for endoluminal reentry at difficult lower extremity subintimal arterial recanalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etezadi, Vahid; Benenati, James F; Patel, Parag J; Patel, Rahul S; Powell, Alex; Katzen, Barry T

    2010-05-01

    From January 2005 to July 2008, a retrospective study was conducted at a single institution to investigate technical success of the use of a reentry device (Outback LTD reentry catheter) in aortoiliac and femoropopliteal artery recanalization in 34 patients (18 men; mean age +/- SD, 72 years +/- 11) in whom the conventional guide wires and catheters failed to reenter the true lumen. True lumen reentry was achieved in 87% (n = 23) and 91% (n = 11) of patients with femoropopliteal and aortoiliac occlusions, respectively. The overall technical success rate with the device was 88% (n = 34). The device success rate in Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus II class D lesions was significantly lower than in lower lesion classes (71.4% vs 100%; P < .05). No procedure-related complications were encountered. In conclusion, the use of the reentry catheter enhances the likelihood of successful subintimal recanalization of chronic occlusions in femoropopliteal and aortoiliac arteries.

  9. Big Data Provenance: Challenges, State of the Art and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwu; Crawl, Daniel; Purawat, Shweta; Nguyen, Mai; Altintas, Ilkay

    2015-01-01

    Ability to track provenance is a key feature of scientific workflows to support data lineage and reproducibility. The challenges that are introduced by the volume, variety and velocity of Big Data, also pose related challenges for provenance and quality of Big Data, defined as veracity. The increasing size and variety of distributed Big Data provenance information bring new technical challenges and opportunities throughout the provenance lifecycle including recording, querying, sharing and utilization. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities of Big Data provenance related to the veracity of the datasets themselves and the provenance of the analytical processes that analyze these datasets. It also explains our current efforts towards tracking and utilizing Big Data provenance using workflows as a programming model to analyze Big Data.

  10. Data Provenance Architecture for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The pace at which geoscientific insights inform societal development quickens with time and these insights drive decisions and actions of ever-increasing human and economic significance. Until recently academic, commercial and government bodies have maintained distinct bodies of knowledge to support scientific enquiry as well as societal development. However, it has become clear that the curation of the body of data is an activity of equal or higher social and commercial value. We address the community challenges in the curation of, access to, and analysis of scientific data including: the tensions between creators, providers and users; incentives and barriers to sharing; ownership and crediting. We also discuss the technical and financial challenges in maximising the return on the effort made in generating geoscientific data. To illustrate how these challenges might be addressed in the broader geoscientific domain, we describe the high-level data governance and analytical architecture in the upstream Oil Industry. This domain is heavily dependent on costly and highly diverse geodatasets collected and assimilated over timeframes varying from seconds to decades. These data must support both operational decisions at the minute-hour timefame and strategic and economic decisions of enterprise or national scale, and yet be sufficiently robust to last the life of a producing field. We develop three themes around data provenance, data ownership and business models for data curation. 1/ The overarching aspiration is to ensure that data provenance and quality is maintained along the analytical workflow. Hence if data on which a publication or report changes, the report and its publishers can be notified and we describe a mechanism by which dependent knowledge products can be flagged. 2/ From a cost and management point of view we look at who "owns" data especially in cases where the cost of curation and stewardship is significant compared to the cost of acquiring the data

  11. Nostalgia: retreat or support in difficult times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, Krystine Irene

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between nostalgia and coping during difficult times was explored in 2 empirical studies. In the first, 80 undergraduates, 60 women and 20 men, completed the Nostalgia Inventory, a measure of nostalgia proneness, the COPE Inventory, a dispositional measure of strategies for coping with stressful events, and the Childhood Survey, a survey of impressions of childhood experiences. Nostalgia proneness correlated with use of adaptive coping, including emotional social support, expressing emotions, turning to religion, and suppressing competing activities, and did not correlate with escapist or avoidance strategies, including denial, behavioral disengagement, and substance abuse. Nostalgia proneness was related positively to favorable emotional and behavioral childhood experiences and did not correlate with adverse experiences. Favorable impressions of childhood correlated positively with adaptive coping strategies and inversely with dysfunctional ones, whereas unfavorable childhood experiences correlated positively with dysfunctional coping. Regression analyses suggested that the relationship between nostalgia proneness and certain coping strategies may be mediated in part by childhood experiences. In a second study, 100 undergraduates, 86 women and 14 men, completed the Nostalgia Inventory, recalled autobiographical memories that illustrated how childhood is either special or similar to their present life, and rated their likely use of strategies in dealing with 2 hypothetical problems. Nostalgia proneness correlated with emotional and instrumental social coping and with the goal-directed strategies of planning, taking action, and positive reframing. Further research is recommended to explore the role of childhood memories in coping and to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between nostalgia and coping.

  12. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  14. Combined precut in difficult biliary cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Espinel-Díez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: precut sphincterotomy refers to a variety of endoscopic techniques that are used in order to access the bile duct when conventional methods of cannulation have failed. There are not significant data (such as efficacy, safety about the use of different techniques of precutting at the same session. We have described our experience with combined precut sphincterotomy (CPS and we have compared our results to the use of an isolated precut. Patients and methods: we have performed 247 precuts of a total of 2.390 ERCPs. Patients were distributed according to the type of precut practiced: Needle-knife, transpancreatic and combined precut sphincterotomies. "Combined precut" consisted in performing first a transpancreatic sphincterotomy and, if the access was not achieved, then performing a needle-knife sphincterotomy in the same session. The data about safety and efficacy were prospectively collected. The complications were defined according to the consensus criteria. Results: we performed precutting techniques in 247 patients. Needle-knife, transpancreatic, and combined precuts were performed in 125 (6.9%, 74 (4.1% and 48 (2.6% patients, respectively. Bile duct cannulation was successful in 48 patients (100% in the group of combined precut, 121 patients (96.8% in the transpancreatic group, and 67 patients (90.5% in the needle-knife group (p = 0.03. There were not differences in complications rates between the three groups. There was no pancreatitis in the combined precut group. The complications were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusions: combined precut sphincterotomy seems to be a safe and successful technique in those cases of difficult bile duct cannulation.

  15. Data Provenance and Data Management in eScience

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Quan; Giugni, Stephen; Williamson, Darrell; Taylor, John

    2013-01-01

    eScience allows scientific research to be carried out in highly distributed environments. The complex nature of the interactions in an eScience infrastructure, which often involves a range of instruments, data, models, applications, people and computational facilities, suggests there is a need for data provenance and data management (DPDM). The W3C Provenance Working Group defines the provenance of a resource as a “record that describes entities and processes involved in producing and delivering or otherwise influencing that resource”. It has been widely recognised that provenance is a critical issue to enable sharing, trust, authentication and reproducibility of eScience process.   Data Provenance and Data Management in eScience identifies the gaps between DPDM foundations and their practice within eScience domains including clinical trials, bioinformatics and radio astronomy. The book covers important aspects of fundamental research in DPDM including provenance representation and querying. It also expl...

  16. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. S-ProvFlow: provenance model and tools for scalable and adaptive analysis pipelines in geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, A.; Mihajlovski, A.; Atkinson, M.; Filgueira, R.; Klampanos, I.; Sanchez, S.

    2017-12-01

    The reproducibility of scientific findings is essential to improve the quality and application of modern data-driven research. Delivering such reproducibility is challenging in the context of systems handling large data-streams with sophisticated computational methods. Similarly, the SKA (Square Kilometer Array) will collect an unprecedented volume of radio-wave signals that will have to be reduced and transformed into derived products, with impact on space-weather research. This highlights the importance of having cross-disciplines mechanisms at the producer's side that rely on usable lineage data to support validation and traceability of the new artifacts. To be informative, provenance has to describe each methods' abstractions and their implementation as mappings onto distributed platforms and their concurrent execution, capturing relevant internal dependencies at runtime. Producers and intelligent toolsets should be able to exploit the produced provenance, steering real-time monitoring activities and inferring adaptations of methods at runtime.We present a model of provenance (S-PROV) that extends W3C PROV and ProvONE, broadening coverage of provenance to aspects related to distribution, scale-up and steering of stateful streaming operators in analytic pipelines. This is supported by a technical framework for tuneable and actionable lineage, ensuring its relevance to the users' interests, fostering its rapid exploitation to facilitate research practices. By applying concepts such as provenance typing and profiling, users define rules to capture common provenance patterns and activate selective controls based on domain-metadata. The traces are recorded in a document-store with index optimisation and a web API serves advanced interactive tools (S-ProvFlow, https://github.com/KNMI/s-provenance). These allow different classes of consumers to rapidly explore the provenance data. The system, which contributes to the SKA-Link initiative, within technology and

  18. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  19. Provenance variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.M. Emery; F. Thomas Ledig

    1987-01-01

    In California, the Lake Albacutya provenance of river red gum was clearly superior in volume growth to 22 other provenances collected throughout the range of the species in Australia. It had at least 2.5 times the volume of the plantation mean at 5.5 years, consistent with its performance in other countries with Mediterranean climates like California's. Other...

  20. A new method of lower extremity immobilization in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xuhai; Dai, Tangzhi; Shu, Xiaochuan; Pu, Yuanxue; Feng, Gang; Li, Xuesong; Liao, Dongbiao; Du, Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new method for immobilization of the fix lower extremities by using a thermoplastic mask, a carbon fiber base plate, a customized headrest, and an adjustable angle holder. The lower extremities of 11 patients with lower extremity tumors were immobilized by this method. CT simulation was performed for each patient. For all 11 patients, the device fit was suitable and comfortable and had good reproducibility, which was proven in daily radiotherapy

  1. Extreme Events in Nature and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Significant, and usually unwelcome, surprises, such as floods, financial crisis, epileptic seizures, or material rupture, are the topics of Extreme Events in Nature and Society. The book, authored by foremost experts in these fields, reveals unifying and distinguishing features of extreme events, including problems of understanding and modelling their origin, spatial and temporal extension, and potential impact. The chapters converge towards the difficult problem of anticipation: forecasting the event and proposing measures to moderate or prevent it. Extreme Events in Nature and Society will interest not only specialists, but also the general reader eager to learn how the multifaceted field of extreme events can be viewed as a coherent whole.

  2. Lymphoscintigraphy of the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, N.Z.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty one lower extremities of 26 normal healthy volunteers and 26 extremities of 13 patients with oedema have been studied. Dynamic quantitative lymphoscintigraphy using 99Tc-m antimony sulphide colloid during passive exercise as well as before and after active exercise was performed. parameters of lymphatic function including percentage of radioactivity cleared from the injection site, the percentage uptake by the inguinal lymph nodes, the time of arrival of activity at the regional lymph nodes and the lymphatic reserve index have been evaluated. The percentage clearance of activity from the injection site was found technically difficult to standardize and proved to be an unreliable parameter of lymphatic function. However, the quantitation of nodal uptake, the lymphatic transit time and the lymphatic reserve capacity accurately depicted the lymphatic functional status of an individual. The physiologic parameters of lymphatic function of the contralateral lower extremities were compared and a physiologic difference in the lymphatic capacity of the two limbs was scintigraphically documented. (author)

  3. Responses to mild water deficit and rewatering differ among secondary metabolites but are similar among provenances within Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Adam B; Potts, Brad M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Hovenden, Mark J; Davies, Noel W; McAdam, Scott A M; Ross, John J; Rodemann, Thomas; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit associated with drought can severely affect plants and influence ecological interactions involving plant secondary metabolites. We tested the effect of mild water deficit and rewatering on physiological, morphological and chemical traits of juvenile Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. We also tested if responses of juvenile eucalypts to water deficit and rewatering varied within species using provenances across a rainfall gradient. Both species and all provenances were similarly affected by mild water deficit and rewatering, as only foliar abscisic acid levels differed among provenances during water deficit. Across species and provenances, water deficit decreased leaf water potential, above-ground biomass and formylated phloroglucinol compound concentrations, and increased condensed tannin concentrations. Rewatering reduced leaf carbon : nitrogen, and total phenolic and chlorogenic acid concentrations. Water deficit and rewatering had no effect on total oil or individual terpene concentrations. Levels of trait plasticity due to water deficit and rewatering were less than levels of constitutive trait variation among provenances. The overall uniformity of responses to the treatments regardless of native provenance indicates limited diversification of plastic responses when compared with the larger quantitative variation of constitutive traits within these species. These responses to mild water deficit may differ from responses to more extreme water deficit or to responses of juvenile/mature eucalypts growing at each locality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. SEIS-PROV: Practical Provenance for Seismological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, L.; Smith, J. A.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is widely recognized that reproducibility is crucial to advance science, but at the same time it is very hard to actually achieve. This results in it being recognized but also mostly ignored by a large fraction of the community. A key ingredient towards full reproducibility is to capture and describe the history of data, an issue known as provenance. We present SEIS-PROV, a practical format and data model to store provenance information for seismological data. In a seismological context, provenance can be seen as information about the processes that generated and modified a particular piece of data. For synthetic waveforms the provenance information describes which solver and settings therein were used to generate it. When looking at processed seismograms, the provenance conveys information about the different time series analysis steps that led to it. Additional uses include the description of derived data types, such as cross-correlations and adjoint sources, enabling their proper storage and exchange. SEIS-PROV is based on W3C PROV (http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-overview/), a standard for generic provenance information. It then applies an additional set of constraints to make it suitable for seismology. We present a definition of the SEIS-PROV format, a way to check if any given file is a valid SEIS-PROV document, and two sample implementations: One in SPECFEM3D GLOBE (https://geodynamics.org/cig/software/specfem3d_globe/) to store the provenance information of synthetic seismograms and another one as part of the ObsPy (http://obspy.org) framework enabling automatic tracking of provenance information during a series of analysis and transformation stages. This, along with tools to visualize and interpret provenance graphs, offers a description of data history that can be readily tracked, stored, and exchanged.

  5. Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper, developed for EPA's Engineering Forum, identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost.

  6. The Symbiotic Relationship between Scientific Workflow and Provenance (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the symbiotic nature of scientific workflows and provenance. We will also discuss the current trends and real world challenges facing these two distinct research areas. Although motivated differently, the needs of the international science communities are the glue that binds this relationship together. Understanding and articulating the science drivers to these communities is paramount as these technologies evolve and mature. Originally conceived for managing business processes, workflows are now becoming invaluable assets in both computational and experimental sciences. These reconfigurable, automated systems provide essential technology to perform complex analyses by coupling together geographically distributed disparate data sources and applications. As a result, workflows are capable of higher throughput in a shorter amount of time than performing the steps manually. Today many different workflow products exist; these could include Kepler and Taverna or similar products like MeDICI, developed at PNNL, that are standardized on the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). Provenance, originating from the French term Provenir “to come from”, is used to describe the curation process of artwork as art is passed from owner to owner. The concept of provenance was adopted by digital libraries as a means to track the lineage of documents while standards such as the DublinCore began to emerge. In recent years the systems science community has increasingly expressed the need to expand the concept of provenance to formally articulate the history of scientific data. Communities such as the International Provenance and Annotation Workshop (IPAW) have formalized a provenance data model. The Open Provenance Model, and the W3C is hosting a provenance incubator group featuring the Proof Markup Language. Although both workflows and provenance have risen from different communities and operate independently, their mutual

  7. Growth and quality of Grevillea robusta provenances in Ruhande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    used as sawn timber for furniture industry, for construction and packaging. ... seven Queensland (Australia) provenances and one land race on an oxisol at Ruhande .... Statistical analyses were carried out using Statistical Analysis Systems.

  8. DataONE: A Data Federation with Provenance Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yang [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Jones, Christopher [National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara; Cuevas-Vicenttin, Victor [ Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; Jones, Matthew B. [National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara; Ludascher, Bertram [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; McPhillips, Timothy [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Missier, Paolo [Newcastle University, UK; Schwalm, Christopher [Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), Massachusetts; Slaughter, Peter [National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara; Vieglais, Dave [University of Kansas; Walker, Lauren [National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara

    2016-01-01

    DataONE is a federated data network focusing on earth and environmental science data. We present the provenance and search features of DataONE by means of an example involving three earth scientists who interact through a DataONE Member Node. DataONE provenance systems enable reproducible research and facilitate proper attribution of scientific results transitively across generations of derived data products.

  9. Using Blockchain and smart contracts for secure data provenance management

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Aravind; Kantarcioglu, Dr. Murat

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology has evolved from being an immutable ledger of transactions for cryptocurrencies to a programmable interactive the environment for building distributed reliable applications. Although, blockchain technology has been used to address various challenges, to our knowledge none of the previous work focused on using blockchain to develop a secure and immutable scientific data provenance management framework that automatically verifies the provenance records. In this work, we le...

  10. LabelFlow Framework for Annotating Workflow Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Alper

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientists routinely analyse and share data for others to use. Successful data (reuse relies on having metadata describing the context of analysis of data. In many disciplines the creation of contextual metadata is referred to as reporting. One method of implementing analyses is with workflows. A stand-out feature of workflows is their ability to record provenance from executions. Provenance is useful when analyses are executed with changing parameters (changing contexts and results need to be traced to respective parameters. In this paper we investigate whether provenance can be exploited to support reporting. Specifically; we outline a case-study based on a real-world workflow and set of reporting queries. We observe that provenance, as collected from workflow executions, is of limited use for reporting, as it supports queries partially. We identify that this is due to the generic nature of provenance, its lack of domain-specific contextual metadata. We observe that the required information is available in implicit form, embedded in data. We describe LabelFlow, a framework comprised of four Labelling Operators for decorating provenance with domain-specific Labels. LabelFlow can be instantiated for a domain by plugging it with domain-specific metadata extractors. We provide a tool that takes as input a workflow, and produces as output a Labelling Pipeline for that workflow, comprised of Labelling Operators. We revisit the case-study and show how Labels provide a more complete implementation of reporting queries.

  11. Lightweight Provenance Service for High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Dong; Chen, Yong; Carns, Philip; Jenkins, John; Ross, Robert

    2017-09-09

    Provenance describes detailed information about the history of a piece of data, containing the relationships among elements such as users, processes, jobs, and workflows that contribute to the existence of data. Provenance is key to supporting many data management functionalities that are increasingly important in operations such as identifying data sources, parameters, or assumptions behind a given result; auditing data usage; or understanding details about how inputs are transformed into outputs. Despite its importance, however, provenance support is largely underdeveloped in highly parallel architectures and systems. One major challenge is the demanding requirements of providing provenance service in situ. The need to remain lightweight and to be always on often conflicts with the need to be transparent and offer an accurate catalog of details regarding the applications and systems. To tackle this challenge, we introduce a lightweight provenance service, called LPS, for high-performance computing (HPC) systems. LPS leverages a kernel instrument mechanism to achieve transparency and introduces representative execution and flexible granularity to capture comprehensive provenance with controllable overhead. Extensive evaluations and use cases have confirmed its efficiency and usability. We believe that LPS can be integrated into current and future HPC systems to support a variety of data management needs.

  12. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  13. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  14. Effects of temperature and drought manipulations on seedlings of Scots pine provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeger, S; Sparks, T H; Menzel, A

    2015-03-01

    Rising temperatures and more frequent and severe climatic extremes as a consequence of climate change are expected to affect growth and distribution of tree species that are adapted to current local conditions. Species distribution models predict a considerable loss of habitats for Pinus sylvestris. These models do not consider possible intraspecific differences in response to drought and warming that could buffer those impacts. We tested 10 European provenances of P. sylvestris, from the southwestern to the central European part of the species distribution, for their response to warming and to drought using a factorial design. In this common-garden experiment the air surrounding plants was heated directly to prevent excessive soil heating, and drought manipulation, using a rain-out shelter, permitted almost natural radiation, including high light stress. Plant responses were assessed as changes in phenology, growth increment and biomass allocation. Seedlings of P. sylvestris revealed a plastic response to drought by increased taproot length and root-shoot ratios. Strongest phenotypic plasticity of root growth was found for southwestern provenances, indicating a specific drought adaptation at the cost of overall low growth of aboveground structures even under non-drought conditions. Warming had a minor effect on growth but advanced phenological development and had a contrasting effect on bud biomass and diameter increment, depending on water availability. The intraspecific variation of P. sylvestris provenances could buffer climate change impacts, although additional factors such as the adaptation to other climatic extremes have to be considered before assisted migration could become a management option. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Provenance Usage in the OceanLink Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Jones, M.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve thedissemination of scientific research. The OceanLink project, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is utilizing semantic technologies tointegrate geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Provenance is a vital componentin meeting both the scientific and engineering requirements of OceanLink. Provenance plays a key role in justification and understanding when presenting users with results aggregated from multiple sources. In the engineering sense, provenance enables the identification of new data and the ability to determine which data sources to query. Additionally, OceanLink will leverage human and machine computation for crowdsourcing, text mining, and co-reference resolution. The results of these computations, and their associated provenance, will be folded back into the constituent systems to continually enhance precision and utility. We will touch on the various roles provenance is playing in OceanLink as well as present our use of the PROV Ontology and associated Ontology Design Patterns.

  16. Sudetic larch in Germany - Results of provenance and progeny research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisgerber, H. [Forest Centre for Management Planning, Research and Ecology, Hann Muenden (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    There are only a few older sources of Sudetic larch in Germany. They distinguish themselves by outstanding growth and low susceptibility to canker. This impression was confirmed by results of provenance research. The Sudetic larch tested in comparison with numerous other provenances proved to be fast-growing, site-tolerant, to a large extent insusceptible to canker, with straight but also slightly to moderately curved stems. The Sudetic provenances behave remarkably uniformly as regards these characteristics. In addition to provenance research investigations have been going on for a long time in Germany into individual differences within the Sudetic larch populations. A report is given on the results of progeny tests from free and controlled pollination, using the example of a seed orchard consisting of 54 clones. We point also to possibilities for improving stem quality by selection steps. The results of provenance and progeny research on Sudetic larch are in the meantime being put to use to a large extent in practical forestry. The forest administrations of various federal lands recommend the use of reproductive material of Sudetic origin and from seed orchards. 20 refs, 3 figs

  17. Provenance-based refresh in data-oriented workflows

    KAUST Repository

    Ikeda, Robert; Salihoglu, Semih; Widom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We consider a general workflow setting in which input data sets are processed by a graph of transformations to produce output results. Our goal is to perform efficient selective refresh of elements in the output data, i.e., compute the latest values of specific output elements when the input data may have changed. We explore how data provenance can be used to enable efficient refresh. Our approach is based on capturing one-level data provenance at each transformation when the workflow is run initially. Then at refresh time provenance is used to determine (transitively) which input elements are responsible for given output elements, and the workflow is rerun only on that portion of the data needed for refresh. Our contributions are to formalize the problem setting and the problem itself, to specify properties of transformations and provenance that are required for efficient refresh, and to provide algorithms that apply to a wide class of transformations and workflows. We have built a prototype system supporting the features and algorithms presented in the paper. We report preliminary experimental results on the overhead of provenance capture, and on the crossover point between selective refresh and full workflow recomputation. © 2011 ACM.

  18. Sudetic larch in Germany - Results of provenance and progeny research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisgerber, H [Forest Centre for Management Planning, Research and Ecology, Hann Muenden (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    There are only a few older sources of Sudetic larch in Germany. They distinguish themselves by outstanding growth and low susceptibility to canker. This impression was confirmed by results of provenance research. The Sudetic larch tested in comparison with numerous other provenances proved to be fast-growing, site-tolerant, to a large extent insusceptible to canker, with straight but also slightly to moderately curved stems. The Sudetic provenances behave remarkably uniformly as regards these characteristics. In addition to provenance research investigations have been going on for a long time in Germany into individual differences within the Sudetic larch populations. A report is given on the results of progeny tests from free and controlled pollination, using the example of a seed orchard consisting of 54 clones. We point also to possibilities for improving stem quality by selection steps. The results of provenance and progeny research on Sudetic larch are in the meantime being put to use to a large extent in practical forestry. The forest administrations of various federal lands recommend the use of reproductive material of Sudetic origin and from seed orchards. 20 refs, 3 figs

  19. Why IV Setup for Stream Ciphers is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography.......In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography....

  20. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  1. Determination of marble provenance: limits of isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, K.; Holzmann, G.; Winkler, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Provenance determination of Thessalian stelae marbles using the C/O isotopic analysis proved to be misleading, as the isotopic composition even in very small quarrying areas is heterogeneous and isotopic coincidence of marbles from very distant sources occurs. Therefore additional geological features must be taken into consideration and preference should be given to combinations of both petrographical and geochemical properties. Geological field work to establish the range of possible marble sources and the variability within these sources is one of the prerequisites of provenance studies. (author)

  2. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D.; Cheng, H.S.; Lin, J.W.; Yang, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE

  3. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Lin, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2006-08-15

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE.

  4. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Cheng, H. S.; Lin, J. W.; Yang, F. J.

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE.

  5. Validated questionnaires heighten detection of difficult asthma comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Naghmeh; Tay, Tunn Ren; Hore-Lacy, Fiona; Stirling, Robert; Hoy, Ryan; Dabscheck, Eli; Hew, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Multiple extra-pulmonary comorbidities contribute to difficult asthma, but their diagnosis can be challenging and time consuming. Previous data on comorbidity detection have focused on clinical assessment, which may miss certain conditions. We aimed to locate relevant validated screening questionnaires to identify extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma, and evaluate their performance during a difficult asthma evaluation. MEDLINE was searched to identify key extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma. Screening questionnaires were chosen based on ease of use, presence of a cut-off score, and adequate validation to help systematically identify comorbidities. In a consecutive series of 86 patients referred for systematic evaluation of difficult asthma, questionnaires were administered prior to clinical consultation. Six difficult asthma comorbidities and corresponding screening questionnaires were found: sinonasal disease (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis), vocal cord dysfunction, dysfunctional breathing, obstructive sleep apnea, anxiety and depression, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. When the questionnaires were added to the referring clinician's impression, the detection of all six comorbidities was significantly enhanced. The average time for questionnaire administration was approximately 40 minutes. The use of validated screening questionnaires heightens detection of comorbidities in difficult asthma. The availability of data from a battery of questionnaires prior to consultation can save time and allow clinicians to systematically assess difficult asthma patients and to focus on areas of particular concern. Such an approach would ensure that all contributing comorbidities have been addressed before significant treatment escalation is considered.

  6. Therapist reactions in self-experienced difficult situations: an exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.M.; Kleijn, W.C.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of 63 difficult therapeutic situations described by 26 therapists. The study was part of research on specific reactions of therapists to traumatized clients. The research questions for the current analyses focused on the categorization of difficult

  7. Unusual tumour ablations: report of difficult and interesting cases

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri, Giovanni; Nicosia, Luca; Varano, Gianluca Maria; Shyn, Paul; Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca; Orsi, Franco; Solbiati, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Image-guided ablations are nowadays applied in the treatment of a wide group of diseases and in different organs and regions, and every day interventional radiologists have to face more difficult and unusual cases of tumour ablation. In the present case review, we report four difficult and unusual cases, reporting some tips and tricks for a successful image-guided treatment.

  8. Provenance of sandstone on the western flank of Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrographic and heavy mineral studies were carried out on clastic deposits that crop out in Ikpeshi, Auchi and Fugar localities in order to determine the provenance of the ... The heavy mineral suites and the petrographic signatures of the sandstones suggest derivation mainly from acid igneous rocks, gneisses and older ...

  9. Towards Automatic Capturing of Manual Data Processing Provenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Huq, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Often data processing is not implemented by a work ow system or an integration application but is performed manually by humans along the lines of a more or less specified procedure. Collecting provenance information during manual data processing can not be automated. Further, manual collection of

  10. Changing provenance of late Cenozoic sediments in the Jianghan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River is one of the most important components of the East Asia river system. In this study, sediments in the Jianghan Basin, middle Yangtze River, were selected for trace element and rare earth element (REE measurements, in order to decipher information on the change of sediment provenance and evolution of the Yangtze River. According to the elemental variations, the late Cenozoic sediments of the Jianghan Basin could be divided into four parts. During 2.68–2.28 Ma and 1.25–0 Ma, provenance of the sediments was consistent, whereas sediments were derived from variable sources during 2.28–1.25 Ma. Comparison of the elemental compositions between the Pliocene and Quaternary sediments revealed a change in sediment source from a more felsic source area to a more basic source area around the Pliocene–Quaternary boundary. Input from the Emeishan LIP should account for this provenance change. Based on the provenance analysis of sediments in the Jianghan Basin, we infer that the Yangtze River developed into a large river with its drainage basin extended to the Emeishan LIP no later than the Pliocene–Quaternary boundary.

  11. Outcome of biopsy proven minimal change disease (MCD) in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: MCD is the most common histological sub-type of nephrotic syndrome with variable clinical course in children. There are limited studies in literature on the outcome of biopsy proven MCD. The objective was to look at the treatment response and outcome of patients with MCD treated at a tertiary ...

  12. Growth and quality of Grevillea robusta provenances in Ruhande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    seven Queensland (Australia) provenances and one land race on an oxisol at Ruhande Arboretum,. Butare, Rwanda was carried out. The species is .... could not be executed due to problems of war and genocide in 1994. Assessment procedures ..... Forest Ecology and Management 80: 279-285. 10. Kalinganire, A. 1999.

  13. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Epidemics are favored by rainfall and high humidity. A provenance collection of ~950 pecan trees from 19 locations representing the native range of the species is located in Byron, Georgia...

  14. Facilitating Fine Grained Data Provenance using Temporal Data Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, M.R.; Wombacher, Andreas; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2010-01-01

    E-science applications use fine grained data provenance to maintain the reproducibility of scientific results, i.e., for each processed data tuple, the source data used to process the tuple as well as the used approach is documented. Since most of the e-science applications perform on-line

  15. Climate Data Provenance Tracking for Just-In-Time Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, S.; Nadeau, D.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The "Climate Data Management System" (CDMS) was created in 1996 as part of the Climate Data Analysis Tools suite of software. It provides a simple interface into a wide variety of climate data formats, and creates NetCDF CF-Compliant files. It leverages the NumPy framework for high performance computation, and is an all-in-one IO and computation package. CDMS has been extended to track manipulations of data, and trace that data all the way to the original raw data. This extension tracks provenance about data, and enables just-in-time (JIT) computation. The provenance for each variable is packaged as part of the variable's metadata, and can be used to validate data processing and computations (by repeating the analysis on the original data). It also allows for an alternate solution for sharing analyzed data; if the bandwidth for a transfer is prohibitively expensive, the provenance serialization can be passed in a much more compact format and the analysis rerun on the input data. Data provenance tracking in CDMS enables far-reaching and impactful functionalities, permitting implementation of many analytical paradigms.

  16. Combining User Reputation and Provenance Analysis for Trust Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceolin, D.; Groth, P.T.; Maccatrozzo, V.; Fokkink, W.J.; van Hage, W.R.; Nottamkandath, A.

    2016-01-01

    Trust is a broad concept that in many systems is often reduced to user reputation alone. However, user reputation is just one way to determine trust. The estimation of trust can be tackled from other perspectives as well, including by looking at provenance. Here, we present a complete pipeline for

  17. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    data visualisation to genomics and social networking analysis. Its adoption for provenance has been presented in literature (Borkin et al. 2013) in the context of parent-child relationships across processes, constructed from control-flow information. Computer graphics research has focused on the advantage of this radial distribution of interlinked information and on ways to improve the visual efficiency and tunability of such representations, like the Hierarchical Edge Bundles visualisation method, (Holten et al. 2006), which aims at reducing visual clutter of highly connected structures via the generation of bundles. Our approach explores the potential of the combination of these methods. It serves environments where the size of the provenance collection, coupled with the diversity of the infrastructures and the domain metadata, make the extrapolation of usage trends extremely challenging. Applications of such visualisation systems can engage groups of scientists, data providers and computational engineers, by serving visual snapshots that highlight relationships between an item and its connected processes. We will present examples of comprehensive views on the distribution of processing and data transfers during a workflow's execution in HPC, as well as cross workflows interactions and internal dynamics. The latter in the context of faceted searches on domain metadata values-range. These are obtained from the analysis of real provenance data generated by the processing of seismic traces performed through the VERCE platform.

  18. Provenance-Based Debugging and Drill-Down in Data-Oriented Workflows

    KAUST Repository

    Ikeda, Robert; Cho, Junsang; Fang, Charlie; Salihoglu, Semih; Torikai, Satoshi; Widom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Panda (for Provenance and Data) is a system that supports the creation and execution of data-oriented workflows, with automatic provenance generation and built-in provenance tracing operations. Workflows in Panda are arbitrary a cyclic graphs

  19. Study of provenance properties on ancient porcelain of Yue Kiln at Si-long-kou with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Fan Dongyu; Feng Xiangqian; Cheng Lin; Lei Yong; Xu Qing; Quan Huishan; Shen Yueming; Zhou Zhexi; Zhang Wenjiang

    2005-01-01

    Chinese ancient porcelain history has lasted about three thousands years from Shang Dynasty (1100∼1600 BC). A large amount of ancient porcelain sherds with accuracy provenance and ages were excavated from a lot of kiln sites in China. Archaeologists and ceramic experts have recognized and researched it with excavated stratum, utensil shape, body quality, glaze color and painting pattern. However, the appearance characteristic of some ancient porcelain manufactured in different kilns is similar. Therefore, it is still difficult to identify the provenance and ages of the samples excavated from some sites using traditional methods. Up, to now, many problems of Chinese ancient porcelain are confused for archaeologist and collecting experts. The elemental composition of ancient porcelain shows certain information of provenance and age. Especially, the sorts and contents of the elements in porcelain didn't change, so it is very useful to determine the provenance of ancient porcelain with elemental composition characteristics. Provenance characteristic is the important scientific information to identify ancient porcelain wares excavated from sites and graves. The porcelain samples of Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln in Zhejiang Province of china have been analyzed with NAA in this paper. The provenance characteristic was compared with it of Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi Province and Yao-Zhou kiln of Shan-Xi Province. The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results show that the chemical compositions of porcelain body samples for three kilns were different. The difference was been able identified. The porcelain body materials of both Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln and Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi were similar. The samples of Yao-Zhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference.

  20. Guidelines and algorithms for managing the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ríos, M A; Gaitini, L; Matter, I; Somri, M

    2018-01-01

    The difficult airway constitutes a continuous challenge for anesthesiologists. Guidelines and algorithms are key to preserving patient safety, by recommending specific plans and strategies that address predicted or unexpected difficult airway. However, there are currently no "gold standard" algorithms or universally accepted standards. The aim of this article is to present a synthesis of the recommendations of the main guidelines and difficult airway algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. How libraries make tough choices in difficult times purposeful abandonment

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, David

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary library managers face the need to make difficult choices regarding resource allocation in the modern business environment. How Libraries Make Tough Choices in Difficult Times is a practical guide for library managers, offering techniques to analyze existing and potential services, implement best practices for maximizing existing resources, and utilize pressing financial scenarios in order to justify making difficult reallocation decisions. The book begins by asking the fundamental questions of why, what, and how, moving on to look at how to manage expectations and report to both a

  2. Bridging the provenance gap: opportunities and challenges tracking in and ex silico provenance in sUAS workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Data provenance - the record of the varied processes that went into the creation of a dataset, as well as the relationships between resulting data objects - is necessary to support the reusability, reproducibility and reliability of earth science data. In sUAS-based research, capturing provenance can be particularly challenging because of the breadth and distributed nature of the many platforms used to collect, process and analyze data. In any given project, multiple drones, controllers, computers, software systems, sensors, cameras, imaging processing algorithms and data processing workflows are used over sometimes long periods of time. These platforms and processing result in dozens - if not hundreds - of data products in varying stages of readiness-for-analysis and sharing. Provenance tracking mechanisms are needed to make the relationships between these many data products explicit, and therefore more reusable and shareable. In this talk, I discuss opportunities and challenges in tracking provenance in sUAS-based research, and identify gaps in current workflow-capture technologies. I draw on prior work conducted as part of the IMLS-funded Site-Based Data Curation project in which we developed methods of documenting in and ex silico (that is, computational and non-computation) workflows, and demonstrate this approaches applicability to research with sUASes. I conclude with a discussion of ontologies and other semantic technologies that have potential application in sUAS research.

  3. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery provenance method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methods on quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine were investigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goc, Studenica and Sargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gocko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gocko led to the highest seedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.     

  4. Seamless Provenance Representation and Use in Collaborative Science Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missier, P.; Ludaescher, B.; Bowers, S.; Altintas, I.; Anand, M. K.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, A.; Shrestha, B.; Goble, C.

    2010-12-01

    The notion of sharing scientific data has only recently begun to gain ground in science, where data is still considered a private asset. There is growing evidence, however, that the benefits of scientific collaboration through early data sharing during the course of a science project may outgrow the risk of losing exclusive ownership of the data. As exemplar success stories are making the headlines[1], principles of effective information sharing have become the subject of e-science research. In particular, any piece of published data should be self-describing, to the extent necessary for consumers to determine its suitability for reuse in their own projects. This is accomplished by associating a body of formally specified and machine-processable metadata to the data. When data is produced and reused by independent groups, however, metadata interoperability issues emerge. This is the case for provenance, a form of metadata that describes the history of a data product, Y. Provenance is typically expressed as a graph-structured set of dependencies that account for the sequence of computational or interactive steps that led to Y, often starting from some primary, observational data. Traversing dependency graphs is one of the mechanisms used to answer questions on data reliability. In the context of the NSF DataONE project[2], we have been studying issues of provenance interoperability in scientific collaboration scenarios. Consider a first scientist, Alice, who publishes a data product X along with its provenance, and a second scientist who further transforms X into a new product Y, also along with its provenance. A third scientist, who is interested in Y, expects to be able to trace Y's history up to the inputs used by Alice. This is only possible, however, if provenance accumulates into a single, uniform graph that can be seamlessly traversed. This becomes problematic when provenance is captured using different tools and computational models (i.e. workflow systems

  5. Estimation of extreme risk regions under multivariate regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, J.; Einmahl, J.H.J.; de Haan, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    When considering d possibly dependent random variables, one is often interested in extreme risk regions, with very small probability p. We consider risk regions of the form {z ∈ Rd : f (z) ≤ β}, where f is the joint density and β a small number. Estimation of such an extreme risk region is difficult

  6. A Fiducial Approach to Extremes and Multiple Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandler, Damian V.

    2010-01-01

    Generalized fiducial inference is a powerful tool for many difficult problems. Based on an extension of R. A. Fisher's work, we used generalized fiducial inference for two extreme value problems and a multiple comparison procedure. The first extreme value problem is dealing with the generalized Pareto distribution. The generalized Pareto…

  7. Provenance for Runtime Workflow Steering and Validation in Computational Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, A.; Krischer, L.; Krause, A.; Filgueira, R.; Magnoni, F.; Muraleedharan, V.; David, M.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance systems may be offered by modern workflow engines to collect metadata about the data transformations at runtime. If combined with effective visualisation and monitoring interfaces, these provenance recordings can speed up the validation process of an experiment, suggesting interactive or automated interventions with immediate effects on the lifecycle of a workflow run. For instance, in the field of computational seismology, if we consider research applications performing long lasting cross correlation analysis and high resolution simulations, the immediate notification of logical errors and the rapid access to intermediate results, can produce reactions which foster a more efficient progress of the research. These applications are often executed in secured and sophisticated HPC and HTC infrastructures, highlighting the need for a comprehensive framework that facilitates the extraction of fine grained provenance and the development of provenance aware components, leveraging the scalability characteristics of the adopted workflow engines, whose enactment can be mapped to different technologies (MPI, Storm clusters, etc). This work looks at the adoption of W3C-PROV concepts and data model within a user driven processing and validation framework for seismic data, supporting also computational and data management steering. Validation needs to balance automation with user intervention, considering the scientist as part of the archiving process. Therefore, the provenance data is enriched with community-specific metadata vocabularies and control messages, making an experiment reproducible and its description consistent with the community understandings. Moreover, it can contain user defined terms and annotations. The current implementation of the system is supported by the EU-Funded VERCE (http://verce.eu). It provides, as well as the provenance generation mechanisms, a prototypal browser-based user interface and a web API built on top of a NoSQL storage

  8. Students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior secondary schools in ... that students in Senior Secondary School Two (SSII) have difficulties in learning, the ... However, teaching strategies, students' attitude, inadequate learning ...

  9. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  10. Difficult Sudoku Puzzles Created by Replica Exchange Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm to create difficult Sudoku puzzles is proposed. An Ising spin-glass like Hamiltonian describing difficulty of puzzles is defined, and difficult puzzles are created by minimizing the energy of the Hamiltonian. We adopt the replica exchange Monte Carlo method with simultaneous temperature adjustments to search lower energy states efficiently, and we succeed in creating a puzzle which is the world hardest ever created in our definition, to our best knowledge. (Added on Mar. 11, the ...

  11. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards Provenance and Traceability in CRISTAL for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; McClatchey, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the CRISTAL object lifecycle management system and its use in provenance data management and the traceability of system events. This software was initially used to capture the construction and calibration of the CMS ECAL detector at CERN for later use by physicists in their data analysis. Some further uses of CRISTAL in different projects (CMS, neuGRID and N4U) are presented as examples of its flexible data model. From these examples, applications are drawn for the High Energy Physics domain and some initial ideas for its use in data preservation HEP are outlined in detail in this paper. Currently investigations are underway to gauge the feasibility of using the N4U Analysis Service or a derivative of it to address the requirements of data and analysis logging and provenance capture within the HEP long term data analysis environment.

  13. Atomic collisions under extreme conditions in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    1987-01-01

    In space, atoms and molecules are often placed under the extreme conditions which are very difficult to be realized on Earth. For instance, extremely hot and dense plasmas are found in and around various stellar objects (e.g., neutron stars) on one hand and extremely cold and diffuse gases prevail in interstellar space on the other. There is so strong a magnetic field that electron clouds in atoms and molecules are distorted. The study of atomic collisions under the extreme conditions is not only helpful in understanding the astrophysical environment but also reveals new aspects of the physics of atoms and molecules. This paper is an invitation to the study. (References are not exhaustive but only provide a clue with which more details can be found.) (author)

  14. Integrating prediction, provenance, and optimization into high energy workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schram, M.; Bansal, V.; Friese, R. D.; Tallent, N. R.; Yin, J.; Barker, K. J.; Stephan, E.; Halappanavar, M.; Kerbyson, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a novel approach for efficient execution of workflows on distributed resources. The key components of this framework include: performance modeling to quantitatively predict workflow component behavior; optimization-based scheduling such as choosing an optimal subset of resources to meet demand and assignment of tasks to resources; distributed I/O optimizations such as prefetching; and provenance methods for collecting performance data. In preliminary results, these techniques improve throughput on a small Belle II workflow by 20%.

  15. Nonalbumin proteinuria predominates in biopsy-proven tenofovir nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Meghan E; Hirsch, Jamie S; Canetta, Pietro A; Herlitz, Leal; Mohan, Sumit

    2015-05-15

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal renal tubular injury and dysmorphic mitochondria resulting in proteinuria, orthoglycemic glycosuria, and other markers of proximal tubular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of proteinuria in patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity. Retrospective chart review. Patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity were identified and their medical charts and biopsy reports were reviewed. Comparison was made with HIV-infected patients not on TDF who underwent kidney biopsy. We identified 43 biopsy-proven cases of TDF nephrotoxicity; mean age 54.7 ± 0.4 years, 53% men, 42% whites. Thirty-seven cases reported proteinuria by dipstick of which only 60% had at least 2+ proteinuria. Twenty-seven patients had urine protein quantified by either 24-h collection or spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; median proteinuria was 1742 mg/day [interquartile range (IQR) 1200-2000 mg] and 1667 mg/g creatinine (IQR 851-1967 mg/g), respectively. Ten patients had concurrent urinary albumin measured, with a median 236 mg/g creatinine (IQR 137-343 mg/g). The mean urine albumin-to-urine protein ratio (uAPR) was 0.17 (IQR 0.14-0.19), confirming that TDF nephrotoxicity is primarily associated with nonalbumin proteinuria. Control cases had a uAPR of 0.65 (IQR 0.55-0.79) P < 0.001. Histopathology showed the predominance of proximal tubular injury with characteristic mitochondrial abnormalities. In the largest published cohort of patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity, we show that low uAPR is a reliable feature of this disease. Because of the predominance of nonalbumin proteinuria, dipstick urinalysis may be unreliable in TDF nephrotoxicity.

  16. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  17. Neutron activation analysis: a powerful tool in provenance investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Sandro; Oddone, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that neutron activation analysis (NAA), both instrumental and destructive, allows the simultaneous determination of a number of elements, mostly trace elements, with high levels of precision and accuracy. These peculiar properties of NAA are very useful when applied to provenance studies, i.e. to the identification of the origin of raw materials with which artifacts had been manufactured in ancient times. Data reduction by statistical procedures, especially multivariate analysis techniques, provides a statistical 'fingerprint' of investigated materials, both raw materials and archaeological artifacts, that, upon comparison, allows the identification of the provenance of prime matters used for artifact manufacturing. Thus information on quarries and flows exploitation in the antiquity, on technological raw materials processing, on trade routes and about the circulation of fakes, can be obtained. In the present paper two case studies are reported. The first one deals with the identification of the provenance of clay used to make ceramic materials, mostly bricks and tiles, recovered from the excavation of a Roman 'villa' in Lomello (Roman name Laumellum) and of Roman settlings in Casteggio (Roman name Clastidium). Both sites are located in the Province of Pavia in areas called Lomellina and Oltrepo respectively. The second one investigates the origin of the white marble used to build medieval arks, Carolingian age, located in the church of San Felice, now property of the University of Pavia. Experimental set-up, analytical results and data reduction procedures are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  19. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  20. Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society guidelines for the management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics*

    OpenAIRE

    Mushambi, M C; Kinsella, S M; Popat, M; Swales, H; Ramaswamy, K K; Winton, A L; Quinn, A C

    2015-01-01

    The Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society have developed the first national obstetric guidelines for the safe management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. They comprise four algorithms and two tables. A master algorithm provides an overview. Algorithm 1 gives a framework on how to optimise a safe general anaesthetic technique in the obstetric patient, and emphasises: planning and multidisciplinary communication; how to prevent ...

  1. How to manage a child with difficult asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglani, Sejal; Fleming, Louise

    2016-08-01

    Children with difficult asthma have significant morbidity and fail to achieve asthma control despite being prescribed high dose maintenance treatment. If control remains poor after diagnostic confirmation, detailed assessments of the reasons for asthma being difficult-to-control are needed. Underlying modifiable factors including non-adherence to medication, persistent environmental exposures that trigger asthma symptoms and psychosocial factors contribute to poor control in these patients. The focus of this review is to provide a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of difficult asthma including an overview of long term assessments to identify potential progression to true, severe asthma. A multi-disciplinary team is critical to enable modifiable factors to be identified and addressed. Significant resources are required to manage paediatric difficult asthma optimally and only specialist centres should be tasked with the assessment of these patients. Although this may have an impact on healthcare resources, long term benefits for lung health are significant. Expert commentary: The management of paediatric difficult asthma is not simple and involves numerous professionals with varied expertise. However, if it is not undertaken with the appropriate skills, there is a significant risk of children receiving inappropriate invasive investigations and therapies that will have no impact on morbidity.

  2. Performance testing of extremity dosimeters, Study 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Reece, W.D.; Hooker, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    The Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of Extremity Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for extremity dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the extremities and the performance criterion used to determine compliance with the standard. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted two separate evaluations of the performance of extremity dosimeter processors to determine the appropriateness of the draft standard, as well as to obtain information regarding the performance of extremity dosimeters. Based on the information obtained during the facility visits and the results obtained from the performance testing, it was recommended that changes be made to ensure that the draft standard is appropriate for extremity dosimeters. The changes include: subdividing the mixture category and the beta particle category; eliminating the neutron category until appropriate flux-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are derived; and changing the tolerance level for the performance criterion to provide consistency with the performance criterion for whole body dosimeters, and to avoid making the draft standard overly difficult for processors of extremity dosimeters to pass. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  3. A novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To propose a novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization procedures. Technique: The sheath tip of an intravenous catheter is cut off, replaced to the needle tip and pushed through the distal drainage side hole to Foley catheter tip, and finally withdrawn for cannulation. In situations making urethral catheterization difficult, a guide wire is placed under direct vision. The modified Foley catheter is slid successfully over the guide wire from its distal end throughout the urethral passage into the bladder. Results: The modified Foley catheter was used successfully in our clinic in cases requiring difficult urethral catheterization. Conclusions: This easy and rapid modification of a Foley catheter may minimize the potential complications of blind catheter placement in standard catheterization.

  4. Medical Students' Personal Determinants of Overcoming Strategies in Difficult Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veretelnikova Yu.Ya.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to study conditionality of overcoming strategies in difficult situations of social interaction by personal representations of attitude to others among medical students. Material and methods. 134 first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky took part in the comparative diagnostic study. Results. Comparison of average indices of various strategies evidence in coping behaviour allowed revealing statistically significant dependence of coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction upon types of personal representations of attitude toward others and gender features of forming effective strategies of coping behaviour among medical students. Conclusion. Correlation between coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction and typology of personal representations of attitudes toward others among medical students was marked.

  5. Provenance metadata gathering and cataloguing of EFIT++ code execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupelli, I.; Muir, D.G.; Appel, L.; Akers, R.; Carr, M.; Abreu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach for automatic gathering of provenance metadata has been presented. • A provenance metadata catalogue has been created. • The overhead in the code runtime is less than 10%. • The metadata/data size ratio is about ∼20%. • A visualization interface based on Gephi, has been presented. - Abstract: Journal publications, as the final product of research activity, are the result of an extensive complex modeling and data analysis effort. It is of paramount importance, therefore, to capture the origins and derivation of the published data in order to achieve high levels of scientific reproducibility, transparency, internal and external data reuse and dissemination. The consequence of the modern research paradigm is that high performance computing and data management systems, together with metadata cataloguing, have become crucial elements within the nuclear fusion scientific data lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to the task of automatically gathering and cataloguing provenance metadata, currently under development and testing at Culham Center for Fusion Energy. The approach is being applied to a machine-agnostic code that calculates the axisymmetric equilibrium force balance in tokamaks, EFIT++, as a proof of principle test. The proposed approach avoids any code instrumentation or modification. It is based on the observation and monitoring of input preparation, workflow and code execution, system calls, log file data collection and interaction with the version control system. Pre-processing, post-processing, and data export and storage are monitored during the code runtime. Input data signals are captured using a data distribution platform called IDAM. The final objective of the catalogue is to create a complete description of the modeling activity, including user comments, and the relationship between data output, the main experimental database and the execution environment. For an intershot or post-pulse analysis (∼1000

  6. Provenance metadata gathering and cataloguing of EFIT++ code execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupelli, I., E-mail: ivan.lupelli@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Muir, D.G.; Appel, L.; Akers, R.; Carr, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Abreu, P. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An approach for automatic gathering of provenance metadata has been presented. • A provenance metadata catalogue has been created. • The overhead in the code runtime is less than 10%. • The metadata/data size ratio is about ∼20%. • A visualization interface based on Gephi, has been presented. - Abstract: Journal publications, as the final product of research activity, are the result of an extensive complex modeling and data analysis effort. It is of paramount importance, therefore, to capture the origins and derivation of the published data in order to achieve high levels of scientific reproducibility, transparency, internal and external data reuse and dissemination. The consequence of the modern research paradigm is that high performance computing and data management systems, together with metadata cataloguing, have become crucial elements within the nuclear fusion scientific data lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to the task of automatically gathering and cataloguing provenance metadata, currently under development and testing at Culham Center for Fusion Energy. The approach is being applied to a machine-agnostic code that calculates the axisymmetric equilibrium force balance in tokamaks, EFIT++, as a proof of principle test. The proposed approach avoids any code instrumentation or modification. It is based on the observation and monitoring of input preparation, workflow and code execution, system calls, log file data collection and interaction with the version control system. Pre-processing, post-processing, and data export and storage are monitored during the code runtime. Input data signals are captured using a data distribution platform called IDAM. The final objective of the catalogue is to create a complete description of the modeling activity, including user comments, and the relationship between data output, the main experimental database and the execution environment. For an intershot or post-pulse analysis (∼1000

  7. IGCC based on proven technology developing towards 50% efficiency mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudappel, E.; Berkhout, M. [Jacobs Consultancy, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper the achievements made over the last 10 years in terms of reliability, load following and efficiency improvement potential at the Buggenum IGCC plant, are presented. Also the air side heat integration and its pros and cons are discussed. Additionally future business opportunities adjacent to the power production itself and the view on coal gasification in the near future are provided. The results are discussed and it is shown that with 'proven' gasifier and gas treatment technology, overall efficiency exceeding 47% (LHV basis) can be reached. It puts this technical potential in perspective and describes the view on interesting business opportunities around IGCC projects. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Rapidly aggravated Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: autopsy-proven case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Hyun; Kang, Hyun Koo; Yu, Hyeon; Lee, Sang Chun

    2005-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images

  9. Nd and Sr isotopes: implications of provenance and geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Marcio Fernando dos Santos; Horbe, Adriana Maria Coimbra; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    XRD, Nd and Sr isotopes, major, minor and traces elements quantification were applied to rocks, lateritic crusts and soils from Sumauma Supergroup and Alto Tapajos Group, in order to indicate provenance of the rocks and using lateritic products as geologic mapping tool. For the rocks, the results showed sources related to provinces Tapajos Parima, Rondonia Juruena, Sunsas, Carajas and Amazonia Central. However, the incision of Cachimbo graben allowed which the Sumauma Supergroup erosion also were source for the Alto Tapajos Group, allied to contribution of volcanics from Colider Group. Lateritic crusts and soils are correlates to bedrocks, allowing the use as geologic mapping tool. (author)

  10. A new Class of Extremal Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    microstructure belonging to the new class of composites has maximum bulk modulus and lower shear modulus than any previously known composite. Inspiration for the new composite class comes from a numerical topology design procedure which solves the inverse homogenization problem of distributing two isotropic......The paper presents a new class of two-phase isotropic composites with extremal bulk modulus. The new class consists of micro geometrics for which exact solutions can be proven and their bulk moduli are shown to coincide with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The results hold for two and three dimensions...... and for both well- and non-well-ordered isotropic constituent phases. The new class of composites constitutes an alternative to the three previously known extremal composite classes: finite rank laminates, composite sphere assemblages and Vigdergauz microstructures. An isotropic honeycomb-like hexagonal...

  11. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  12. Optimization with Extremal Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon G.

    2001-01-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard discrete optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively updates extremely undesirable variables of a single suboptimal solution, assigning them new, random values. Large fluctuations ensue, efficiently exploring many local optima. We use extremal optimization to elucidate the phase transition in the 3-coloring problem, and we provide independent confirmation of previously reported extrapolations for the ground-state energy of ±J spin glasses in d=3 and 4

  13. Braving difficult choices alone: children's and adolescents' medical decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Ruggeri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. METHODS: Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1 own informed choice; (2 informed parents' choice to amputate; (3 informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4 uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. RESULTS: Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. CONCLUSIONS: Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.

  14. Why reference to the past is difficult for agrammatic speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to

  15. Difficult management of posterior urethra gunshot wound combined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posterior urethra gunshot wounds are poorly described in the literature. They are often associated with pelvic vital lesions making difficult early repair of urethral injuries. They can be complicated by urethrorectal fistula, which makes their management more complicated. We report a new case of posterior urethra disruption ...

  16. Seeking the best training model for difficult conversations in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Beatrice E; Shields, Robin; Tucker, Richard; Bender, G Jesse

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that a formal simulation curriculum prepares neonatology fellows for difficult conversations better than traditional didactics. Single-center neonatology fellowship graduates from 1999 to 2013 were sent a retrospective web-based survey. Some had been exposed to a Difficult Conversations curriculum (simulation group), others had not (no simulation group). The simulation group participated in one workshop annually, consisting of lecture, simulation, and debriefing. Scenarios were customized to year of training. Epoch comparisons were made between the simulation and no simulation groups. Self-rated baseline effectiveness at discussing difficult topics was not different. The simulation group reported more supervised family meetings and feedback after fellow-led meetings. Simulations were rated very positively. The simulation group reported increased comfort levels. Strategic pause and body positioning were specific communication skills more frequently acquired in the simulation group. In both groups, the highest ranked contributors to learning were mentor observation and clinical practice. In the simulation group, simulation and debriefing outranked didactics or other experiences. Simulation-based workshops improve communication skills in high stakes conversations. However, they do not substitute for mentor observation and experience. Establishing a structured simulation-based difficult conversations curriculum refines vital communication skills necessary for the high stakes conversations neonatologists direct in clinical practice.

  17. Percutaneous transhepatic cholelithotripsy for difficult common bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, J G; Moesgaard, F; Grønvall, S

    1998-01-01

    or ureteroscope in ten patients and by stone removal by basket in the remaining four patients. The procedure was carried out using local anesthesia in the last 11 patients. Except for two patients with transient cholangitis, no complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Difficult bile duct and intrahepatic stones can...

  18. Confronting "Difficult Knowledge": Critical Aesthetics and War in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heybach Vivirito, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multi-site case study explores critical aesthetic experiences in teacher education classrooms, and advocates for the inclusion of theoretical and practical knowledge of "difficult knowledge," visual culture, and critical aesthetics in the classroom. Social reality consists of a perpetual stream of tragic and horrific…

  19. Braving difficult choices alone: children's and adolescents' medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1) own informed choice; (2) informed parents' choice to amputate; (3) informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4) uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.

  20. Braving Difficult Choices Alone: Children's and Adolescents' Medical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    Objective What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. Methods Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1) own informed choice; (2) informed parents' choice to amputate; (3) informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4) uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. Results Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. Conclusions Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process. PMID:25084274

  1. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  2. Confusing cracks and difficult deformations : Interpreting structural damage in masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vent, I.; Rots, J.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.; Hobbelman, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Cracks and deformatiçns in masonry are common phenomena in historical buildings. If they are interpreted correctly, they can be an extremely valuable source çf informatiçn on the load history of the premises. Nevertheless, this interpretation is not always as obvious as one may think. In the

  3. Neurological symptoms in patients with biopsy proven celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürk, Katrin; Farecki, Marie-Louise; Lamprecht, Georg; Roth, Guenter; Decker, Patrice; Weller, Michael; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Oertel, Wolfang

    2009-12-15

    In celiac disease (CD), the gut is the typical manifestation site but atypical neurological presentations are thought to occur in 6 to 10% with cerebellar ataxia being the most frequent symptom. Most studies in this field are focused on patients under primary neurological care. To exclude such an observation bias, patients with biopsy proven celiac disease were screened for neurological disease. A total of 72 patients with biopsy proven celiac disease (CD) (mean age 51 +/- 15 years, mean disease duration 8 +/- 11 years) were recruited through advertisements. All participants adhered to a gluten-free diet. Patients were interviewed following a standard questionnaire and examined clinically for neurological symptoms. Medical history revealed neurological disorders such as migraine (28%), carpal tunnel syndrome (20%), vestibular dysfunction (8%), seizures (6%), and myelitis (3%). Interestingly, 35% of patients with CD reported of a history of psychiatric disease including depression, personality changes, or even psychosis. Physical examination yielded stance and gait problems in about one third of patients that could be attributed to afferent ataxia in 26%, vestibular dysfunction in 6%, and cerebellar ataxia in 6%. Other motor features such as basal ganglia symptoms, pyramidal tract signs, tics, and myoclonus were infrequent. 35% of patients with CD showed deep sensory loss and reduced ankle reflexes in 14%. Gait disturbances in CD do not only result from cerebellar ataxia but also from proprioceptive or vestibular impairment. Neurological problems may even develop despite strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2007-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800-100 b.c.) using Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Moessbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe 2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe 3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Moessbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  5. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.re@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino and Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' , Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giudice, Alessandro Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino and Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' , Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Angelici, Debora [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra and Museo di Storia Naturale, Universita di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  6. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  7. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2007-02-01

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800 100 b.c.) using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Mössbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Mössbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  8. Ocular Manifestations of Biopsy-Proven Pulmonary Sarcoidosis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Yong Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the clinical features and ocular manifestations of biopsy-proven pulmonary sarcoidosis in Korea. Methods. 55 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis by bronchoscopic or excisional biopsy were included. By retrospective clinical chart review, we investigated features of uveitis, ocular and systemic treatments, visual acuity, angiotensin-converting enzyme level, chest radiography, and pulmonary function tests. Clinical features were analyzed by presence of uveitis, site of biopsy, and first manifested sign of sarcoidosis. Results. The group with uveitis (n=39 presented with higher systemic (71.8% and immunosuppressive treatment rates (35.9% than the group without uveitis (31.3%, 0%, resp. (P=0.007, P=0.005, resp.. There were no significant differences in clinical features, including systemic treatment rate, by type of biopsy. Of 39 patients with uveitis, the group with ocular manifestation as a first sign of sarcoidosis showed higher systemic and immunosuppressive treatment rates (88.9%, 55.6% compared to the group with pulmonary manifestation as a first sign (57.1%, 19.0% (P=0.037, P=0.018, resp.. Conclusions. In patients with biopsy-proven pulmonary sarcoidosis, the presence of ocular involvement and uveitis as a first sign could be significant factors associated with higher systemic treatment rate, especially with immunosuppressive agents. Biopsy site determined by location and size had no influence on clinical features.

  9. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  10. Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Jette Joost

    2012-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2011 Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients Purpose: To explore nurses' relationships with patients they regard as being difficult. How do nurses feel about such patients and relate to them, and what are the consequences for nurse and patient? Design and methods....... Patients' case records were studied and four meetings with the staff were arranged to discuss the findings. Data collection lasted 18 months in all. Findings: Three strategies were identified: persuasion, avoidance (emotional distance), and compromise. Interestingly, in the relationship with a particular...... patient, the avoidance strategy did not necessarily represent the terminal stage, since a nurse could revert to the compromise strategy. Some of the nurses experienced painful emotions regarding these interactions. Conclusions: The avoidance strategy (emotional distance) resulted in important social...

  11. Difficult Tracheal Intubation in Obese Gastric Bypass patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohrn, Niclas; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Bisgaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation is commonly perceived to be more difficult in obese patients than in lean patients. Primarily, we investigated the association between difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) and obesity, and secondarily, the association between DTI and validated scoring systems used to assess...... the airways, the association between DTI and quantities of anesthetics used to induce general anesthesia, and the association between DTI and difficulties with venous and arterial cannulation. This is a monocentric prospective observational clinical study of a consecutive series of 539 obese patients...... was 3.5 % and the patients with DTI were more frequently males, had higher CLC, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA), and noticeably, a lower BMI compared to the patients with easy tracheal intubation. After adjustment with multivariable analyses body mass...

  12. Team Work in International Programs: Why is it so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Madsen, Henning

    intercultural collaboration. The issues that arise seem to be grounded in linguistic, cultural and educational factors. This paper reports on and discusses a study of student responses to intercultural collaboration (in English) in two programmes at Aarhus University, Denmark. One conclusion...... is that the international students are more prepared to work in multicultural teams than their Danish peers. Another one tells us that once students have experience with the diversity of these teams, at least some of them become more open towards working in such teams in the future. It is interesting to discuss......Team Work in International Programs: Why is it so difficult? And what can we do about it? It is common knowledge that students often find it difficult to collaborate on assignments, projects, etc., but we require that they do so for a number of reasons, e.g. to learn how to work in teams or take...

  13. Interesting cases which were difficult to diagnose by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Koji; Okubo, Koichi; Shinohara, Shinji

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) clinically provides us with much more useful diagnostic informations regarding the localization, size, shape, extent and inner structure of the lesions and then in some cases the specific diagnosis can be also obtained by CT alone. However, it is usually difficult to define the longitudinal extent of the lesions, their relation to adjacent tissues, the originated site in enormous lesion and histological type also. At CT examination, it is essential to recognize these drawback and limitation on CT. From these points of view, six interesting cases (i.e. pericardial diverticulum, hepatoma with retroperitoneal metastasis, cholangiohepatoma, afferent loop syndrome, invagination and retroperitoneal malignant schwannoma) which were difficult to diagnose by CT and proved ultimately with operation or autopsy were illustrated with some reviews. (author)

  14. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  15. Distant Galaxy Clusters Hosting Extreme Central Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The recently-discovered Phoenix cluster harbors the most star-forming central cluster galaxy of any cluster in the known Universe, by nearly a factor of 10. This extreme system appears to be fulfilling early cooling flow predictions, although the lack of similar systems makes any interpretation difficult. In an attempt to find other "Phoenix-like" clusters, we have cross-correlated archival all-sky surveys (in which Phoenix was detected) and isolated 4 similarly-extreme systems which are also coincident in position and redshift with an overdensity of red galaxies. We propose here to obtain Chandra observations of these extreme, Phoenix-like systems, in order to confirm them as relaxed, rapidly-cooling galaxy clusters.

  16. Radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: assistant techniques for difficult cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tatsuo; Minami, Yasunori; Chung, Hobyung; Hayaishi, Sousuke; Ueda, Taisuke; Tatsumi, Chie; Takita, Masahiro; Kitai, Satoshi; Hatanaka, Kinuyo; Ishikawa, Emi; Yada, Norihisa; Hagiwara, Satoru; Ueshima, Kazuomi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-07-01

    To confirm the safety and effectiveness of techniques to assist radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for difficult cases, we retrospectively evaluated successful treatment rates, early complications and local tumor progressions. Between June 1999 and April 2009, a total of 341 patients with 535 nodules were treated as difficult cases. Artificial pleural effusion assisted ablation was performed on 64 patients with 82 nodules. Artificial ascites-assisted ablation was performed on 11 patients with 13 nodules. Cooling by endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) tube-assisted ablation was performed on 6 patients with 8 nodules. When the tumors were not well visualized with conventional B-mode ultrasonography (US), contrast-enhanced US-assisted ablation with Levovist or Sonazoid or virtual CT sonography-assisted ablation was performed. Contrast-enhanced US-assisted ablation was performed on 139 patients with 224 nodules and virtual CT sonography-assisted ablation was performed on 121 patients with 209 nodules. In total, complete ablation was achieved in 514 of 535 (96%) nodules in difficult cases. For RFA with artificial pleural effusion, artificial ascites and ENBD, complete response was confirmed in all cases. For contrast-enhanced US- and CT sonography-assisted ablation, complete response was 95%. Early complications were recognized in 24 cases (4.5%). All cases recovered with no invasive treatment. Local tumor recurrence was investigated in 377 nodules of 245 patients, and 69 (18%) nodules were positive. Tumor recurrences in each assisted technique were 14.7% in artificial pleural effusion cases, 7% in artificial ascites, 12.5% in ENBD tube cases, 31% in virtual CT sonography, and 8.5% in contrast-enhanced US. Although local tumor progression needs to be carefully monitored, assisted techniques of RFA for difficult cases are well tolerated and expand the indications of RFA. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Difficult factors in Management of Impacted Dental Prosthesis in Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efiaty A. Soepardi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A dental prosthesis which ingested and impacted in esophagus, is an emergency case and life threatening, so require immediate esophagoscopy intervention for removing. The objective of this study is to assess some factors can caused dtfficulties in diagnosing and treating the ingested and impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus and their complications. This retrospective study analyzed patient’s chart whose underwent esophagoscopy for removing the impacted dental prosthesis in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia during a period between January 1997 and December 2003. Neck-chest X-ray and esophagoscopy were performed in all patients to identify the existence of the dental prosthesis as a diagnostic and treatment procedure. The length of time for removing the dental prosthesis was recorded and stated as a less difficult esophagoscopy when it takes time less than 60 minutes and as a difficult  esophagoscopy takes 60 minutes or longer. Some risk difficulties factors were statistically analyzed. There were 53 patients of ingested dental prosthesis in esophagus. Only 51 cases were analyzed According to the length of time for removing the dental prosthesis by esophagoscopy, 22 patients were recorded as less difficult cases and 29 patients as difficult cases. Two cases among the cases needed cervicotomy after unsuccessful esophagoscopy removal. The difficulties to diagnose an impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus caused by unreliable clinical history, unclear signs and symptoms, unable to be detected by X-ray and was not found during esophagoscopy. The difficulties in treating due to mucosal laceration, edema, bleeding, failure of the first extraction and conformity with the size and shape, the wire outside the dental prosthesis and the length of time stayed in the esophagus. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 33-6Keywords: ingested dental prosthesis, radioluscent foreign body, length of time of esophagoscopy

  18. Clinicians' recognition and management of emotions during difficult healthcare conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliott B; Mazzola, Natalia M; Brandano, Jessica; Luff, Donna; Zurakowski, David; Meyer, Elaine C

    2015-10-01

    To examine the most commonly reported emotions encountered among healthcare practitioners when holding difficult conversations, including frequency and impact on care delivery. Interprofessional learners from a range of experience levels and specialties completed self-report questionnaires prior to simulation-based communication workshops. Clinicians were asked to describe up to three emotions they experienced when having difficult healthcare conversations; subsequent questions used Likert-scales to measure frequency of each emotion, and whether care was affected. 152 participants completed questionnaires, including physicians, nurses, and psychosocial professionals. Most commonly reported emotions were anxiety, sadness, empathy, frustration, and insecurity. There were significant differences in how clinicians perceived these different emotions affecting care. Empathy and anxiety were emotions perceived to influence care more than sadness, frustration, and insecurity. Most clinicians, regardless of clinical experience and discipline, find their emotional state influences the quality of their care delivery. Most clinicians rate themselves as somewhat to quite capable of recognizing and managing their emotions, acknowledging significant room to grow. Further education designed to increase clinicians' recognition of, reflection on, and management of emotion would likely prove helpful in improving their ability to navigate difficult healthcare conversations. Interventions aimed at anxiety management are particularly needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Medicare Home Health Services: A Difficult Program to Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    represent about one-third of all visits provided under the program. Family and friends altio provide similar services to the elderly and consequently...example, that the individual is to be confined to his or her home but that this does not necessarily mean that the patient is bedridden . At the same...34feebleness" and "insecurity" cannot be considered home- bound. We believe that in many cases (particularly for the elderly ) it would be extremely

  20. Extremity doses to interventional radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihtby, M.; Martin, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Radiologists performing interventional procedures are often required to stand close to the patient's side when carrying out manipulations under fluoroscopic control. This can result in their extremities receiving a high radiation dose, due to scattered radiation. These doses are sometimes high enough to warrant that the radiologist in question be designated a classified radiation worker. Classification in the UK is a result of any worker receiving or likely to receive in the course of their duties in excess of 3/10ths of any annual dose limit (500mSv to extremities, skin). The doses to the legs of radiologists have received less attention than those to the hands, however the doses may be high, due to the proximity of the legs and feet to scattered radiation. The legs can be exposed to a relatively high level of scattered radiation as the radiation in produced from scatter of the un attenuated beam from the bottom of the patient couch. The routine monitoring of extremity doses in interventional radiology is difficult due to several factors. Firstly a wide range of interventional procedures in undertaken in every radiology department, and these procedures require many different techniques, equipment and skills. This means that the position the radiologist adopts in relation to scattering medium and therefore their exposure, depends heavily on the type of procedure. As the hands which manipulate the catheters within the patient are often located close to the patients side and to the area under irradiation, the distribution of dose across the hands can be variable, with very high localised doses, making routine monitoring difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of dose to the hands and legs of interventional radiologists carrying out a wide range of both diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures. To ascertain the most effective method of monitoring the highest dose in accordance with the Basic safety standards

  1. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  2. Rapidly aggravated Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: autopsy-proven case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Hyun; Kang, Hyun Koo; Yu, Hyeon; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images.

  3. EPR spectroscopy can help with paint pigment provenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The microwave magnetic spectroscopic technique EPR can be used to determine the presence of paramagnetic impurities in paint pigments, and the purity of composition regarding the main colourant. Hence EPR can help determine provenance of pigments, just as it can for gemstones. Specimens of Lapis Lazuli (synthetic, Afghanistan, Chile, Greenland) showed quite recognisably different spectra, at room temperature, in a Varian E-12 X-band spectrometer (9.1 GHz frequency). Similarly, specimens of yellow ochre, two imported into Australia, one North Australian, another 95% pure Goethite, showed recognisably different spectra. The North Australian one uniquely gave a known radiation damage signal from quartz, perhaps to be expected, given the abundance of radioactive ores in the region. Further samples have been obtained and the results from these will be reported

  4. The provenance investigation on ancient chinese Ru porcelains by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Songhua

    1997-01-01

    The 28 samples of glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelains are analyzed by neutron activation. The 36 element contents in each sample are determined. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) data are analyzed by fuzzy cluster. The trend cluster diagram is obtained. The result shows that the ancient Chinese Ru porcelains were most probably from the same raw material source though they were from different time, fired in different kilns and in different colors. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. The two modern Ru porcelains approximate to ancient Ru porcelains, one becomes estranged from ancient Ru porcelains. Jingdezhen porcelain is unconcerned with Ru porcelains

  5. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  6. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Olivares, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; García-Ladona, Emili; Turiel, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. The mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. The most adequate deployment areas for the power stations are studied, as well as the required space. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that may be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. Overall, the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible. However, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling systems were implemented and rechargeable zinc–air batteries would not be developed; 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, they may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption. - Highlights: ▶ A global renewable mix with proven energy technologies and common materials. ▶ Wind turbines, concentrating solar power, hydroelectricity and wave attenuators. ▶ Mix technically feasible. Lithium, nickel and platinum may limit vehicles fleet. ▶ Sixty per cent of copper reserves used in the mix and in societal electrification. ▶ Power cannot growth exponentially. Future “spaceship economy” scenario expected.

  7. Isotopic approach to the provenance study of artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Hisao

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic abundance ratios, which are proved to be generally constant, are known to vary, for certain elements, from one place to another. Light elements, such as hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, show measurable variations of their isotope ratios due to isotopic fractionation which takes place during geochemical or biochemical processes. Isotope ratios of strontium and lead vary due to the decay of long-lived radioactive nuclides 87 Rb and 238 U- 235 U- 232 Th, respectively. Such isotopic anomalies can be applicable to provenance studies of archaeological objects. Thus, 13 C/ 12 C, 18 O/ 16 O, or 87 Sr/ 86 Sr were used to examine the authenticity of Greek marble statues. Also, lead isotope ratios have been used since mid-1960s extensively for provenance studies of glasses and bronzes of different civilizations. As an example, the author presents a series of his own works on lead isotope ratios applied to ancient Japanese bronzes, which are summarized as follows. 1) It was generally observed that lead isotope ratios reflect difference in culture to which bronzes belong. 2) Mirrors in the Western Han period (206 B.C. - A.D.8) are clearly distinguished by lead isotope ratios from those made after the mid-Eastern Han period (ca.A.D.150 - 300). 3) Korean mirrors and weapons excavated from the Yayoi sites contain lead of easily recognizable Mississippi Valley type. 4) Bronze objects made in Japan (imitative Han style mirrors, Dotaku, imitative weapons, arrowheads etc.) in the Yayoi and Kofun periods are classified by lead isotope ratios in the following order: the Korean mirror type to the Western Han mirror type in the Yayoi period and the mid- to post- Han mirror type in the Kofun period. 5) Indigenous Japanese lead seems to have been used after the mid-7th century. (J.P.N.)

  8. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M A

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  9. Multi-Method Provenance Analysis of Namibian Desert Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, P.; Garzanti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological provenance proxies each have their own strengths and weaknesses: a. Bulk geochemistry, framework petrography and heavy mineral compositions can differentiate between source areas characterised by different lithologies, but are sensitive to hydraulic sorting and chemical alteration. b. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology is insensitive to winnowing effects, but is 'blind' to lithologies devoid of zircon and cannot differentiate between first cycle and recycled sediments. c. Cosmogenic neon isotopes can be used to identify different generations of surface exposure while simultaneously tracking different magmatic sources. The challenge is then to combine these different proxies into a self consistent story, and do so in as objective a manner as possible. We here present a case study of Namibia's Namib Sand Sea and Skeleton Coast ergs, in which all the aforementioned methods have been combined using a three-way multidimensional scaling (aka INDividual Differences SCALing or INDSCAL) analysis: 1. Each of the datasets was represented by a 'dissimilarity matrix' of pairwise distances between samples. 2. The set of these matrices was fed into the INDSCAL algorithm, which produces two pieces of graphical output: the 'group configuration', which is a scatter plot or 'map' in which similar samples plot close together and dissimilar samples plot far apart, and the 'proxy weights', in which not the samples but the proxies are plotted according to the weight they attached to the 'group configuration' axes. The INDSCAL map of the Namibia dataset indicates that (a) long-shore drift of Orange River sediments dominates the coastal sediment compositions all along the Namibian coast until Angola, and (b) that light and heavy minerals tell complementary parts of the provenance story.

  10. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  11. Diversity of life. Effects of power generation and transmission on biodiversity difficult to assess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongisto, M.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Scientific theories do not necessarily enable us to forecast the consequences of our actions on wildlife. Presumably, nature is able to adapt to environmental changes through variations on the genetic, species and ecosystem level; i.e. by means of biodiversity. The first studies conducted within the electricity sector show that the effects of emissions form an individual power plant on biodiversity are extremely difficult to assess because of long-range dispersion of the emission and many other factors simultaneously acting on the environment. Some concrete information about the impact of power transmission lines on biodiversity was obtained. These effects were primarily reversible. Some transmission line zones may even have favourable effects on biodiversity and on the living conditions of certain endangered species. (orig.)

  12. Diversity of life. Effects of power generation and transmission on biodiversity difficult to assess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongisto, M.; Nikula, A.

    1996-01-01

    Scientific theories do not necessarily enable us to forecast the consequences of our actions on wildlife. Presumably, nature is able to adapt to environmental changes through variations on the genetic, species and ecosystem level; i.e. by means of biodiversity. The first studies conducted within the electricity sector show that the effects of emissions form an individual power plant on biodiversity are extremely difficult to assess because of long-range dispersion of the emission and many other factors simultaneously acting on the environment. Some concrete information about the impact of power transmission lines on biodiversity was obtained. These effects were primarily reversible. Some transmission line zones may even have favourable effects on biodiversity and on the living conditions of certain endangered species. (orig.)

  13. [Intraoperative choledochoscopy usefulness in the treatment of difficult biliary stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuendis-Velázquez, A; Rojano-Rodríguez, M E; Morales-Chávez, C E; González Angulo-Rocha, A; Fernández-Castro, E; Aguirre-Olmedo, I; Torres-Ruiz, M F; Orellana-Parra, J C; Cárdenas-Lailson, L E

    2014-01-01

    Choledocholithiasis presents in 5-10% of the patients with biliary lithiasis. Numerous treatment algorithms have been considered for this disease, however, up to 10% of these therapeutic procedures may fail. Intraoperative choledochoscopy has become a useful tool in the treatment of patients with difficult-to-manage choledocholithiasis. To determine the usefulness of intraoperative choledochoscopy in the laparoendoscopic treatment of difficult stones that was carried out in our service. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The case records were reviewed of the patients that underwent intraoperative choledochoscopy during biliary tree exploration plus laparoscopic choledochoduodenal anastomosis within the time frame of March 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012, at the Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González. Transabdominal choledochoscopies were performed with active stone extraction when necessary, followed by peroral choledochoscopies through the recently formed bilioenteric anastomosis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency. The mean age was 71 years, 57% of the patients were women, and the ASA III score predominated. Active extraction of stones with 7 to 35mm diameters was carried out in 4 of the cases and the absence of stones in the biliary tract was corroborated in all the patients. The mean surgery duration was 18 minutes (range: 4 to 45min). Choledochoscopy is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for the definitive treatment of difficult stones. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.; Huser, Raphaë l

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event

  15. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  16. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  17. The Difficult Empowerment in Danish Hospital: Power to the nurses!?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Flemming; Nielsen, Jørn Flohr

    The employee empowerment literature promises better organizational performance as well as more motivated and satisfied employees. However, this literature often neglects the specific context of public services in general, or the health care sector, hospitals, and nursing in particular. Nurses...... in Danish public hospitals work in a unique situation that makes the uncritical transfer of empowerment interventions intended to redesign their work difficult or even unfeasible. Analysis from an institutional perspective of the ongoing power struggle between agens of change at several levels in the Danish...

  18. Hemorrhagic herpes encephalitis: A difficult diagnosis in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, N.U.; Albert, H.H. von

    1982-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadically appearing encephalitis in Central Europe. Differential diagnosis to brain tumors or spontaneous intercerebral hemorrhage is difficult. There are CT scan findings which are characteristic of HSE but there are no pathognomonic patterns. These characteristic findings are helpful in differential diagnosis to neoplastic or vascular processes. Thus, other diagnostic procedures (i.e. brain biopsy) to confirm diagnosis of HSE and effective therapy may be carried out in time. The difficulties in differential diagnosis are shown by the presented case. (orig.) [de

  19. Provenance and sediment fluxes in the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Limonta, Mara

    2016-04-01

    The Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River, still a natural system scarcely affected by human activities, ranks among the five major rivers in the world for its annual suspended load, estimated as 364±60 million tons (Robinson et al., 2007). Sourced in Himalayan glaciers southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis at ca. 28°N, the Irrawaddy originates from the confluence of the Nmai and Mali Rivers, flows southward to receive its major Chindwin tributary in the middle of the central Myanmar Basin, and eventually empties through a nine-armed delta into the Andaman Sea. The compositional fingerprint of bedload sand in the upper Irrawaddy is characterized by common feldspars, medium/high rank of metamorphic rock fragments and high heavy-mineral concentration, reflecting provenance from mid-crustal granitoids, amphibolite-facies and subordinately greenschist-facies rocks widely exposed in the Mogok Belt and Lohit Plutonic Complex. Minor volcanic/metavolcanic and serpentinite grains indicate additional supply from volcanic-arc remnants and the Neotethyan ophiolitic suture. Sand of the Chindwin River has much higher quartz/feldspar ratio and much lower metamorphic indices and heavy-mineral concentration, reflecting provenance mainly from upper crustal sedimentary and very low-grade metasedimentary rocks exposed in the Indo-Burman Ranges (Garzanti et al., 2013). Feldspatho-litho-quartzose to litho-feldspatho-quartzose composition in the lower Irrawaddy is intermediate between that of Chindwin and upper Irrawaddy sand. The slight progressive downstream increase in volcanic rock fragments and chert, and decrease in metamorphic indices, point to additional local supply from volcanic and sedimentary cover rocks. U-Pb age spectra of detrital zircons are characterized by a major cluster between 30 and 150 Ma, corresponding to the long-lasting magmatic activity of the Western Myanmar Arc (Wang et al., 2014), with other clusters at 500-600 Ma and 800-1200 Ma, and a few ages between 1

  20. Isotopic evidences for provenances of east asian dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiedong; Chen Jun; Li Gaojun; Ji Junfeng; Rao Wenbo

    2007-01-01

    Based on systematical investigations on Nd-Sr isotopes of both the <75μm and <5μm silicate fractions of loess, sand, river and lacustrine sediment samples for ten major deserts, gobi, the Loess Plateau, and the northeast part of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau, the following results are obtained. (1) Three isotopic regions of Chinese deserts are identified. Region A (Aland A2), which is the deserts on the northern boundary of China with the highest ε Nd (0)>-7.0. Region B, which is the deserts on the northern margin of Tibetan Plateau with ε Nd (0) ranges form -11.9 to -7.4. Region C, which is the deserts on the Ordos Plateau with the lowest ε nd (0)<-11.5. The distribution of the three isotopic regions is controlled by the tectonic setting in North China. (2) The reliable isotope ranges of the Loess Plateau are 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from 0.71784 to 0.71944, ε Nd (0) from -9.2 to -11.3, which fall in Region B of the Qaiham Desert, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert. This indicates that the possibility of the Gurbantunggut Desert, Hunlun Buir sandy land, Onqin Daga sandy land, Horqin sandy land, the Hobq Desert and Mu Us Desert, as provenances for the loess are excluded. The isotopic range of the northeast part of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau coincides with those of the Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert, and loess in the Loess Plateau, suggesting that the predominant source area of the Loess Plateau is most likely to be the northeast part of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau, and the Qaidam Desert, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert are middle transport stations of loess materials. (3) The comparison with isotopic data of dust extracted from snow deposits at Greenland and sediments of North Pacific confirms the Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert and the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau to be main source. (4) The analyzed results for dust samples in Beijing region demonstrate that aeolian dust in normal time in 2006 is mostly derived from mixing of Region B and bed rock soil

  1. Analyzing a 35-Year Hourly Data Record: Why So Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    At the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, we have recently added a 35-Year record of output data from the North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) to the Giovanni web-based analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) offers a variety of data summarization and visualization to users that operate at the data center, obviating the need for users to download and read the data themselves for exploratory data analysis. However, the NLDAS data has proven surprisingly resistant to application of the summarization algorithms. Algorithms that were perfectly happy analyzing 15 years of daily satellite data encountered limitations both at the algorithm and system level for 35 years of hourly data. Failures arose, sometimes unexpectedly, from command line overflows, memory overflows, internal buffer overflows, and time-outs, among others. These serve as an early warning sign for the problems likely to be encountered by the general user community as they try to scale up to Big Data analytics. Indeed, it is likely that more users will seek to perform remote web-based analysis precisely to avoid the issues, or the need to reprogram around them. We will discuss approaches to mitigating the limitations and the implications for data systems serving the user communities that try to scale up their current techniques to analyze Big Data.

  2. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  3. Determination of difficult to measure actinides in radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, V.; Galanda, D.; Dulanska, S.; Remenec, B.; Kuruc, J.

    2014-01-01

    In decommissioning of a nuclear facilities and radioactive waste treatment the activity of various radionuclides need to be measured for the waste characterization. Radiochemical separation of 241 Am, 237 Np and isotopes of plutonium was tested on model solution of evaporator concentrate sample for isolation of each of them for alpha-spectrometry analysis. This paper describes use of the molecular recognition technology product AnaLig(R)Pu-01 gel from IBC Advanced technologies, Inc. to effectively and selectively pre-concentrate, separate and recover difficult-to-measure actinides from model solution of evaporator concentrate samples which belong to the most difficult matrices to analyse. The method is suitable for analysing highly contaminated samples of radioactive waste in a relatively short time. For counting the alpha activity of 241 Am, 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 237 Np ORTEC 576A alpha-spectrometer equipped with ULTRA TM ion implanted silicon detectors (600 mm 2 active area) was used. The spectra were processed by using the Alpha-vision TM 32-bit emulation software from the EG and G ORTEC company. (authors)

  4. Maxillofacial trauma patient: coping with the difficult airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Michal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Establishing a secure airway in a trauma patient is one of the primary essentials of treatment. Any flaw in airway management may lead to grave morbidity and mortality. Maxillofacial trauma presents a complex problem with regard to the patient's airway. By definition, the injury compromises the patient's airway and it is, therefore, must be protected. In most cases, the patient undergoes surgery for maxillofacial trauma or for other, more severe, life-threatening injuries, and securing the airway is the first step in the introduction of general anaesthesia. In such patients, we anticipate difficult endotracheal intubation and, often, also difficult mask ventilation. In addition, the patient is usually regarded as having a "full stomach" and has not been cleared of a C-spine injury, which may complicate airway management furthermore. The time available to accomplish the task is short and the patient's condition may deteriorate rapidly. Both decision-making and performance are impaired in such circumstances. In this review, we discuss the complexity of the situation and present a treatment approach.

  5. Security surveillance challenges and proven thermal imaging capabilities in real-world applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Glen L.; Roberts, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Uncooled thermal imaging was first introduced to the public in early 1980's by Raytheon (legacy Texas Instruments Defense Segment Electronics Group) as a solution for military applications. Since the introduction of this technology, Raytheon has remained the leader in this market as well as introduced commercial versions of thermal imaging products specifically designed for security, law enforcement, fire fighting, automotive and industrial uses. Today, low cost thermal imaging for commercial use in security applications is a reality. Organizations of all types have begun to understand the advantages of using thermal imaging as a means to solve common surveillance problems where other popular technologies fall short. Thermal imaging has proven to be a successful solution for common security needs such as: ¸ vision at night where lighting is undesired and 24x7 surveillance is needed ¸ surveillance over waterways, lakes and ports where water and lighting options are impractical ¸ surveillance through challenging weather conditions where other technologies will be challenged by atmospheric particulates ¸ low maintenance requirements due to remote or difficult locations ¸ low cost over life of product Thermal imaging is now a common addition to the integrated security package. Companies are relying on thermal imaging for specific applications where no other technology can perform.

  6. Multidisciplinary Difficult Airway Course: An Essential Educational Component of a Hospital-Wide Difficult Airway Response Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, W Robert; Haut, Elliott R; Pandian, Vinciya; Nakka, Sajan; Dodd-O, Jeffrey; Bhatti, Nasir; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Saheed, Mustapha; Dalesio, Nicholas; Schiavi, Adam; Miller, Christina; Kirsch, Thomas D; Berkow, Lauren

    2018-04-05

    A hospital-wide difficult airway response team was developed in 2008 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital with three central pillars: operations, safety monitoring, and education. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of the educational pillar of the difficult airway response team program, known as the multidisciplinary difficult airway course (MDAC). The comprehensive, full-day MDAC involves trainees and staff from all provider groups who participate in airway management. The MDAC occurs within the Johns Hopkins Medicine Simulation Center approximately four times per year and uses a combination of didactic lectures, hands-on sessions, and high-fidelity simulation training. Participation in MDAC is the main intervention being investigated in this study. Data were collected prospectively using course evaluation survey with quantitative and qualitative components, and prepost course knowledge assessment multiple choice questions (MCQ). Outcomes include course evaluation scores and themes derived from qualitative assessments, and prepost course knowledge assessment MCQ scores. Tertiary care academic hospital center PARTICIPANTS: Students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians from the departments of Surgery, Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, and Emergency Medicine; advanced practice providers (nurse practitioners and physician assistants), nurse anesthetists, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Totally, 23 MDACs have been conducted, including 499 participants. Course evaluations were uniformly positive with mean score of 86.9 of 95 points. Qualitative responses suggest major value from high-fidelity simulation, the hands-on skill stations, and teamwork practice. MCQ scores demonstrated significant improvement: median (interquartile range) pre: 69% (60%-81%) vs post: 81% (72%-89%), p < 0.001. Implementation of a MDAC successfully disseminated principles and protocols to all airway providers. Demonstrable

  7. Provenance of Earth Science Datasets - How Deep Should One Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hua, H.; Tan, D.; Tilmes, C.; Wilson, B. D.; Wolfe, R.; Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    For credibility of scientific research, transparency and reproducibility are essential. This fundamental tenet has been emphasized for centuries, and has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The Office of Management and Budget (2002) addressed reproducibility and other aspects of quality and utility of information from federal agencies. Specific guidelines from NASA (2002) are derived from the above. According to these guidelines, "NASA requires a higher standard of quality for information that is considered influential. Influential scientific, financial, or statistical information is defined as NASA information that, when disseminated, will have or does have clear and substantial impact on important public policies or important private sector decisions." For information to be compliant, "the information must be transparent and reproducible to the greatest possible extent." We present how the principles of transparency and reproducibility have been applied to NASA data supporting the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The depth of trace needed of provenance of data used to derive conclusions in NCA3 depends on how the data were used (e.g., qualitatively or quantitatively). Given that the information is diligently maintained in the agency archives, it is possible to trace from a figure in the publication through the datasets, specific files, algorithm versions, instruments used for data collection, and satellites, as well as the individuals and organizations involved in each step. Such trace back permits transparency and reproducibility.

  8. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, A.R.; Boynton, W.V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively

  9. Culture-proven bacterial keratitis in a Malaysian general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, S H; Hooi, S T

    2005-12-01

    One hundred patients (101 eyes) with culture-proven bacterial keratitis were treated in the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru, over a 4-year period. The majority of patients was male (63%), Malay (60%), from the Johor Bahru district (62%) and aged between 41 to 50 years (20%). The ocular predisposing factors were ocular trauma (41 eyes), ocular surface disease (28 eyes) and contact lens wear (26 eyes). The corneal ulcers were mainly large (50.5%), central (59.4%) and colonized by Gram-negative bacteria (78.1%). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (67 eyes), Staphylococcus aureus (12 eyes), Acinetobacter baumanii (6 eyes), Klebsiella pneumoniae (5 eyes), Corynebacterium sp. (3 eyes:) and Streptococcus pneumonliae (3 eyes). Twelve eyes (11.8%) had polymicrobial infection. A good visual outcome occurred in 52.5% of eyes analysed. Prognostic factors for visual outcome include presenting Snellen visual acuity, time to presentation after onset of ocular symptoms, ocular predisposing factor, corneal ulcer location and corneal ulcer size.

  10. Provenance-aware optimization of workload for distributed data production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makatun, Dzmitry; Lauret, Jérôme; Rudová, Hana; Šumbera, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Distributed data processing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) is a prominent example of big data analysis. Having petabytes of data being processed at tens of computational sites with thousands of CPUs, standard job scheduling approaches either do not address well the problem complexity or are dedicated to one specific aspect of the problem only (CPU, network or storage). Previously we have developed a new job scheduling approach dedicated to distributed data production - an essential part of data processing in HENP (preprocessing in big data terminology). In this contribution, we discuss the load balancing with multiple data sources and data replication, present recent improvements made to our planner and provide results of simulations which demonstrate the advantage against standard scheduling policies for the new use case. Multi-source or provenance is common in computing models of many applications whereas the data may be copied to several destinations. The initial input data set would hence be already partially replicated to multiple locations and the task of the scheduler is to maximize overall computational throughput considering possible data movements and CPU allocation. The studies have shown that our approach can provide a significant gain in overall computational performance in a wide scope of simulations considering realistic size of computational Grid and various input data distribution.

  11. Antimicrobial stewardship initiatives throughout Europe: proven value for money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J.M. Oberjé

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship is recognized as a key component to stop the current European spread of antimicrobial resistance. It has also become evident that antimicrobial resistance is a problem that cannot be tackled by single institutions or physicians. Prevention of antimicrobial resistance needs rigorous actions at ward level, institution level, national level and at supra-national levels. Countries can learn from each other and possibly transplant best practices across borders to prevent antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study is to highlight some of the success stories of proven cost-effective interventions, and to describe the actions that have been taken, the outcomes that have been found, and the difficulties that have been met. In some cases we came across substantial scope for real-life cost savings. Although the best approach to effectively hinder the spread of antimicrobial resistance remains unclear and may vary significantly among settings, several EU-wide examples demonstrate that cost-effective antimicrobial stewardship is possible. Such examples can encourage others to implement (the most cost-effective elements in their system.

  12. Experimental evaluation of job provenance in ATLAS environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenek, A; Sitera, J; Chudoba, J; Dvorak, F; Filipovic, J; KmunIcek, J; Matyska, L; Mulas, M; Ruda, M; Sustr, Z; Campana, S; Molinari, E; Rebatto, D

    2008-01-01

    Grid middleware stacks, including gLite, matured into the state of being able to process up to millions of jobs per day. Logging and Bookkeeping, the gLite job-tracking service, keeps pace with this rate; however, it is not designed to provide a long-term archive of information on executed jobs. ATLAS - representative of a large user community - addresses this issue with its own job catalogue (ProdDB). Development of such a customized service, not easily reusable, took considerable effort which is not affordable by smaller communities. On the contrary, Job Provenance (JP), a generic gLite service designed for long-term archiving of information on executed jobs focusing on scalability, extensibility, uniform data view, and configurability, allows more specialized catalogues to be easily built. We present the first results of an experimental JP deployment for the ATLAS production infrastructure where a JP installation was fed with a part of ATLAS jobs, and also stress tested with real production data. The main outcome of this work is a demonstration that JP can complement large-scale application-specific job catalogue services, while serving a similar purpose where there are none available

  13. Opinion: Taking phytoremediation from proven technology to accepted practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Karen E; Gerwing, Perry D; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2017-03-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to extract, immobilize, contain and/or degrade contaminants from soil, water or air. It can be an effective strategy for on site and/or in situ removal of various contaminants from soils, including petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents (e.g., trichloroethylene [TCE]), munitions waste (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT]), metal(loid)s, salt (NaCl) and radioisotopes. Commercial phytoremediation technologies appear to be underutilized globally. The primary objective of this opinion piece is to discuss how to take phytoremediation from a proven technology to an accepted practice. An overview of phytoremediation of soil is provided, with the focus on field applications, to provide a frame of reference for the subsequent discussion on better utilization of phytoremediation. We consider reasons why phytoremediation is underutilized, despite clear evidence that, under many conditions, it can be applied quite successfully in the field. We offer suggestions on how to gain greater acceptance for phytoremediation by industry and government. A new paradigm of phytomanagement, with a specific focus on using phytoremediation as a "gentle remediation option" (GRO) within a broader, long-term management strategy, is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Descartes Mountains and Cayley Plains - Composition and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace element compositions of petrographically characterized 2-4 mm lithic fragments from Apollo 16 soil samples are used to calculate initial REE concentrations in liquids in equilibrium with lunar anorthosites and to discuss the provenance of the Cayley Formation. Lithic fragments may be subdivided into four groups: (1) ANT rocks, (2) K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks, (3) poikiloblastic rocks, and (4) (spinel) troctolites. Model liquids in equilibrium with essentially monominerallic anorthosites have initial REE concentrations 5-8 times those of chondrites. The REE contents of K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks and poikiloblastic rocks are dominated by the mesostasis phases. ANT rocks appear to be more abundant in the Descartes Mountains, while poikiloblastic rocks appear to be more abundant in the Cayley Plains. Poikiloblastic rocks have intermediate to high LIL-element concentrations yet the low gamma-ray activity of Mare Orientale implies low LIL-element concentrations. Consequently, it is unlikely that the Cayley Formation is Orientale ejecta. A local origin as ejecta from smaller impacts is a more plausible model for the deposition of the Cayley Formation.

  15. A simple and proven technology for reclaiming acidic mine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Chris; Mack, Bernie

    2011-01-01

    The cost of water treatment is now more than ever a major consideration for maintaining an environmentally and economically sustainable mining operation. As an industry, we often have to consider water sources that are highly impure and difficult to treat. We are also discovering the value of our waste waters in this regard and using new and improved methods and technology to reclaim and reuse water. In many instances, the water or waste water to be treated is highly acidic and saturated in sparingly soluble salts. Conventional systems used to liberate this type of water typically involve high doses of lime with large volumes of waste sludge produced, and are comparatively complex to operate, to pretreat the water in order to reduce scaling tendency on the reverse osmosis stage. However, if the water is considered valuable for reuse, then why not avoid difficult and cumbersome pretreatment processes and treat the water at low pH to keep the sparingly soluble salts, metals and other dissolved species in solution. This paper describes a patented technology that uses and successfully proves this concept as a cost effective option for certain situations. Results from a treatability study on an Australian groundwater are discussed, along with an economic comparison to a conventional method and discussion on full-scale potential.

  16. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  17. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  18. Radon mitigation experience in difficult-to-mitigate schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Initial radon mitigation experience in schools has shown sub-slab depressurization (SSD) to be generally effective in reducing elevated levels of radon in schools that have a continuous layer of clean, coarse aggregate underneath the slab. However, mitigation experience is limited in schools without sub-slab aggregate and in schools with characteristics such as return-air ductwork underneath the slab or unducted return-air plenums in the drop ceiling that are open to the sub-slab area (via open tops of block walls). Mitigation of schools with utility tunnels and of schools constructed over crawl spaces is also limited. Three Maryland schools exhibiting some of the above characteristics are being researched to help understand the mechanisms that control radon entry and mitigation in schools where standard SSD systems are not effective. This paper discusses specific characteristics of potentially difficult-to-mitigate schools and, where applicable, details examples from the three Maryland schools

  19. Management of difficult airway in intratracheal tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Surendra K

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal malignancies are usual victim of delay in diagnosis by virtue of their symptoms resembling asthma. Sometimes delayed diagnosis may lead to almost total airway obstruction. For difficult airways, not leaving any possibility of manipulation into neck region or endoscopic intervention, femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass can be a promising approach. Case Presentation We are presenting a case of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (cylindroma occupying about 90% of the tracheal lumen. It was successfully managed by surgical excision of mass by sternotomy and tracheotomy under femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Conclusion Any patient with recurrent respiratory symptoms should be evaluated by radiological and endoscopic means earlier to avoid delay in diagnosis of such conditions. Femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass is a relatively safe way of managing certain airway obstructions.

  20. Ploughs for difficult seams of Bergbau AG Niederrhein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, K.-H.

    1989-06-29

    Ploughs for difficult seams have been used in five panels at collieries of Bergbau AG Niederrhein. It was determined during operation that short or standard ploughs achieve a 30% higher area rate of advance than double ploughs. Differences in pitch in the plough chain lead to regenerative operation of the motor with the greater chain pitch in the case of deviations over 1.5%. An excessively high pretensioning force depending on the wire diameter may lead to an increase in the no-load power up to 100%. In future special attention must be paid to observance of a defined cutting depth; systems for load equalisation and the tensioner for the plough chain which can be used during continuous operation, must be further developed. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. U. K. storage market improves after difficult start to year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, J

    1979-07-15

    According to J. Kingston of PD Oil and Chemical Storage Ltd., the present shortage of oil and product supplies has raised storage capacity rates and some tankage expansion is being considered, but there is no prospect of new terminal construction in the short-term without considerable hardening of storage tariffs. The few tanks under construction are for the specific requirements of certain chemical producers. PD Oil and Chemical operates three storage facilities at Barry, South Wales, where many tanks are specially lined for handling difficult products, Ipswich, and Purfleet, U.K., which have a total capacity of 733,600 cu m, as well as seven others in South Africa, Australia, Spain, France, the U.S., Canary Islands, and Cape Verde Islands in conjunction with subsidiary or associated companies. A table lists PD Oil and Chemical's facilities in the U.K., including location, type of storage, capacity, and accessibility.

  2. Cylindrical plunge grinding of difficult to grind materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshikatsu; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Kayahara, Masayuki.

    1983-01-01

    Cylindrical plunge grinding processes of titanium alloy and nickel-base superalloys with various kinds of conventional grinding wheels, which are known as difficult to grind materials, are experimentally investigated, analyzing size generation process, grinding force, surface roughness, wheel wear, grinding ratio and so on. For grinding titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, GC grinding wheel yields most superior grinding results which leads to lower grinding force, smaller residual stock, less wheel wear and higher grinding ratio up to about 3 with GC 80 L 9 V wheel. Then, for grinding nickelbase superalloys Waspaloy and Rene 41, WA 150 L 9 V wheel yields better grinding results in surface roughness, wheel wear, grinding ratio without chatter vibration though grinding force is higher, and the grinding ratio about 3 is obtained. Furthermore, higher plunge speed and speed ratio result in higher grinding efficiency though grinding force, surface roughness, wheel wear increase for grinding titanium alloy and nickel-base superalloys. (author)

  3. Difficult colonoscopy: air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, Alisha; Pandey, Vikas; Patel, Ruchir; Poddar, Prateik; Phadke, Aniruddha; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to compare tolerance to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation in patients with anticipated difficult colonoscopy (young, thin, obese individuals, and patients with prior abdominal surgery or irradiation). Patients with body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m 2 or more than 30 kg/m 2 , or who had undergone previous abdominal or pelvic surgeries were randomized to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation during colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was cecal intubation with mild pain (less than 5 on visual analogue scale [VAS]), without use of sedation. The primary end point was achieved in 32.7%, 43.8%, and 84.9% of cases with air, carbon dioxide and water insufflation ( P carbon dioxide, and water insufflation ( P carbon dioxide for pain tolerance. This was seen in the subgroups with BMI 30 kg/m 2 .

  4. Contentious Conversations: Using Mediation Techniques in Difficult Clinical Ethics Consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Mediators utilize a wide range of skills in the process of facilitating dialogue and resolving conflicts. Among the most useful techniques for clinical ethics consultants (CECs)-and surely the least discussed-are those employed in acrimonious, hostile conversations between stakeholders. In the context of clinical ethics disputes or other bedside conflicts, good mediation skills can reverse the negative interactions that have prevented the creation of workable treatment plans or ethical consensus. This essay lays out the central framework mediators use in distinguishing positions from interests and describes a set of strategies for managing contentious ethics consultations or working with "difficult" patients, families, or patient-careprovider interactions. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  5. Penile Corporeal Reconstruction during Difficult Placement of a Penile Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Q. Tran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For some patients with impotence and concomitant severe tunical/corporeal tissue fibrosis, insertion of a penile prosthesis is the only option to restore erectile function. Closing the tunica over an inflatable penile prosthesis in these patients can be challenging. We review our previous study which included 15 patients with severe corporeal or tunical fibrosis who underwent corporeal reconstruction with autologous rectus fascia to allow placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range 12 to 64, all patients had a prosthesis that was functioning properly without evidence of separation, herniation, or erosion of the graft. Sexual activity resumed at a mean time of 9 weeks (range 8 to 10. There were no adverse events related to the graft or its harvest. Use of rectus fascia graft for coverage of a tunical defect during a difficult penile prosthesis placement is surgically feasible, safe, and efficacious.

  6. Taking a holistic approach to managing difficult stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L; Best, Thomas M

    2016-09-09

    Stress fractures and other bony stress injuries occur along a spectrum of severity which can impact treatment and prognosis. When treating these injuries, it should be borne in mind that no two stress fractures behave exactly alike. Given that they are not a consistent injury, standardized treatment protocols can be challenging to develop. Treatment should be individualized to the patient or athlete, the causative activity, the anatomical site, and the severity of the injury. A holistic approach to the treatment of the most difficult stress fractures should be taken by orthopedists and sports medicine specialists. This approach is necessary to obtain optimal outcomes, minimize loss of fitness and time away from sports participation, and decrease the risk of recurrence.

  7. Acceptance issues for large items and difficult waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.; Lock, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Peter Lock described some particular cases which had given rise to difficult acceptance issues at NIREX, ranging from large size items to the impacts of chemicals used during decontamination on the mobility of radionuclides in a disposal facility: The UK strategy for intermediate level and certain low level radioactive waste disposal is based on production of cementitious waste-forms packaged in a standard range of containers as follows: 500 litre Drum - the normal container for most operational ILW (0.8 m diameter x 1.2 m high); 3 m"3 Box - a larger container for solid wastes (1.72 m x 1.72 m plan x 1.2 m high); 3 m"3 Drum - a larger container for in-drum mixing and immobilisation of sludge waste-forms (1.72 m diameter x 1.2 m high); 4 m Box - for large items of waste, especially from decommissioning (4.0 m x 2.4 m plan x 2.2 m high); 2 m LLW Box - for higher-density wastes (2.0 m x 2.4 m plan x 2.2 m high). In addition the majority of LLW is packaged by supercompaction followed by grouting in modified ISO freight containers (6 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m). Some wastes do not fit easily into this strategy. These wastes include: very large items, (too big for the 4 m box) which, if dealt with whole, pose transport and disposal problems. These items are discussed further in Section 2; waste whose characteristics make packaging difficult. Such wastes are described in more detail in Section 3

  8. Performance specifications: the nearly impossible versus the merely difficult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2000-08-01

    Affordability is the objective of acquisition reform. The institution of 'performance' specifications in lieu of 'design' specifications is a key strategy. Design of a cockpit display, for example, is left to the prime contractor based on a performance requirement stated by the government. The prime delegates to the integrator. The integrator develops the display and bill of materials provided by vendors. There is no feedback loop from the vendors to the ultimate customer, the government. As a result of this situation a communication gap exists: the government, primes, and integrators have concluded that they should pay commodity prices for custom displays. One step in the closing of this gap is the establishment of cross- cutting common reference performance specifications for aerospace and defense displays. The performance specification for cockpit displays is nearly impossible to achieve -- the last ounce of technology and more is required. Commodity markets, such as consumer notebook computers, are based on but a fraction of currently available technology -- companies 'bank' technology and roll it out across several 18-month product generations. Ruggedized consumer displays can be used in aerospace and defense applications other than the cockpit, such as mission crew stations. The performance specification for non-cockpit aerospace and defense applications is merely difficult. Acquisition reform has been defined by the Secretary of Defense to mean DoD should leverage the commercial market to the maximal extent possible. For the achievement of this end, an entirely different approach is wanted for cockpit displays versus large platform mission displays. That is, the nearly impossible requires a different design and business approach from the merely difficult.

  9. Discussion of difficult problems of early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Xiaozhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a common malignant neoplasm of the pancreas with an extremely high mortality. Currently, the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is still not ideal. Attention should be paid to some clinical warning symptoms, such as unexplained abdominal and back pain, jaundice, and unexpected diabetes. Additionally, the combined use of CA19-9, CEA, and other tumor markers, the attention to biochemical indicators, the detection of mutation in KAI1 or p53 gene, and the exploration of the value of miRNA in clinical diagnosis are of great significance. On the other hand, ultrasound, CT, MRCP, ERCP, PET-CT, and other imaging methods, as well as effective collection of cytology specimens, should be performed. Thus, there is hope for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Provenance-Based Debugging and Drill-Down in Data-Oriented Workflows

    KAUST Repository

    Ikeda, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Panda (for Provenance and Data) is a system that supports the creation and execution of data-oriented workflows, with automatic provenance generation and built-in provenance tracing operations. Workflows in Panda are arbitrary a cyclic graphs containing both relational (SQL) processing nodes and opaque processing nodes programmed in Python. For both types of nodes, Panda generates logical provenance - provenance information stored at the processing-node level - and uses the generated provenance to support record-level backward tracing and forward tracing operations. In our demonstration we use Panda to integrate, process, and analyze actual education data from multiple sources. We specifically demonstrate how Panda\\'s provenance generation and tracing capabilities can be very useful for workflow debugging, and for drilling down on specific results of interest. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.

    2017-12-01

    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  12. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  13. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  14. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Hlavacs, Helmut; Haq, Inam Ul; Jan, Bilal; Khan, Fakhri Alam; Ahmad, Awais

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user's data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called "Data Provenance". Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking.

  15. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user's data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called "Data Provenance". Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking.

  16. Holocene Evolution and Sediment Provenance of Horn Island, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, N.; Wallace, D. J.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    As one of the most stable islands in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain, Horn Island provides critical habitat, plays an important role in regulating estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and helps to attenuate wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. The provenance of sediments comprising Horn Island is largely unknown and has implications for mode of island genesis and evolution. The existing literature proposes that island chain formation was initiated by bar emergence from a subaqueous spit that grew laterally westward from Dauphin Island in the east. Decelerating sea level rise 4,000 to 5,000 years ago facilitated island formation. This proposed mode of formation is supported by a lone radiocarbon date from lagoonal sediments below Horn Island, suggesting the system formed after 4,615 ± 215 years BP. Rivers supplying suspended sediment include the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile and Apalachicola, but the variable nature of their paths and sediment supply means that Horn Island has received differing amounts of sediment from these proximal rivers throughout the Holocene. To analyze the stratigraphy and sediment characteristics of Horn Island, we will utilize 24 vibracores (up to 6 meters in length) from offshore Horn Island that were obtained by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and 9 onshore drill cores (up to 28 meters in length) from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. High-resolution LiDAR data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 2010 will be used to describe modern geomorphic barrier environments. We will employ down-core x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence analyses to identify mineralogical and chemical signatures that potentially correspond to unique signatures of the fluvial sources of proximal rivers. New radiocarbon ages will be used to constrain the timing of island formation and alterations in sediment supply. High-resolution shallow geophysical data will provide

  17. Congenital heart defects in molecularly proven Kabuki syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilio, Maria Cristina; Gnazzo, Maria; Lepri, Francesca; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Pisaneschi, Elisa; Baban, Anwar; Passarelli, Chiara; Capolino, Rossella; Angioni, Adriano; Novelli, Antonio; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in Kabuki syndrome ranges from 28% to 80%. Between January 2012 and December 2015, 28 patients had a molecularly proven diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome. Pathogenic variants in KMT2D (MLL2) were detected in 27 patients, and in KDM6A gene in one. CHD was diagnosed in 19/27 (70%) patients with KMT2D (MLL2) variant, while the single patient with KDM6A change had a normal heart. The anatomic types among patients with CHD included aortic coarctation (4/19 = 21%) alone or associated with an additional CHD, bicuspid aortic valve (4/19 = 21%) alone or associated with an additional CHD, perimembranous subaortic ventricular septal defect (3/19 = 16%), atrial septal defect ostium secundum type (3/19 = 16%), conotruncal heart defects (3/19 = 16%). Additional CHDs diagnosed in single patients included aortic dilatation with mitral anomaly and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. We also reviewed CHDs in patients with a molecular diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome reported in the literature. In conclusion, a CHD is detected in 70% of patients with KMT2D (MLL2) pathogenic variants, most commonly left-sided obstructive lesions, including multiple left-sided obstructions similar to those observed in the spectrum of the Shone complex, and septal defects. Clinical management of Kabuki syndrome should include echocardiogram at the time of diagnosis, with particular attention to left-sided obstructive lesions and mitral anomalies, and annual monitoring for aortic arch dilatation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Epidemiology of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis in Queensland adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Dev; Nath, Karthik; Reyaldeen, Reza; Sivasuthan, Goutham; John, George T; Francis, Leo; Rajmokan, Mohana; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data pertaining to the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN) in Australia. This retrospective study aims to review the data from all adult native renal biopsies performed in the state of Queensland from 2002 to 2011--comparing results with centres from across the world. Pathology reports of 3697 adult native kidney biopsies were reviewed, of which 2048 had GN diagnoses. Age, gender, clinical indication and histopathology findings were compared. The average age at biopsy was 48 ± 17 years. Male preponderance was noted overall (∼60%), with lupus nephritis being the only individual GN with female predilection. The average rate of biopsy was 12.04 per hundred thousand people per year (php/yr). Nephrotic and nephritic syndromes comprised approximately 75% of all clinical indications that lead to GN diagnoses. IgA nephropathy (1.41 php/yr) was the most common primary GN followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (1.02 php/yr) and crescentic GN (0.73 php/yr). Diabetic nephropathy (0.84 php/yr), lupus nephritis (0.69 php/yr) and amyloidosis (0.19 php/yr) were the most commonly identified secondary GN. IgA nephropathy is the predominant primary GN in Queensland, and nephrotic syndrome the most common indication for a renal biopsy. While crescentic GN incidence has significantly increased with time, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis incidence has not shown any trend. Incidence of GN overall appears to increase with age. The annual rate of biopsy in this study appears lower than previously published in an Australian population. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  1. Past and future changes in extreme sea levels and waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lawe, J.A.; Woodworth, P.L.; Knutson, T.; McDonald, R.E.; Mclnnes, K.L.; Woth, K.; Von Storch, H.; Wolf, J.; Swail, V.; Bernier, N.B.; Gulev, S.; Horsburgh, K.J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Hunter, J.R.; Weisse, R.

    of Extreme Sea Level 11.3.1 An Introduction to Storms Both mid-latitude and tropical storms are associated with extremes of sea level. Storm surges are generated by low atmospheric pressure and intense winds over the ocean. The latter also cause high wave... timescales, extremes and mean-sea-level change are both major factors in determining coastal evolution including the development of coastal ecosystems. It will be seen below that, although it is difficult to determine how mean sea level has changed...

  2. Extremes in random fields a theory and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yakir, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Presents a useful new technique for analyzing the extreme-value behaviour of random fields Modern science typically involves the analysis of increasingly complex data. The extreme values that emerge in the statistical analysis of complex data are often of particular interest. This book focuses on the analytical approximations of the statistical significance of extreme values. Several relatively complex applications of the technique to problems that emerge in practical situations are presented.  All the examples are difficult to analyze using classical methods, and as a result, the author pr

  3. All India Difficult Airway Association 2016 guidelines for the management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The various physiological changes in pregnancy make the parturient vulnerable for early and rapid desaturation. Severe hypoxaemia during intubation can potentially compromise two lives (mother and foetus. Thus tracheal intubation in the pregnant patient poses unique challenges, and necessitates meticulous planning, ready availability of equipment and expertise to ensure maternal and foetal safety. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA proposes a stepwise plan for the safe management of the airway in obstetric patients. These guidelines have been developed based on available evidence; wherever robust evidence was lacking, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the AIDAA and the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists (ISA. Modified rapid sequence induction using gentle intermittent positive pressure ventilation with pressure limited to ≤20 cm H 2 O is acceptable. Partial or complete release of cricoid pressure is recommended when face mask ventilation, placement of supraglottic airway device (SAD or tracheal intubation prove difficult. One should call for early expert assistance. Maternal SpO 2 should be maintained ≥95%. Apnoeic oxygenation with nasal insufflation of 15 L/min oxygen during apnoea should be performed in all patients. If tracheal intubation fails, a second- generation SAD should be inserted. The decision to continue anaesthesia and surgery via the SAD, or perform fibreoptic-guided intubation via the SAD or wake up the patient depends on the urgency of surgery, foeto-maternal status and availability of resources and expertise. Emergency cricothyroidotomy must be performed if complete ventilation failure occurs.

  4. Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society guidelines for the management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushambi, M C; Kinsella, S M; Popat, M; Swales, H; Ramaswamy, K K; Winton, A L; Quinn, A C

    2015-11-01

    The Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society have developed the first national obstetric guidelines for the safe management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. They comprise four algorithms and two tables. A master algorithm provides an overview. Algorithm 1 gives a framework on how to optimise a safe general anaesthetic technique in the obstetric patient, and emphasises: planning and multidisciplinary communication; how to prevent the rapid oxygen desaturation seen in pregnant women by advocating nasal oxygenation and mask ventilation immediately after induction; limiting intubation attempts to two; and consideration of early release of cricoid pressure if difficulties are encountered. Algorithm 2 summarises the management after declaring failed tracheal intubation with clear decision points, and encourages early insertion of a (preferably second-generation) supraglottic airway device if appropriate. Algorithm 3 covers the management of the 'can't intubate, can't oxygenate' situation and emergency front-of-neck airway access, including the necessity for timely perimortem caesarean section if maternal oxygenation cannot be achieved. Table 1 gives a structure for assessing the individual factors relevant in the decision to awaken or proceed should intubation fail, which include: urgency related to maternal or fetal factors; seniority of the anaesthetist; obesity of the patient; surgical complexity; aspiration risk; potential difficulty with provision of alternative anaesthesia; and post-induction airway device and airway patency. This decision should be considered by the team in advance of performing a general anaesthetic to make a provisional plan should failed intubation occur. The table is also intended to be used as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion and learning regarding the complex nature of decision-making when faced with a failed intubation. Table 2 gives practical considerations of how to

  5. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  6. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  7. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  8. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  9. Pipeline developments 1998 and beyond : more choices, more difficult decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderSchee, K.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the basic economic principles that drive gas prices and gas flows across North America, and the pressures these have placed on the pipeline sector, are reviewed. Of pressing importance to the natural gas industry in Western Canada is the prospect that in the near future industrial gas users in eastern Canada will have a wider array of pipeline choices available to them than ever before. This will mean that the users will face more offerings from more pipeline providers, forcing pipeline owners to make more difficult decisions regarding new pipeline capacity. Variables such as price, terms and conditions will become increasingly negotiable. Market power concerns also remain an important issue. As a result, there is increasing call for market-based financial regulation of pipelines. 'Market gaming' a condition where a firm manipulates the market to its own market advantage is also receiving considerable attention. The latter is of particular concern in the United States. Against this background, the nature of competition (or the lack of it) in natural gas transport, the influence of short-term service revenues for pipelines, pipeline commitments through subsidiaries, and concerns over short term pipeline valuations skewing investment decisions, are issues that will continue to invite much attention. Regarding market outlook, it was noted that significantly increased export capacity from Alberta could raise the costs of Alberta supplies to eastern Canadian end-users relative to other supply/transport options which may now be viable economic alternatives. figs

  10. Pipeline developments 1998 and beyond : more choices, more difficult decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderSchee, K. [EnergyERA (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Some of the basic economic principles that drive gas prices and gas flows across North America, and the pressures these have placed on the pipeline sector, are reviewed. Of pressing importance to the natural gas industry in Western Canada is the prospect that in the near future industrial gas users in eastern Canada will have a wider array of pipeline choices available to them than ever before. This will mean that the users will face more offerings from more pipeline providers, forcing pipeline owners to make more difficult decisions regarding new pipeline capacity. Variables such as price, terms and conditions will become increasingly negotiable. Market power concerns also remain an important issue. As a result, there is increasing call for market-based financial regulation of pipelines. `Market gaming` a condition where a firm manipulates the market to its own market advantage is also receiving considerable attention. The latter is of particular concern in the United States. Against this background, the nature of competition (or the lack of it) in natural gas transport, the influence of short-term service revenues for pipelines, pipeline commitments through subsidiaries, and concerns over short term pipeline valuations skewing investment decisions, are issues that will continue to invite much attention. Regarding market outlook, it was noted that significantly increased export capacity from Alberta could raise the costs of Alberta supplies to eastern Canadian end-users relative to other supply/transport options which may now be viable economic alternatives. figs.

  11. The Difficult Chore of Measuring Coordination by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Kelly, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neither the theory nor the interpretation of Extended X-Ray-Absorption Fine-Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy requires assumptions of crystalline symmetry or periodicity. As a result, EXAFS is a tool applied to a wide range of scientific disciplines and to a wide variety of experimental systems. A simple enumeration of the atoms in the coordination environment of the absorber is often the primary goal of an EXAFS experiment. There are, however, a number of pitfalls in the way of an accurate determination of coordination number (CN). These include statistical limitations of the EXAFS fitting problem, empirical effects due to sample preparation, and the assumptions made about the physical structure surrounding the absorber in the course of data analysis. In this paper we examine several of these pitfalls and their effects upon the determination of CN. Where possible, we offer suggestions for avoiding or mitigating the pitfalls. We hope this paper will help guide the general EXAFS practitioner through the difficult chore of accurately determining CN

  12. Improving oncology nurses' communication skills for difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Linda; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    When oncology nurses have strong communication skills, they play a pivotal role in influencing patient satisfaction, adherence to plans of care, and overall clinical outcomes. However, research studies indicate that nurses tend to keep communication with patients and families at a superficial, nontherapeutic level. Processes for teaching goals-of-care communication skills and for implementing skills into clinical practice are not clearly defined. Nurses at a large comprehensive cancer center recognized the need for help with this skill set and sought out communication experts to assist in providing the needed education. An educational project was developed to improve therapeutic communication skills in oncology nurses during goals-of-care discussions and giving bad news. The program was tailored to nurses and social workers providing care to patients in a busy, urban, academic, outpatient oncology setting. Program topics included exploring the patient's world, eliciting hopes and concerns, and dealing with conflict about goals. Sharing and discussing specific difficult questions and scenarios were encouraged throughout the program. The program was well attended and well received by oncology nurses and social workers. Participants expressed interest in the continuation of communication programs to further enhance skills.

  13. [Decubitus ulcer in the calcaneus region: rapid development, difficult recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, G; Bona, F

    1996-03-01

    Heel pressure sores frequently arise in patients kept in bed for a long time independently of their primary disease. In account of this event the authors completed a study concerning possible mutual relations between heel pressure sores and primary disease of the patients; to validate the pharmacological treatment in less severe sores and the surgical resolution in more serious cutaneous lesions. In the last 3 years (1992-1995) at the Rehabilitation Centre of Montescano the authors have treated 39 patients suffering from 63 different severe cutaneous lesions: from phlycten to deep necrosis. The therapeutic plane utilized pharmacological treatment for 1st, 2nd, 3rd degree pressure sores, and surgical treatment for 4th degree. Pharmacological treatment included: enzymatic drugs, bactericidal and bacteriostatic medicines and cicatrizing substances. Different healing times were related to different pressure sore severity. Surgical treatment consisted of transposition of flap into wound defect. This system caused considerable reduction in resolution times. The authors noticed how easily pressure sores arise in the heel region, and how difficultly they heal. This is probably connected with particular anatomical and vascular characteristics of this region.

  14. Genetic evidence of multiple loci in dystocia - difficult labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westgren Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dystocia, difficult labour, is a common but also complex problem during childbirth. It can be attributed to either weak contractions of the uterus, a large infant, reduced capacity of the pelvis or combinations of these. Previous studies have indicated that there is a genetic component in the susceptibility of experiencing dystocia. The purpose of this study was to identify susceptibility genes in dystocia. Methods A total of 104 women in 47 families were included where at least two sisters had undergone caesarean section at a gestational length of 286 days or more at their first delivery. Study of medical records and a telephone interview was performed to identify subjects with dystocia. Whole-genome scanning using Affymetrix genotyping-arrays and non-parametric linkage (NPL analysis was made in 39 women exhibiting the phenotype of dystocia from 19 families. In 68 women re-sequencing was performed of candidate genes showing suggestive linkage: oxytocin (OXT on chromosome 20 and oxytocin-receptor (OXTR on chromosome 3. Results We found a trend towards linkage with suggestive NPL-score (3.15 on chromosome 12p12. Suggestive linkage peaks were observed on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 10, 20. Re-sequencing of OXT and OXTR did not reveal any causal variants. Conclusions Dystocia is likely to have a genetic component with variations in multiple genes affecting the patient outcome. We found 6 loci that could be re-evaluated in larger patient cohorts.

  15. Genetic evidence of multiple loci in dystocia - difficult labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dystocia, difficult labour, is a common but also complex problem during childbirth. It can be attributed to either weak contractions of the uterus, a large infant, reduced capacity of the pelvis or combinations of these. Previous studies have indicated that there is a genetic component in the susceptibility of experiencing dystocia. The purpose of this study was to identify susceptibility genes in dystocia. Methods A total of 104 women in 47 families were included where at least two sisters had undergone caesarean section at a gestational length of 286 days or more at their first delivery. Study of medical records and a telephone interview was performed to identify subjects with dystocia. Whole-genome scanning using Affymetrix genotyping-arrays and non-parametric linkage (NPL) analysis was made in 39 women exhibiting the phenotype of dystocia from 19 families. In 68 women re-sequencing was performed of candidate genes showing suggestive linkage: oxytocin (OXT) on chromosome 20 and oxytocin-receptor (OXTR) on chromosome 3. Results We found a trend towards linkage with suggestive NPL-score (3.15) on chromosome 12p12. Suggestive linkage peaks were observed on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 10, 20. Re-sequencing of OXT and OXTR did not reveal any causal variants. Conclusions Dystocia is likely to have a genetic component with variations in multiple genes affecting the patient outcome. We found 6 loci that could be re-evaluated in larger patient cohorts. PMID:20587075

  16. Simultaneous Optimization of Tallies in Difficult Shielding Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wagner, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo is quite useful for calculating specific quantities in complex transport problems. Many variance reduction strategies have been developed that accelerate Monte Carlo calculations for specific tallies. However, when trying to calculate multiple tallies or a mesh tally, users have had to accept different levels of relative uncertainty among the tallies or run separate calculations optimized for each individual tally. To address this limitation, an extension of the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) method, which is used for difficult source/detector problems, has been developed to optimize several tallies or the cells of a mesh tally simultaneously. The basis for this method is the development of an importance function that represents the importance of particles to the objective of uniform Monte Carlo particle density in the desired tally regions. This method utilizes the results of a forward discrete ordinates solution, which may be based on a quick, coarse-mesh calculation, to develop a forward-weighted source for the adjoint calculation. The importance map and the biased source computed from the adjoint flux are then used in the forward Monte Carlo calculation to obtain approximately uniform relative uncertainties for the desired tallies. This extension is called forward-weighted CADIS, or FW-CADIS

  17. Radionuclides difficult to measure in waste packages. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, S; Deckert, A [Brenk Systemplanung, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    In this study nuclide specific correlation analyses between key nuclides that can be easily measured and nuclides that are difficult to measure are presented. Data are taken from studies and data compilations from various countries. The results of this study can serve to perform assays of the nuclide specific radionuclide contents in waste packages by gamma measurements of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs and calculation of the contents of other nuclides via the correlation analyses, sometimes referred to as `scaling factor method`. It can thus be avoided to have to take samples from the waste for separate analysis. An attempt is made to also investigate the physical and chemical backgrounds behind the proposed correlations. For example, a formation pathway common to the two nuclides to be correlated can be regarded as an explanation, if a good correlation is found. On the other hand, if the observed correlation is of poor quality, reasons may possibly lie in different behaviour of the two nuclides in the water system of the nuclear plant. This implies not only chemical solubility, transfer constants etc. in the water system, which would not only affect the proportionality between the two nuclides, but a different behavior in different parts of the water system must be assumed (e.g. different filter efficiencies etc). 47 refs, 57 figs, 40 tabs.

  18. A technical solution to a difficult problem - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    A goal of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program (RERTR) established by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop the technical means needed to utilize LEU instead of HEU fuels in research and test reactors and to do so without operational penalties and without affecting safety characteristics. This goal has been pursued now for seven years in cooperation with many of you who are participants in this conference. The program has made significant progress in the development, demonstration and application of new LEU research reactor fuels. According to recent projections, the percentage of HEU fuel in international commerce which is technically replaceable with LEU fuels has been growing steadily as research continues. There appears to be no technical barrier to eventual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel in research and test reactors. While there are many politically complex and technically difficult issues involved in nonproliferation, I conclude that the use of highly enriched weapons grade uranium as a fuel in civilian research reactors stands out as one problem which has a straight forward technical solution. The technical solution is the effort you in the RERTR program are embarked on. Once that solution is in hand, the operators of research reactors are urged to take political and legal initiatives to make the conversion happen. By effecting this conversion they will help minimize the trade in highly enriched uranium and make the world a little safer

  19. Protection of mineral deposits - a way towards difficult compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanek-Bąk, Barbara; Nieć, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Mineral deposits are non-renewable natural resources. Their protection and reasonable exploitation are crucial requests resulting from sustainable development principles. Those are also fundamental issues in frame of the intergeneration justice and fairness concept. Protection of mineral resources should be based on interrelated activities: maintaining the possibility of economic use of the identified mineral resources, reduced consumption of mineral resources and ensuring satisfactory results of new prospecting and development of innovative technologies for the mineral resources base. The main problem with guarantee to the use of mineral resources is the accessibility to sites with documented deposits and prospective areas of their occurrence. Often, this contradicts with the interests of residents, planners and needs of the biotic environment protection, thus is often a source of conflicts. Legislative regulations are necessary to mitigate such arguable matters. SWOT analysis carried out with respect to introducing such legal regulations serves to identify the sources of conflicts and difficulties associated with their solution. Consensus reaching is a difficult task, so all decision makers are required to show their mutual understanding and willingness to achieve the goals taking into consideration all benefits for the population (including future generations). Foundations for finding the middle ground are: making the communities aware of their demands on minerals and of indispensable conditions for satisfying these demands; providing complete and accessible information; factual, non-emotional negotiations between decision makers and the public.

  20. Difficult issues in mentoring: recommendations on making the "undiscussable" discussable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Janet; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2011-10-01

    Many mentoring relationships do not reach fruition because the individuals fail to bridge a critical difference. When a difference prevents a learning partnership from achieving its potential, the loss is multidimensional for the individuals and the institution--wasting opportunities for the fostering of current and future talent. Insights into when such impasses are likely to arise may help both mentors and mentees address what feels "undiscussable." The authors offer numerous examples of how differences related to ethnicity, language, gender, and generation may interfere with the development of mentoring relationships. Next, the authors offer recommendations on preparing for and handling difficult conversations, including creating safety, noticing assumptions and emotions, and raising sensitive issues. Virtually all faculty can become more effective at communicating across differences and addressing difficulties that prevent mentoring relationships from achieving their potential. The pay-offs for these efforts are indisputable: increased effect in the limited time available for mentoring, an expanded legacy of positive influence, and enhanced communication and leadership skills. The honing of these relational skills enhances the colleagueship and teamwork on which virtually all research, clinical, and educational enterprises depend. Academic health centers that systematically support mentoring enhance institutional stability, talent development, and leadership capacity.

  1. Plasma hot machining for difficult-to-cut materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takeaki; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    Machinability of difficult-to-cut materials has been a great concern to manufacturing engineers since demands for new materials in the aerospace and nuclear industries are more and more increasing. The purpose of this study is to develop a hot machining to improve machinability of high hardness materials. A plasma arc is used for heating materials cut. The surface just after being heated is removed as a chip by tungsten carbide tools. The turning experiments of high hardness steels with aid of plasma arc heating show not only the decrease in cutting forces but also the following effectiveness: (1) The application of the plasma hot machining to the condition, under which a built-up edge (BUE) appears in turning 0.46%C steel, makes the BUE disappeared, bringing less flank wear. (2) In the case of 18%Mn steel cutting, deep groove wear on the end-cutting edge diminishes, and roughness of the machined surface is improved by the prevention from chatter. (3) Although the chilled cast iron has high hardness of above HB = 350, the plasma hot machining makes it possible to cut it with tungsten carbide tools having less chipping and flank wear. (author)

  2. Nuclear energy and public opinion - a difficult relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaase, M.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear energy remains an explosive subject. Less people demand to give up nuclear energy at once but the emotional and cognitive environment of attitudes to nuclear energy makes this relative 'peaceabilty' seem a very precarious issue. The Chernobyl shock is still active. The future will depend on whether new accidents will occur in nuclear power stations and how dangerous they will be. The highly political nature and the polarization of the subject together with an assumingly still negative coverage by the mass media and a general distrust of the people in established politics will make it very difficult to influence attitudes by means of information. We should attempt to bring sober facts and objectiveness to the discussion of nuclear energy and to involve citizens more actively than in the past while ensuring that there is less auto-selectivity (bias). What we also need is the basic and credible readiness of all participants to accept the results of a democratic process of the development of opinion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. A technical solution to a difficult problem - An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asselstine, J K

    1985-07-01

    A goal of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program (RERTR) established by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop the technical means needed to utilize LEU instead of HEU fuels in research and test reactors and to do so without operational penalties and without affecting safety characteristics. This goal has been pursued now for seven years in cooperation with many of you who are participants in this conference. The program has made significant progress in the development, demonstration and application of new LEU research reactor fuels. According to recent projections, the percentage of HEU fuel in international commerce which is technically replaceable with LEU fuels has been growing steadily as research continues. There appears to be no technical barrier to eventual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel in research and test reactors. While there are many politically complex and technically difficult issues involved in nonproliferation, I conclude that the use of highly enriched weapons grade uranium as a fuel in civilian research reactors stands out as one problem which has a straight forward technical solution. The technical solution is the effort you in the RERTR program are embarked on. Once that solution is in hand, the operators of research reactors are urged to take political and legal initiatives to make the conversion happen. By effecting this conversion they will help minimize the trade in highly enriched uranium and make the world a little safer.

  4. Provenance study of a Bronze Age sword from Giurgiu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olariu, Agata; Badica, T.; Popescu, I. V.; Alexandrescu, E.

    2000-01-01

    This work is a compositional study of a bronze sword recently discovered near Giurgiu using the method of charged particles induced X ray emission (PIXE). The sword is of it Reutlingen type dated in the period Bronze Age D - Hallstatt A1, around 1200 B. C. The knowledge of its composition could give supplementary information about the provenance of this sword by comparing with other copper-based alloy objects from Bronze Age. To obtain the composition of the sword we have applied the method PIXE at the Tandem accelerator of IFIN-HH Magurele. We have extracted 3 samples from the body of the sword: one sample from the tip of the sword and 2 samples from the hilt. The samples have been flattened by a hammer and introduced in the irradiation chamber of the PIXE spectrometer. The targets have been irradiated by a current of protons of 3 MeV and about 5 nA from the linear accelerator Tandem of the department. The detection of the characteristic X ray emission have been done by a GeHP detector. The acquisition of the X ray spectra has been done online on a PC with a MCA interface Canberra. The detection system gave a 190 eV resolution at 5.9 keV. In the frame of the experimental conditions the following elements have been observed: As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn. In the table we present the results of the PIXE analysis of the Bronze Age sword from Giurgiu. The instrumentation errors have been less than 15%. The values of the elemental concentrations have been normalized to 100%. In order to have a comparative study of composition we considered also the composition of 7 swords of the same type and from the same period from regions from the south of Danube in Bulgaria, and 6 copper-based alloy objects from Spalnaca deposit, in Transylvania, dated also Bronze Age. The sword from Giurgiu has a composition closer to the Bulgarian swords for the elements: As, Co, Cu, Ni, Sn. The ratios Sn/Cu versus As/Cu for the sword from Giurgiu, Spalnaca-Transylvania objects and

  5. Red Indian Lake fishway, an innovative design for difficult conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helwig, P.C.; Goosney, R.; Smith, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    Red Indian Lake Dam is a large concrete gravity structure, 10-12 m high and 245 m long, in the Exploits River watershed in Newfoundland. The watershed is an ideal habitat for production of Atlantic salmon. Since 1985, the watershed above the dam has undergone an extensive stocking program to optimize the salmon production capacity of the upper reaches of the system. To sustain this development, a fishway was needed to permit returning salmon to bypass Red Indian Lake Dam, the last remaining migrational barrier. The difficulties with installing a fishway at the dam site included extreme variation in upstream water levels, the need to retrofit a fishway into an existing structure, and the necessity to attract fish into the fishway in competition with other flows from power plant, spillway, or waterfall. After examining several design approaches, an innovative design was developed incorporating two separate but interrelated flow ways: one to handle attraction water and the other for transportation water. The latter passage leads to a trap at the upper end of the fishway from which salmon are hoisted via a hopper/monorail system across the dam and into the lake. Construction of the fishway was staged over four phases between December 1985 and December 1988. 3 refs., 1 fig

  6. Soft tissue masses of extremities: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Jong Chul; Park, Byeong Ho; Lee, Ki Nam; Choi, Sun Seob; Chung, Duck Hwan [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    To evaluate MR findings of soft tissue masses in extremities and to find the helpful findings of distinguish benignity from malignancy, 28 soft tissue masses (22 benign and 6 malignant) in extremities were reviewed. TI-weighted, proton density, T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced images were obtained. MR images allowed a specific diagnosis in large number of benign masses, such as hemangioma(8/9), lipoma(2/2), angiolipoma(1/1), epidermoid cyst(2/2), myositis ossificans(1/1), synovial chondromatosis(1/1) and pigmented villonodular synovitis(1/2). Specific diagnosis was difficult in the rest of the masses including malignancy. However, inhomogeneous signal intensities with necrosis and inhomogeneous enhancement may suggest malignant masses.

  7. Endosonographic Features of Histologically Proven Gastric Ectopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ectopic pancreas is an uncommon developmental anomaly and its histological diagnosis is usually difficult by using a conventional biopsy forceps. In the literature, most cases of gastric ectopic pancreas were usually diagnosed by gross pattern during endoscopic examination or features of endoscopic ultrasound. In contrast, this disease was seldom diagnosed by histology in clinical practice. Although the typical endoscopic ultrasonographic features of ectopic pancreas include heterogeneous echogenicity, indistinct borders, and a location within 2 or more layers, it can also exhibit hypoechoic homogeneous echogenicity and a distinct border within the fourth sonographic layer (muscularis propria similar to the endoscopic ultrasonographic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In our study, we found that 53% of gastric ectopic pancreas originated within the fourth sonographic layer, demonstrating hypoechoic, homogeneous echogenicity, and distinct borders. Therefore, recognizing endoscopic ultrasonographic features, combining with deep biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration/core needle biopsy can prevent conducting unnecessary resection. Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for symptomatic gastric ectopic pancreas, but endoscopic resection using endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection technique provides an alternative method of removing superficial-type and deep-type gastric ectopic pancreas.

  8. Establishing Malware Attribution and Binary Provenance Using Multicompilation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramshaw, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Malware is a serious problem for computer systems and costs businesses and customers billions of dollars a year in addition to compromising their private information. Detecting malware is particularly difficult because malware source code can be compiled in many different ways and generate many different digital signatures, which causes problems for most anti-malware programs that rely on static signature detection. Our project uses a convolutional neural network to identify malware programs but these require large amounts of data to be effective. Towards that end, we gather thousands of source code files from publicly available programming contest sites and compile them with several different compilers and flags. Building upon current research, we then transform these binary files into image representations and use them to train a long-term recurrent convolutional neural network that will eventually be used to identify how a malware binary was compiled. This information will include the compiler, version of the compiler and the options used in compilation, information which can be critical in determining where a malware program came from and even who authored it.

  9. Barrage balloons against aircraft threat: A well proven concept revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrangeli, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Since the event of September 11, 2001 in New York City, many people started to speculate that the same type of attack could in future be brought against other installations. Indeed, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided to require for future plants to assess their resistance to the impact of a large civil airliner. Nuclear plant control authorities of other countries decided in a similar direction. The solutions to the technical problem is usually pursued in the direction of a reinforcement of external plant structures and, in some case, they may not be sufficient. Other solutions of more psychological nature have also been adopted. This paper aims at the demonstration that the use of barrage balloons, already adopted with success in both World Wars and also occasionally after these events, can afford a satisfactory solution to the protection problem at a reasonable cost. This solution is also applicable to existing plants. The history of barrage balloons is summarized. Modern technology offers electronic devices capable to detect in time an approaching threat and the paper describes a new barrage system based also on such new possibilities. If the aircraft crash problem is a real one or not for the next years, nobody knows for sure; however some considerations should be kept in mind: ·The fact that an accident of this kind 'anywhere' is an accident 'everywhere' as usual; ·The extremely uncertain political outlook worldwide, the peculiarities of the oil market and the possible nuclear renaissance.

  10. Image-guided ablation of painful metastatic bone tumors: a new and effective approach to a difficult problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Charboneau, J. William; Atwell, Thomas D.; Farrell, Michael A.; Welch, Timothy J.; Maus, Timothy P.; Goetz, Matthew P.; Rubin, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Painful skeletal metastases are a common problem in cancer patients. Although external beam radiation therapy is the current standard of care for cancer patients who present with localized bone pain, 20-30% of patients treated with this modality do not experience pain relief, and few further options exist for these patients. For many patients with painful metastatic skeletal disease, analgesics remain the only alternative treatment option. Recently, image-guided percutaneous methods of tumor destruction have proven effective for treatment of this difficult problem. This review describes the application, limitations, and effectiveness of percutaneous ablative methods including ethanol, methyl methacrylate, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), cryoablation, and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for palliation of painful skeletal metastases. (orig.)

  11. Public health in Kosovo after five difficult years of independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Jerliu

    2015-12-01

    administration. Regarding the health status, five years after independence, compared with other European countries, post-war transitional Kosovo is still characterized by higher mortality rates including traditional public health problems pertinent to infant mortality and maternal deaths. In parallel, however, Kosovo is undergoing a rapid process of epidemiological transition characterized by an aging trend which is inevitably coupled with high cardiovascular and cancer mortality and morbidity along with an excess mortality in external causes of death and injuries among the adult population. Adoption of the new Health Law in December 2012 by the Kosovo Assembly aims the transition from centralized health care system established under emergency conditions of the post-war period towards a contemporary modern health care system with a clear purchaser-provider split based on a high transparency and accountability of the health care providers and their contractors. The health care reform, leading eventually to significant changes within the health sector in Kosovo, consists of two main pillars: (i structural and functional reorganization of the health care system through establishment of Kosovo Health Service (an autonomous and non-for-profit public enterprise at central level of the health care sector, and; (ii establishment for the first time of the public health insurance system with a Health Insurance Fund as its main body. Nevertheless, five years after declaration of independence, Kosovo, the newest state in Europe consisting of the youngest population, is currently facing a particularly difficult socioeconomic and political transition and is additionally struggling and mainstreaming all energies and efforts in order to get full international recognition.

  12. Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult fungi: the case of Hymenogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stielow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available False truffles are ecologically important as mycorrhizal partners of trees and evolutionarily highly interesting as the result of a shift from epigeous mushroom-like to underground fruiting bodies. Since its first description by Vittadini in 1831, inappropriate species concepts in the highly diverse false truffle genus Hymenogaster has led to continued confusion, caused by a large variety of prevailing taxonomical opinions.In this study, we reconsidered the species delimitations in Hymenogaster based on a comprehensive collection of Central European taxa comprising more than 140 fruiting bodies from 20 years of field work. The ITS rDNA sequence dataset was subjected to phylogenetic analysis as well as clustering optimization using OPTSIL software.Among distinct species concepts from the literature used to create reference partitions for clustering optimization, the broadest concept resulted in the highest agreement with the ITS data. Our results indicate a highly variable morphology of H. citrinus and H. griseus, most likely linked to environmental influences on the phenology (maturity, habitat, soil type and growing season. In particular, taxa described in the 19(th century frequently appear as conspecific. Conversely, H. niveus appears as species complex comprising seven cryptic species with almost identical macro- and micromorphology. H. intermedius and H. huthii are described as novel species, each of which with a distinct morphology intermediate between two species complexes. A revised taxonomy for one of the most taxonomically difficult genera of Basidiomycetes is proposed, including an updated identification key. The (semi-automated selection among species concepts used here is of importance for the revision of taxonomically problematic organism groups in general.

  13. Techniques for assisting difficult delivery at caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Heather; Grivell, Rosalie M; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-01-31

    Caesarean section involves making an incision in the woman's abdomen and cutting through the uterine muscle. The baby is then delivered through that incision. Difficult caesarean birth may result in injury for the infant or complications for the mother. Methods to assist with delivery include vacuum or forceps extraction or manual delivery utilising fundal pressure. Medication that relaxes the uterus (tocolytic medication) may facilitate the birth of the baby at caesarean section. Delivery of the impacted head after prolonged obstructed labour can be associated with significant maternal and neonatal complication; to facilitate delivery of the head the surgeon may utilise either reverse breech extraction or head pushing. To compare the use of tocolysis (routine or selective use) with no use of tocolysis or placebo and to compare different extraction methods at the time of caesarean section for outcomes of infant birth trauma, maternal complications (particularly postpartum haemorrhage requiring blood transfusion), and long-term measures of infant and childhood morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials comparing the use of tocolytic agents (routine or selective) at caesarean section versus no use of tocolytic or placebo at caesarean section to facilitate the birth of the baby. Use of instrument versus manual delivery to facilitate birth of the baby. Reverse breech extraction versus head pushing to facilitate delivery of the deeply impacted fetal head. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Seven randomised controlled trials, involving 582 women undergoing caesarean section were included in this review. The risk of bias of included trials was variable, with some trials not adequately describing allocation or

  14. Maritime Military Decision Making in Environments of Extreme Information Ambiguity: An Initial Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeves, Andrew T

    2005-01-01

    ... to make effective decisions. An environment of extreme information ambiguity, a dependent variable, is one of the most difficult components of a battle where the decision maker may reach a confusing and debilitating point...

  15. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  16. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M. [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1995-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  17. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1996-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA. It may be noninvasive (NI or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA.

  19. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Joshi, Rohan; Kuhel, William I.; Tabbara, Sana O.; Rezaei, M. Katayoon; Hoda, Rana S.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA). It may be noninvasive (NI) or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA. PMID:25972908

  20. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Bhaskar N

    1997-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma accounting for almost 55%. These tumors arise from unsegmented mesoderm or primitive mesenchyma, which have the capacity to differentiate into muscle. Less than 5% occur in the first year of life. Extremity rhabdomyosarcoma are mainly seen in the adolescent years. The most common histologic subtype is the alveolar variant. Other characteristics of extremity rhabdomyosarcoma include a predilection for lymph node metastasis, a high local failure, and a relatively low survival rate. They often present as slow painless masses; however, lesions in the hand and foot often present as painful masses and imaging studies may show invasion of the bone. Initial diagnostic approaches include needle biopsy or incisional biopsy for larger lesions. Excisional biopsy is indicated preferably for lesions less than 2.5 cm. following this in most instances therapy is initiated with multi agent chemotherapy depending upon response, the next modality may be either surgery with intent to cure or radiation therapy. Amputation of an extremity for local control is not considered in most instances. Prognostic factors that have been determined over the years to be of significance by multi variant analysis have included age, tumor size, invasiveness, presence of either nodal or distant metastasis, and complete excision whenever feasible, with supplemental radiation therapy for local control

  1. Prospective Evaluation of Serum β-Glucan Testing in Patients With Probable or Proven Fungal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angebault, Cécile; Lanternier, Fanny; Dalle, Frédéric; Schrimpf, Cécile; Roupie, Anne-Laure; Dupuis, Aurélie; Agathine, Aurélie; Scemla, Anne; Paubelle, Etienne; Caillot, Denis; Neven, Bénédicte; Frange, Pierre; Suarez, Felipe; d'Enfert, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in invasive fungal diseases (IFD). Serum (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BG) is believed to be an early IFD marker, but its diagnostic performance has been ambiguous, with insufficient data regarding sensitivity at the time of IFD diagnosis (TOD) and according to outcome. Whether its clinical utility is equivalent for all types of IFD remains unknown. Methods. We included 143 patients with proven or probable IFD (49 invasive candidiasis, 45 invasive aspergillosis [IA], and 49 rare IFD) and analyzed serum BG (Fungitell) at TOD and during treatment. Results. (1-3)-β-d-glucan was undetectable at TOD in 36% and 48% of patients with candidemia and IA, respectively; there was no correlation between negative BG results at TOD and patients' characteristics, localization of infection, or prior antifungal use. Nevertheless, patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans were more likely to test positive for BG at TOD (odds ratio = 25.4, P = .01) than patients infected with other Candida species. In 70% of the patients with a follow-up, BG negativation occurred in >1 month for candidemia and >3 months for IA. A slower BG decrease in patients with candidemia was associated with deep-seated localizations (P = .04). Thirty-nine percent of patients with rare IFD had undetectable BG at TOD; nonetheless, all patients with chronic subcutaneous IFD tested positive at TOD. Conclusions. Undetectable serum BG does not rule out an early IFD, when the clinical suspicion is high. After IFD diagnostic, kinetics of serum BG are difficult to relate to clinical outcome. PMID:27419189

  2. Analyses of archaeological pottery samples using X-ray fluorescence technique for provenance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilarasu, S.; Swain, K.K.; Singhal, R.K; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Velraj, G.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological artifacts reveal information on past human activities, artifact preparation technology, art and possible trade. Ceramics are the most stable and abundant material in archaeological context. Pottery is the most abundant tracers in all archaeological excavations. Compared to major elements, elements present at trace concentrations levels are source specific and they maintain same concentration levels in source clay as well as finished products e.g., fired clay potteries. As it is difficult to find out exact source or origin, provenance study is carried out first to establish whether objects under study are from the same or different sources/origin. Various analytical techniques like instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been used for obtaining elemental concentrations in archaeological potteries. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry provides a non-destructive means for elemental characterization of a wide range of archaeological materials. Ten archaeological pottery samples were collected from Kottapuram, Kerala under the supervision of archaeological survey of India. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry using a handheld Olympus Innov-X Delta XRF device, ACD BARC, has been used for chemical characterization of the pottery samples. The instrument is equipped with the Delta Rhodium (Rh) anode X-Ray tube and uses a Silicon Drift Detector (resolution <200 eV at 5.95 keV Mn Kα X-ray). NIST 2781 SRM was analyzed for quality control purpose. Ten elements namely Fe, Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Zr, Mo and Se were chosen for cluster analysis and their concentration values were utilized for multivariate statistical analysis using WinSTAT 9.0

  3. The Westinghouse AP1000 plant design: a generation III+ reactor with unique proven passive safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetri, K. J.; Leipner, C. I.; Marshall, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    The AP1000 plant is an 1100-M We pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications and standardization that simplify construction, operation, maintenance, safety, and cost. The AP1000 plant is based on proven pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology, with an emphasis on safety features that rely solely on natural forces. These passive safety features are combined with simple, active, defense-in-depth systems used during normal plant operations which also provide the first level of defense against more probable events. This paper focuses on specific safety and licensing topics: the AP1000 plant robustness to be prepared for extreme events that may lead to catastrophic loss of infrastructure, such as the Fukushima Dai-ichi event, and the AP1000 plant compliance with the safety objectives for new plants. The first deployment of the AP1000 plant formally began in July 2007 when Westinghouse Electric Company and its consortium partner, the Shaw Group, signed contracts for four AP1000 units on coastal sites of Sanmen and Haiyang, China. Both sites have the planned ability to accommodate at least six AP1000 units; construction is largely concurrent for all four units. Additionally, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued combined licenses (COLs) to allow Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) and South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE and G) to construct and operate AP1000 plants. Within this paper, the various factors that contribute to an unparalleled level of design, construction, delivery, and licensing certainty for any new AP1000 plant projects are described. These include: 1) How the AP1000 plant design development and reviews undertaken in the United States, China and Europe increase licensing certainty. 2) How the AP1000 passive plant robustness against extreme events that result in large loss of infrastructure further contributes to the licensing certainty in a post

  4. The Westinghouse AP1000 plant design: a generation III+ reactor with unique proven passive safety technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetri, K. J.; Leipner, C. I.; Marshall, M. L., E-mail: demetrkj@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The AP1000 plant is an 1100-M We pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications and standardization that simplify construction, operation, maintenance, safety, and cost. The AP1000 plant is based on proven pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology, with an emphasis on safety features that rely solely on natural forces. These passive safety features are combined with simple, active, defense-in-depth systems used during normal plant operations which also provide the first level of defense against more probable events. This paper focuses on specific safety and licensing topics: the AP1000 plant robustness to be prepared for extreme events that may lead to catastrophic loss of infrastructure, such as the Fukushima Dai-ichi event, and the AP1000 plant compliance with the safety objectives for new plants. The first deployment of the AP1000 plant formally began in July 2007 when Westinghouse Electric Company and its consortium partner, the Shaw Group, signed contracts for four AP1000 units on coastal sites of Sanmen and Haiyang, China. Both sites have the planned ability to accommodate at least six AP1000 units; construction is largely concurrent for all four units. Additionally, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued combined licenses (COLs) to allow Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) and South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE and G) to construct and operate AP1000 plants. Within this paper, the various factors that contribute to an unparalleled level of design, construction, delivery, and licensing certainty for any new AP1000 plant projects are described. These include: 1) How the AP1000 plant design development and reviews undertaken in the United States, China and Europe increase licensing certainty. 2) How the AP1000 passive plant robustness against extreme events that result in large loss of infrastructure further contributes to the licensing certainty in a post

  5. Pulmonary embolism and difficult-to-treat asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Teles Martins

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma control is a key point in patient management. GINA's most recent report emphasises the need to investigate uncontrolled asthma, of which non-compliance with treatment, COPD, smoking, chronic sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity are the usual causes.The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE in cases of difficult-to-treat asthma. We reviewed the case reports of patients with severe persistent asthma followed in our Asthma Outpatients Clinic between 2004 and 2006. We selected the ones that maintained uncontrolled disease despite an optimal therapeutical approach and investigated the causes.In this group (n = 254, 28 (11% had severe persistent asthma and their mean age was 44 ± SD18 years old. 86% were females. Of these, 57% (n = 16 had uncontrolled disease: 35% (n = 6 due to non-compliance with treatment; 29% (n = 5 pulmonary thrombombolism (scintigraphic confirmation; 12% (n = 2 severe rhinosinusitis; 6% (n = 1 hypereosinophilic syndrome; 6% (n = 1 persistent allergen exposure and 6% (n = 1 are still being investigated.Patients with TPE (mean age 56 ± SD9 years old; 80% females; 80% Caucasians were diagnosed with asthma as adults (mean age 37 ± SD14 years old. The mean time until the diagnosis of TPE was 18 ± SD12 years. Predisposing factors for TPE were venous insufficiency (40%, hypertension (40% and deficit of functional protein C and S (20%.All these patients received anticoagulant therapy (80% are still medicated. It should be noted that after the beginning of anticoagulants, 40% of the patients achieved control of their asthma and 40% have partially controlled disease. There were no hospital admissions for asthma exacerbations after the beginning of anticoagulation in this group.This study supports the inclusion of TPE in the group of comorbidities to consider while investigating uncontrolled

  6. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  7. Querying Provenance Information: Basic Notions and an Example from Paleoclimate Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, V.; Ludaescher, B.; Bocinsky, K.; Kintigh, K.; Kohler, T.; McPhillips, T.; Rush, J.

    2016-12-01

    Computational models are used to reconstruct and explain past environments and to predict likely future environments. For example, Bocinsky and Kohler have performed a 2,000-year reconstruction of the rain-fed maize agricultural niche in the US Southwest. The resulting academic publications not only contain traditional method descriptions, figures, etc. but also links to code and data for basic transparency and reproducibility. Examples include ResearchCompendia.org and the new project "Merging Science and Cyberinfrastructure Pathways: The Whole Tale." Provenance information provides a further critical element to understand a published study and to possibly extend or challenge the findings of the original authors. We present different notions and uses of provenance information using a computational archaeology example, e.g., the common use of "provenance for others" (for transparency and reproducibility), but also the more elusive but equally important use of "provenance for self". To this end, we distinguish prospective provenance (a.k.a. workflow) from retrospective provenance (a.k.a. data lineage) and show how combinations of both forms of provenance can be used to answer different kinds of important questions about a workflow and its execution. Since many workflows are developed using scripting or special purpose languages such as Python and R, we employ an approach and toolkit called YesWorkflow that brings provenance modeling, capture, and querying into the realm of scripting. YesWorkflow employs the basic W3C PROV standard, as well as the ProvONE extension for sharing and exchanging retrospective and prospective provenance information, respectively. Finally, we argue that the utility of provenance information should be maximized by developing different kinds provenance questions and queries during the early phases of computational workflow design and implementation.

  8. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  9. [Difficult Ventilation Requiring Emergency Endotracheal Intubation during Awake Craniotomy Managed by Laryngeal Mask Airway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Asako; Mizota, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Segawa, Hajime; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of difficult ventilation requiring emergency endotracheal intubation during awake craniotomy managed by laryngeal mask airway (LMA). A 45-year-old woman was scheduled to receive awake craniotomy for brain tumor in the frontal lobe. After anesthetic induction, airway was secured using ProSeal LMA and patient was mechanically ventilated in pressure-control mode. Patient's head was fixed with head-pins at anteflex position, and the operation started. About one hour after the start of the operation, tidal volume suddenly decreased. We immediately started manual ventilation, but the airway resistance was extremely high and we could not adequately ventilate the patient. We administered muscle relaxant for suspected laryngospasm, but ventilatory status did not improve; so we decided to conduct emergency endotracheal intubation. We tried to intubate using Airwayscope or LMA-Fastrach, but they were not effective in our case. Finally trachea was intubated using transnasal fiberoptic bronchoscopy. We discuss airway management during awake craniotomy, focusing on emergency endotracheal intubation during surgery.

  10. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chromatic

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  11. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  12. Proven commercial reactor types: an introduction to their principal advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the principal advantages and disadvantages of the five types of proven commercial reactors. A description of each class of commercial reactor (light water, gas-cooled, and heavy water) and their proven reactors is followed by a comparison of reactor types on the basis of technical merit, economics of operation, availability of technology, and associated political issues. (author)

  13. Performance of Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1986-01-01

    Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna were compared at four locations on the island of Hawaii to seek seed sources better than those in current use which were introduced earlier from unrecorded locations in Australia. A broad range of latitude and elevation was represented among the provenances. At all four...

  14. An Inference-Based Framework to Manage Data Provenance in Geoscience Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, M.R.; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Data provenance allows scientists to validate their model as well as to investigate the origin of an unexpected value. Furthermore, it can be used as a replication recipe for output data products. However, capturing provenance requires enormous effort by scientists in terms of time and training.

  15. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  16. Pharmacists' Perception of the Sale of Non-Clinically Proven Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacists' Perception of the Sale of Non-Clinically Proven Health Supplements in Penang, Malaysia. ... A total of 10.7 % respondents indicated that the sale of non-clinically proven products result in high profit. Only 25.0 % of the pharmacists ... Keywords: Perception, Health promotion, Urban poor, Health supplements.

  17. Data Provenance Inference in Logic Programming: Reducing Effort of Instance-driven Debugging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, M.R.; Mileo, Alessandra; Wombacher, Andreas

    Data provenance allows scientists in different domains validating their models and algorithms to find out anomalies and unexpected behaviors. In previous works, we described on-the-fly interpretation of (Python) scripts to build workflow provenance graph automatically and then infer fine-grained

  18. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, A F; Elamin, K H [Forestry Research Section, Wad Medani (Sudan); Salih, A A [Soil Science Section, Wad Medani (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Data Provenance for Agent-Based Models in a Distributed Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar B. Davis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agent-Based Models (ABMs assist with studying emergent collective behavior of individual entities in social, biological, economic, network, and physical systems. Data provenance can support ABM by explaining individual agent behavior. However, there is no provenance support for ABMs in a distributed setting. The Multi-Agent Spatial Simulation (MASS library provides a framework for simulating ABMs at fine granularity, where agents and spatial data are shared application resources in a distributed memory. We introduce a novel approach to capture ABM provenance in a distributed memory, called ProvMASS. We evaluate our technique with traditional data provenance queries and performance measures. Our results indicate that a configurable approach can capture provenance that explains coordination of distributed shared resources, simulation logic, and agent behavior while limiting performance overhead. We also show the ability to support practical analyses (e.g., agent tracking and storage requirements for different capture configurations.

  20. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.F.; Elamin, K.H.; Salih, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. EFFECTS OF COLD STRATIFICATION AND GA3 ON GERMINATION OF ARBUTUS UNEDO SEEDS OF THREE PROVENANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipinis, Elias; Stampoulidis, Athanasios; Milios, Elias; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    Arbutus unedo is a valuable Mediterranean shrub as an ornamental plant as well as fruit tree. Fresh fruits of A. unedo are a good source of antioxidants, of vitamins C, E and carotenoids and also are characterized by the high content of mineral elements. The effects of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and cold stratification (CS) on seed germination performance were investigated in A. unedo seeds collected from three provenances in the Northern part of Greece. Seeds of each provenance were soaked in solutions of GA 3 (500, 1000 or 2000 ppm) for 24 h and subsequently were subjected to CS at 3 - 5°C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. Non-stratified seeds of the three A. unedo provenances which were not treated with GA 3 solutions exhibited very low germination. However, seed germination was significantly improved after a one-month period of CS. Similarly, the non-stratified seeds of all three provenances became non-dormant after the treatment with 2000 ppm GA 3 and they germinated at high percentages. However, in untreated seeds with GA3, after a one-month CS period the seeds of the Pieria provenance exhibited higher germination percentage than that of Rodopi provenance seeds. Furthermore, in non-stratified seeds, the Pieria provenance seeds treated with GA3 germinated at higher percentages and more rapidly than those of the other two provenances. The results indicated that untreated seeds exhibited very low germination at 20/25°C. However, in all three provenances seed germinability was significantly improved by a one-month period of CS or treatment of seeds with 2000 ppm GA3. Furthermore, there was a considerable variability among seed provenances in response to the treatments which were applied.

  2. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled "Rigor and Reproducibility " for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project.

  3. Computational discovery of extremal microstructure families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Desai; Skouras, Mélina; Zhu, Bo; Matusik, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Modern fabrication techniques, such as additive manufacturing, can be used to create materials with complex custom internal structures. These engineered materials exhibit a much broader range of bulk properties than their base materials and are typically referred to as metamaterials or microstructures. Although metamaterials with extraordinary properties have many applications, designing them is very difficult and is generally done by hand. We propose a computational approach to discover families of microstructures with extremal macroscale properties automatically. Using efficient simulation and sampling techniques, we compute the space of mechanical properties covered by physically realizable microstructures. Our system then clusters microstructures with common topologies into families. Parameterized templates are eventually extracted from families to generate new microstructure designs. We demonstrate these capabilities on the computational design of mechanical metamaterials and present five auxetic microstructure families with extremal elastic material properties. Our study opens the way for the completely automated discovery of extremal microstructures across multiple domains of physics, including applications reliant on thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties. PMID:29376124

  4. Extending eScience Provenance with User-Submitted Semantic Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, J.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    eScience based systems generate provenance of their data products, related to such things as: data processing, data collection conditions, expert evaluation, and data product quality. Recent advances in web-based technology offer users the possibility of making annotations to both data products and steps in accompanying provenance traces, thereby expanding the utility of such provenance for others. These contributing users may have varying backgrounds, ranging from system experts to outside domain experts to citizen scientists. Furthermore, such users may wish to make varying types of annotations - ranging from documenting the purpose of a provenance step to raising concerns about the quality of data dependencies. Semantic Web technologies allow for such kinds of rich annotations to be made to provenance through the use of ontology vocabularies for (i) organizing provenance, and (ii) organizing user/annotation classifications. Furthermore, through Linked Data practices, Semantic linkages may be made from provenance steps to external data of interest. A desire for Semantically-annotated provenance has been motivated by data management issues in the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photomoeter-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into final data products consumable by end users. At intermediate stages of ACOS processing, factors such as evaluations by human experts and weather conditions are logged, which could impact data product quality. If such factors are linked via user-submitted annotations to provenance, it could be significantly beneficial for other users. Likewise, the background of a user could impact the credibility of their annotations. For example, an annotation made by a citizen scientist describing the purpose of a provenance step may not be as reliable as a similar annotation made by an ACOS project member. For this work, we have developed a software package that

  5. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  6. Spatial extreme value analysis to project extremes of large-scale indicators for severe weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M

    2013-09-01

    Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts ( W max ) and 0-6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently provides a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having extreme energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional extreme value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to extreme river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such extreme events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulcu, S.; Bilir, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  8. Fagus sylvatica L. provenances maintain different leaf metabolic profiles and functional response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Ismael; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de Miguel, Marina; Mancha, Jose Antonio; Guevara, María Angeles; Cadahía, Estrella; Fernández de Simón, María Brígida

    2017-07-01

    Most temperate forest tree species will suffer important environmental changes as result of the climate change. Adaptiveness to local conditions could change at different sites in the future. In this context, the study of intra-specific variability is important to clarify the singularity of different local populations. Phenotypic differentiation between three beech provenances covering a wide latitudinal range (Spain/ES, Germany/DE and Sweden/SE), was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Non-target leaf metabolite profiles and ecophysiological response was analyzed in well-watered and water stressed seedlings. There was a provenance-specific pattern in the relative concentrations of some leaf metabolites regardless watering treatment. The DE and SE from the center and north of the distribution area of the species showed a clear differentiation from the ES provenance in the relative concentration of some metabolites. Thus the ES provenance from the south maintained larger relative concentration of some organic and amino acids (e.g. fumaric and succinic acids or valine and isoleucine), and in some secondary metabolites (e.g. kaempferol, caffeic and ferulic acids). The ecophysiological response to mild water stress was similar among the three provenances as a consequence of the moderate water stress applied to seedlings, although leaf N isotope composition (δ15N) and leaf C:N ratio were higher and lower respectively in DE than in the other two provenances. This would suggest potential differences in the capacity to uptake and post-process nitrogen according to provenance. An important focus of the study was to address for the first time inter-provenance leaf metabolic diversity in beech from a non-targeted metabolic profiling approach that allowed differentiation of the three studied provenances.

  9. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  10. Autumn frost hardiness in Norway spruce plus tree progeny and trees of the local and transferred provenances in central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannerz, Mats; Westin, Johan

    2005-09-01

    Reforestation with provenances from locations remote from the planting site (transferred provenances) or the progeny of trees of local provenances selected for superior form and vigor (plus trees) offer alternative means to increase yield over that obtained by the use of seed from unselected trees of the local provenance. Under Swedish conditions, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of certain transferred provenances generally has an advantage in productivity relative to the local provenance comparable to that of progeny of plus trees. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which productivity gains achieved by provenance transfer or the use of plus tree progeny are associated with reductions in autumn frost hardiness, relative to that of trees of the local provenance. In a field trial with 19-year-old trees in central Sweden, bud hardiness was tested on four occasions during the autumn of 2002. Trees of the local provenance were compared with trees of a south Swedish provenance originating 3 degrees of latitude to the south, a Belarusian provenance and the progeny of plus trees of local origin. The Belarusian provenance was the least hardy and the local provenance the most hardy, with plus tree progeny and the south Swedish provenance being intermediate in hardiness. Both the Belarusian provenance and the plus tree progeny were significantly taller than trees of the other populations. Within provenances, tree height was negatively correlated with autumn frost hardiness. Among the plus tree progeny, however, no such correlation between tree height and autumn frost hardiness was found. It is concluded that although the gain in productivity achieved by provenance transfer from Belarus was comparable to that achieved by using the progeny of plus trees of the local provenance, the use of trees of the Belarus provenance involved an increased risk of autumn frost damage because of later hardening.

  11. The attitudes of neonatal nurses towards extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Katie; Marlow, Neil; Edgley, Alison; Porock, Davina

    2012-08-01

    The paper is a report of a study of the attitudes of neonatal nurses towards extremely preterm infants. Alongside advancing survival at extremely preterm gestational ages, ethical debates concerning the provision of invasive care have proliferated in light of the high morbidity. Despite nurses being the healthcare professionals who work closest with the infant and their family, their potential influence is usually ignored when determining how parents come to decisions about future care for their extremely premature infant. A Q methodology was employed to explore the attitudes of neonatal nurses towards caring for extremely preterm infants. Data were collected between 2007 and 2008 and analysed using PQMethod and Card Content Analysis. Thirty-six nurses from six neonatal units in the United Kingdom participated. Although there was consensus around the professional role of the nurse, when faced with the complexities of neonatal nursing three distinguishing factors emerged: the importance of parental choice in decision-making, the belief that technology should be used to assess response to treatment, and the belief that healthcare professionals should undertake difficult decisions. Neonatal nurses report unexpected difficulties in upholding their professionally defined role through highly complex and ever varied decision-making processes. Recognition of individual attitudes to the care of extremely preterm infants and the role of the family in the face of difficult decisions should facilitate more open communication between the nurse and the parents and improve the experience of both the nurse and the family during these emotional situations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linyun; Ma, Xiaogang; Zheng, Jin; Goldstein, Justin; Duggan, Brian; West, Patrick; Aulenbach, Steve; Tilmes, Curt; Fox, Peter

    2014-05-01

    This poster will show how we used a case-driven iterative methodology to develop an ontology to represent the content structure and the associated provenance information in a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). We applied the W3C PROV-O ontology to implement a formal representation of provenance. We argue that the use case-driven, iterative development process and the application of a formal provenance ontology help efficiently incorporate domain knowledge from earth and environmental scientists in a well-structured model interoperable in the context of the Web of Data.

  13. Black hole fusion in the extreme mass ratio limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina; Zilhão, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple, general, and accurate construction of the event horizons for the fusion of two neutral, rotating black holes with arbitrary orientation and values of their spins, in the extreme mass ratio limit where one black hole is much larger than the other. We compute several parameters that characterize the fusion and investigate their dependence on the black hole spin and orientation axis. We also exhibit and study the appearance of transient toroidal topology of the horizon. An earlier conjecture about universal critical exponents before and after an axisymmetric pinch is proven.

  14. Methane Provenance Determined by CH2D2 and 13CH3D Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, I. E.; Giunta, T.; Warr, O.; Ash, J. L.; Ruffine, L.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Young, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the provenance of naturally occurring methane gases is of major interest to energy companies and atmospheric climate modelers, among others. Bulk isotopic compositions and other geochemical tracers sometimes fail to provide definitive determinations of sources of methane due to complications from mixing and complicated chemical pathways of origin. Recent measurements of doubly-substituted isotopologues of methane, CH2D2 (UCLA) and 13CH3D (UCLA, CalTech, and MIT) have allowed for major improvements in sourcing natural methane gases. Early work has focused on formation temperatures obtained when the relative abundances of both doubly-substituted mass-18 species are consistent with internal equilibrium. When methane gases do not plot on the thermodynamic equilibrium curve in D12CH2D2 vs D13CH3D space, temperatures determined from D13CH3D values alone are usually spurious, even when appearing reasonable. We find that the equilibrium case is actually rare and almost exclusive to thermogenic gases produced at temperatures exceeding 100°C. All other relevant methane production processes appear to generate gases that are not in isotopologue-temperature equilibrium. When gases show departures from equilibrium as determined by the relationship between CH2D2 and 13CH3D abundances, data fall within empirically defined fields representing formation pathways. These fields are thus far consistent between different geological settings and and between lab experiments and natural samples. We have now defined fields for thermogenic gas production, microbial methanogenesis, low temperature abiotic (Sabatier) synthesis and higher temperature FTT synthesis. The majority of our natural methane data can be explained by mixing between end members originating within these production fields. Mixing can appear complex, resulting in both hyper-clumped and anti-clumped isotopologue abundances. In systems where mixtures dominate and end-members are difficult to sample, mixing models

  15. Defining difficult laryngoscopy findings by using multiple parameters: A machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdelaziz Moustafa

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: “Alex Difficult Laryngoscopy Software” (ADLS is a machine learning program for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy. New cases can be entered to the training set thus improving the accuracy of the software.

  16. Extremely secure identification documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office

  17. Research on supplying potential of uranium source from rocks in western provenance area of Hailaer basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Liu Hanbin; Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing

    2006-01-01

    Using U-Pb isotope composition evolution, this paper expounds the initial uranium content in volcanic rocks of provenance area of Xihulitu basin and in granites of provenance area of Kelulun sag, western Hailaer basin. The initial uranium content (U 0 ) in volcanic rocks of provenance area is higher, the average initial uranium content of volcanic rocks is 10.061 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -49.57%; the average initial uranium content of granites is 18.381 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -80%. The results indicate that rocks in provenance area could provide the pre-enrichment of uranium in deposited sandstone. U-Ra equilibrium coefficients of rocks indicate that there is obvious U-Ra disequilibrium phenomenon in volcanic rocks, and the time when granites provided uranium source occurred 16000 a ago. (authors)

  18. VisTrails is an open-source scientific workflow and provenance management system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthombeni, Thabo DM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available VisTrails is an open-source scientific workflow and provenance management system that provides support for simulations, data exploration and visualization. Whereas workflows have been traditionally used to automate repetitive tasks, for applications...

  19. Pharmacists' Perception of the Sale of Non-Clinically Proven Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Proven Health Supplements in Penang, Malaysia. Mohamed A Hassali. 1 ... Conclusions: Pharmacists who participated in the study have mixed opinions on the efficacy ... acceptance amongst the general public in many parts of the world in ...

  20. Are BALQSOs extreme accretors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M. J.; Wills, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs are QSOs with massive absorbing outflows up to 0.2c. Two hypothesis have been suggested in the past about the nature of BALQSOs: Every QSO might have BAL outflow with some covering factor. BALQSOs are those which happen to have outflow along our line of sight. BALQSOs have intrinsically different physical properties than non-BALQSOs. Based on BALQSO's optical emission properties and a large set of correlations linking many general QSO emission line and continuum properties, it has been suggested that BALQSOs might accrete at near Eddington limit with abundant of fuel supplies. With new BALQSO Hβ region spectroscopic observation conducted at UKIRT and re-analysis of literature data for low and high redshift non-BALQSOs, We confirm that BALQSOs have extreme Fe II and [O III] emission line properties. Using results derived from the latest QSO Hβ region reverberation mapping, we calculated Eddington ratios (˙ {M}/˙ {M}Edd) for our BAL and non-BALQSOs. The Fe II and [O III] strengths are strongly correlated with Eddington ratios. Those correlations link Eddington ratio to a large set of general QSO properties through the Boroson & Green Eigenvector 1. We find that BALQSOs have Eddington ratios close to 1. However, all high redshift, high luminosity QSOs have rather high Eddington ratios. We argue that this is a side effect from selecting the brightest objects. In fact, our high redshift sample might constitute BALQSO's high Eddington ratio orientation parent population.

  1. Disarming Contankerous People: Coping with Difficult Personalities in ECE Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Luis; Smith, Connie Jo

    2009-01-01

    Difficult personalities come in a variety of roles in just about every setting. While types have been identified in the typical corporate and business culture, difficult work personalities also inhabit the world of early childhood education (ECE) workplaces. Because difficult people have an impact on workplace morale and productivity, the topic…

  2. Towards an Ontology-Driven Blockchain Design for Supply Chain Provenance

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Henry M.; Laskowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    An interesting research problem in our age of Big Data is that of determining provenance. Granular evaluation of provenance of physical goods--e.g. tracking ingredients of a pharmaceutical or demonstrating authenticity of luxury goods--has often not been possible with today's items that are produced and transported in complex, inter-organizational, often internationally-spanning supply chains. Recent adoption of Internet of Things and Blockchain technologies give promise at better supply chai...

  3. A note on extreme sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Cymer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In decomposition theory, extreme sets have been studied extensively due to its connection to perfect matchings in a graph. In this paper, we first define extreme sets with respect to degree-matchings and next investigate some of their properties. In particular, we prove the generalized Decomposition Theorem and give a characterization for the set of all extreme vertices in a graph.

  4. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    . Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...... in contact with their peers, more attention-related problems and less emotional or psychological resources. Furthermore the mothers experience more trouble in child rearing than what is found in an average family. The results are important in the way that they attract attention to the child’s own situation...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child...

  5. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaë l; Davison, Anthony C.; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  6. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  7. Further outlooks: extremely uncomfortable; Die weiteren Aussichten: extrem ungemuetlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resenhoeft, T.

    2006-07-01

    Climate is changing extremely in the last decades. Scientists dealing with extreme weather, should not only stare at computer simulations. They have also to turn towards psyche, seriously personal experiences, knowing statistics, relativise supposed sensational reports and last not least collecting more data. (GL)

  8. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events ... frequency and extreme intensity indices, suggesting that extreme events are more frequent and intense during years with high rainfall. The proportion of total rainfall from ...

  9. Complex layered dental restorations: Are they recognizable and do they survive extreme conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Alistair S; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has shown that restorative dental materials can be recognized by microscopy and elemental analysis (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence; SEM/EDS and XRF) and that this is possible even in extreme conditions, such as cremation. These analytical methods and databases of dental materials properties have proven useful in DVI (disaster victim identification) of a commercial plane crash in 2009, and in a number of other victim identification cases. Dental materials appear on the market with ever expanding frequency. With their advent, newer methods of restoration have been proposed and adopted in the dental office. Methods might include placing multiple layers of dental materials, where they have different properties including adhesion, viscosity, or working time. These different dental materials include filled adhesives, flowable resins, glass ionomer cements, composite resins, liners and sealants. With possible combinations of different materials in these restorations, the forensic odontologist is now confronted with a new difficulty; how to recognize each individual material. The question might be posed if it is even possible to perform this task. Furthermore, an odontologist might be called upon to identify a victim under difficult circumstances, such as when presented with fragmented or incinerated remains. In these circumstances the ability to identify specific dental materials could assist in the identification of the deceased. Key to use of this information is whether these new materials and methods are detailed in the dental chart. Visual or radiographic inspection may not reveal the presence of a restoration, let alone the possible complex nature of that restoration. This study demonstrates another scientific method in forensic dental identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene loss and horizontal gene transfer contributed to the genome evolution of the extreme acidophile Ferrovum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roxana Ullrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD, associated with active and abandoned mining sites, is a habitat for acidophilic microorganisms that gain energy from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and ferrous iron and that thrive at pH below 4. Members of the recently proposed genus Ferrovum are the first acidophilic iron oxidizers to be described within the Betaproteobacteria. Although they have been detected as typical community members in AMD habitats worldwide, knowledge of their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is scarce. Genomics approaches appear to be most promising in addressing this lacuna since isolation and cultivation of Ferrovum has proven to be extremely difficult and has so far only been successful for the designated type strain Ferrovum myxofaciens P3G. In this study, the genomes of two novel strains of Ferrovum (PN-J185 and Z-31 derived from water samples of a mine water treatment plant were sequenced. These genomes were compared with those of Ferrovum sp. JA12 that also originated from the mine water treatment plant, and of the type strain (P3G. Phylogenomic scrutiny suggests that the four strains represent three Ferrovum species that cluster in two groups (1 and 2. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted metabolic pathways revealed that these groups harbor characteristic metabolic profiles, notably with respect to motility, chemotaxis, nitrogen metabolism, biofilm formation and their potential strategies to cope with the acidic environment. For example, while the F. myxofaciens strains (group 1 appear to be motile and diazotrophic, the non-motile group 2 strains have the predicted potential to use a greater variety of fixed nitrogen sources. Furthermore, analysis of their genome synteny provides first insights into their genome evolution, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer and genome reduction in the group 2 strains by loss of genes encoding complete metabolic pathways or physiological features contributed to the observed

  11. Management of the mangled extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Helfet, David L.; Kloen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The management of a mangled extremity continues to be a matter of debate. With modern advances in trauma resuscitation, microvascular tissue transfer, and fracture fixation, severe traumatic extremity injuries that would historically have been amputated are often salvaged. Even if preserving a

  12. A decade of weather extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The ostensibly large number of recent extreme weather events has triggered intensive discussions, both in- and outside the scientific community, on whether they are related to global warming. Here, we review the evidence and argue that for some types of extreme - notably heatwaves, but also

  13. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  14. Adaptive extremal optimization by detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, K.

    2007-01-01

    Global optimization is one of the key challenges in computational physics as several problems, e.g. protein structure prediction, the low-energy landscape of atomic clusters, detection of community structures in networks, or model-parameter fitting can be formulated as global optimization problems. Extremal optimization (EO) has become in recent years one particular, successful approach to the global optimization problem. As with almost all other global optimization approaches, EO is driven by an internal dynamics that depends crucially on one or more parameters. Recently, the existence of an optimal scheme for this internal parameter of EO was proven, so as to maximize the performance of the algorithm. However, this proof was not constructive, that is, one cannot use it to deduce the optimal parameter itself a priori. In this study we analyze the dynamics of EO for a test problem (spin glasses). Based on the results we propose an online measure of the performance of EO and a way to use this insight to reformulate the EO algorithm in order to construct optimal values of the internal parameter online without any input by the user. This approach will ultimately allow us to make EO parameter free and thus its application in general global optimization problems much more efficient

  15. Stress fractures in the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Ferco H.; Jonge, Milko C. de; Maas, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Stress fractures are fatigue injuries of bone usually caused by changes in training regimen in the population of military recruits and both professional and recreational athletes. Raised levels of sporting activity in today's population and refined imaging technologies have caused a rise in reported incidence of stress fractures in the past decades, now making up more than 10% of cases in a typical sports medicine practice. Background information (including etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment and prevention) as well as state of the art imaging of stress fractures will be discussed to increase awareness amongst radiologists, providing the tools to play an important role in diagnosis and prognosis of stress fractures. Specific fracture sites in the lower extremity will be addressed, covering the far majority of stress fracture incidence. Proper communication between treating physician, physical therapist and radiologist is needed to obtain a high index of suspicion for this easily overlooked entity. Radiographs are not reliable for detection of stress fractures and radiologist should not falsely be comforted by them, which could result in delayed diagnosis and possibly permanent consequences for the patient. Although radiographs are mandatory to rule out differentials, they should be followed through when negative, preferably by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as this technique has proven to be superior to bone scintigraphy. CT can be beneficial in a limited number of patients, but should not be used routinely

  16. Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil J

    2011-01-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

  17. Consistency of extreme flood estimation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Guido; Paquet, Emmanuel; Penot, David; Zischg, Andreas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Estimations of low-probability flood events are frequently used for the planning of infrastructure as well as for determining the dimensions of flood protection measures. There are several well-established methodical procedures to estimate low-probability floods. However, a global assessment of the consistency of these methods is difficult to achieve, the "true value" of an extreme flood being not observable. Anyway, a detailed comparison performed on a given case study brings useful information about the statistical and hydrological processes involved in different methods. In this study, the following three different approaches for estimating low-probability floods are compared: a purely statistical approach (ordinary extreme value statistics), a statistical approach based on stochastic rainfall-runoff simulation (SCHADEX method), and a deterministic approach (physically based PMF estimation). These methods are tested for two different Swiss catchments. The results and some intermediate variables are used for assessing potential strengths and weaknesses of each method, as well as for evaluating the consistency of these methods.

  18. Persistent identifiers for web service requests relying on a provenance ontology design pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Nicholas; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley; Si, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Delivering provenance information for datasets produced from static inputs is relatively straightforward: we represent the processing actions and data flow using provenance ontologies and link to stored copies of the inputs stored in repositories. If appropriate detail is given, the provenance information can then describe what actions have occurred (transparency) and enable reproducibility. When web service-generated data is used by a process to create a dataset instead of a static inputs, we need to use sophisticated provenance representations of the web service request as we can no longer just link to data stored in a repository. A graph-based provenance representation, such as the W3C's PROV standard, can be used to model the web service request as a single conceptual dataset and also as a small workflow with a number of components within the same provenance report. This dual representation does more than just allow simplified or detailed views of a dataset's production to be used where appropriate. It also allow persistent identifiers to be assigned to instances of a web service requests, thus enabling one form of dynamic data citation, and for those identifiers to resolve to whatever level of detail implementers think appropriate in order for that web service request to be reproduced. In this presentation we detail our reasoning in representing web service requests as small workflows. In outline, this stems from the idea that web service requests are perdurant things and in order to most easily persist knowledge of them for provenance, we should represent them as a nexus of relationships between endurant things, such as datasets and knowledge of particular system types, as these endurant things are far easier to persist. We also describe the ontology design pattern that we use to represent workflows in general and how we apply it to different types of web service requests. We give examples of specific web service requests instances that were made by systems

  19. THE USE THE GENETICALLY DIFFICULTLY INHERITED TRAIT OF PURPLE ROOT COLOR IN BREEDING PROGRAM FOR THE COMPLICATED TRAIT IN RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ugarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding the nature of trait inheritance in any crops is that determines the quality of results in breeding program. According to reference on previous publication, it is known that phenotypic manifestation of purple root color in radish was caused by regulatory interrelationship mechanisms of genetic control that is difficult to be used directly in breeding program. From literature sources and on the basis of their own research work the authors have proven the practice to maintain the trait in generations, and implementations of development of purple radish breeding accessions have been presented. At first stage of breeding program the selection of initial breeding accessions was carried out, where 14 varieties (red x white were regarded on the basis of top-crosses to obtain F1 and F2 progenies to be analyzed. Thus, four best combinations from crossing were chosen with 100% of hybridity. Through analysis of hybrids for individual progenies the hybrid population F1 of radish ‘Konfeti’ with different root colors was developed. As result of the individual inbreeding selection on seed plants with pigmented stems and the colored flower rim, the stable breeding accession with purple root was obtained. Thus, in breeding practice in radish it was succeeded to obtain the stably inheriting purple root color in radish accessions, variety ‘Siniiy Iniey’. 

  20. Physiological response to drought stress in Camptotheca acuminata seedlings from two provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeqing eYing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a key environmental factor limiting the growth and productivity of plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of Camptotheca acuminata (C. acuminata to different drought stresses and compare the drought tolerance between the provenances Kunming (KM and Nanchang (NC, which are naturally distributed in different rainfall zones with annual rainfalls of 1000-1100 mm and 1600-1700 mm, respectively. We determined relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities of C. acuminata seedlings under both moderate (50% of maximum field capacity and severe drought stress (30% of maximum field capacity. As the degree of water stress increased, RWC, Chl(a+b content, Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs, transpiration rate (Tr and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci values decreased, but water use efficiency (WUE, REC, MDA content and SOD and POD activities increased in provenances KM and NC. Under moderate and severe drought stress, provenance KM had higher RWC, Chl(a+b, Pn, WUE, SOD and POD and lower Gs, Tr, Ci and REC in leaves than provenance NC. The results indicated that provenance KM may maintain stronger drought tolerance via improvements in water-retention capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and membrane integrity.

  1. Prevention of Dental Damage and Improvement of Difficult Intubation Using a Paraglossal Technique With a Straight Miller Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Huang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diseased teeth, or those who are difficult to intubate, have a higher risk of dental injury during laryngoscopy. We report 3 cases of smooth endotracheal intubation using a paraglossal technique with a straight Miller blade in patients with poor dentition. Three patients with poor dentition were scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia. All patients presented with extremely loose upper central incisors and had lost the other right upper teeth, while micrognathia and prominent, loose upper incisors were noted in 1 case. We elected to use a straight Miller blade using a paraglossal approach. A nasopharyngeal airway was inserted after induction of general anesthesia to facilitate mask ventilation and prevent air leakage from the mask. The Miller blade was then inserted from the right corner of the mouth, avoiding contact with the vulnerable incisors, and advanced along the groove between the tongue and tonsil. The endotracheal tube was subsequently smoothly inserted after obtaining a grade 1 Cormack and Lehane view without dental trauma in all 3 cases. Direct laryngoscopy using the paraglossal straight blade technique avoids dental damage in patients with mobile upper incisors and no right maxillary molars. It is a practical alternative method that differs from the traditional Macintosh laryngoscope in patients with a high risk of dental injury during the procedure. This technique, which provides an improved view of the larynx, might also be helpful with patients in whom intubation is difficult.

  2. The effectiveness of search dogs compared with humans in searching difficult terrain at turbine sites for bat fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Fiona

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Many wind farms in the UK and elsewhere in northern Europe are situated in habitat with dense tall vegetation such as arable fields and upland heaths. This makes surveying for bat fatalities extremely difficult. To facilitate a multi-centre study of the effects of wind turbines on British bats, we have therefore conducted controlled trials of the relative success of trained search dogs and ecologists in retrieving bat carcasses. Although dogs have been used previously in ecological surveys for bats, this is the first time they have been specifically trained for use in 'difficult to survey' habitats. Two ecologists and two Labrador dogs with handlers were each given the opportunity to retrieve up to 45 bat carcasses in a range of habitat types. Their efficiency in terms of overall search time, costs, and retrieval abilities were evaluated. Our results indicate that high rates of retrieval can be achieved by dogs, even in dense vegetation up to 75cm high. Further, a typical 100m2 search area can be surveyed in less than half the time taken by humans. The limitations of using search dogs, and their ability to detect the presence of bats that have been scavenged are also presented (presentation supported with video footage). (Author)

  3. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  4. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the determination of gem provenance: beryls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, Catherine E.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Harmon, Russell S.; Whitmore, Robert C.; De Lucia, Frank C. Jr.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2008-01-01

    The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo no. 1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance

  5. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    Neonectria neomacrospora in Denmark. In Iceland the corkbark fir showed superior results, especially for survival rate and Christmas tree quality. The White River provenance from British Columbia is recommended for use in Denmark. The Mount Taylor provenance from the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico...... fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Merriam) Lemmon) was established at three sites in Denmark and at one site in Iceland in 1999. Adaptability, Christmas tree quality, growth rhythm and susceptibility to pests and pathogens were measured and assessed...... and the most spring frost damage on buds. The westernmost subalpine fir provenances from Washington state and British Columbia showed the overall best results in Denmark, with the highest survival (after 15 years), fastest height growth and highest Christmas tree quality and profitability, as well as both good...

  6. Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an objective airway score versus a standard clinical airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Valentin; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    -specific assessment. Data from patients' pre-operative airway assessment are registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database. Objective scores for intubation and mask ventilation grade the severity of airway managements. The accuracy of predicting difficult intubation and mask ventilation is measured for each group...... the examination and registration of predictors for difficult mask ventilation with a non-specified clinical airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation.Method/Design: We cluster-randomized 28 Danish departments of anaesthesia to airway assessment either by the SARI or by usual non...... that registration of the SARI and predictors for difficult mask ventilation are mandatory for the intervention group but invisible to controls....

  7. Enabling Structured Exploration of Workflow Performance Variability in Extreme-Scale Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Stephan, Eric G.; Raju, Bibi; Altintas, Ilkay; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2015-11-15

    Workflows are taking an Workflows are taking an increasingly important role in orchestrating complex scientific processes in extreme scale and highly heterogeneous environments. However, to date we cannot reliably predict, understand, and optimize workflow performance. Sources of performance variability and in particular the interdependencies of workflow design, execution environment and system architecture are not well understood. While there is a rich portfolio of tools for performance analysis, modeling and prediction for single applications in homogenous computing environments, these are not applicable to workflows, due to the number and heterogeneity of the involved workflow and system components and their strong interdependencies. In this paper, we investigate workflow performance goals and identify factors that could have a relevant impact. Based on our analysis, we propose a new workflow performance provenance ontology, the Open Provenance Model-based WorkFlow Performance Provenance, or OPM-WFPP, that will enable the empirical study of workflow performance characteristics and variability including complex source attribution.

  8. Durango: Scalable Synthetic Workload Generation for Extreme-Scale Application Performance Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carothers, Christopher D. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Meredith, Jeremy S. [ORNL; Blanco, Marc [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Vetter, Jeffrey S. [ORNL; Mubarak, Misbah [Argonne National Laboratory; LaPre, Justin [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Moore, Shirley V. [ORNL

    2017-05-01

    Performance modeling of extreme-scale applications on accurate representations of potential architectures is critical for designing next generation supercomputing systems because it is impractical to construct prototype systems at scale with new network hardware in order to explore designs and policies. However, these simulations often rely on static application traces that can be difficult to work with because of their size and lack of flexibility to extend or scale up without rerunning the original application. To address this problem, we have created a new technique for generating scalable, flexible workloads from real applications, we have implemented a prototype, called Durango, that combines a proven analytical performance modeling language, Aspen, with the massively parallel HPC network modeling capabilities of the CODES framework.Our models are compact, parameterized and representative of real applications with computation events. They are not resource intensive to create and are portable across simulator environments. We demonstrate the utility of Durango by simulating the LULESH application in the CODES simulation environment on several topologies and show that Durango is practical to use for simulation without loss of fidelity, as quantified by simulation metrics. During our validation of Durango's generated communication model of LULESH, we found that the original LULESH miniapp code had a latent bug where the MPI_Waitall operation was used incorrectly. This finding underscores the potential need for a tool such as Durango, beyond its benefits for flexible workload generation and modeling.Additionally, we demonstrate the efficacy of Durango's direct integration approach, which links Aspen into CODES as part of the running network simulation model. Here, Aspen generates the application-level computation timing events, which in turn drive the start of a network communication phase. Results show that Durango's performance scales well when

  9. Incipient archaeometry in Venezuela. Provenance study of pre-Hispanic pottery figurines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo Bohus, L.; Greaves, E.D.; Bermudez, J.; Mackowiak de Antczak, Ma. M.; Antczak, A.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Poirier, T.; Simonits, A.

    2005-01-01

    Application of different analytical techniques contributed with new results to the interpretation and the provenance study of Venezuelan figurines dating from the 12th and 15th centuries. Elements in bulk samples, powdered samples of figurines and soil were determined using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). Results and ceramics macroscopic observations indicate that average elemental composition of the figurines from the mainland significantly differ from those encountered on the Caribbean islands. The multidisciplinary experience de facto formed a group dedicated to archaeometry and provided data for provenance study of pre-Hispanic pottery figurines. (author)

  10. Provenance-specific growth responses to drought and air warming in three European oak species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arend, Matthias; Kuster, Thomas; Gunthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2011-03-15

    This study evaluated oak growth responses to air warming through research conducted with species coming from climatically different sites submitted to differing climates including periodic drought and air warming. Results showed different responses to drought and air warming as an adaptation to the conditions, and differences in growth response from one provenance to another were found but local climate factors were not responsible. This study highlighted that provenance was important to growth responses and it will have to be taken into account for regeneration of oaks in a changed climate if these results are confirmed.

  11. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  12. Evaluation of aspect-oriented frameworks in Python for extending a project with provenance documentation features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe two sides of a real life use case of introducing an aspect-oriented framework into an industrial-grade project. This paper is divided into two parts: the selection process for an AOP framework in the Python programming language, and its use for modularized non-invasive recording of provenance data in a distributed data management tool. Criteria for the choice of such a framework are discussed and the background of provenance documentation is laid out.

  13. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  14. Racial Extremism in the Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Walter M

    1998-01-01

    ... modem phenomenon of "skinheads." I then discuss the history of white supremacist extremism in the Army, culminating in the December, 1995 murders of two black civilians by soldiers assigned to the 82d Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina...

  15. Interevent Time Distribution of Renewal Point Process, Case Study: Extreme Rainfall in South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2018-03-01

    The study of time distribution of occurrences of extreme rain phenomena plays a very important role in the analysis and weather forecast in an area. The timing of extreme rainfall is difficult to predict because its occurrence is random. This paper aims to determine the inter event time distribution of extreme rain events and minimum waiting time until the occurrence of next extreme event through a point process approach. The phenomenon of extreme rain events over a given period of time is following a renewal process in which the time for events is a random variable τ. The distribution of random variable τ is assumed to be a Pareto, Log Normal, and Gamma. To estimate model parameters, a moment method is used. Consider Rt as the time of the last extreme rain event at one location is the time difference since the last extreme rainfall event. if there are no extreme rain events up to t 0, there will be an opportunity for extreme rainfall events at (t 0, t 0 + δt 0). Furthermore from the three models reviewed, the minimum waiting time until the next extreme rainfall will be determined. The result shows that Log Nrmal model is better than Pareto and Gamma model for predicting the next extreme rainfall in South Sulawesi while the Pareto model can not be used.

  16. Legacies from extreme drought increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; Knapp, A.; Hoover, D. L.; Avolio, M. L.; Felton, A. J.; Wilcox, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, are increasing in frequency and intensity, and the ecological consequences of these extreme events can be substantial and widespread. Although there is still much to be learned about how ecosystems will respond to an intensification of drought, even less is known about the factors that determine post-drought recovery of ecosystem function. Such knowledge is particularly important because post-drought recovery periods can be protracted depending on the extent to which key plant populations, community structure and biogeochemical processes are affected. These drought legacies may alter ecosystem function for many years post-drought and may impact future sensitivity to climate extremes. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season droughts in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of repeated droughts on ecosystem resistance (response) and resilience (recovery). We found that this grassland was not resistant to the first extreme drought due to reduced productivity and differential sensitivity of the co-dominant C4 grass (Andropogon gerardii) and C3 forb (Solidago canadensis) species. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, the grassland was highly resilient post-drought, due to increased abundance of the dominant C4 grass. Because of this shift to increased C4 grass dominance, we expected that previously-droughted grassland would be more resistant to a second extreme drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted grassland was more sensitive to drought than grassland that had not experienced drought. Thus, our result suggest that legacies of drought (shift in community composition) may increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extreme events.

  17. Global predictability of temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van Aalst, Maarten; Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; Mason, Simon; Nissan, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian; Stephens, Elisabeth; Zsoter, Ervin; van den Hurk, Bart

    2018-05-01

    Extreme temperatures are one of the leading causes of death and disease in both developed and developing countries, and heat extremes are projected to rise in many regions. To reduce risk, heatwave plans and cold weather plans have been effectively implemented around the world. However, much of the world’s population is not yet protected by such systems, including many data-scarce but also highly vulnerable regions. In this study, we assess at a global level where such systems have the potential to be effective at reducing risk from temperature extremes, characterizing (1) long-term average occurrence of heatwaves and coldwaves, (2) seasonality of these extremes, and (3) short-term predictability of these extreme events three to ten days in advance. Using both the NOAA and ECMWF weather forecast models, we develop global maps indicating a first approximation of the locations that are likely to benefit from the development of seasonal preparedness plans and/or short-term early warning systems for extreme temperature. The extratropics generally show both short-term skill as well as strong seasonality; in the tropics, most locations do also demonstrate one or both. In fact, almost 5 billion people live in regions that have seasonality and predictability of heatwaves and/or coldwaves. Climate adaptation investments in these regions can take advantage of seasonality and predictability to reduce risks to vulnerable populations.

  18. Parenting with Positive Behavior Support: A Practical Guide to Resolving Your Child's Difficult Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieneman, Meme; Childs, Karen; Sergay, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Now the theory and research behind the positive behavior support (PBS) process--an approach already proven effective in schools and community programs--has been transformed into a practical, easy-to-use guide that's perfect for sharing with parents. Developed by educators and families, this user-friendly handbook offers parents easy-to-follow…

  19. Incidence and predictors of difficult laryngoscopy in 11,219 pediatric anesthesia procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sebastian; Birkholz, Torsten; Ihmsen, Harald; Irouschek, Andrea; Ackermann, Andreas; Schmidt, Joachim

    2012-08-01

    Difficult laryngoscopy in pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia. This retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate incidence and predictors of difficult laryngoscopy in a large cohort of pediatric patients receiving general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Young age and craniofacial dysmorphy are predictors for the difficult pediatric airway and difficult laryngoscopy. For difficult laryngoscopy, other general predictors are not yet described. Retrospectively, from a 5-year period, data from 11.219 general anesthesia procedures in pediatric patients with endotracheal intubation using age-adapted Macintosh blades in a single center (university hospital) were analyzed statistically. The overall incidence of difficult laryngoscopy [Cormack and Lehane (CML) grade III and IV] was 1.35%. In patients younger than 1 year, the incidence of CML III or IV was significantly higher than in the older patients (4.7% vs 0.7%). ASA Physical Status III and IV, a higher Mallampati Score (III and IV) and a low BMI were all associated (P pediatric anesthesia is lower than in adults. Our results show that the risk of difficult laryngoscopy is much higher in patients below 1 year of age, in underweight patients and in ASA III and IV patients. The underlying disease might also contribute to the risk. If the Mallampati score could be obtained, prediction of difficult laryngoscopy seems to be reliable. Our data support the existing recommendations for a specialized anesthesiological team to provide safe anesthesia for infants and neonates. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Identifying and Investigating Difficult Concepts in Engineering Mechanics and Electric Circuits. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streveler, Ruth; Geist, Monica; Ammerman, Ravel; Sulzbach, Candace; Miller, Ronald; Olds, Barbara; Nelson, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends ongoing work to identify difficult concepts in thermal and transport science and measure students' understanding of those concepts via a concept inventory. Two research questions provided the focal point: "What important concepts in electric circuits and engineering mechanics do students find difficult to learn?" and…

  1. Awake fiberoptic or awake video laryngoscopic tracheal intubation in patients with anticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Thøgersen, Bente; Afshari, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation (FFI) is the gold standard for management of anticipated difficult tracheal intubation. The purpose of this study was to compare awake FFI to awake McGrath® video laryngoscope, (MVL), (Aircraft Medical, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom) intubation in patients...... with an anticipated difficult intubation. The authors examined the hypothesis that MVL intubation would be faster than FFI....

  2. Between Trauma and Perpetration: Psychoanalytical and Social Psychological Perspectives on Difficult Histories in the Israeli Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tsafrir

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the applicability of psychoanalytic trauma-centered perspectives and social psychological intergroup comparison perspectives to difficult histories of the Israeli context. The study describes 2 test cases of difficult histories in the Jewish-Israeli context at the levels of curriculum policy, teachers, and learners. The first…

  3. Difficult Knowledge and the English Classroom: A Catholic Framework Using Cormac McCarthy's "The Road"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Scott; Burke, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the generative possibilities of risk-taking in the Catholic school English classroom. They associate pedagogical risk with what Deborah Britzman (1998) has called "difficult knowledge"--content that causes students to consider social trauma. Incorporating difficult knowledge meaningfully requires…

  4. The Provenance of Late Bronze Age Transport Amphorae found in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.V. Smith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This study, which forms part of a larger project on Canaanite amphorae, illustrates the use of ceramic petrography in refining the visual classification of the fabrics of imported New Kingdom amphorae excavated from Memphis and Amarna in Egypt. Provenances for the Canaanite amphorae are suggested which contradict previous assumptions.

  5. Protru: Leveraging Provenance to Enhance Network Trust in a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Gulustan

    2013-01-01

    Trust can be an important component of wireless sensor networks for believability of the produced data and historical value is a crucial asset in deciding trust of the data. A node's trust can change over time after its initial deployment due to various reasons such as energy loss, environmental conditions or exhausting sources. Provenance can…

  6. Opening Up Climate Research: A Linked Data Approach to Publishing Data Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Shaon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the formal scientific output in most fields of natural science has been limited to peer-reviewed academic journal publications, with less attention paid to the chain of intermediate data results and their associated metadata, including provenance. In effect, this has constrained the representation and verification of the data provenance to the confines of the related publications. Detailed knowledge of a dataset’s provenance is essential to establish the pedigree of the data for its effective re-use, and to avoid redundant re-enactment of the experiment or computation involved. It is increasingly important for open-access data to determine their authenticity and quality, especially considering the growing volumes of datasets appearing in the public domain. To address these issues, we present an approach that combines the Digital Object Identifier (DOI – a widely adopted citation technique – with existing, widely adopted climate science data standards to formally publish detailed provenance of a climate research dataset as an associated scientific workflow. This is integrated with linked-data compliant data re-use standards (e.g. OAI-ORE to enable a seamless link between a publication and the complete trail of lineage of the corresponding dataset, including the dataset itself.

  7. Effects Of Drought Stress on Germination in Fourteen Provenances of Pinus Brutia Ten. Seeds in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Şevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinus brutia Ten., Red pine, known to be tough drought resistant pine specie, could effectively be used for afforestation of disturbed areas. It is of great interest for the afforestation in arid zones. Appropriate seed sources for the specific areas guarantees reforestation success. Away from its native areas Pinus brutia Ten. is planted for its ornamental value and timber production purposes. Selection of drought resistant provenances can very well increase the survival success. In this study, the effects of water potential on germination were studied in fourteen provenances of Pinus brutia Ten. from Turkey. Water potentials between 0 and -8 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000 solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 day at 20 ± 0.5°C. A decrease in water potential produced a marked reduction in germination percentage and germination value. As a result, significant variations between the provenances were found. It was determined that, under a -8 bar water stress, Isparta-Bucak and Mersin-Silifke, respectively corresponding to 58% and 57% of the control group, were the least water stress affected provenances.

  8. Scab susceptibility of a provenance collection of pecan in in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan scab is the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. It is spread in rain and is widespread in the Southeast where conditions conducive to epidemics. A provenance collection of pecan from 19 locations representing the native range of the tree is located in Byron, Geo...

  9. Using sedimentary archives to reconstruct pollution history and sediment provenance: The Ohre River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Elznicová, J.; Kiss, T.; Smith, H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 144, SEP (2016), s. 109-129 ISSN 0341-8162 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00340S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Polluted floodplains * Pollution history * Fluvial archives * Sediment provenance * Environmental geochemistry Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.191, year: 2016

  10. A history-tracing XML-based provenance framework for workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhards, M; Belloum, A.; Berretz, F.; Sander, V.; Skorupa, S.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of validating and reproducing the outcome of computational processes is fundamental to many application domains. Assuring the provenance of workflows will likely become even more important with respect to the incorporation of human tasks to standard workflows by emerging standards

  11. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin; Li Rongwu; Lue Zhirong; Li Guoxia

    2008-01-01

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper

  12. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue Zhirong [Shan' xi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Li Guoxia [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper.

  13. Diagnosis and management of deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremity: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarslag, Henk J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Koopman, Maria M.W.; Beek, Edwin J.R. van

    2004-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremity is an increasing clinical problem due to the use of long-term indwelling catheters for chemotherapy or long-term feeding. The clinical diagnosis is difficult to make, and various imaging modalities have been used for this purpose. The use of (interventional) radiological procedures has been advancing in recent years. This review describes the clinical background, the imaging modalities that may be employed, treatment options and outcome of patients with upper extremity thrombosis. (orig.)

  14. Facilitating Scientific Research through Workflows and Provenance on the DataONE Cyberinfrastructure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    Provenance data has numerous applications in science. Two key ones are 1) replication: facilitate the repeatable derivation of results and 2) discovery: enable the location of data based on processing history and derivation relationships. The following scenario illustrates a typical use of provenance data. Alice, a climate scientist, has developed a VisTrails workflow to prepare Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data. After verifying that the workflow generates data in the desired form, she uses the ReproZip tool to create a reproducible package that will enable other scientists to re-run the workflow without having to install and configure the particular libraries she is using. In addition, she exports the provenance information of the workflow execution and customizes it through a tool such as the ProvExplorer, in order to eliminate the information she regards as superfluous. She then creates and shares a DataONE data package containing the data she prepared, the ReproZip package, the customized provenance, and additional science/system metadata. Both the customized provenance and metadata are indexed by the DataONE Cyberinfrastructure (CI) for discovery purposes. Bob, another climate scientist, is looking for a benchmark GPP data to validate the Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM) he has developed. Searching the DataONE repository he finds Alice's data package. He retrieves its ReproZip package, customizes it (e.g. changing the spatial resolution), and re-runs it to generate the benchmark data in the form he desires. The newly generated data is then used as input for his own model evaluation workflow. His workflow generates residual maps and a Taylor diagram that enable him to evaluate the similarity between the results of his model and the benchmark data. At this point, Bob can also make use of the tools Alice used to publish his results as another discoverable and reproducible data package. In order to support these capabilities, we propose to extend the Data

  15. Comparison of elemental, nutritional, and isotopic composition of Philippine and Japanese polished rice samples for provenance validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Conanan, Aida P.; Nosotros, Ro-Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa), has been considered the best staple food among all cereals and is the staple food for over 3 billion people, constituting over half of the world's population (Cantral and Reeves, 2002). In this study, elemental, isotopic and proximate analyses were done on rice samples in a attempt to establish variances between Philippine and Japanese rice, which can be useful for geographical authenticity testing. Rice samples were collected in Japan and in the Philippines (market survey samples from Metro Manila, and farm harvests from Aklan province). The samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Proximate analysis (AOAC procedure) was used to determine nutrient aggregates. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/10, 1/4, 1/5 and 1/3 for Mg, Mn, K and Na, respectively. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. The rice samples from Aklan showed inter-variety variability in composition (70 to 85 % carbohydrates, 0.5 to 3.0 % fat and 4 to 5 % protein) which makes it difficult to establish provenance in terms of proximate composition. Isotopic ratio of δ 13 C show signature that of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable

  16. Ideologies and Discourses: Extreme Narratives in Extreme Metal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Radovanović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, metal music has always been about provoking a strong reaction. Depending on the characteristics of different sub-genres, one can focus on the sound, technique, visual appearance, and furthermore, the ideologies and ideas that are the foundation for each of the sub-genres. Although the majority of the metal community rejects accusations of being racially intolerant, some ideologies of extreme sub-genres (such as black metal are in fact formed around the ideas of self-conscious elitism expressed through interest in pagan mythology, racism, Nazism and fascism. There has been much interest in the Nazi era within the extreme metal scene thus influencing other sub-genres and artists. The aim of this paper is to examine various appearances of extreme narratives such as Nazism and racism in  different sub-genres of metal, bearing in mind variations dependent on geographical, political, and other factors.

  17. Change in Sediment Provenance Near the Current Estuary of Yellow River Since the Holocene Transgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sheng; Feng, Xiuli; Li, Guogang; Liu, Xiao; Xiao, Xiao; Feng, Li

    2018-06-01

    Sedimentary sequence and sediment provenance are important factors when it comes to the studies on marine sedimentation. This paper studies grain size distribution, lithological characteristics, major and rare earth elemental compositions, micropaleontological features and 14C ages in order to examine sedimentary sequence and sediment provenance of the core BH6 drilled at the mouth of the Yellow River in Bohai Sea. According to the grain size and the micropaleontological compositions, 4 sedimentary units have been identified. Unit 1 (0-8.08 mbsf) is of the delta sedimentary facies, Unit 2 (8.08-12.08 mbsf) is of the neritic shelf facies, Unit 3 (12.08-23.85 mbsf) is of near-estuary beach-tidal facies, and Unit 4 (23.85 mbsf-) is of the continental lake facies. The deposits from Unit 1 to Unit 3 have been found to be marine strata formed after the Holocene transgression at about 10 ka BP, while Unit 4 is continental lacustrine deposit formed before 10 ka BP. The provenances of core BH6 sediments show properties of the continental crust and vary in different sedimentary periods. For Unit 4 sediments, the source regions are dispersed while the main provenance is not clear, although the parent rock characteristics of a few samples are similar to the Luanhe River sediments. For Unit 3, sediments at 21.1-23.85 mbsf have been mainly transported from the Liaohe River, while sediments above 21.1 mbsf are mainly from the Yellow River and partially from the Liaohe River. For Unit 2, the sediments have been mainly transported from the Yellow River, with a small amount from other rivers. For Unit 1, the provenance is mainly the Yellow River catchment. These results help in better understanding the evolution of the Yellow River Delta.

  18. Golden Trail: Retrieving the Data History that Matters from a Comprehensive Provenance Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Missier

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental science can be thought of as the exploration of a large research space, in search of a few valuable results. While it is this “Golden Data” that gets published, the history of the exploration is often as valuable to the scientists as some of its outcomes. We envision an e-research infrastructure that is capable of systematically and automatically recording such history – an assumption that holds today for a number of workflow management systems routinely used in e-science. In keeping with our gold rush metaphor, the provenance of a valuable result is a “Golden Trail”. Logically, this represents a detailed account of how the Golden Data was arrived at, and technically it is a sub-graph in the much larger graph of provenance traces that collectively tell the story of the entire research (or of some of it.In this paper we describe a model and architecture for a repository dedicated to storing provenance traces and selectively retrieving Golden Trails from it. As traces from multiple experiments over long periods of time are accommodated, the trails may be sub-graphs of one trace, or they may be the logical representation of a virtual experiment obtained by joining together traces that share common data.The project has been carried out within the Provenance Working Group of the Data Observation Network for Earth (DataONE NSF project. Ultimately, our longer-term plan is to integrate the provenance repository into the data preservation architecture currently being developed by DataONE.

  19. Patients with computed tomography-proven acute diverticulitis require follow-up to exclude colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafquat Zaman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Traditionally, patients with acute diverticulitis undergo follow-up endoscopy to exclude colorectal cancer (CRC. However, its usefulness has been debated in this era of high-resolution computed tomography (CT diagnosis. We assessed the frequency and outcome of endoscopic follow-up for patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis, according to the confidence in the CT diagnosis.Methods: Records of patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis between October 2007 and March 2014 at Sandwell & West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust were retrieved. The National Cancer Registry confirmed the cases of CRC. Endoscopy quality indicators were compared between these patients and other patients undergoing the same endoscopic examination over the same period.Results: We identified 235 patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis, of which, 187 were managed conservatively. The CT report was confident of the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis in 75% cases. Five of the 235 patients were subsequently diagnosed with CRC (2.1%. Three cases of CRC were detected in the 187 patients managed conservatively (1.6%. Forty-eight percent of the conservatively managed patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; one case of CRC was identified. Endoscopies were often incomplete and caused more discomfort for patients with diverticulitis compared with controls.Conclusions: CRC was diagnosed in patients with CT-proven diverticulitis at a higher rate than in screened asymptomatic populations, necessitating follow-up. CT reports contained statements regarding diagnostic uncertainty in 25% cases, associated with an increased risk of CRC. Follow-up endoscopy in patients with CT-proven diverticulitis is associated with increased discomfort and high rates of incompletion. The use of other follow-up modalities should be considered.

  20. Mineral composition and geochemistry of the Upper Cretaceous siliciclastics (Nubia Group), Aswan District, south Egypt: Implications for provenance and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdallah M.

    2017-11-01

    The Upper-Cretaceous clastic succession (Nubia Group) in the area northeast of Aswan includes three rock units, from base upwards: Abu Aggag Formation (Turonian), Timsah Formation (Coniacian -Santonian) and Um Barmil Formation (Santonian - Campanian). Quartz and clay minerals are the predominant phases throughout the whole succession while feldspars are very rare. Kaolinite is overwhelming among the clay minerals, in addition to less important amounts of illite and illite/smectite. The ultrastable heavy minerals are the prevailing non- opaque phases and they significantly change in relative abundance upsection. SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 are the dominant chemical components. The statistical examination had revealed that the chemical constituents are loaded on three main geochemical trends; the siliceous, the argillaceous and the ferruginous. The enrichment factor shows that the geochemical behavior of the major and trace elements is uniform throughout the sandstones and mudstones of the Abu Aggag Formation. A significant geochemical contrast is documented between the sandstones and mudstones of both the Timsah and the Um Barmil formations. The provenance - critical elemental ratios Ti/Nb and Ti/Y are nearly constant throughout the sandstones and mudstones of the Abu Aggag Formation, and they fall within the range of granitic-granodioritic composition. The Timsah sandstones have Ti/Nb and Ti/Y ratios that are consistent with those of the Abu Aggag rocks, suggesting a similar provenance. These elemental ratios are extremely higher in the Timsah mudstones, reflecting a great influx of mafic material. The Um Barmil sandstones exhibit exceedingly dispersed values of Ti/Nb and Ti/Y, reflecting their derivation from large catchment's areas of different rock types with the eroded products being mixed in various relative proportions. The Ti/Nb and Ti/Y of the Um Barmil mudstones are closely akin to those of the Timsah mudstones suggesting analogous source. The chemical index of

  1. Difficult behaviors in the emergency department: a cohort study of housed, homeless and alcohol dependent individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Svoboda

    Full Text Available This study contrasted annual rates of difficult behaviours in emergency departments among cohorts of individuals who were homeless and low-income housed and examined predictors of these events.Interviews in 1999 with men who were chronically homeless with drinking problems (CHDP (n = 50, men from the general homeless population (GH (n = 61, and men residing in low-income housing (LIH (n = 58 were linked to catchment area emergency department records (n = 2817 from 1994 to 1999. Interview and hospital data were linked to measures of difficult behaviours.Among the CHDP group, annual rates of visits with difficult behaviours were 5.46; this was 13.4 (95% CI 10.3-16.5 and 14.3 (95% CI 11.2-17.3 times higher than the GH and LIH groups. Difficult behaviour incidents included physical violence, verbal abuse, uncooperativeness, drug seeking, difficult histories and security involvement. Difficult behaviours made up 57.54% (95% CI 55.43-59.65%, 24% (95% CI 19-29%, and 20% (95% CI 16-24% of CHDP, GH and LIH visits. Among GH and LIH groups, 87% to 95% were never involved in verbal abuse or violence. Intoxication increased all difficult behaviours while decreasing drug seeking and leaving without being seen. Verbal abuse and violence were less likely among those housed, with odds ratios of 0.24 (0.08, 0.72 and 0.32 (0.15, 0.69, respectively.Violence and difficult behaviours are much higher among chronically homeless men with drinking problems than general homeless and low-income housed populations. They are concentrated among subgroups of individuals. Intoxication is the strongest predictor of difficult behaviour incidents.

  2. Isotopic provenance analysis and terrane tectonics: a warning about sediment transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years the field of provenance analysis has undergone a revolution with the development of single-crystal isotopic dating techniques, the most common being U/Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. These have allowed age determination of single crystals thus providing more detail about probable provenance of each individual grain rather than an averaged population of grains. The usefulness for resolving complex terrane accretion and translation histories was immediately obvious and there have been many studies in many different regions aimed at tracking terrane motions by provenance of individual grains upward through the stratigraphy of a basin. Recent research in the North American Cordilleran terranes and in the New Zealand Torlesse Superterrane show how widely used and powerful these provenance analysis techniques are. However, isotopic provenance analysis has often been presented as key information to resolve controversies around terrane translation histories with very little discussion of the context of sedimentary facies and sediment transport mechanisms. An example is the recent use of U/Pb detrital zircon ages as the supposedly controversy-ending evidence for the amount of lateral translation of the Insular Superterrane in British Columbia (Baja BC) (Mahoney et al., 1999). The zircon grains were separated from fine-grained turbidite deposits and could easily have been transported over very large distances by a variety of mechanisms; yet they were presented as definitively resolving the Baja BC controversy. Modern examples illustrate the problem of using the provenance of fine grained sediment to constrain terrane tectonics. Sediment in the tip of the Bengal submarine fan was transported ∼3000 km from source, first by fluvial processes then by sediment gravity flow in the submarine fan. The detrital isotopic ages of single grains are the same as the depositional ages indicating a very rapid unroofing and transport rate with minimal

  3. Seasonal temperature extremes in Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew; Huang, Shaochun

    2010-12-01

    The awareness of global warming is well established and results from the observations made on thousands of stations. This paper complements the large-scale results by examining a long time-series of high-quality temperature data from the Secular Meteorological Station in Potsdam, where observation records over the last 117 years, i.e., from January 1893 are available. Tendencies of change in seasonal temperature-related climate extremes are demonstrated. "Cold" extremes have become less frequent and less severe than in the past, while "warm" extremes have become more frequent and more severe. Moreover, the interval of the occurrence of frost has been decreasing, while the interval of the occurrence of hot days has been increasing. However, many changes are not statistically significant, since the variability of temperature indices at the Potsdam station has been very strong.

  4. Videolaryngoscopy versus Fiber-optic Intubation through a Supraglottic Airway in Children with a Difficult Airway: An Analysis from the Multicenter Pediatric Difficult Intubation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjek, Nicholas E; Nishisaki, Akira; Fiadjoe, John E; Adams, H Daniel; Peeples, Kenneth N; Raman, Vidya T; Olomu, Patrick N; Kovatsis, Pete G; Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Hunyady, Agnes; Bosenberg, Adrian; Tham, See; Low, Daniel; Hopkins, Paul; Glover, Chris; Olutoye, Olutoyin; Szmuk, Peter; McCloskey, John; Dalesio, Nicholas; Koka, Rahul; Greenberg, Robert; Watkins, Scott; Patel, Vikram; Reynolds, Paul; Matuszczak, Maria; Jain, Ranu; Khalil, Samia; Polaner, David; Zieg, Jennifer; Szolnoki, Judit; Sathyamoorthy, Kumar; Taicher, Brad; Riveros Perez, N Ricardo; Bhattacharya, Solmaletha; Bhalla, Tarun; Stricker, Paul; Lockman, Justin; Galvez, Jorge; Rehman, Mohamed; Von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta; Sommerfield, David; Soneru, Codruta; Chiao, Franklin; Richtsfeld, Martina; Belani, Kumar; Sarmiento, Lina; Mireles, Sam; Bilen Rosas, Guelay; Park, Raymond; Peyton, James

    2017-09-01

    The success rates and related complications of various techniques for intubation in children with difficult airways remain unknown. The primary aim of this study is to compare the success rates of fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway to videolaryngoscopy in children with difficult airways. Our secondary aim is to compare the complication rates of these techniques. Observational data were collected from 14 sites after management of difficult pediatric airways. Patient age, intubation technique, success per attempt, use of continuous ventilation, and complications were recorded for each case. First-attempt success and complications were compared in subjects managed with fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy had similar first-attempt success rates (67 of 114, 59% vs. 404 of 786, 51%; odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI, 0.91 to 2.00; P = 0.16). In subjects less than 1 yr old, fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway was more successful on the first attempt than videolaryngoscopy (19 of 35, 54% vs. 79 of 220, 36%; odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.31; P = 0.042). Complication rates were similar in the two groups (20 vs. 13%; P = 0.096). The incidence of hypoxemia was lower when continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway was used throughout the fiber-optic intubation attempt. In this nonrandomized study, first-attempt success rates were similar for fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway is associated with higher first-attempt success than videolaryngoscopy in infants with difficult airways. Continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway during fiber-optic intubation attempts may lower the incidence of hypoxemia.

  5. Biometric characters of seeds and wings as markers of geographical differentiation between European scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric characters of seeds and wings served to describe interprovenance differentiation of Scots pine in Europe. Grouping analysis was applied, Mahalanobis distances were calculated as well as Hotellings T2 statistics were applied. The similarity of East European and Finnish provenances was conspicuous. The provenance from Scotland proved to be similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia. On the other hand, two southern provenances 54(Rychtal, Poland and 55(Luboml, Ukraine, were also found similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia (western Norway. The obtained pattern of reciprocal relations may indicate pathways of Scots pine migration in the postglacial period or may be a result of adaptation to certain similar environmental conditions. No relations were detected between size of seeds and geographic origin of provenances.

  6. Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF. In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transfers (ETs despite undergoing cervical dilatation in the cycle prior to IVF. Interventions : Operative hysteroscopy using Versapoint for refashioning of the cervical canal. Main Outcome Measures : Ease of ET in the subsequent IVF cycle. Secondary outcome measure was to assess reproductive outcome. Results : Easy and atraumatic ET in the IVF cycle after procedure in 100% patients. PR was 46.5%. Conclusions : Use of Versapoint for refashioning the cervical canal can improve the quality of ET and PR.

  7. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  8. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  9. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronov, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  10. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  11. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Goldstein, J.; Duggan, B.; Xu, J.; Du, C.; Akkiraju, A.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The periodical National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) [1] produces reports about findings of global climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States. Those findings are of great public and academic concerns and are used in policy and management decisions, which make the provenance information of findings in those reports especially important. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS), in which the NCA reports and associated provenance information are the primary records. We were modeling and developing Semantic Web applications for the GCIS. By applying a use case-driven iterative methodology [2], we developed an ontology [3] to represent the content structure of a report and the associated provenance information. We also mapped the classes and properties in our ontology into the W3C PROV-O ontology [4] to realize the formal presentation of provenance. We successfully implemented the ontology in several pilot systems for a recent National Climate Assessment report (i.e., the NCA3). They provide users the functionalities to browse and search provenance information with topics of interest. Provenance information of the NCA3 has been made structured and interoperable by applying the developed ontology. Besides the pilot systems we developed, other tools and services are also able to interact with the data in the context of the 'Web of data' and thus create added values. Our research shows that the use case-driven iterative method bridges the gap between Semantic Web researchers and earth and environmental scientists and is able to be deployed rapidly for developing Semantic Web applications. Our work also provides first-hand experience for re-using the W3C PROV-O ontology in the field of earth and environmental sciences, as the PROV-O ontology is recently ratified (on 04/30/2013) by the W3C as a recommendation and relevant applications are still rare. [1] http

  12. Identification of provenance rocks based on EPMA analyses of heavy minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Sano, N.; Ueki, T.; Yonaga, Y.; Yasue, K. I.; Masakazu, N.

    2017-12-01

    Information on mountain building is significant in the field of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because this affects long-term stability in groundwater flow system. Provenance analysis is one of effective approaches for understanding building process of mountains. Chemical compositions of heavy minerals, as well as their chronological data, can be an index for identification of provenance rocks. The accurate identification requires the measurement of as many grains as possible. In order to achieve an efficient provenance analysis, we developed a method for quick identification of heavy minerals using an Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). In this method, heavy mineral grains extracted from a sample were aligned on a glass slide and mounted in a resin. Concentration of 28 elements was measured for 300-500 grains per sample using EPMA. To measure as many grains as possible, we prioritized swiftness of measurement over precision, configuring measurement time of about 3.5 minutes for each grain. Identification of heavy minerals was based on their chemical composition. We developed a Microsoft® Excel® spread sheet input criteria of mineral identification using a typical range of chemical compositions for each mineral. The grains of 110 wt.% total were rejected. The criteria of mineral identification were revised through the comparison between mineral identification by optical microscopy and chemical compositions of grains classified as "unknown minerals". Provenance rocks can be identified based on abundance ratio of identified minerals. If no significant difference of the abundance ratio was found among source rocks, chemical composition of specific minerals was used as another index. This method was applied to the sediments of some regions in Japan where provenance rocks had lithological variations but similar formation ages. Consequently, the provenance rocks were identified based on chemical compositions of heavy minerals resistant to

  13. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  14. Randomized controlled trial of the Pentax AWS, Glidescope, and Macintosh laryngoscopes in predicted difficult intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential for the Pentax AWS and the Glidescope to reduce the difficulty of tracheal intubation in patients at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation, in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  15. Implications of Age-Related Changes in Anatomy for Geriatric-Focused Difficult Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function surrounding the airway change by the age, which may ultimately result in having anatomic features of difficult airways in the elderly. Hence, we reviewed the literature focusing on the age-related anatomic changes and accordingly to compare the characteristics of difficult airways. With age, teeth wear and loss, protein and collagen synthesis reduction, and bone loss and muscle atrophy results in aged face (chin protrusion, cheek retraction and drooping, jaw restriction (temporo-madibular joint disc displacement and osteoarthritis, neck and back stiffness, and kyphotic deformities (degeneration of spinal articular cartilage, intervertebral discs, and spinal osteoporosis. These age-related changes in anatomy are compatible with the predictors of a difficult airway. We hope that these age-related anatomic approaches will prospectively allow a detailed understanding of the hallmarks resulting in geriatric-focused difficult airways in the future studies.

  16. Assessment of the Difficult Areas of the Senior Secondary School 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Difficult Areas of the Senior Secondary School 2 (Two) ... Correlation between the students' perceived difficulty and their achievement in a test and ... Students need counseling, encouragement and enlightenment in order to ...

  17. Variability in growth of Vachellia nilotica provenances tested in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larwanou, Mahamane; Issa, Rabiou; Saadou, Mahamane

    2014-01-01

    A provenance trial of Vachellia nilotica (Acacia nilotica) was conducted in Niger in order to assess variability in growth among 10 provenances from Africa (subsp. adstringens from Niger, Senegal and Cameroun) and outside the continent (subsp. indica from Pakistan and Yemen). Tree height, diameter...... at breast height and crown diameter were measured 15 years after trial establishment. Comparison of blocks located at slightly different elevation showed that trees had better survival and growth at the lower sites. The African provenances had better survival and total basal area than provenances from Yemen...

  18. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  19. Difficult airway response team: a novel quality improvement program for managing hospital-wide airway emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lynette J; Herzer, Kurt R; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I; Berkow, Lauren C; Haut, Elliott R; Hillel, Alexander T; Miller, Christina R; Feller-Kopman, David J; Schiavi, Adam J; Xie, Yanjun J; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W; Mirski, Marek A

    2015-07-01

    Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. We developed a quality improvement program-the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)-to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had 3 core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a Web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index >40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous or current tracheostomy. Twenty

  20. Evaluation of Truview evo2® Laryngoscope In Anticipated Difficult Intubation-A Comparison To Macintosh Laryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess and compare laryngoscopic view of Truview evo2 laryngoscope with that of Macintosh laryngoscope in patients with one or more predictors of difficult intubation (PDI. Moreover ease of intubation with Truview evo2 in terms of absolute time requirement was also aimed at. Patients for elective surgery requiring endotracheal intubation were initially assessed for three PDI parameters - modified Mallampati test, thyro-mental distance& Atlanto-occipital (AO joint extension. Patients with cumulative PDI scores of 2 to 5 (in a scale of 0 to 8 were evaluated for Cormack& Lehane (CL grading by Macintosh blade after standard induction. Cases with CL grade of two or more were further evaluated by Truview evo2 laryngoscope and corresponding CL grades were assigned. Intubation attempted under Truview evo2 vision and time required for each successful tracheal intubation (i.e. tracheal intubation completed within one minute was noted. Total fifty cases were studied. The CL grades assigned by Macintosh blade correlated well with the cumulative PDI scores assigned preoperatively, confirming there predictability. Truview evo2 improved laryngeal view in 92 % cases by one or more CL grade. Intubation with Truview evo2 was possible in 88% cases within stipulated time of one minute and mean time of 28.6 seconds with SD of 11.23 was reasonably quick. No significant complication like oro- pharyngeal trauma or extreme pressor response to laryngoscopy was noticed. To conclude, Truview evo2 proved to be a better tool than conventional laryngoscope in anticipated difficult situations.

  1. Difficult airway management patterns among anesthesiologists practicing in Cairo University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat I. Abdel rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The practice of anesthesiologists in Cairo university hospitals is close to the recommendations of the ASA guidelines for management of difficult airway. There is increased skills in fiberoptic bronchoscopes and SGA with increased frequency of difficult airway managements training courses; however, they need to improve their skills in awake fiberoptic intubations technique and they need to be trained on invasive airway management access to close the discrepancy between their theoretical choices in different situations and their actual skills.

  2. Difficult intubation in a parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold–Chiari malformation: Use of Airtraq™ laryngoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Bensghir; Chkoura, K.; Elhassani, M.; Ahtil, R.; Azendour, H.; Kamili, N. Drissi

    2011-01-01

    Anesthetic technique in parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold–Chiari malformation is variable depending on the teams. Difficult intubation is one of the risks when general anesthesia is opted. Different devices have been used to manage the difficult intubation in pregnant women. We report the use of Airtraq™ laryngoscope after failed standard laryngoscopy in a parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold–Chiari type I malformation. PMID:22144932

  3. Difficult intubation in a parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold-Chiari malformation: Use of Airtraq™ laryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensghir Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic technique in parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold-Chiari malformation is variable depending on the teams. Difficult intubation is one of the risks when general anesthesia is opted. Different devices have been used to manage the difficult intubation in pregnant women. We report the use of Airtraq™ laryngoscope after failed standard laryngoscopy in a parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold-Chiari type I malformation.

  4. New Methodologies for Development of High Efficient Machining of Difficult to Cut Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, S; Comoglio, M; Rostagno, M

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the automotive and aerospace industries. In these industries the need for enhanced materials performance is necessary if they are to remain competitive in global terms. Unfortunately the material properties, which make them so attractive to the aerospace and automotive industry can also make them difficult to machine. This paper will discuss integrated developments in machining techniques and cutting tools, which are emerging to cope with difficult to cut materials.

  5. [Correlation between obstructive apnea syndrome and difficult airway in ENT surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Marcia Hiray; Tardelli, Maria Angela; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Silva, Helga Cristina Almeida da

    2017-12-21

    ENT patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a tendency of collapsing the upper airways in addition to anatomical obstacles. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to the increased risk of difficult airway and also increased perioperative complications. In order to identify these patients in the preoperative period, the STOP Bang questionnaire has been highlighted because it is summarized and easy to apply. Evaluate through the STOP Bang questionnaire whether patients undergoing ENT surgery with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a higher risk of complications, particularly the occurrence of difficult airway. Measurements of anatomical parameters for difficult airway and questionnaire application for clinical prediction of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were performed in 48 patients with a previous polysomnographic study. The sample detected difficult airway in about 18.7% of patients, all of them with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This group had older age, cervical circumference > 40cm, ASA II and Cormack III/IV. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome had higher body mass index, cervical circumference, and frequent apnea. In subgroup analysis, the group with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome showed a significantly higher SB score compared to patients without this syndrome or with a mild/moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The STOP Bang questionnaire was not able to predict difficult airway and mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but it identified marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. All patients with difficult airway had moderate and marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, although this syndrome did not involve difficult airway. The variables Cormack III/IV and BMI greater than 35 Kg.m -2 were able to predict difficult airway and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in Rosetta structure prediction for difficult molecular-replacement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMaio, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modeling advances using Rosetta structure prediction to aid in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems are discussed. Recent work has shown the effectiveness of structure-prediction methods in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems. The Rosetta protein structure modeling suite can aid in the solution of difficult molecular-replacement problems using templates from 15 to 25% sequence identity; Rosetta refinement guided by noisy density has consistently led to solved structures where other methods fail. In this paper, an overview of the use of Rosetta for these difficult molecular-replacement problems is provided and new modeling developments that further improve model quality are described. Several variations to the method are introduced that significantly reduce the time needed to generate a model and the sampling required to improve the starting template. The improvements are benchmarked on a set of nine difficult cases and it is shown that this improved method obtains consistently better models in less running time. Finally, strategies for best using Rosetta to solve difficult molecular-replacement problems are presented and future directions for the role of structure-prediction methods in crystallography are discussed

  7. Study on the provenance of ancient porcelain excavated in Maojiawan ruin by WDXRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guoxi

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine the provenance of two different kinds of ancient celadons which were excavated in Maojiawan ruin located in Beijing of China and named FLQ (imitated celadon) and WLNQ which is celadon outside and blue-white inside, ten components of each sample's body and glaze were measured by the wave length dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) analysis. Multivariates statistical analysis was used to analyze and compare the experiment data with those of LQY (ancient celadon) made in Zhejiang and ancient Jingdezhen porcelain (JDZ) made in Jingdezhen. The results show that the two different kinds of ancient celadons have the same provenance as JDZ, that is, they were produced in Jingdezhen. (authors)

  8. Preliminary Study on the Provenance Interpretation of Obsidian Artifacts using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mi Eun; Jwa, Yong Joo [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Gwang Min; Baek, Ha Ni; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the case that the obsidian artifacts are treated as a prehistoric cultural property, we cannot analyze them using destructive analytical methods. In this study, we compared geochemical data obtained by NAA with that by the other method, and examined the applicability of the NAA method to interpret the provenance of the obsidian artifacts. Both the NAA and the LA-ICP-MS data show a general similarity in elemental variation. In particular, it is possible to distinguish Baekdusan obsidians from Kyushu obsidians. This kind of contrast between the Baekdusan and the Kyushu obsidians would reflect the different magma composition at the different tectonic and geologic settings. In general the geochemical composition of obsidian is closely related to the accompanied volcanic rocks. For more detailed estimation of obsidian provenance, we should use the geochemical compositions of obsidians as well as volcanic rocks.

  9. A Structured Review and Classification of Demolding Issues and Proven Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, K. D.; Bissacco, G.; Kennedy, D.

    2012-01-01

    The demolding of replicated parts can result in damage to both the replication tooling and finished parts and is a particular problem for the replication of smaller parts which can be quite fragile. Various techniques have been proposed in the literature to solve such problems by reducing....... Such a rationalization of existing knowledge will enable replication tool developers to systematically select and apply proven solutions to solve, and ultimately prevent, demolding problems....... the overall demolding force. This paper presents the challenge of demolding replicated parts and reviews the proven solutions from the literature which have been developed. A summary chart of these solutions is presented which may be used to implement plans to solve demolding problems with replicated parts...

  10. Study of provenance character on ancient porcelain of Yue Kiln at Silongkou with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jihao Zhu; Songlin Feng; Dongyu Fan; Xiangqian Feng; Qing Xu; Yueming Shen; Zhenxi Zhuo; Wenjiang Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition is an important information of studying the provenance character of ancient pottery and porcelain. The ancient celadon samples produced in Later Tang (850-907 A.D.) to Former Southern Song (1127-1279 A.D.) have been analyzed with NAA. Its provenance characteristic was compared with that of Hongzhou Kiln of Jiangxi Province and Yaozhou Kiln of Shanxi Province in this paper. The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results indicated that the chemical compositions of ancient porcelain body samples made in three kilns were different. The difference is able to be identified. The porcelain body materials of both Silongkou Yue Kiln and Hongzhou Kiln were similar. The samples of Yaozhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference. (author)

  11. The fingerprint element analysis on provenance of ancient chinese Jun porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Chen Songhua; Wang Jie; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    1997-01-01

    Forty-three samples of ancient Jun porcelains and so on were chosen. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the 36 trace elements in every sample. Seven elements were chosen as the 'fingerprint elements'. The provenance of the glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Jun porcelain were investigated by the fingerprint element analysis method. The result shows that although the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain samples have been leapt over six hundred years, and glaze colors are utterly different and are from many different kilns, there are long term, stable and same mainly raw material source. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. A few modern Jun porcelains approximate from ancient Jun porcelains, the majority become estranged from ancient Jun porcelain

  12. Neutron activation analysis of bulk samples from Chinese ancient porcelain to provenance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Zhu; Wentao Hao; Jianming Zhen; Tongxiu Zhen; Glascock, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an important technique to determine the provenance of ancient ceramics. The most common technique used for preparing ancient samples for NAA is to grind them into a powder and then encapsulate them before neutron irradiation. Unfortunately, ceramic materials are typically very hard making it a challenge to grind them into a powder. In this study we utilize bulk porcelain samples cut from ancient shards. The bulk samples are irradiated by neutrons alongside samples that have been conventionally ground into a powder. The NAA for both the bulk samples and powders are compared and shown to provide equivalent information regarding their chemical composition. Also, the multivariate statistical have been employed to the analysis data for check the consistency. The findings suggest that NAA results are less dependent on the state of the porcelain sample, and thus bulk samples cut from shards may be used to effectively determine their provenance. (author)

  13. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.; Ding, X.L.; Feng, S.L.; Feng, X.Q.; Lu, Z.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  14. Provenance and composition study on Terengganu inscribed stone using in-situ nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Roslan Yahya; Hearie Hassan; Engku Mohd Fahmi Engku Chik; Mohamad Rabaie Shari; Airwan Affendi Mahmood; Abdul Quddoss Abu Bakar; Ainul Mardhiah Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper focused on the analysis of trace elements and provenance study of the Inscribed Stone of Terengganu (BBPT) using Neutron-induced Prompt Gamma-Ray Techniques (NIPGAT). In this study, portable NIPGAT system was designed and developed by using volume-based measurement. It is a nondestructive testing technique for the samples. This system uses low activity of isotopic neutron radioactive source from californium-252 (Cf-252) as an irradiation source. Gamma ray spectroscopy as well as specialized computer software has been utilized to conduct the research. The study has determined that the stone was a dolerite stone based on the composition of the stone elements. Although most of the scientific data for this study have been collected, this project is still running to complete the scope of provenance study. (author)

  15. Provenance of pottery determined by soil physicochemical and chemometric methods: A case study from Frederiksgave, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Bredwa-Mensah, Y.; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2009-01-01

    Frederiksgave, together with potsherds from two likely production sites at Ga and Dangme Shai, were investigated by visual inspection, total element analysis and X-ray diffraction and the results analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The investigation clearly showed...... that the Frederiksgave pots were not locally produced but came from other production sites indicating trading interaction between the plantation and surrounding settlements. One sample undoubtedly originated from Dangme Shai and another one must have been produced at a third (unknown) site. The provenance...... of the remaining samples is uncertain, but possibly three of them came from Ga and maybe one from Dangme Shai. Ill-defined compositional variation at Dangme Shai and Ga sites is thought to be the main reason for the observed difficulties in tracing the precise provenance of the Frederiksgave samples....

  16. BioQ: tracing experimental origins in public genomic databases using a novel data provenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Scott F; Quan, Jiaxi; Jones, Peter L

    2012-04-15

    Public genomic databases, which are often used to guide genetic studies of human disease, are now being applied to genomic medicine through in silico integrative genomics. These databases, however, often lack tools for systematically determining the experimental origins of the data. We introduce a new data provenance model that we have implemented in a public web application, BioQ, for assessing the reliability of the data by systematically tracing its experimental origins to the original subjects and biologics. BioQ allows investigators to both visualize data provenance as well as explore individual elements of experimental process flow using precise tools for detailed data exploration and documentation. It includes a number of human genetic variation databases such as the HapMap and 1000 Genomes projects. BioQ is freely available to the public at http://bioq.saclab.net.

  17. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  18. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  19. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    ‘‘Extreme Ocean Waves’’ is a collection of ten papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif that followed the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, includ- ing deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (alternatively termed freak waves), storm surges from cyclones, and internal waves. Other types of waves such as tsunamis or rissaga (meteotsunamis) are not discussed in this volume. It is generally implied that ‘‘extreme’’ has a statistical connotation relative to the average or significant wave height specific to each type of wave. Throughout the book, in fact, the reader will find a combination of theoretical and statistical/ empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting several dramatic instances of damaging extreme waves that occurred in 2007. 

  20. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  1. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  2. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Kozlowska; Charles Wagner; Charles Wagner; Erin M. Moore; Erin M. Moore; Adam Matkowski; Slavko Komarnytsky; Slavko Komarnytsky

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval cen...

  3. Provenance and evolution of miocene turbidite sedimentation in the central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchini, Ugo; Cipriani, Nicola

    1992-05-01

    A study of the siliciclastic detritus within the calcareous Miocene turbidite sandstones of the central Apennines has elucidated the provenance of these sandstones. Three ratios: Q/(Q+F), K/F, and Mc/M, have been used and binary correlations of these parameters show that: (1) the sandstones of the Marnoso-Arenacea are characterized by a northern Alpine supply, mainly derived from metamorphic rocks and subordinately from granitic rocks; (2) a secondary supply of western provenance, interbedded within the Marnoso-Arenacea, shows a typical arkosic composition and suggests that granitic rocks of Alpine-type were associated with the Ligurides; (3) the Urbania and Serraspinosa sandstones consist of detritus derived from sources almost identical to those supplying the Marnoso-Arenacea; (4) all the sandstones of the remaining central Apennine basins are characterized by a siliciclastic supply similar to the arkosic one; the rare carbonate fragments can be referred to the Apennine units. The continuity of the Alpine are in the Tyrrhenian area strongly suggests a connection between the western crystalline units and turbidite sedimentation in the basins examined. The crystalline units are associated with a segment of the Alpine chain tectonically linked to the Liguride nappes (Apennine source areas) during the eastwards migration of the Apennines deformation. The crystalline units were gradually eroded during the Burdigalian to Early Pliocene interval when the Laga basin was completely filled. Currently the term "Alpine" is used as synonymous with northern provenance. However, a detailed study carried out over ten years, revealed a western Alpine supply associated with an Apennine source area; we therefore suggest that it is necessary to distinguish a northern Alpine provenance from a western Alpine supply.

  4. A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors Gregory Crabb, U.S. Postal Inspection Service Julia H...mail fraud, mail theft, identity theft, child exploitation, and prohibited mailings such as bombs and biological and chemical threats...April 2012. http://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/asset-view.cfm?assetid=10085 [Allen 2014a] Allen, Julia H., Crabb, Gregory; Curtis, Pamela D

  5. EPR OF Mn2+ IMPURITIES IN CALCITE: A DETAILED STUDY PERTINENT TO MARBLE PROVENANCE DETERMINATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, H.; Piligkos, S.; Barra, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Mn2+ impurities in calcite, and therefore also in marble, may be accurately reproduced by a traditional spin Hamiltonian formalism. The success of such a treatment, however, very much depends on the spin Hamiltonian parameters...... having the correct signs as well as magnitudes. We present data that determine the sign of the axial anisotropy parameter and thereby facilitate future quantum mechanical characterizations of marble electron paramagnetic resonance spectra that supplement provenance determination....

  6. Analytic Provenance Datasets: A Data Repository of Human Analysis Activity and Interaction Logs

    OpenAIRE

    Mohseni, Sina; Pachuilo, Andrew; Nirjhar, Ehsanul Haque; Linder, Rhema; Pena, Alyssa; Ragan, Eric D.

    2018-01-01

    We present an analytic provenance data repository that can be used to study human analysis activity, thought processes, and software interaction with visual analysis tools during exploratory data analysis. We conducted a series of user studies involving exploratory data analysis scenario with textual and cyber security data. Interactions logs, think-alouds, videos and all coded data in this study are available online for research purposes. Analysis sessions are segmented in multiple sub-task ...

  7. Provenance and use wears of Pre-Hispanic obsidian scrapers from Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandujano, C.; Elizalde, S.; Cassiano, G.; Soto, D.

    2002-01-01

    The research was performed with archaeological obsidian scrapers, collected at the Metztitlan area, Hidalgo, Mexico. The provenance of the raw material was determined by NAA. SEM technique was applied to identify use wears on pre-Hispanic tools and experimental replicas. The Metztitlan scrapers made of the obsidian of Zacualtipan, Hidalgo, Mexico, were probably used for Agave juice extraction in the Late Postclassical period. (author)

  8. Wood constructions. Energy eficient, sustainable, practically proven; Holzbau Konstruktionen. Energieeffizient, nachhaltig, praxisgerecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueckmann, Rudolf

    2012-07-01

    The book 'Wood constructions' provides standardized and practically proven designs, all necessary information on building physics, fire protection and additional specialized knowledge for energy efficient renovations and construction details in wood construction. The main topics of this book are: Fundamentals, timber-frame structures, wood preservation, thermal insulation, sound insulation, fire protection, energy-efficient timber buildings, timber construction systems, rehabilitation of timber structures, relevant regulations and standards.

  9. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamai, D.O.; Juma, P.O.

    1996-01-01

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamai, D O; Juma, P O [Kenya Forestry Research Inst., Nairobi (Kenya). Agroforestry Research Programme

    1996-07-01

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Providing Global Change Information for Decision-Making: Capturing and Presenting Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.

  12. The impact of oil price on additions to US proven reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzin, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    Departing from Hotelling's assumption of fixed and known reserves, this paper develops an economic model of additions to proven reserves that explicitly incorporates the effects of expected resource price, cumulative reserves development, and technological progress on reserve additions. The model treats additions to proven oil reserves as output of a production process in which drilling wells is a primary input to transform some of oil-in-place into the economic category of proven reserves. Application of the model to US data for the 1950-1995 period provides strong statistical support for the existence of all the three salient effects. We obtain an estimate of the price elasticity of reserve additions (absent from previous studies) which, although statistically highly significant, is rather small. Using this price elasticity estimate, it is shown that if in the face of steady economic growth, and hence, oil consumption, US oil import dependence is to be kept from rising in the future, ceteris paribus, a steady oil price increase in the range of 1.5-4.5% a year is essential

  13. Nutrition security under extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrition security under extreme events. Zero hunger being one of the Sustainable Development Goal from the United Nations, food security has become a trending research topic. However extreme events impact on global food security is not yet 100% understood and there is a lack of comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of global food trade and nutrition security to improve countries resilience to extreme events. In a globalized world, food is still a highly regulated commodity and a strategic resource. A drought happening in a net food-exporter will have little to no effect on its own population but the repercussion on net food-importers can be extreme. In this project, we propose a methodology to describe and quantify the impact of a local drought to human health at a global scale. For this purpose, nutrition supply and global trade data from FAOSTAT have been used with domestic food production from national agencies and FAOSTAT, global precipitation from the Climate Research Unit and health data from the World Health Organization. A modified Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) has been developed to measure the level of resilience of one country to a drought happening in another country. This index describes how a country is dependent of importation and how diverse are its importation. Losses of production and exportation due to extreme events have been calculated using yield data and a simple food balance at country scale. Results show that countries the most affected by global droughts are the one with the highest dependency to one exporting country. Changes induced by droughts also disturbed their domestic proteins, fat and calories supply resulting most of the time in a higher intake of calories or fat over proteins.

  14. Malignant bone tumors of the pelvis and of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullotta, U.; Reiser, M.; Feuerbach, S.; Biehl, T.; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1981-01-01

    Bone tumors of the extremities are usually diagnosed by conventional radiography. A good angiogram may render information not only about intra- and extraosseous extension of the tumor, but often also about the biological dignity. CT is usually not necessary, especially since it is sometimes difficult to define the extraosseous borders of these extremity tumors with this method. In bone tumors of the pelvis, however, neither conventional radiography nor angiography render reliable information about the extent of the tumor, which CT is very well able to do. Therefore CT is primarily indicated for evaluation of bone tumors in this region. Angiography is done only for preoperative evaluation of the vascular architecture or for potential therapeutic embolisation. (orig.) [de

  15. Determining extreme parameter correlation in ground water models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Mary Cole; Østerby, Ole

    2003-01-01

    can go undetected even by experienced modelers. Extreme parameter correlation can be detected using parameter correlation coefficients, but their utility depends on the presence of sufficient, but not excessive, numerical imprecision of the sensitivities, such as round-off error. This work...... investigates the information that can be obtained from parameter correlation coefficients in the presence of different levels of numerical imprecision, and compares it to the information provided by an alternative method called the singular value decomposition (SVD). Results suggest that (1) calculated...... correlation coefficients with absolute values that round to 1.00 were good indicators of extreme parameter correlation, but smaller values were not necessarily good indicators of lack of correlation and resulting unique parameter estimates; (2) the SVD may be more difficult to interpret than parameter...

  16. Identification of Climate Change with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) Distribution Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahayu, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Some events are difficult to avoid and gives considerable influence to humans and the environment is extreme weather and climate change. Many of the problems that require knowledge about the behavior of extreme values and one of the methods used are the Extreme Value Theory (EVT). EVT used to draw up reliable systems in a variety of conditions, so as to minimize the risk of a major disaster. There are two methods for identifying extreme value, Block Maxima with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution approach and Peaks over Threshold (POT) with Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) approach. This research in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period, the method used is Block Maxima with GEV distribution approach. The result showed that there is no climate change in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period.

  17. Arctic sea ice, Eurasia snow, and extreme winter haze in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yufei; Wang, Yuhang; Zhang, Yuzhong; Koo, Ja-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The East China Plains (ECP) region experienced the worst haze pollution on record for January in 2013. We show that the unprecedented haze event is due to the extremely poor ventilation conditions, which had not been seen in the preceding three decades. Statistical analysis suggests that the extremely poor ventilation conditions are linked to Arctic sea ice loss in the preceding autumn and extensive boreal snowfall in the earlier winter. We identify the regional circulation mode that leads to extremely poor ventilation over the ECP region. Climate model simulations indicate that boreal cryospheric forcing enhances the regional circulation mode of poor ventilation in the ECP region and provides conducive conditions for extreme haze such as that of 2013. Consequently, extreme haze events in winter will likely occur at a higher frequency in China as a result of the changing boreal cryosphere, posing difficult challenges for winter haze mitigation but providing a strong incentive for greenhouse gas emission reduction.

  18. Infant difficult behaviors in the context of perinatal biomedical conditions and early child environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvinskiene Giedre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems experienced within the first year of an infant's life can be precursors of later mental health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and continuity of difficult behaviors in infants at 3 and 6 months of age and the associations of these difficulties with biomedical and psychosocial factors. Methods This study was a part of an ongoing prospective birth-cohort study. Study participants were 189 uniparous mothers and their full-term newborns. The index of infant difficult behavior was constructed. This index was then associated with the following factors: delivery mode, newborn function after birth, maternal emotional well-being, risk behavior, subjective evaluation of the quality of the relationship of the couple, and attitudes toward infant-rearing. Results Common difficult behaviors, including crying, sleeping and eating problems, were characteristic for 30.2% of 3 month old and for 22.2% of 6 month old full-term infants. The expression of infant difficult behaviors at the age of 3 months increased the likelihood of the expression of these difficulties at 6 months by more than 5 times. Factors including younger maternal age, poor prenatal and postnatal emotional well-being, prenatal alcohol consumption, low satisfaction with the couple's relationship before pregnancy, and deficiency of infant-centered maternal attitudes towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of difficult behaviors in infants at the age of 3 months. Low maternal satisfaction with the relationship of the couple before pregnancy, negative emotional reactions of both parents toward pregnancy (as reported by the mother and the deficiency of an infant-centered maternal attitude towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of infant difficult behaviors continuing between the ages of 3 to 6 months. Perinatal biomedical conditions were not related to the difficult behaviors in infants. Conclusions Our study suggests

  19. A new extremity dosemeter for beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Pagenkamper, M.

    1988-01-01

    An extremity dosemeter developed at the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre is very well suited for the precise and energy-independent measurement of the skin dose generated by beta or gamma radiation. This is also confirmed by the results of this intercomparison programme. The dosemeter contains three TLDs of LiF in Teflon mounted behind a window of 0.9 mg/cm 2 . The great advantage of this dosemeter is three TLD's enabling statements about the radiation quality. However, the dosemeter has two disadvantages The dosemeter is complicated to manufacture. A very thin plastic foil of 0.9 mg/cm 2 must be attached to a support. This work is difficult and time-consuming and cannot be automated. The window in front of the TLD is not sturdy enough and is occasionally destroyed when the dosemeter is being worn. These two disadvantages prevent this extremity dosemeter from being used more frequently. For this reason, work was begun on developing a new extremity dosemeter without these two disadvantages. The great advantage of the previous dosemeter of obtaining statements about the type of radiation with the aid of readings from three TLD's was to be retained. The improved extremity dosemeter has a more sturdy and thicker window with a similar response as the previous dosemeter with a thinner window

  20. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  1. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  2. Endotypes of difficult-to-control asthma in inner-city African American children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Brown

    Full Text Available African Americans have higher rates of asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality in comparison with other racial groups. We sought to characterize endotypes of childhood asthma severity in African American patients in an inner-city pediatric asthma population. Baseline blood neutrophils, blood eosinophils, and 38 serum cytokine levels were measured in a sample of 235 asthmatic children (6-17 years enrolled in the NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Asthma Phenotypes in the Inner City (APIC study (ICAC (Inner City Asthma Consortium-19. Cytokines were quantified using a MILLIPLEX panel and analyzed on a Luminex analyzer. Patients were classified as Easy-to-Control or Difficult-to-Control based on the required dose of controller medications over one year of prospective management. A multivariate variable selection procedure was used to select cytokines associated with Difficult-to-Control versus Easy-to-Control asthma, adjusting for age, sex, blood eosinophils, and blood neutrophils. In inner-city African American children, 12 cytokines were significant predictors of Difficult-to-Control asthma (n = 235. CXCL-1, IL-5, IL-8, and IL-17A were positively associated with Difficult-to-Control asthma, while IL-4 and IL-13 were positively associated with Easy-to-Control asthma. Using likelihood ratio testing, it was observed that in addition to blood eosinophils and neutrophils, serum cytokines improved the fit of the model. In an inner-city pediatric population, serum cytokines significantly contributed to the definition of Difficult-to-Control asthma endotypes in African American children. Mixed responses characterized by TH2 (IL-5 and TH17-associated cytokines were associated with Difficult-to-Control asthma. Collectively, these data may contribute to risk stratification of Difficult-to-Control asthma in the African American population.

  3. Difficult incidents and tutor interventions in problem-based learning tutorials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Pawel; Grant, Christopher; Kulla, Steven; Poole, Gary; Godolphin, William

    2009-09-01

    Tutors report difficult incidents and distressing conflicts that adversely affect learning in their problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Faculty development (training) and peer support should help them to manage this. Yet our understanding of these problems and how to deal with them often seems inadequate to help tutors. The aim of this study was to categorise difficult incidents and the interventions that skilled tutors used in response, and to determine the effectiveness of those responses. Thirty experienced and highly rated tutors in our Year 1 and 2 medical curriculum took part in semi-structured interviews to: identify and describe difficult incidents; describe how they responded, and assess the success of each response. Recorded and transcribed data were analysed thematically to develop typologies of difficult incidents and interventions and compare reported success or failure. The 94 reported difficult incidents belonged to the broad categories 'individual student' or 'group dynamics'. Tutors described 142 interventions in response to these difficult incidents, categorised as: (i) tutor intervenes during tutorial; (ii) tutor gives feedback outside tutorial, or (iii) student or group intervenes. Incidents in the 'individual student' category were addressed relatively unsuccessfully (effective 75% of the time) by response (iii). None of the interventions worked well when used in response to problems related to 'group dynamics'. Overall, 59% of the difficult incidents were dealt with successfully. Dysfunctional PBL groups can be highly challenging, even for experienced and skilled tutors. Within-tutorial feedback, the treatment that tutors are most frequently advised to apply, was often not effective. Our study suggests that the collective responsibility of the group, rather than of the tutor, to deal with these difficulties should be emphasised.

  4. Extreme climatic events in relation to global change and their impact on life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan MORENO, Anders Pape Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions occur at an increasing rate as evidenced by higher frequency of hurricanes and more extreme precipitation and temperature anomalies. Such extreme environmental conditions will have important implications for all living organisms through greater frequency of reproductive failure and reduced adult survival. We review examples of reproductive failure and reduced survival related to extreme weather conditions. Phenotypic plasticity may not be sufficient to allow adaptation to extreme weather for many animals. Theory predicts reduced reproductive effort as a response to increased stochasticity. We predict that patterns of natural selection will change towards truncation selection as environmental conditions become more extreme. Such changes in patterns of selection may facilitate adaptation to extreme events. However, effects of selection on reproductive effort are difficult to detect. We present a number of predictions for the effects of extreme weather conditions in need of empirical tests. Finally, we suggest a number of empirical reviews that could improve our ability to judge the effects of extreme environmental conditions on life history [Current Zoology 57 (3: 375–389, 2011].

  5. Studies on 13C isotope discrimination for identifying tree provenances efficient in water use under water deficit conditions in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamai, D.O.; Juma, P.O.

    1996-01-01

    Screening for drought resistance traits was conducted in a semi-arid site in Machakos using 11 provenances of Acacia tortilis, 6 provenances of Prosopis juliflora and 4 provenances of Casuarina equisetifolia. Tolerance to drought was assessed by the 13 C isotope discrimination (Δ) technique as well as by determining the waster use efficiency (WUE). Measurements of dry matter and early growth performance were also taken as indicators of drought resistance. The results showed significant differences in the 13 C Isotope discrimination, water use efficiency and dry matter yields by the different provenances tested. Generally, the results indicated that there were significant linear negative relationships between 13 C discrimination with water use efficiency as well as dry matter yield. The results further showed highly significant positive relationship between dry matter yield and water use efficiency. Acacia tortilis provenances from middle East and neighbouring North Eastern Africa region appear to possess the greatest abilities for drought resistance in comparison with those from sub-saharan Africa as indicated by their 13 C Isotope discrimination levels, dry matter yield and water use efficiency. However, Acacia provenance from Israel had the highest drought resistance trail. Prosopis provenance from Costa Rica and Casuarina from Dakar region in Senegal also emerged as the best provenances in terms of drought tolerance as shown by the 13 C isotope discrimination and dry matter traits. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Difficult airway equipment in departments of emergency medicine in Ireland: results of a national survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, K

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adverse effects associated with difficult airway management can be catastrophic and include death, brain injury and myocardial injury. Closed-malpractice claims have shown prolonged and persistent attempts at endotracheal intubation to be the most common situation leading to disastrous respiratory events. To date, there has been no evaluation of the types of difficult airway equipment currently available in Irish departments of emergency medicine. The objective of this survey was to identify the difficult airway equipment available in Irish departments of emergency medicine. METHODS: Departments of emergency medicine in the Republic of Ireland with at least one dedicated Emergency Medicine consultant were surveyed via telephone. RESULTS: All of the departments contacted held at least one alternative device on site for both ventilation and intubation. The most common alternative ventilation device was the laryngeal mask airway (89%). The most common alternative intubating device was the surgical airway device (100%). CONCLUSIONS: Irish departments of emergency medicine compare well with those in the UK and USA, when surveyed concerning difficult airway equipment. However, we believe that this situation could be further improved by training inexperienced healthcare providers in the use of the laryngeal mask airway and intubating laryngeal mask airway, by placing greater emphasis on the ready availability of capnography and by the increased use of portable difficult airway storage units.

  7. Distractor dwelling, skipping, and revisiting determine target absent performance in difficult visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Horstmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search. We aimed to examine three hypotheses concerning the causes of differential search efficiencies in target-absent trials: (a distractor dwelling (b distractor skipping, and (c distractor revisiting. Reaction times increased with target similarity which is consistent with existing theories and replicates earlier results. Eye movement data indicated guidance in target trials, even though search was very slow. Dwelling, skipping, and revisiting contributed to low search efficiency in difficult search, with dwelling being the strongest factor. It is argued that differences in dwell time account for a large amount of total search time differences.

  8. Flow cytometry of duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes improves diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Julio; Morgado, José Mario T; Ruiz-Martín, Juan; Guardiola, Antonio; Lopes-Nogueras, Miriam; García-Vela, Almudena; Martín-Sacristán, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of celiac disease is difficult when the combined results of serology and histology are inconclusive. Studies using flow cytometry of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) have found that celiac patients have increased numbers of γδ IELs, along with a decrease in CD3-CD103 + IELs. The objective of this article is to assess the role of flow cytometric analysis of IELs in the diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases. A total of 312 patients with suspicion of celiac disease were included in the study. Duodenal biopsy samples were used for histological assessment and for flow cytometric analysis of IELs. In 46 out of 312 cases (14.7%) the combination of serology and histology did not allow the confirmation or exclusion of celiac disease. HLA typing had been performed in 42 of these difficult cases. Taking into account HLA typing and the response to a gluten-free diet, celiac disease was excluded in 30 of these cases and confirmed in the remaining 12. Flow cytometric analysis of IELs allowed a correct diagnosis in 39 out of 42 difficult cases (92.8%) and had a sensitivity of 91.7% (95% CI: 61.5% to 99.8%) and a specificity of 93.3% (95% CI: 77.9% to 99.2%) for the diagnosis of celiac disease in this setting. Flow cytometric analysis of IELs is useful for the diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases.

  9. Distractor Dwelling, Skipping, and Revisiting Determine Target Absent Performance in Difficult Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2016-01-01

    Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search) versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search). We aimed to examine three hypotheses concerning the causes of differential search efficiencies in target-absent trials: (a) distractor dwelling (b) distractor skipping, and (c) distractor revisiting. Reaction times increased with target similarity which is consistent with existing theories and replicates earlier results. Eye movement data indicated guidance in target trials, even though search was very slow. Dwelling, skipping, and revisiting contributed to low search efficiency in difficult search, with dwelling being the strongest factor. It is argued that differences in dwell time account for a large amount of total search time differences. PMID:27574510

  10. Pediatric lower extremity mower injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sean M; Elwood, Eric T

    2011-09-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children represent an unfortunate common problem to the plastic reconstructive surgeon. There are approximately 68,000 per year reported in the United States. Compounding this problem is the fact that a standard treatment algorithm does not exist. This study follows a series of 7 pediatric patients treated for lower extremity mower injuries by a single plastic surgeon. The extent of soft tissue injury varied. All patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy as a bridge to definitive closure. Of the 7 patients, 4 required skin grafts, 1 required primary closure, 1 underwent a lower extremity amputation secondary to wounds, and 1 was repaired using a cross-leg flap. Function limitations were minimal for all of our patients after reconstruction. Our basic treatment algorithm is presented with initial debridement followed by the simplest method possible for wound closure using negative pressure wound therapy, if necessary.

  11. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  12. Extreme project. Progress report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Masson, O.; Charmasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    The E.X.T.R.E.M.E. project introduced in 2005 to the S.E.S.U.R.E. / L.E.R.C.M. has for objectives to acquire data on the consequences of the extreme climatic meteorological episodes on the distribution of the artificial radioisotopes within the various compartments of the geosphere. This report presents the synthesis of the actions developed in 2006 in positioning and in co financing of the project by means of regional or national research programs (C.A.R.M.A., E.X.T.R.E.M.A., E.C.C.O.R.E.V.I.), of data acquisition, valuation and scientific collaboration. (N.C.)

  13. On causality of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.

  14. Extreme Nonlinear Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wegener, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Following the birth of the laser in 1960, the field of "nonlinear optics" rapidly emerged. Today, laser intensities and pulse durations are readily available, for which the concepts and approximations of traditional nonlinear optics no longer apply. In this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a large variety of novel and unusual effects arise, for example frequency doubling in inversion symmetric materials or high-harmonic generation in gases, which can lead to attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. Other examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" cover diverse areas such as solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic free electrons in a vacuum and even the vacuum itself. This book starts with an introduction to the field based primarily on extensions of two famous textbook examples, namely the Lorentz oscillator model and the Drude model. Here the level of sophistication should be accessible to any undergraduate physics student. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. The followi...

  15. Radial variation of basic density and wood cells dimensions of Cariniana legalis (Mart. O. Kuntze depending on the provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Provenance tests can provide information about the silvicultural behavior and wood quality for the exploration of variability and conservation of genetic material for future use. This study aims to investigate the effect of provenances on some wood properties of the Cariniana legalis. Seedlings of three provenances (Porto Ferreira, Piracicaba and Campinas were planted in Luiz Antonio-SP using randomized block design with six replicates. After 26 years of planting, eighteen trees, six of each provenance, were felled. The properties studied were basic density and the cellular dimensions. The results revealed that the basic density, fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel diameter, uniseriate ray height and width were influenced by the provenances. A good positive relationship was found among the fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel element length; vessel diameter and multiseriate ray height with radial position and a negative relation between vessel frequency with the radial position.

  16. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  17. Racial Extremism in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    of Deference ...................................................................................................... 46 1. The Separation of Powers Doctrine...to the military. This deference has a two-fold basis. First, the separation of powers in the U.S. Constitution gives authority to the executive (and...Why should there be judicial deference to the Army’s policy on extremism? There are two principal reasons. First, the Constitution’s separation of powers doctrine

  18. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  19. Reviewing Hit Discovery Literature for Difficult Targets: Glutathione Transferase Omega-1 as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiyue; Dahlin, Jayme L; Oakley, Aaron J; Casarotto, Marco G; Board, Philip G; Baell, Jonathan B

    2018-05-10

    Early stage drug discovery reporting on relatively new or difficult targets is often associated with insufficient hit triage. Literature reviews of such targets seldom delve into the detail required to critically analyze the associated screening hits reported. Here we take the enzyme glutathione transferase omega-1 (GSTO1-1) as an example of a relatively difficult target and review the associated literature involving small-molecule inhibitors. As part of this process we deliberately pay closer-than-usual attention to assay interference and hit quality aspects. We believe this Perspective will be a useful guide for future development of GSTO1-1 inhibitors, as well serving as a template for future review formats of new or difficult targets.

  20. The primary study of fistulae isolation for difficult-cured traumatic carotid cavernous by two accesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziliang; Li Tianxiao; Zhai Shuiting; Cao Huicun; Xu Jiangyu; Bai Weixing; Liu Jian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and security of the isolation of fistulae for difficult-cured traumatic carotid cavernous by the anterio or inferior communicating artery. Methods: Five patients with difficult-cured TCCF including four males and one female. They were cathetered by both femoral arteries. Balloon-catheter directly attached to the near of fistulae and microcatheter conversely attached to the far of fistulae. Detachable balloons and micro coils were used to isolated the fistulae. Results: Five patients were cured with fistulae isolation and angiography did not show remnants fistulae in time. Clinical signs and symptoms got better and better. During follows-up no one recurred. Conclusions: The isolation of fistulae is a feasible and secure therapy for the difficult-cured traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistulae. (authors)

  1. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition.

  2. The "difficult" patient reconceived: an expanded moral mandate for clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2012-01-01

    Between 15 and 60% of patients are considered "difficult" by their treating physicians. Patient psychiatric pathology is the conventional explanation for why patients are deemed "difficult." But the prevalence of the problem suggests the possibility of a less pathological cause. I argue that the phenomenon can be better explained as a response to problematic interactions related to health care delivery. If there are grounds to reconceive the "difficult" patient as reacting to the perception of ill treatment, then there is an ethical obligation to address this perception of harm. Resolution of such conflicts currently lies with the provider and patient. But the ethical stakes place these conflicts into the province of the ethics consult service. As the resource for addressing ethical dilemmas, there is a moral mandate to offer assistance in the resolution of these ethically charged conflicts that is no less pressing than the more familiar terrain of clinical ethics consultation.

  3. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  4. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  5. Attribution of climate extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  6. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  7. Drought effects on root and needle terpenoid content of a coastal and an interior Douglas fir provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Anita; Duan, Qiuxiao; Jansen, Kirstin; Verena Junker, Laura; Kammerer, Bernd; Rennenberg, Heinz; Ensminger, Ingo; Gessler, Arthur; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is a conifer species that stores large amounts of terpenoids, mainly monoterpenoids in resin ducts of various tissues. The effects of drought on stored leaf terpenoid concentrations in trees are scarcely studied and published data are partially controversial, since reduced, unaffected or elevated terpenoid contents due to drought have been reported. Even less is known on the effect of drought on root terpenoids. In the present work, we investigated the effect of reduced water availability on the terpenoid content in roots and needles of Douglas fir seedlings. Two contrasting Douglas fir provenances were studied: an interior provenance (var. glauca) with assumed higher drought resistance, and a coastal provenance (var. menziesii) with assumed lower drought resistance. We tested the hypothesis that both provenances show specific patterns of stored terpenoids and that the patterns will change in response to drought in both, needles and roots. We further expected stronger changes in the less drought tolerant coastal provenance. For this purpose, we performed an experiment under controlled conditions, in which the trees were exposed to moderate and severe drought stress. According to our expectations, the study revealed clear provenance-specific terpenoid patterns in needles. However, such patterns were not detected in the roots. Drought slightly increased the needle terpenoid contents of the coastal but not of the interior provenance. We also observed increased terpenoid abundance mainly in roots of the moderately stressed coastal provenance. Overall, from the observed provenance-specific reactions with increased terpenoid levels in trees of the coastal origin in response to drought, we conclude on functions of terpenoids for abiotic stress tolerance that might be fulfilled by other, constitutively expressed mechanisms in drought-adapted interior provenances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  8. Energy, entropy, environment: Why is protection of the environment objectively difficult?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebane, Karl K [Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    1995-05-01

    Evolution and man`s history indicate that the winners are the species and societies that act faster and consume more high-quality energy and materials: in other words, those which cause more pollution and faster growth of entropy. This could be the reason why protection of the environment is objectively difficult and, in particular, why it is almost impossible to considerably reduce man`s consumption of energy and materials in a world of competition. To escape this fatal evolutionary outcome, fundamentally new thinking is needed, thinking which takes the survival of mankind as the primary value. The role of religion in solving this tremendously difficult task should not be neglected

  9. Edward’s syndrome: A rare cause of difficult intubation-utility of left molar approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Bansal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Edward’s syndrome (trisomy 18 is an autosomal abnormality with dysmorphic face, visceral deformities and delayed mental and motor development including congenital heart disease. Challenges may arise during mask ventilation, laryngoscopy and/or intubation of the trachea due to dysmorphic face. Difficult airway cart should be kept ready. Left molar approach using a standard Macintosh blade improves the laryngoscopic view in patients with difficult midline laryngoscopy. We hereby present a case report of a 2 year old male child with Edward’s syndrome posted for evacuation and drainage of brain abscess, intubated successfully using left molar approach.

  10. Making difficult decisions how to be decisive and get the business done

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    You are faced with so many difficult decisions. Often your decision making seems random. It can be swayed by different situations and emotions. You need to be more rigorous in the way you make decisions and yet you have very little time to do so. Experience from others who have made tough decisions and a framework to help you do so would be invaluable. The courage to make decisions is sometimes a bit elusive. It is difficult to find the calmness to be able to make and live with those decisions. There is so much that can be learned from the experience of others. After working through this boo

  11. The importance of subjective facial appearance on the ability of anesthesiologists to predict difficult intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Christopher W; Segal, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated that a computer algorithm based on bedside airway examinations and facial photographs accurately classified easy and difficult airways. The extent of the ability of anesthesiologists to perform the same task is unknown. We hypothesized that providing photographs would add to the predictive ability of anesthesiologists over that achieved when provided only with the Mallampati (MP) score and the thyromental distance (TMD). We further hypothesized that human observers would implicitly bias their predictions toward more sensitive determination of difficult airways, rather than more specific determination of easy airways. Residents, fellows, and attending anesthesiologists with varying levels of experience (N = 160) were presented with MP and TMD information from 80 Caucasian men subjects. The same subjects' data, accompanied by 3 facial photographs in head-on and right and left profiles, were also presented. Anesthesiologists classified the airways as easy or difficult according to specified criteria ("easy" defined as a single attempt with a Macintosh 3 blade resulting in a grade 1 laryngoscopic view; "difficult" defined as >1 attempt by an operator with at least 12 months anesthesia experience, grade 3 or 4 laryngoscopic view, need for a second operator, or nonelective use of an alternative airway device). Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated for each anesthesiologist. We further developed a cost function to quantify a relative bias toward avoiding an unexpectedly difficult intubation versus overpreparing for an easy intubation. One hundred sixty respondents completed the study. Presenting photographs improved respondents' sensitivity and accuracy in classifying airways, though specificity decreased slightly. Overall accuracy when given photographs was 61.6% (95% confidence interval, 60.8%-62.4%), which was significantly lower than the computer's performance of 87.5% (t test, P interval, 4.9:1-8.4:1). Anesthesiologists can

  12. High levels of IGF-1 predict difficult intubation of patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiaopeng; Pei, Lijian; Zhang, Zhuhua; Tan, Gang; Xing, Bing

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the characteristics of difficult intubation and identify novel efficient predictors in patients with acromegaly. Patients with either untreated acromegaly or non-functional pituitary adenomas were enrolled. Patients with acromegaly underwent hormone assays, upper airway computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations and preoperative overnight polysomnography. The modified Mallampati classification, mouth opening, neck circumference, and neck extension were assessed, and the Cormack-Lehane grades and the time of tracheal intubation were recorded. Patients with acromegaly had a higher incidence of difficult intubation (62.5%). The time of tracheal intubation was prolonged, the neck circumference was enlarged, and the neck extension was confined. In patients with acromegaly and difficult intubation, the insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and apnea/hypoxia index were significantly higher compared to patients without difficult intubation (1115.40 ± 253.73 vs. 791.67 ± 206.62 ng/ml, P = 0.020; 22.17 ± 23.25 vs. 2.47 ± 2.84, P = 0.026, respectively). The bilateral regression analysis revealed that high levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 were an independent risk factor for developing difficult intubation (p = 0.042, Exp B = 1.006). The modified Mallampati classification was positively correlated with apnea/hypoxia index and could be calculated using the following logarithmic equation: MMC = 0.2982 * ln (AHI) + 2.1836. In patients with acromegaly, neck movement is confined, the time of tracheal intubation is prolonged, and the neck circumference is enlarged, and these patients suffer from an increased incidence of difficult intubation (62.5%) during anesthesia induction. The apnea/hypoxia index and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels are both increased in acromegalic patients with difficult intubation, and elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 levels are an independent risk factor of difficult

  13. Assessment of the storz video Macintosh laryngoscope for use in difficult airways: A human simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Aaron E; Olmsted, Kalani; Brown, Calvin A; Barker, Tobias; Pallin, Daniel; Walls, Ron M

    2010-10-01

    Video laryngoscopy has been shown to improve glottic exposure when compared to direct laryngoscopy in operating room studies. However, its utility in the hands of emergency physicians (EPs) remains undefined. A simulated difficult airway was used to determine if intubation by EPs using a video Macintosh system resulted in an improved glottic view, was easier, was faster, or was more successful than conventional direct laryngoscopy. Emergency medicine (EM) residents and attending physicians at two academic institutions performed endotracheal intubation in one normal and two identical difficult airway scenarios. With the difficult scenarios, the participants used video laryngoscopy during the second case. Intubations were performed on a medium-fidelity human simulator. The difficult scenario was created by limiting cervical spine mobility and inducing trismus. The primary outcome was the proportion of direct versus video intubations with a grade I or II Cormack-Lehane glottic view. Ease of intubation (self-reported via 10-cm visual analog scale [VAS]), time to intubation, and success rate were also recorded. Descriptive statistics as well as medians with interquartile ranges (IQRs) are reported where appropriate. The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test was used for comparison testing of nonparametric data. Participants (n = 39) were residents (59%) and faculty. All had human intubation experience; 51% reported more than 100 prior intubations. On difficult laryngoscopy, a Cormack-Lehane grade I or II view was obtained in 20 (51%) direct laryngoscopies versus 38 (97%) of the video-assisted laryngoscopies (p < 0.01). The median VAS score for difficult airways was 50 mm (IQR = 28–73 mm) for direct versus 18 mm (IQR = 9–50 mm) for video (p < 0.01). The median time to intubation in difficult airways was 25 seconds (IQR = 16–44 seconds) for direct versus 20 seconds (IQR = 12–35 seconds) for video laryngoscopy (p < 0.01). All intubations were successful without

  14. QEMSCAN+LA-ICP-MS: a 'big data' generator for sedimentary provenance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Pieter; Rittner, Martin; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Sedimentary provenance may be traced by 'fingerprinting' sediments with chemical, mineralogical or isotopic means. Normally, each of these provenance proxies is characterised on a separate aliquot of the same sample. For example, the chemical composition of the bulk sample may be analysed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) on one aliquot, framework petrography on another, heavy mineral analysis on a density separate of a third split, and zircon U-Pb dating on a further density separate of the heavy mineral fraction. The labour intensity of this procedure holds back the widespread application of multi-method provenance studies. We here present a new method to solve this problem and avoid mineral separation by coupling a QEMSCAN electron microscope to an LA-ICP-MS instrument and thereby generate all four aforementioned provenance datasets as part of the same workflow. Given a polished hand specimen, a petrographic thin section, or a grain mount, the QEMSCAN+LA-ICP-MS method produces chemical and mineralogical maps from which the X-Y coordinates of the datable mineral are extracted. These coordinates are subsequently passed on to the laser ablation system for isotopic and, hence, geochronological analysis. In the process of finding all the zircons in a sediment grain mount, the QEMSCAN yields the compositional and mineralogical compositions as byproducts. We have applied the new QEMSCAN+LA-ICP-MS instrument suite to over 100 samples from three large sediment routing systems: (1) the Tigris-Euphrates river catchments and Rub' Al Khali desert in Arabia; (2) the Nile catchment in northeast Africa and (3) desert and beach sands between the Orange and Congo rivers in southwest Africa. These studies reveal (1) that Rub' Al Khali sand is predominantly derived from the Arabian Shield and not from Mesopotamia; (2) that the Blue Nile is the principal source of Nile sand; and (3) that Orange River sand is carried northward by longshore drift nearly 1,800km from South Africa to southern

  15. Prospect for extreme field science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, T. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ. and Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto and KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The kind of laser extreme light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of extreme fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, extreme fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the 'material' property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some extreme regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other extreme lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most important features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. (authors)

  16. Clinical characteristics of biopsy-proven allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis: variety in causative fungi and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Kagiyama, Naho; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) has traditionally relied widely on Rosenberg's criteria, which emphasize immunologic responses while overlooking the investigation of mucous plugs as a primary criterion. Therefore, the characteristics of biopsy-proven ABPM require further elucidation. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of biopsy-proven ABPM and address whether full compliance with clinical criteria, such as the presence of asthma, and certain laboratory findings is necessary to establish a diagnosis of ABPM. We retrospectively analyzed 17 patients with biopsy-proven ABPM focusing on causative fungi and laboratory findings. Causative fungi included Aspergillus sp. in seven patients, Schizophyllum commune in four patients, Penicillium sp. in two patients and unknown in five patients. Bronchial asthma was observed in 10 patients, eosinophilia was observed in 10 patients and an increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E level was observed in 14 of the 17 patients. IgG for Aspergillus sp. was positive in six of the seven patients with ABPM due to Aspergillus and turned positive in the remaining patient during follow-up. Technological limitations prevented the measurement of specific IgE for S. commune and IgG for S. commune and Penicillium sp. in most patients. Computed tomography revealed central bronchiectasis, pulmonary infiltration and mucous plugs in all patients. Causative fungi other than Aspergillus sp. are not uncommon, and immunological tests for other fungi should be popularized. Asthma and characteristic laboratory findings, such as peripheral blood eosinophilia, increased serum IgE and precipitating antibodies, may not always be required to diagnose ABPM. The importance of typical pathologic findings of mucous plugs for diagnosing ABPM requires reevaluation. Further studies are needed to establish more elaborate diagnostic criteria for ABPM.

  17. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  18. Dynamic Data Citation through Provenance - new approach for reproducible science in Geoscience Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Car, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience Australia (GA) is recognised and respected as the National Repository and steward of multiple nationally significance data collections that provides geoscience information, services and capability to the Australian Government, industry and stakeholders. Internally, this brings a challenge of managing large volume (11 PB) of diverse and highly complex data distributed through a significant number of catalogues, applications, portals, virtual laboratories, and direct downloads from multiple locations. Externally, GA is facing constant changer in the Government regulations (e.g. open data and archival laws), growing stakeholder demands for high quality and near real-time delivery of data and products, and rapid technological advances enabling dynamic data access. Traditional approach to citing static data and products cannot satisfy increasing demands for the results from scientific workflows, or items within the workflows to be open, discoverable, thrusted and reproducible. Thus, citation of data, products, codes and applications through the implementation of provenance records is being implemented. This approach involves capturing the provenance of many GA processes according to a standardised data model and storing it, as well as metadata for the elements it references, in a searchable set of systems. This provides GA with ability to cite workflows unambiguously as well as each item within each workflow, including inputs and outputs and many other registered components. Dynamic objects can therefore be referenced flexibly in relation to their generation process - a dataset's metadata indicates where to obtain its provenance from - meaning the relevant facts of its dynamism need not be crammed into a single citation object with a single set of attributes. This allows for simple citations, similar to traditional static document citations such as references in journals, to be used for complex dynamic data and other objects such as software code.

  19. Warming and provenance limit tree recruitment across and beyond the elevation range of subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; de Valpine, Perry; Torn, Margaret S; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2017-06-01

    Climate niche models project that subalpine forest ranges will extend upslope with climate warming. These projections assume that the climate suitable for adult trees will be adequate for forest regeneration, ignoring climate requirements for seedling recruitment, a potential demographic bottleneck. Moreover, local genetic adaptation is expected to facilitate range expansion, with tree populations at the upper forest edge providing the seed best adapted to the alpine. Here, we test these expectations using a novel combination of common gardens, seeded with two widely distributed subalpine conifers, and climate manipulations replicated at three elevations. Infrared heaters raised temperatures in heated plots, but raised temperatures more in the forest than at or above treeline because strong winds at high elevation reduced heating efficiency. Watering increased season-average soil moisture similarly across sites. Contrary to expectations, warming reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment at and above treeline, as well as in the forest. Warming reduced limber pine first-year recruitment in the forest, but had no net effect on fourth-year recruitment at any site. Watering during the snow-free season alleviated some negative effects of warming, indicating that warming exacerbated water limitations. Contrary to expectations of local adaptation, low-elevation seeds of both species initially recruited more strongly than high-elevation seeds across the elevation gradient, although the low-provenance advantage diminished by the fourth year for Engelmann spruce, likely due to small sample sizes. High- and low-elevation provenances responded similarly to warming across sites for Engelmann spruce, but differently for limber pine. In the context of increasing tree mortality, lower recruitment at all elevations with warming, combined with lower quality, high-provenance seed being most available for colonizing the alpine, portends range contraction for Engelmann spruce. The lower

  20. PIXE characterization of Western Mediterranean and Anatolian obsidians and Neolithic provenance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourdonnec, F.-X.; Delerue, S.; Dubernet, S.; Moretto, Ph.; Calligaro, Th.; Dran, J.-C.; Poupeau, G.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of non-destructive elemental analysis makes PIXE a very attractive technique in archaeological provenance studies. This technique has been fruitfully implemented on two different facilities to address the issue of obsidian provenance in the Mediterranean and in surrounding regions. At C2RMF, we took advantage of the possibility to analyze large archaeological pieces with the external micro-beam set-up. At CENBG, we used the nuclear microprobe providing a 5 μm beam diameter in large scans (700 x 700 μm 2 ) to control the homogeneity of elemental distribution. In both cases we dosed the same set of 13 elements: Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr and Zr. While at C2RMF, two Si(Li) detectors were used simultaneously to measure all elements at once with 3 MeV protons, at CENBG where only one detector was available, the light elements Na to Fe were determined with a 1.5 MeV beam, and the heavy ones, including Fe, with a beam energy of 2.7 MeV. In Western Mediterranean, it is possible with PIXE to differentiate all obsidian sources of archaeological significance. Examples are given of obsidian provenances from Neolithic sites of France and from the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. In the Near East, we can differentiate the Cappadocian and Eastern Anatolian obsidian sources used during the early Neolithic. This is illustrated by examples taken from Neolithic sites of the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria)