Provably optimal parallel transport sweeps on regular grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, M. P.; Adams, M. L.; Hawkins, W. D. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States); Smith, T.; Rauchwerger, L.; Amato, N. M. [Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States); Bailey, T. S.; Falgout, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)
2013-07-01
We have found provably optimal algorithms for full-domain discrete-ordinate transport sweeps on regular grids in 3D Cartesian geometry. We describe these algorithms and sketch a 'proof that they always execute the full eight-octant sweep in the minimum possible number of stages for a given P{sub x} x P{sub y} x P{sub z} partitioning. Computational results demonstrate that our optimal scheduling algorithms execute sweeps in the minimum possible stage count. Observed parallel efficiencies agree well with our performance model. An older version of our PDT transport code achieves almost 80% parallel efficiency on 131,072 cores, on a weak-scaling problem with only one energy group, 80 directions, and 4096 cells/core. A newer version is less efficient at present-we are still improving its implementation - but achieves almost 60% parallel efficiency on 393,216 cores. These results conclusively demonstrate that sweeps can perform with high efficiency on core counts approaching 10{sup 6}. (authors)
Provably optimal parallel transport sweeps on regular grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, M. P.; Adams, M. L.; Hawkins, W. D.; Smith, T.; Rauchwerger, L.; Amato, N. M.; Bailey, T. S.; Falgout, R. D.
2013-01-01
We have found provably optimal algorithms for full-domain discrete-ordinate transport sweeps on regular grids in 3D Cartesian geometry. We describe these algorithms and sketch a 'proof that they always execute the full eight-octant sweep in the minimum possible number of stages for a given P x x P y x P z partitioning. Computational results demonstrate that our optimal scheduling algorithms execute sweeps in the minimum possible stage count. Observed parallel efficiencies agree well with our performance model. An older version of our PDT transport code achieves almost 80% parallel efficiency on 131,072 cores, on a weak-scaling problem with only one energy group, 80 directions, and 4096 cells/core. A newer version is less efficient at present-we are still improving its implementation - but achieves almost 60% parallel efficiency on 393,216 cores. These results conclusively demonstrate that sweeps can perform with high efficiency on core counts approaching 10 6 . (authors)
Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions
Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters
Provability Calculus of Constructions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nyblad, Kasten
This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCo...
Provability, complexity, grammars
Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai
1999-01-01
The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.
Klein, Gerwin; Andronick, June; Keller, Gabriele; Matichuk, Daniel; Murray, Toby; O'Connor, Liam
2017-10-13
We present recent work on building and scaling trustworthy systems with formal, machine-checkable proof from the ground up, including the operating system kernel, at the level of binary machine code. We first give a brief overview of the seL4 microkernel verification and how it can be used to build verified systems. We then show two complementary techniques for scaling these methods to larger systems: proof engineering, to estimate verification effort; and code/proof co-generation, for scalable development of provably trustworthy applications.This article is part of the themed issue 'Verified trustworthy software systems'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions
Chikalov, Igor
2016-07-28
We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.
Algorithms for optimal dyadic decision trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Porter, Reid [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
A new algorithm for constructing optimal dyadic decision trees was recently introduced, analyzed, and shown to be very effective for low dimensional data sets. This paper enhances and extends this algorithm by: introducing an adaptive grid search for the regularization parameter that guarantees optimal solutions for all relevant trees sizes, revising the core tree-building algorithm so that its run time is substantially smaller for most regularization parameter values on the grid, and incorporating new data structures and data pre-processing steps that provide significant run time enhancement in practice.
Optimal Monotone Drawings of Trees
He, Dayu; He, Xin
2016-01-01
A monotone drawing of a graph G is a straight-line drawing of G such that, for every pair of vertices u,w in G, there exists abpath P_{uw} in G that is monotone in some direction l_{uw}. (Namely, the order of the orthogonal projections of the vertices of P_{uw} on l_{uw} is the same as the order they appear in P_{uw}.) The problem of finding monotone drawings for trees has been studied in several recent papers. The main focus is to reduce the size of the drawing. Currently, the smallest drawi...
Comparison of Greedy Algorithms for Decision Tree Optimization
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail
2013-01-01
This chapter is devoted to the study of 16 types of greedy algorithms for decision tree construction. The dynamic programming approach is used for construction of optimal decision trees. Optimization is performed relative to minimal values
On algorithm for building of optimal α-decision trees
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail
2010-01-01
The paper describes an algorithm that constructs approximate decision trees (α-decision trees), which are optimal relatively to one of the following complexity measures: depth, total path length or number of nodes. The algorithm uses dynamic
TreePOD: Sensitivity-Aware Selection of Pareto-Optimal Decision Trees.
Muhlbacher, Thomas; Linhardt, Lorenz; Moller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald
2018-01-01
Balancing accuracy gains with other objectives such as interpretability is a key challenge when building decision trees. However, this process is difficult to automate because it involves know-how about the domain as well as the purpose of the model. This paper presents TreePOD, a new approach for sensitivity-aware model selection along trade-offs. TreePOD is based on exploring a large set of candidate trees generated by sampling the parameters of tree construction algorithms. Based on this set, visualizations of quantitative and qualitative tree aspects provide a comprehensive overview of possible tree characteristics. Along trade-offs between two objectives, TreePOD provides efficient selection guidance by focusing on Pareto-optimal tree candidates. TreePOD also conveys the sensitivities of tree characteristics on variations of selected parameters by extending the tree generation process with a full-factorial sampling. We demonstrate how TreePOD supports a variety of tasks involved in decision tree selection and describe its integration in a holistic workflow for building and selecting decision trees. For evaluation, we illustrate a case study for predicting critical power grid states, and we report qualitative feedback from domain experts in the energy sector. This feedback suggests that TreePOD enables users with and without statistical background a confident and efficient identification of suitable decision trees.
Fundamental problems in provable security and cryptography.
Dent, Alexander W
2006-12-15
This paper examines methods for formally proving the security of cryptographic schemes. We show that, despite many years of active research and dozens of significant results, there are fundamental problems which have yet to be solved. We also present a new approach to one of the more controversial aspects of provable security, the random oracle model.
A Survey of Provably Secure Searchable Encryption
Bösch, C.T.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem; Peter, Andreas
We survey the notion of provably secure Searchable Encryption (SE) by giving a complete and comprehensive overview of the two main SE techniques: Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) and Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS). Since the pioneering work of Song, Wagner and Perrig (IEEE S&P
A course in bimodal provability logic
Visser, A.
The aim of the present paper is twofold: first I am somewhat dissatisfied with current treatments of Bimodal Provability Logic: the models employed there are singled out by certain syntactical conditions, moreover they validate the logics under consideration only locally. In this paper I give a
A tool for study of optimal decision trees
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz
2010-01-01
The paper describes a tool which allows us for relatively small decision tables to make consecutive optimization of decision trees relative to various complexity measures such as number of nodes, average depth, and depth, and to find parameters and the number of optimal decision trees. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Optimal tree-stem bucking of northeastern species of China
Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Joseph McNeel
2004-01-01
An application of optimal tree-stem bucking to the northeastern tree species of China is reported. The bucking procedures used in this region are summarized, which are the basic guidelines for the optimal bucking design. The directed graph approach was adopted to generate the bucking patterns by using the network analysis labeling algorithm. A computer-based bucking...
Pareto-optimal phylogenetic tree reconciliation.
Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Bansal, Mukul S; Kellis, Manolis
2014-06-15
Phylogenetic tree reconciliation is a widely used method for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of gene families and species, hosts and parasites and other dependent pairs of entities. Reconciliation is typically performed using maximum parsimony, in which each evolutionary event type is assigned a cost and the objective is to find a reconciliation of minimum total cost. It is generally understood that reconciliations are sensitive to event costs, but little is understood about the relationship between event costs and solutions. Moreover, choosing appropriate event costs is a notoriously difficult problem. We address this problem by giving an efficient algorithm for computing Pareto-optimal sets of reconciliations, thus providing the first systematic method for understanding the relationship between event costs and reconciliations. This, in turn, results in new techniques for computing event support values and, for cophylogenetic analyses, performing robust statistical tests. We provide new software tools and demonstrate their use on a number of datasets from evolutionary genomic and cophylogenetic studies. Our Python tools are freely available at www.cs.hmc.edu/∼hadas/xscape. . © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.
On algorithm for building of optimal α-decision trees
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz
2010-01-01
The paper describes an algorithm that constructs approximate decision trees (α-decision trees), which are optimal relatively to one of the following complexity measures: depth, total path length or number of nodes. The algorithm uses dynamic programming and extends methods described in [4] to constructing approximate decision trees. Adjustable approximation rate allows controlling algorithm complexity. The algorithm is applied to build optimal α-decision trees for two data sets from UCI Machine Learning Repository [1]. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing
Dale, H; Jennings, D; Rudolph, T
2015-01-01
Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics actually exactly coincides with the class computable quantum-mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of "randomness processing" in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over c...
Practical Provably Secure Multi-node Communication
Ali, Omar; Ayoub, Mahmoud F.; Youssef, Moustafa
2013-01-01
We present a practical and provably-secure multimode communication scheme in the presence of a passive eavesdropper. The scheme is based on a random scheduling approach that hides the identity of the transmitter from the eavesdropper. This random scheduling leads to ambiguity at the eavesdropper with regard to the origin of the transmitted frame. We present the details of the technique and analyze it to quantify the secrecy-fairness-overhead trade-off. Implementation of the scheme over Crossb...
An optimal algorithm for computing all subtree repeats in trees.
Flouri, T; Kobert, K; Pissis, S P; Stamatakis, A
2014-05-28
Given a labelled tree T, our goal is to group repeating subtrees of T into equivalence classes with respect to their topologies and the node labels. We present an explicit, simple and time-optimal algorithm for solving this problem for unrooted unordered labelled trees and show that the running time of our method is linear with respect to the size of T. By unordered, we mean that the order of the adjacent nodes (children/neighbours) of any node of T is irrelevant. An unrooted tree T does not have a node that is designated as root and can also be referred to as an undirected tree. We show how the presented algorithm can easily be modified to operate on trees that do not satisfy some or any of the aforementioned assumptions on the tree structure; for instance, how it can be applied to rooted, ordered or unlabelled trees.
A tool for study of optimal decision trees
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail
2010-01-01
The paper describes a tool which allows us for relatively small decision tables to make consecutive optimization of decision trees relative to various complexity measures such as number of nodes, average depth, and depth, and to find parameters
Comparison of Greedy Algorithms for Decision Tree Optimization
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz
2013-01-01
This chapter is devoted to the study of 16 types of greedy algorithms for decision tree construction. The dynamic programming approach is used for construction of optimal decision trees. Optimization is performed relative to minimal values of average depth, depth, number of nodes, number of terminal nodes, and number of nonterminal nodes of decision trees. We compare average depth, depth, number of nodes, number of terminal nodes and number of nonterminal nodes of constructed trees with minimum values of the considered parameters obtained based on a dynamic programming approach. We report experiments performed on data sets from UCI ML Repository and randomly generated binary decision tables. As a result, for depth, average depth, and number of nodes we propose a number of good heuristics. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.
Relationships among various parameters for decision tree optimization
Hussain, Shahid
2014-01-14
In this chapter, we study, in detail, the relationships between various pairs of cost functions and between uncertainty measure and cost functions, for decision tree optimization. We provide new tools (algorithms) to compute relationship functions, as well as provide experimental results on decision tables acquired from UCI ML Repository. The algorithms presented in this paper have already been implemented and are now a part of Dagger, which is a software system for construction/optimization of decision trees and decision rules. The main results presented in this chapter deal with two types of algorithms for computing relationships; first, we discuss the case where we construct approximate decision trees and are interested in relationships between certain cost function, such as depth or number of nodes of a decision trees, and an uncertainty measure, such as misclassification error (accuracy) of decision tree. Secondly, relationships between two different cost functions are discussed, for example, the number of misclassification of a decision tree versus number of nodes in a decision trees. The results of experiments, presented in the chapter, provide further insight. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Relationships among various parameters for decision tree optimization
Hussain, Shahid
2014-01-01
In this chapter, we study, in detail, the relationships between various pairs of cost functions and between uncertainty measure and cost functions, for decision tree optimization. We provide new tools (algorithms) to compute relationship functions, as well as provide experimental results on decision tables acquired from UCI ML Repository. The algorithms presented in this paper have already been implemented and are now a part of Dagger, which is a software system for construction/optimization of decision trees and decision rules. The main results presented in this chapter deal with two types of algorithms for computing relationships; first, we discuss the case where we construct approximate decision trees and are interested in relationships between certain cost function, such as depth or number of nodes of a decision trees, and an uncertainty measure, such as misclassification error (accuracy) of decision tree. Secondly, relationships between two different cost functions are discussed, for example, the number of misclassification of a decision tree versus number of nodes in a decision trees. The results of experiments, presented in the chapter, provide further insight. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Optimal tree design for daylighting in residential buildings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hongbing, Wang [College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, 35, East Qinghua Rd., Beijing (China); Shanghai Botanical Garden, 1111, Longwu Rd., Shanghai (China); Jun, Qin; Yonghong, Hu [Shanghai Botanical Garden, 1111, Longwu Rd., Shanghai (China); Li, Dong [College of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, 35, East Qinghua Rd., Beijing (China)
2010-12-15
Urban reforestation is advocated as an efficient countermeasure to the intensification of urban heat islands. The greening and beautification of residential quarters is one of the main concerns of residents, while lighting and ventilation are two main energy-consuming building services. Hence, the tree layout in green space between buildings is important, and it is necessary to determine the relationships between trees and buildings. This study takes Shanghai as a case study to optimize tree design between residential buildings and meet good daylighting requirements. Models were made using software such as AutoCAD and SketchUp. The relationships between maximum tree height and building separation were determined. For the same building layout, there were different tree height limits according to crown shape; the order of decreasing height limits was cylindrical, conical, spherical, and inverted conical crowns. Three cases having different green space between building layouts were studied. Their maximum tree heights differed. Overall, our model helps us realize good daylighting of a building environment. The formula allows us to determine which trees to plant between buildings in that we can predict the effects of future tree growth on building daylighting. (author)
Runtime Optimizations for Tree-Based Machine Learning Models
N. Asadi; J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)
2014-01-01
htmlabstractTree-based models have proven to be an effective solution for web ranking as well as other machine learning problems in diverse domains. This paper focuses on optimizing the runtime performance of applying such models to make predictions, specifically using gradient-boosted regression
Scenario tree generation and multi-asset financial optimization problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex
2013-01-01
We compare two popular scenario tree generation methods in the context of financial optimization: moment matching and scenario reduction. Using a simple problem with a known analytic solution, moment matching-when ensuring absence of arbitrage-replicates this solution precisely. On the other hand...
OSPREY: protein design with ensembles, flexibility, and provable algorithms.
Gainza, Pablo; Roberts, Kyle E; Georgiev, Ivelin; Lilien, Ryan H; Keedy, Daniel A; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Reza, Faisal; Anderson, Amy C; Richardson, David C; Richardson, Jane S; Donald, Bruce R
2013-01-01
We have developed a suite of protein redesign algorithms that improves realistic in silico modeling of proteins. These algorithms are based on three characteristics that make them unique: (1) improved flexibility of the protein backbone, protein side-chains, and ligand to accurately capture the conformational changes that are induced by mutations to the protein sequence; (2) modeling of proteins and ligands as ensembles of low-energy structures to better approximate binding affinity; and (3) a globally optimal protein design search, guaranteeing that the computational predictions are optimal with respect to the input model. Here, we illustrate the importance of these three characteristics. We then describe OSPREY, a protein redesign suite that implements our protein design algorithms. OSPREY has been used prospectively, with experimental validation, in several biomedically relevant settings. We show in detail how OSPREY has been used to predict resistance mutations and explain why improved flexibility, ensembles, and provability are essential for this application. OSPREY is free and open source under a Lesser GPL license. The latest version is OSPREY 2.0. The program, user manual, and source code are available at www.cs.duke.edu/donaldlab/software.php. osprey@cs.duke.edu. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parallel Algorithms for Graph Optimization using Tree Decompositions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Weerapurage, Dinesh P [ORNL; Groer, Christopher S [ORNL
2012-06-01
Although many $\\cal{NP}$-hard graph optimization problems can be solved in polynomial time on graphs of bounded tree-width, the adoption of these techniques into mainstream scientific computation has been limited due to the high memory requirements of the necessary dynamic programming tables and excessive runtimes of sequential implementations. This work addresses both challenges by proposing a set of new parallel algorithms for all steps of a tree decomposition-based approach to solve the maximum weighted independent set problem. A hybrid OpenMP/MPI implementation includes a highly scalable parallel dynamic programming algorithm leveraging the MADNESS task-based runtime, and computational results demonstrate scaling. This work enables a significant expansion of the scale of graphs on which exact solutions to maximum weighted independent set can be obtained, and forms a framework for solving additional graph optimization problems with similar techniques.
Optimal interconnection trees in the plane theory, algorithms and applications
Brazil, Marcus
2015-01-01
This book explores fundamental aspects of geometric network optimisation with applications to a variety of real world problems. It presents, for the first time in the literature, a cohesive mathematical framework within which the properties of such optimal interconnection networks can be understood across a wide range of metrics and cost functions. The book makes use of this mathematical theory to develop efficient algorithms for constructing such networks, with an emphasis on exact solutions. Marcus Brazil and Martin Zachariasen focus principally on the geometric structure of optimal interconnection networks, also known as Steiner trees, in the plane. They show readers how an understanding of this structure can lead to practical exact algorithms for constructing such trees. The book also details numerous breakthroughs in this area over the past 20 years, features clearly written proofs, and is supported by 135 colour and 15 black and white figures. It will help graduate students, working mathematicians, ...
Constructing an optimal decision tree for FAST corner point detection
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider a problem that is originated in computer vision: determining an optimal testing strategy for the corner point detection problem that is a part of FAST algorithm [11,12]. The problem can be formulated as building a decision tree with the minimum average depth for a decision table with all discrete attributes. We experimentally compare performance of an exact algorithm based on dynamic programming and several greedy algorithms that differ in the attribute selection criterion. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Optimal Rate Allocation in Cluster-Tree WSNs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Lopez Vicario
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of guaranteed time slot allocation in cluster-tree WSNs. Our design uses the so-called Network Utility Maximization (NUM approach as far as we aim to provide a fair distribution of the available resources. From the point of view of implementation, we extend here the authors’ proposed Coupled-Decompositions Method (CDM in order to compute the NUM problem inside the cluster tree topology and we prove the optimality of this new extended version of the method. As a result, we obtain a distributed solution that reduces the total amount of signalling information in the network up to a factor of 500 with respect to the classical techniques, that is, primal and dual decomposition. This is possible because the CDM finds the optimal solution with a small number of iterations. Furthermore, when we compare our solution to the standard-proposed First Come First Serve (FCFS policy, we realize that FCFS becomes pretty unfair as the traffic load in the network increases and thus, a fair allocation of resources can be considered whenever the price to pay in terms of signalling and computational complexity is controlled.
Gaming Self-Contained Provably Fair Smart Contract Casinos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr J. Piasecki
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the game theory behind self-contained smart contract provably fair casinos, how they can be gamed by attackers with a large amount of money and computing power, as well as what are the necessary conditions to assure the system cannot be taken advantage of under various configurations.
Practical optimization of Steiner trees via the cavity method
Braunstein, Alfredo; Muntoni, Anna
2016-07-01
The optimization version of the cavity method for single instances, called Max-Sum, has been applied in the past to the minimum Steiner tree problem on graphs and variants. Max-Sum has been shown experimentally to give asymptotically optimal results on certain types of weighted random graphs, and to give good solutions in short computation times for some types of real networks. However, the hypotheses behind the formulation and the cavity method itself limit substantially the class of instances on which the approach gives good results (or even converges). Moreover, in the standard model formulation, the diameter of the tree solution is limited by a predefined bound, that affects both computation time and convergence properties. In this work we describe two main enhancements to the Max-Sum equations to be able to cope with optimization of real-world instances. First, we develop an alternative ‘flat’ model formulation that allows the relevant configuration space to be reduced substantially, making the approach feasible on instances with large solution diameter, in particular when the number of terminal nodes is small. Second, we propose an integration between Max-Sum and three greedy heuristics. This integration allows Max-Sum to be transformed into a highly competitive self-contained algorithm, in which a feasible solution is given at each step of the iterative procedure. Part of this development participated in the 2014 DIMACS Challenge on Steiner problems, and we report the results here. The performance on the challenge of the proposed approach was highly satisfactory: it maintained a small gap to the best bound in most cases, and obtained the best results on several instances in two different categories. We also present several improvements with respect to the version of the algorithm that participated in the competition, including new best solutions for some of the instances of the challenge.
Totally Optimal Decision Trees for Monotone Boolean Functions with at Most Five Variables
Chikalov, Igor
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present the empirical results for relationships between time (depth) and space (number of nodes) complexity of decision trees computing monotone Boolean functions, with at most five variables. We use Dagger (a tool for optimization of decision trees and decision rules) to conduct experiments. We show that, for each monotone Boolean function with at most five variables, there exists a totally optimal decision tree which is optimal with respect to both depth and number of nodes.
Extensions of Dynamic Programming: Decision Trees, Combinatorial Optimization, and Data Mining
Hussain, Shahid
2016-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the development of extensions of dynamic programming to the study of decision trees. The considered extensions allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to a sequence of cost functions, to count the number of optimal trees, and to study relationships: cost vs cost and cost vs uncertainty for decision trees by construction of the set of Pareto-optimal points for the corresponding bi-criteria optimization problem. The applications include study of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision trees for Boolean functions, improvement of bounds on complexity of decision trees for diagnosis of circuits, study of time and memory trade-off for corner point detection, study of decision rules derived from decision trees, creation of new procedure (multi-pruning) for construction of classifiers, and comparison of heuristics for decision tree construction. Part of these extensions (multi-stage optimization) was generalized to well-known combinatorial optimization problems: matrix chain multiplication, binary search trees, global sequence alignment, and optimal paths in directed graphs.
Extensions of Dynamic Programming: Decision Trees, Combinatorial Optimization, and Data Mining
Hussain, Shahid
2016-07-10
This thesis is devoted to the development of extensions of dynamic programming to the study of decision trees. The considered extensions allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to a sequence of cost functions, to count the number of optimal trees, and to study relationships: cost vs cost and cost vs uncertainty for decision trees by construction of the set of Pareto-optimal points for the corresponding bi-criteria optimization problem. The applications include study of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision trees for Boolean functions, improvement of bounds on complexity of decision trees for diagnosis of circuits, study of time and memory trade-off for corner point detection, study of decision rules derived from decision trees, creation of new procedure (multi-pruning) for construction of classifiers, and comparison of heuristics for decision tree construction. Part of these extensions (multi-stage optimization) was generalized to well-known combinatorial optimization problems: matrix chain multiplication, binary search trees, global sequence alignment, and optimal paths in directed graphs.
Credibilistic multi-period portfolio optimization based on scenario tree
Mohebbi, Negin; Najafi, Amir Abbas
2018-02-01
In this paper, we consider a multi-period fuzzy portfolio optimization model with considering transaction costs and the possibility of risk-free investment. We formulate a bi-objective mean-VaR portfolio selection model based on the integration of fuzzy credibility theory and scenario tree in order to dealing with the markets uncertainty. The scenario tree is also a proper method for modeling multi-period portfolio problems since the length and continuity of their horizon. We take the return and risk as well cardinality, threshold, class, and liquidity constraints into consideration for further compliance of the model with reality. Then, an interactive dynamic programming method, which is based on a two-phase fuzzy interactive approach, is employed to solve the proposed model. In order to verify the proposed model, we present an empirical application in NYSE under different circumstances. The results show that the consideration of data uncertainty and other real-world assumptions lead to more practical and efficient solutions.
Multi-stage Optimization of Matchings in Trees with Application to Kidney Exchange
Mankowski, Michal; Moshkov, Mikhail
2017-01-01
In this paper, we propose a method for multi-stage optimization of matchings in trees relative to different weight functions that assign positive weights to the edges of the trees. This method can be useful in transplantology where nodes of the tree
Extensions of dynamic programming as a new tool for decision tree optimization
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz
2013-01-01
The chapter is devoted to the consideration of two types of decision trees for a given decision table: α-decision trees (the parameter α controls the accuracy of tree) and decision trees (which allow arbitrary level of accuracy). We study possibilities of sequential optimization of α-decision trees relative to different cost functions such as depth, average depth, and number of nodes. For decision trees, we analyze relationships between depth and number of misclassifications. We also discuss results of computer experiments with some datasets from UCI ML Repository. ©Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.
Learning decision trees with flexible constraints and objectives using integer optimization
Verwer, S.; Zhang, Y.
2017-01-01
We encode the problem of learning the optimal decision tree of a given depth as an integer optimization problem. We show experimentally that our method (DTIP) can be used to learn good trees up to depth 5 from data sets of size up to 1000. In addition to being efficient, our new formulation allows
Bi-Criteria Optimization of Decision Trees with Applications to Data Analysis
Chikalov, Igor
2017-10-19
This paper is devoted to the study of bi-criteria optimization problems for decision trees. We consider different cost functions such as depth, average depth, and number of nodes. We design algorithms that allow us to construct the set of Pareto optimal points (POPs) for a given decision table and the corresponding bi-criteria optimization problem. These algorithms are suitable for investigation of medium-sized decision tables. We discuss three examples of applications of the created tools: the study of relationships among depth, average depth and number of nodes for decision trees for corner point detection (such trees are used in computer vision for object tracking), study of systems of decision rules derived from decision trees, and comparison of different greedy algorithms for decision tree construction as single- and bi-criteria optimization algorithms.
Multi-stage Optimization of Matchings in Trees with Application to Kidney Exchange
Mankowski, Michal
2017-07-22
In this paper, we propose a method for multi-stage optimization of matchings in trees relative to different weight functions that assign positive weights to the edges of the trees. This method can be useful in transplantology where nodes of the tree correspond to pairs (donor, recipient) and two nodes (pairs) are connected by an edge if these pairs can exchange kidneys. Weight functions can characterize the number of exchanges, the importance of exchanges, or their compatibility.
The optimal patch test concentration for ascaridole as a sensitizing component of tea tree oil
Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise Anna
BACKGROUND: Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil results in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To identify the optimal patch test
A Branch-and-Price approach to find optimal decision trees
Firat, M.; Crognier, Guillaume; Gabor, Adriana; Zhang, Y.
2018-01-01
In Artificial Intelligence (AI) field, decision trees have gained certain importance due to their effectiveness in solving classification and regression problems. Recently, in the literature we see finding optimal decision trees are formulated as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) models. This
Combinatorial optimization theory and algorithms
Korte, Bernhard
2018-01-01
This comprehensive textbook on combinatorial optimization places special emphasis on theoretical results and algorithms with provably good performance, in contrast to heuristics. It is based on numerous courses on combinatorial optimization and specialized topics, mostly at graduate level. This book reviews the fundamentals, covers the classical topics (paths, flows, matching, matroids, NP-completeness, approximation algorithms) in detail, and proceeds to advanced and recent topics, some of which have not appeared in a textbook before. Throughout, it contains complete but concise proofs, and also provides numerous exercises and references. This sixth edition has again been updated, revised, and significantly extended. Among other additions, there are new sections on shallow-light trees, submodular function maximization, smoothed analysis of the knapsack problem, the (ln 4+ɛ)-approximation for Steiner trees, and the VPN theorem. Thus, this book continues to represent the state of the art of combinatorial opti...
Totally Optimal Decision Trees for Monotone Boolean Functions with at Most Five Variables
Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present the empirical results for relationships between time (depth) and space (number of nodes) complexity of decision trees computing monotone Boolean functions, with at most five variables. We use Dagger (a tool for optimization
Provably unbounded memory advantage in stochastic simulation using quantum mechanics
Garner, Andrew J. P.; Liu, Qing; Thompson, Jayne; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, mile
2017-10-01
Simulating the stochastic evolution of real quantities on a digital computer requires a trade-off between the precision to which these quantities are approximated, and the memory required to store them. The statistical accuracy of the simulation is thus generally limited by the internal memory available to the simulator. Here, using tools from computational mechanics, we show that quantum processors with a fixed finite memory can simulate stochastic processes of real variables to arbitrarily high precision. This demonstrates a provable, unbounded memory advantage that a quantum simulator can exhibit over its best possible classical counterpart.
Provably unbounded memory advantage in stochastic simulation using quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garner, Andrew J P; Thompson, Jayne; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile; Liu, Qing
2017-01-01
Simulating the stochastic evolution of real quantities on a digital computer requires a trade-off between the precision to which these quantities are approximated, and the memory required to store them. The statistical accuracy of the simulation is thus generally limited by the internal memory available to the simulator. Here, using tools from computational mechanics, we show that quantum processors with a fixed finite memory can simulate stochastic processes of real variables to arbitrarily high precision. This demonstrates a provable, unbounded memory advantage that a quantum simulator can exhibit over its best possible classical counterpart. (paper)
Optimization and analysis of decision trees and rules: Dynamic programming approach
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz
2013-08-01
This paper is devoted to the consideration of software system Dagger created in KAUST. This system is based on extensions of dynamic programming. It allows sequential optimization of decision trees and rules relative to different cost functions, derivation of relationships between two cost functions (in particular, between number of misclassifications and depth of decision trees), and between cost and uncertainty of decision trees. We describe features of Dagger and consider examples of this systems work on decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. We also use Dagger to compare 16 different greedy algorithms for decision tree construction. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Optimization and analysis of decision trees and rules: Dynamic programming approach
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata
2013-01-01
This paper is devoted to the consideration of software system Dagger created in KAUST. This system is based on extensions of dynamic programming. It allows sequential optimization of decision trees and rules relative to different cost functions, derivation of relationships between two cost functions (in particular, between number of misclassifications and depth of decision trees), and between cost and uncertainty of decision trees. We describe features of Dagger and consider examples of this systems work on decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. We also use Dagger to compare 16 different greedy algorithms for decision tree construction. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
The influence of variability on the optimal shape of an airway tree branching asymmetrically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mauroy, Benjamin; Bokov, Plamen
2010-01-01
The asymmetry of the bronchial tree has been reported on numerous occasions, and bronchi in the lung bifurcate most of the time into a major and a minor daughter. Asymmetry is most probably bound to play a role on the hydrodynamic resistance and volume occupation of the bronchial tree. Thus, in this work, we search for an optimal asymmetric airway tree crossed by Poiseuille flow that would be a good candidate to model the distal conductive part of the lung. The geometry is controlled by major and minor diameter reduction factors that depend on the generation. We show that the optimal asymmetric tree has diameter reduction factors that are adimensional from the second level of bifurcation and that they are highly dependent on the asymmetric ratio that defines the relative sizes of the major and minor branches in a bifurcation. This optimization also gives access to a cost function whose particularity is to be asymmetric around its minimum. Thus, the cliff-edge hypothesis predicts that if the system suffers variability, then the best tree is shifted from the optimal. We apply a recent theoretical model of cliff-edge in order to measure the role of variability on the determination of the best asymmetric tree. Then, we compare our results with lung data of the literature. In particular, we are able to quantify the variability needed to fit the data and to give hypothesis that could explain, at least partially, the shift found between the optimal tree and the measures in the case of asymmetric bronchial trees. Finally, our model predicts that, even if the population is adapted at best, there always exist individuals whose bronchial trees are associated with larger costs comparatively to the average and who ought to be more sensitive to geometrical remodeling
Search Trees with Relaxed Balance and Near-Optimal Height
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fagerberg, Rolf; Jensen, Rune E.; Larsen, Kim Skak
2001-01-01
We introduce a relaxed k-tree, a search tree with relaxed balance and a height bound, when in balance, of (1+epsilon)log_2 n + 1, for any epsilon > 0. The number of nodes involved in rebalancing is O(1/epsilon) per update in the amortized sense, and O(log n/epsilon) in the worst case sense. This ...... constant rebalancing, which is an improvement over the current definition. World Wide Web search engines are possible applications for this line of work....
Optimal Finger Search Trees in the Pointer Machine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Makris, Christos
2003-01-01
We develop a new finger search tree with worst-case constant update time in the Pointer Machine (PM) model of computation. This was a major problem in the field of Data Structures and was tantalizingly open for over twenty years while many attempts by researchers were made to solve it. The result...
A simple and optimal ancestry labeling scheme for trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Rotbart, Noy Galil
2015-01-01
We present a lg n + 2 lg lg n + 3 ancestry labeling scheme for trees. The problem was first presented by Kannan et al. [STOC 88’] along with a simple 2 lg n solution. Motivated by applications to XML files, the label size was improved incrementally over the course of more than 20 years by a series...
AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Moshkov, Mikhail; Calo, Victor M.; Paszynski, Maciej; Goik, Damian; Jopek, Konrad
2014-01-01
In this paper we present a dynamic programming algorithm for finding optimal elimination trees for computational grids refined towards point or edge singularities. The elimination tree is utilized to guide the multi-frontal direct solver algorithm
Optimization Method of Fusing Model Tree into Partial Least Squares
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Fang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Partial Least Square (PLS can’t adapt to the characteristics of the data of many fields due to its own features multiple independent variables, multi-dependent variables and non-linear. However, Model Tree (MT has a good adaptability to nonlinear function, which is made up of many multiple linear segments. Based on this, a new method combining PLS and MT to analysis and predict the data is proposed, which build MT through the main ingredient and the explanatory variables(the dependent variable extracted from PLS, and extract residual information constantly to build Model Tree until well-pleased accuracy condition is satisfied. Using the data of the maxingshigan decoction of the monarch drug to treat the asthma or cough and two sample sets in the UCI Machine Learning Repository, the experimental results show that, the ability of explanation and predicting get improved in the new method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timo Pukkala
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Background Decisions on forest management are made under risk and uncertainty because the stand development cannot be predicted exactly and future timber prices are unknown. Deterministic calculations may lead to biased advice on optimal forest management. The study optimized continuous cover management of boreal forest in a situation where tree growth, regeneration, and timber prices include uncertainty. Methods Both anticipatory and adaptive optimization approaches were used. The adaptive approach optimized the reservation price function instead of fixed cutting years. The future prices of different timber assortments were described by cross-correlated auto-regressive models. The high variation around ingrowth model was simulated using a model that describes the cross- and autocorrelations of the regeneration results of different species and years. Tree growth was predicted with individual tree models, the predictions of which were adjusted on the basis of a climate-induced growth trend, which was stochastic. Residuals of the deterministic diameter growth model were also simulated. They consisted of random tree factors and cross- and autocorrelated temporal terms. Results Of the analyzed factors, timber price caused most uncertainty in the calculation of the net present value of a certain management schedule. Ingrowth and climate trend were less significant sources of risk and uncertainty than tree growth. Stochastic anticipatory optimization led to more diverse post-cutting stand structures than obtained in deterministic optimization. Cutting interval was shorter when risk and uncertainty were included in the analyses. Conclusions Adaptive optimization and management led to 6%–14% higher net present values than obtained in management that was based on anticipatory optimization. Increasing risk aversion of the forest landowner led to earlier cuttings in a mature stand. The effect of risk attitude on optimization results was small.
Optimal ranking regime analysis of TreeFlow dendrohydrological reconstructions
The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify 6-100 year time windows containing significant ranking sequences in 55 western U.S. streamflow reconstructions, and reconstructions of the level of the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay salinity during 1500-2007. The method’s ability t...
Don C. Bragg
2002-01-01
This article is an introduction to the computer software used by the Potential Relative Increment (PRI) approach to optimal tree diameter growth modeling. These DOS programs extract qualified tree and plot data from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB), calculate relative tree increment, sort for the highest relative increments by diameter class, and...
Empirical Analysis of Using Erasure Coding in Outsourcing Data Storage With Provable Security
2016-06-01
computing and communication technologies become powerful and advanced , people are exchanging a huge amount of data, and they are de- manding more storage...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF USING ERASURE CODING IN OUTSOURCING DATA STORAGEWITH PROVABLE SECURITY by...2015 to 06-17-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF USING ERASURE CODING IN OUTSOURCING DATA STORAGE WITH PROVABLE SECURITY 5. FUNDING
Al-Khaja, Nawal
2007-01-01
This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.
Azad, Mohammad
2017-06-16
We study problems of optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. As cost functions, we consider depth, average depth, number of nodes, and number of terminal/nonterminal nodes in trees. Decision tables with many-valued decisions (multi-label decision tables) are often more accurate models for real-life data sets than usual decision tables with single-valued decisions. Inhibitory trees can sometimes capture more information from decision tables than decision trees. In this paper, we create dynamic programming algorithms for multi-stage optimization of trees relative to a sequence of cost functions. We apply these algorithms to prove the existence of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision and inhibitory trees for some modified decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository.
Azad, Mohammad; Moshkov, Mikhail
2017-01-01
We study problems of optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. As cost functions, we consider depth, average depth, number of nodes, and number of terminal/nonterminal nodes in trees. Decision tables with many-valued decisions (multi-label decision tables) are often more accurate models for real-life data sets than usual decision tables with single-valued decisions. Inhibitory trees can sometimes capture more information from decision tables than decision trees. In this paper, we create dynamic programming algorithms for multi-stage optimization of trees relative to a sequence of cost functions. We apply these algorithms to prove the existence of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision and inhibitory trees for some modified decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository.
Behavior and sensitivity of an optimal tree diameter growth model under data uncertainty
Don C. Bragg
2005-01-01
Using loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, white oak, and northern red oak as examples, this paper considers the behavior of potential relative increment (PRI) models of optimal tree diameter growth under data uncertainity. Recommendations on intial sample size and the PRI iteractive curve fitting process are provided. Combining different state inventories prior to PRI model...
Provably Secure Password-based Authentication in TLS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdalla, Michel; Emmanuel, Bresson; Chevassut, Olivier; Moeller,Bodo; Pointcheval, David
2005-12-20
In this paper, we show how to design an efficient, provably secure password-based authenticated key exchange mechanism specifically for the TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol. The goal is to provide a technique that allows users to employ (short) passwords to securely identify themselves to servers. As our main contribution, we describe a new password-based technique for user authentication in TLS, called Simple Open Key Exchange (SOKE). Loosely speaking, the SOKE ciphersuites are unauthenticated Diffie-Hellman ciphersuites in which the client's Diffie-Hellman ephemeral public value is encrypted using a simple mask generation function. The mask is simply a constant value raised to the power of (a hash of) the password.The SOKE ciphersuites, in advantage over previous pass-word-based authentication ciphersuites for TLS, combine the following features. First, SOKE has formal security arguments; the proof of security based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption is in the random oracle model, and holds for concurrent executions and for arbitrarily large password dictionaries. Second, SOKE is computationally efficient; in particular, it only needs operations in a sufficiently large prime-order subgroup for its Diffie-Hellman computations (no safe primes). Third, SOKE provides good protocol flexibility because the user identity and password are only required once a SOKE ciphersuite has actually been negotiated, and after the server has sent a server identity.
Quasi-Optimal Elimination Trees for 2D Grids with Singularities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Paszyńska
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We construct quasi-optimal elimination trees for 2D finite element meshes with singularities. These trees minimize the complexity of the solution of the discrete system. The computational cost estimates of the elimination process model the execution of the multifrontal algorithms in serial and in parallel shared-memory executions. Since the meshes considered are a subspace of all possible mesh partitions, we call these minimizers quasi-optimal. We minimize the cost functionals using dynamic programming. Finding these minimizers is more computationally expensive than solving the original algebraic system. Nevertheless, from the insights provided by the analysis of the dynamic programming minima, we propose a heuristic construction of the elimination trees that has cost ONelogNe, where Ne is the number of elements in the mesh. We show that this heuristic ordering has similar computational cost to the quasi-optimal elimination trees found with dynamic programming and outperforms state-of-the-art alternatives in our numerical experiments.
Quasi-Optimal Elimination Trees for 2D Grids with Singularities
Paszyńska, A.
2015-04-22
We construct quasi-optimal elimination trees for 2D finite element meshes with singularities.These trees minimize the complexity of the solution of the discrete system. The computational cost estimates of the elimination process model the execution of the multifrontal algorithms in serial and in parallel shared-memory executions. Since the meshes considered are a subspace of all possible mesh partitions, we call these minimizers quasi-optimal.We minimize the cost functionals using dynamic programming. Finding these minimizers is more computationally expensive than solving the original algebraic system. Nevertheless, from the insights provided by the analysis of the dynamic programming minima, we propose a heuristic construction of the elimination trees that has cost O(log(Ne log(Ne)), where N e is the number of elements in the mesh.We show that this heuristic ordering has similar computational cost to the quasi-optimal elimination trees found with dynamic programming and outperforms state-of-the-art alternatives in our numerical experiments.
Quasi-Optimal Elimination Trees for 2D Grids with Singularities
Paszyńska, A.; Paszyński, M.; Jopek, K.; Woźniak, M.; Goik, D.; Gurgul, P.; AbouEisha, H.; Moshkov, Mikhail; Calo, Victor M.; Lenharth, A.; Nguyen, D.; Pingali, K.
2015-01-01
We construct quasi-optimal elimination trees for 2D finite element meshes with singularities.These trees minimize the complexity of the solution of the discrete system. The computational cost estimates of the elimination process model the execution of the multifrontal algorithms in serial and in parallel shared-memory executions. Since the meshes considered are a subspace of all possible mesh partitions, we call these minimizers quasi-optimal.We minimize the cost functionals using dynamic programming. Finding these minimizers is more computationally expensive than solving the original algebraic system. Nevertheless, from the insights provided by the analysis of the dynamic programming minima, we propose a heuristic construction of the elimination trees that has cost O(log(Ne log(Ne)), where N e is the number of elements in the mesh.We show that this heuristic ordering has similar computational cost to the quasi-optimal elimination trees found with dynamic programming and outperforms state-of-the-art alternatives in our numerical experiments.
Sequent Calculus in the Topos of Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clouston, Ranald; Goré, Rajeev
2015-01-01
Nakano’s “later” modality, inspired by Gödel-Löb provability logic, has been applied in type systems and program logics to capture guarded recursion. Birkedal et al modelled this modality via the internal logic of the topos of trees. We show that the semantics of the propositional fragment of thi...
Petrović, Jelena; Ibrić, Svetlana; Betz, Gabriele; Đurić, Zorica
2012-05-30
The main objective of the study was to develop artificial intelligence methods for optimization of drug release from matrix tablets regardless of the matrix type. Static and dynamic artificial neural networks of the same topology were developed to model dissolution profiles of different matrix tablets types (hydrophilic/lipid) using formulation composition, compression force used for tableting and tablets porosity and tensile strength as input data. Potential application of decision trees in discovering knowledge from experimental data was also investigated. Polyethylene oxide polymer and glyceryl palmitostearate were used as matrix forming materials for hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets, respectively whereas selected model drugs were diclofenac sodium and caffeine. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method and tested for in vitro dissolution profiles. Optimization of static and dynamic neural networks used for modeling of drug release was performed using Monte Carlo simulations or genetic algorithms optimizer. Decision trees were constructed following discretization of data. Calculated difference (f(1)) and similarity (f(2)) factors for predicted and experimentally obtained dissolution profiles of test matrix tablets formulations indicate that Elman dynamic neural networks as well as decision trees are capable of accurate predictions of both hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets dissolution profiles. Elman neural networks were compared to most frequently used static network, Multi-layered perceptron, and superiority of Elman networks have been demonstrated. Developed methods allow simple, yet very precise way of drug release predictions for both hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets having controlled drug release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2017-07-13
We consider a class of two-and three-dimensional h-refined meshes generated by an adaptive finite element method. We introduce an element partition tree, which controls the execution of the multi-frontal solver algorithm over these refined grids. We propose and study algorithms with polynomial computational cost for the optimization of these element partition trees. The trees provide an ordering for the elimination of unknowns. The algorithms automatically optimize the element partition trees using extensions of dynamic programming. The construction of the trees by the dynamic programming approach is expensive. These generated trees cannot be used in practice, but rather utilized as a learning tool to propose fast heuristic algorithms. In this first part of our paper we focus on the dynamic programming approach, and draw a sketch of the heuristic algorithm. The second part will be devoted to a more detailed analysis of the heuristic algorithm extended for the case of hp-adaptive
AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Calo, Victor Manuel; Jopek, Konrad; Moshkov, Mikhail; Paszyńka, Anna; Paszyński, Maciej; Skotniczny, Marcin
2017-01-01
We consider a class of two-and three-dimensional h-refined meshes generated by an adaptive finite element method. We introduce an element partition tree, which controls the execution of the multi-frontal solver algorithm over these refined grids. We propose and study algorithms with polynomial computational cost for the optimization of these element partition trees. The trees provide an ordering for the elimination of unknowns. The algorithms automatically optimize the element partition trees using extensions of dynamic programming. The construction of the trees by the dynamic programming approach is expensive. These generated trees cannot be used in practice, but rather utilized as a learning tool to propose fast heuristic algorithms. In this first part of our paper we focus on the dynamic programming approach, and draw a sketch of the heuristic algorithm. The second part will be devoted to a more detailed analysis of the heuristic algorithm extended for the case of hp-adaptive
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2014-06-06
In this paper we present a dynamic programming algorithm for finding optimal elimination trees for computational grids refined towards point or edge singularities. The elimination tree is utilized to guide the multi-frontal direct solver algorithm. Thus, the criterion for the optimization of the elimination tree is the computational cost associated with the multi-frontal solver algorithm executed over such tree. We illustrate the paper with several examples of optimal trees found for grids with point, isotropic edge and anisotropic edge mixed with point singularity. We show the comparison of the execution time of the multi-frontal solver algorithm with results of MUMPS solver with METIS library, implementing the nested dissection algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matheswaran Saravanan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of sensor nodes that need energy efficient routing techniques as they have limited battery power, computing, and storage resources. WSN routing protocols should enable reliable multihop communication with energy constraints. Clustering is an effective way to reduce overheads and when this is aided by effective resource allocation, it results in reduced energy consumption. In this work, a novel hybrid evolutionary algorithm called Bee Algorithm-Simulated Annealing Weighted Minimal Spanning Tree (BASA-WMST routing is proposed in which randomly deployed sensor nodes are split into the best possible number of independent clusters with cluster head and optimal route. The former gathers data from sensors belonging to the cluster, forwarding them to the sink. The shortest intrapath selection for the cluster is selected using Weighted Minimum Spanning Tree (WMST. The proposed algorithm computes the distance-based Minimum Spanning Tree (MST of the weighted graph for the multihop network. The weights are dynamically changed based on the energy level of each sensor during route selection and optimized using the proposed bee algorithm simulated annealing algorithm.
Azad, Mohammad
2015-10-11
Decision tree is a widely used technique to discover patterns from consistent data set. But if the data set is inconsistent, where there are groups of examples (objects) with equal values of conditional attributes but different decisions (values of the decision attribute), then to discover the essential patterns or knowledge from the data set is challenging. We consider three approaches (generalized, most common and many-valued decision) to handle such inconsistency. We created different greedy algorithms using various types of impurity and uncertainty measures to construct decision trees. We compared the three approaches based on the decision tree properties of the depth, average depth and number of nodes. Based on the result of the comparison, we choose to work with the many-valued decision approach. Now to determine which greedy algorithms are efficient, we compared them based on the optimization and classification results. It was found that some greedy algorithms Mult\\\\_ws\\\\_entSort, and Mult\\\\_ws\\\\_entML are good for both optimization and classification.
Azad, Mohammad; Moshkov, Mikhail
2015-01-01
Decision tree is a widely used technique to discover patterns from consistent data set. But if the data set is inconsistent, where there are groups of examples (objects) with equal values of conditional attributes but different decisions (values of the decision attribute), then to discover the essential patterns or knowledge from the data set is challenging. We consider three approaches (generalized, most common and many-valued decision) to handle such inconsistency. We created different greedy algorithms using various types of impurity and uncertainty measures to construct decision trees. We compared the three approaches based on the decision tree properties of the depth, average depth and number of nodes. Based on the result of the comparison, we choose to work with the many-valued decision approach. Now to determine which greedy algorithms are efficient, we compared them based on the optimization and classification results. It was found that some greedy algorithms Mult\\_ws\\_entSort, and Mult\\_ws\\_entML are good for both optimization and classification.
SAFTAC, Monte-Carlo Fault Tree Simulation for System Design Performance and Optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crosetti, P.A.; Garcia de Viedma, L.
1976-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: SAFTAC is a Monte Carlo fault tree simulation program that provides a systematic approach for analyzing system design, performing trade-off studies, and optimizing system changes or additions. 2 - Method of solution: SAFTAC assumes an exponential failure distribution for basic input events and a choice of either Gaussian distributed or constant repair times. The program views the system represented by the fault tree as a statistical assembly of independent basic input events, each characterized by an exponential failure distribution and, if used, a constant or normal repair distribution. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is dimensioned to handle 1100 basic input events and 1100 logical gates. It can be re-dimensioned to handle up to 2000 basic input events and 2000 logical gates within the existing core memory
Li, H. W.; Pan, Z. Y.; Ren, Y. B.; Wang, J.; Gan, Y. L.; Zheng, Z. Z.; Wang, W.
2018-03-01
According to the radial operation characteristics in distribution systems, this paper proposes a new method based on minimum spanning trees method for optimal capacitor switching. Firstly, taking the minimal active power loss as objective function and not considering the capacity constraints of capacitors and source, this paper uses Prim algorithm among minimum spanning trees algorithms to get the power supply ranges of capacitors and source. Then with the capacity constraints of capacitors considered, capacitors are ranked by the method of breadth-first search. In term of the order from high to low of capacitor ranking, capacitor compensation capacity based on their power supply range is calculated. Finally, IEEE 69 bus system is adopted to test the accuracy and practicality of the proposed algorithm.
The Optimization of In-Memory Space Partitioning Trees for Cache Utilization
Yeo, Myung Ho; Min, Young Soo; Bok, Kyoung Soo; Yoo, Jae Soo
In this paper, a novel cache conscious indexing technique based on space partitioning trees is proposed. Many researchers investigated efficient cache conscious indexing techniques which improve retrieval performance of in-memory database management system recently. However, most studies considered data partitioning and targeted fast information retrieval. Existing data partitioning-based index structures significantly degrade performance due to the redundant accesses of overlapped spaces. Specially, R-tree-based index structures suffer from the propagation of MBR (Minimum Bounding Rectangle) information by updating data frequently. In this paper, we propose an in-memory space partitioning index structure for optimal cache utilization. The proposed index structure is compared with the existing index structures in terms of update performance, insertion performance and cache-utilization rate in a variety of environments. The results demonstrate that the proposed index structure offers better performance than existing index structures.
Towards provably correct code generation for a hard real-time programming language
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fränzle, Martin; Müller-Olm, Markus
1994-01-01
This paper sketches a hard real-time programming language featuring operators for expressing timeliness requirements in an abstract, implementation-independent way and presents parts of the design and verification of a provably correct code generator for that language. The notion of implementation...
Using rapidly-exploring random tree-based algorithms to find smooth and optimal trajectories
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Matebese, B
2012-10-01
Full Text Available -exploring random tree-based algorithms to fi nd smooth and optimal trajectories B MATEBESE1, MK BANDA2 AND S UTETE1 1CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 2Department of Applied Mathematics, Stellenbosch University... and complex environments. The RRT algorithm is the most popular and has the ability to find a feasible solution faster than other algorithms. The drawback of using RRT is that, as the number of samples increases, the probability that the algorithm converges...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Feng
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A based on Rapidly-exploring Random Tree(RRT and Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO for path planning of the robot is proposed.First the grid method is built to describe the working space of the mobile robot,then the Rapidly-exploring Random Tree algorithm is used to obtain the global navigation path,and the Particle Swarm Optimizer algorithm is adopted to get the better path.Computer experiment results demonstrate that this novel algorithm can plan an optimal path rapidly in a cluttered environment.The successful obstacle avoidance is achieved,and the model is robust and performs reliably.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou, X.; Sun, S.
2017-01-01
Phoenix tree (Firmiana simplex) seed oil is a novel oil which is rich in sterculic acid. Sterculic acid, a cyclopropene fatty acid, can be used as the inhibitor of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase system and mammary carcinomas growth. In this work, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed hydrolysis of the novel Phoenix tree seed oil was used to prepare sterculic acid. High temperature GC-FID and the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were used to monitor the reaction progress. Effects of reaction variables on the hydrolysis were evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology. Results showed that sterculic acid can be successfully prepared from the novel seed oil, and the effect of reaction variables on the hydrolysis decreased in the order of reaction time > enzyme load > temperature. A high yield of fatty acids (DH, 98.2±0.8%) can be obtained under optimized conditions (45 ºC, mass ratio of water to oil 10:1, enzyme load 10%, and 18 h). The Arrhenius equation for the hydrolysis was LnV0 = 9.12 − 4721/T. The activation energy was 39.25KJ/mol. The kinetic values for Vmax, K/m were 0.232mol/(L∙min) and 0.084 mol/L, respectively. [es
Bi-Criteria Optimization of Decision Trees with Applications to Data Analysis
Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2017-01-01
: the study of relationships among depth, average depth and number of nodes for decision trees for corner point detection (such trees are used in computer vision for object tracking), study of systems of decision rules derived from decision trees
A fast method for calculating reliable event supports in tree reconciliations via Pareto optimality.
To, Thu-Hien; Jacox, Edwin; Ranwez, Vincent; Scornavacca, Celine
2015-11-14
Given a gene and a species tree, reconciliation methods attempt to retrieve the macro-evolutionary events that best explain the discrepancies between the two tree topologies. The DTL parsimonious approach searches for a most parsimonious reconciliation between a gene tree and a (dated) species tree, considering four possible macro-evolutionary events (speciation, duplication, transfer, and loss) with specific costs. Unfortunately, many events are erroneously predicted due to errors in the input trees, inappropriate input cost values or because of the existence of several equally parsimonious scenarios. It is thus crucial to provide a measure of the reliability for predicted events. It has been recently proposed that the reliability of an event can be estimated via its frequency in the set of most parsimonious reconciliations obtained using a variety of reasonable input cost vectors. To compute such a support, a straightforward but time-consuming approach is to generate the costs slightly departing from the original ones, independently compute the set of all most parsimonious reconciliations for each vector, and combine these sets a posteriori. Another proposed approach uses Pareto-optimality to partition cost values into regions which induce reconciliations with the same number of DTL events. The support of an event is then defined as its frequency in the set of regions. However, often, the number of regions is not large enough to provide reliable supports. We present here a method to compute efficiently event supports via a polynomial-sized graph, which can represent all reconciliations for several different costs. Moreover, two methods are proposed to take into account alternative input costs: either explicitly providing an input cost range or allowing a tolerance for the over cost of a reconciliation. Our methods are faster than the region based method, substantially faster than the sampling-costs approach, and have a higher event-prediction accuracy on
Extensions of dynamic programming as a new tool for decision tree optimization
Alkhalid, Abdulaziz; Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2013-01-01
The chapter is devoted to the consideration of two types of decision trees for a given decision table: α-decision trees (the parameter α controls the accuracy of tree) and decision trees (which allow arbitrary level of accuracy). We study
Provable Fair Document Exchange Protocol with Transaction Privacy for E-Commerce
Ren-Junn Hwang; Chih-Hua Lai
2015-01-01
Transaction privacy has attracted a lot of attention in the e-commerce. This study proposes an efficient and provable fair document exchange protocol with transaction privacy. Using the proposed protocol, any untrusted parties can fairly exchange documents without the assistance of online, trusted third parties. Moreover, a notary only notarizes each document once. The authorized document owner can exchange a notarized document with different parties repeatedly without disclosing the origin o...
Lightweight certificateless and provably-secure signcryptosystem for the internet of things
Nguyen , Kim Thuat; Oualha , Nouha; Laurent , Maryline
2015-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we propose an elliptic curve-based signcryption scheme derived from the standardized signature KCDSA (Korean Certificate-based Digital Signature Algorithm) in the context of the Internet of Things. Our solution has several advantages. First, the scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model. Second, it provides the following security properties: outsider/insider confidentiality and unforgeability; non-repudiation and public verifiability, while be...
Provable Data Possession of Resource-constrained Mobile Devices in Cloud Computing
Jian Yang; Haihang Wang; Jian Wang; Chengxiang Tan; Dingguo Yu
2011-01-01
Benefited from cloud storage services, users can save their cost of buying expensive storage and application servers, as well as deploying and maintaining applications. Meanwhile they lost the physical control of their data. So effective methods are needed to verify the correctness of the data stored at cloud servers, which are the research issues the Provable Data Possession (PDP) faced. The most important features in PDP are: 1) supporting for public, unlimited numbers of times of verificat...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hemmateenejad, Bahram, E-mail: hemmatb@sums.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare-Shahabadi, Vali [Young Researchers Club, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhond, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-10-17
Highlights: {yields} Ant colony systems help to build optimum classification and regression trees. {yields} Using of genetic algorithm operators in ant colony systems resulted in more appropriate models. {yields} Variable selection in each terminal node of the tree gives promising results. {yields} CART-ACS-GA could model the melting point of organic materials with prediction errors lower than previous models. - Abstract: The classification and regression trees (CART) possess the advantage of being able to handle large data sets and yield readily interpretable models. A conventional method of building a regression tree is recursive partitioning, which results in a good but not optimal tree. Ant colony system (ACS), which is a meta-heuristic algorithm and derived from the observation of real ants, can be used to overcome this problem. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of CART and its combination with ACS for modeling of melting points of a large variety of chemical compounds. Genetic algorithm (GA) operators (e.g., cross averring and mutation operators) were combined with ACS algorithm to select the best solution model. In addition, at each terminal node of the resulted tree, variable selection was done by ACS-GA algorithm to build an appropriate partial least squares (PLS) model. To test the ability of the resulted tree, a set of approximately 4173 structures and their melting points were used (3000 compounds as training set and 1173 as validation set). Further, an external test set containing of 277 drugs was used to validate the prediction ability of the tree. Comparison of the results obtained from both trees showed that the tree constructed by ACS-GA algorithm performs better than that produced by recursive partitioning procedure.
OmniGA: Optimized Omnivariate Decision Trees for Generalizable Classification Models
Magana-Mora, Arturo
2017-06-14
Classification problems from different domains vary in complexity, size, and imbalance of the number of samples from different classes. Although several classification models have been proposed, selecting the right model and parameters for a given classification task to achieve good performance is not trivial. Therefore, there is a constant interest in developing novel robust and efficient models suitable for a great variety of data. Here, we propose OmniGA, a framework for the optimization of omnivariate decision trees based on a parallel genetic algorithm, coupled with deep learning structure and ensemble learning methods. The performance of the OmniGA framework is evaluated on 12 different datasets taken mainly from biomedical problems and compared with the results obtained by several robust and commonly used machine-learning models with optimized parameters. The results show that OmniGA systematically outperformed these models for all the considered datasets, reducing the F score error in the range from 100% to 2.25%, compared to the best performing model. This demonstrates that OmniGA produces robust models with improved performance. OmniGA code and datasets are available at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/omniga/.
OmniGA: Optimized Omnivariate Decision Trees for Generalizable Classification Models
Magana-Mora, Arturo; Bajic, Vladimir B.
2017-01-01
Classification problems from different domains vary in complexity, size, and imbalance of the number of samples from different classes. Although several classification models have been proposed, selecting the right model and parameters for a given classification task to achieve good performance is not trivial. Therefore, there is a constant interest in developing novel robust and efficient models suitable for a great variety of data. Here, we propose OmniGA, a framework for the optimization of omnivariate decision trees based on a parallel genetic algorithm, coupled with deep learning structure and ensemble learning methods. The performance of the OmniGA framework is evaluated on 12 different datasets taken mainly from biomedical problems and compared with the results obtained by several robust and commonly used machine-learning models with optimized parameters. The results show that OmniGA systematically outperformed these models for all the considered datasets, reducing the F score error in the range from 100% to 2.25%, compared to the best performing model. This demonstrates that OmniGA produces robust models with improved performance. OmniGA code and datasets are available at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/omniga/.
Optimal processing for gel electrophoresis images: Applying Monte Carlo Tree Search in GelApp.
Nguyen, Phi-Vu; Ghezal, Ali; Hsueh, Ya-Chih; Boudier, Thomas; Gan, Samuel Ken-En; Lee, Hwee Kuan
2016-08-01
In biomedical research, gel band size estimation in electrophoresis analysis is a routine process. To facilitate and automate this process, numerous software have been released, notably the GelApp mobile app. However, the band detection accuracy is limited due to a band detection algorithm that cannot adapt to the variations in input images. To address this, we used the Monte Carlo Tree Search with Upper Confidence Bound (MCTS-UCB) method to efficiently search for optimal image processing pipelines for the band detection task, thereby improving the segmentation algorithm. Incorporating this into GelApp, we report a significant enhancement of gel band detection accuracy by 55.9 ± 2.0% for protein polyacrylamide gels, and 35.9 ± 2.5% for DNA SYBR green agarose gels. This implementation is a proof-of-concept in demonstrating MCTS-UCB as a strategy to optimize general image segmentation. The improved version of GelApp-GelApp 2.0-is freely available on both Google Play Store (for Android platform), and Apple App Store (for iOS platform). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pashaei, Elnaz; Ozen, Mustafa; Aydin, Nizamettin
2015-08-01
Improving accuracy of supervised classification algorithms in biomedical applications is one of active area of research. In this study, we improve the performance of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) combined with C4.5 decision tree (PSO+C4.5) classifier by applying Boosted C5.0 decision tree as the fitness function. To evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed method, it is implemented on 1 microarray dataset and 5 different medical data sets obtained from UCI machine learning databases. Moreover, the results of PSO + Boosted C5.0 implementation are compared to eight well-known benchmark classification methods (PSO+C4.5, support vector machine under the kernel of Radial Basis Function, Classification And Regression Tree (CART), C4.5 decision tree, C5.0 decision tree, Boosted C5.0 decision tree, Naive Bayes and Weighted K-Nearest neighbor). Repeated five-fold cross-validation method was used to justify the performance of classifiers. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only improve the performance of PSO+C4.5 but also obtains higher classification accuracy compared to the other classification methods.
A data mining approach to optimize pellets manufacturing process based on a decision tree algorithm.
Ronowicz, Joanna; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Krysiński, Jerzy
2015-06-20
The present study is focused on the thorough analysis of cause-effect relationships between pellet formulation characteristics (pellet composition as well as process parameters) and the selected quality attribute of the final product. The shape using the aspect ratio value expressed the quality of pellets. A data matrix for chemometric analysis consisted of 224 pellet formulations performed by means of eight different active pharmaceutical ingredients and several various excipients, using different extrusion/spheronization process conditions. The data set contained 14 input variables (both formulation and process variables) and one output variable (pellet aspect ratio). A tree regression algorithm consistent with the Quality by Design concept was applied to obtain deeper understanding and knowledge of formulation and process parameters affecting the final pellet sphericity. The clear interpretable set of decision rules were generated. The spehronization speed, spheronization time, number of holes and water content of extrudate have been recognized as the key factors influencing pellet aspect ratio. The most spherical pellets were achieved by using a large number of holes during extrusion, a high spheronizer speed and longer time of spheronization. The described data mining approach enhances knowledge about pelletization process and simultaneously facilitates searching for the optimal process conditions which are necessary to achieve ideal spherical pellets, resulting in good flow characteristics. This data mining approach can be taken into consideration by industrial formulation scientists to support rational decision making in the field of pellets technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A provably-secure ECC-based authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks.
Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho
2014-11-06
A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes.
A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho
2014-01-01
A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009
A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junghyun Nam
2014-11-01
Full Text Available A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000. Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure schemes.
Yavorskiy, R.
Kripke-style semantics is suggested for the provability logic with quantifiers on proofs corresponding to the standard Gödel proof predicate. It is proved that the set of valid formulas is decidable. The arithmetical completeness is still an open issue.
Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David
2007-01-01
Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.
Provable Fair Document Exchange Protocol with Transaction Privacy for E-Commerce
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren-Junn Hwang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Transaction privacy has attracted a lot of attention in the e-commerce. This study proposes an efficient and provable fair document exchange protocol with transaction privacy. Using the proposed protocol, any untrusted parties can fairly exchange documents without the assistance of online, trusted third parties. Moreover, a notary only notarizes each document once. The authorized document owner can exchange a notarized document with different parties repeatedly without disclosing the origin of the document or the identities of transaction participants. Security and performance analyses indicate that the proposed protocol not only provides strong fairness, non-repudiation of origin, non-repudiation of receipt, and message confidentiality, but also enhances forward secrecy, transaction privacy, and authorized exchange. The proposed protocol is more efficient than other works.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe
2015-01-01
Anew approach, Dynamic Minimal Spanning Tree (DMST) algorithm, whichisbased on the MST algorithm isproposed in this paper to optimizethe cable connectionlayout for large scale offshore wind farm collection system. The current carrying capacity of the cable is considered as the main constraint....... It is amore economicalway for cable connection configurationdesignof offshore wind farm collection system....
Vijayakumar, Supreeta; Conway, Max; Lió, Pietro; Angione, Claudio
2017-05-30
Metabolic modelling has entered a mature phase with dozens of methods and software implementations available to the practitioner and the theoretician. It is not easy for a modeller to be able to see the wood (or the forest) for the trees. Driven by this analogy, we here present a 'forest' of principal methods used for constraint-based modelling in systems biology. This provides a tree-based view of methods available to prospective modellers, also available in interactive version at http://modellingmetabolism.net, where it will be kept updated with new methods after the publication of the present manuscript. Our updated classification of existing methods and tools highlights the most promising in the different branches, with the aim to develop a vision of how existing methods could hybridize and become more complex. We then provide the first hands-on tutorial for multi-objective optimization of metabolic models in R. We finally discuss the implementation of multi-view machine learning approaches in poly-omic integration. Throughout this work, we demonstrate the optimization of trade-offs between multiple metabolic objectives, with a focus on omic data integration through machine learning. We anticipate that the combination of a survey, a perspective on multi-view machine learning and a step-by-step R tutorial should be of interest for both the beginner and the advanced user. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Park, Seonyoung; Im, Jungho; Park, Sumin; Rhee, Jinyoung
2017-04-01
optimization based on pruning of rules derived from the modified regression trees was conducted. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation coefficients (r) were used to optimize the rules, and finally 59 rules from modified regression trees were produced. The results show high validation r (0.79) and low validation RMSE (0.0556m3/m3). The 1 km downscaled soil moisture was evaluated using ground soil moisture data at 14 stations, and both soil moisture data showed similar temporal patterns (average r=0.51 and average RMSE=0.041). The spatial distribution of the 1 km downscaled soil moisture well corresponded with GLDAS soil moisture that caught both extremely dry and wet regions. Correlation between GLDAS and the 1 km downscaled soil moisture during growing season was positive (mean r=0.35) in most regions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quentin J M Huys
Full Text Available When planning a series of actions, it is usually infeasible to consider all potential future sequences; instead, one must prune the decision tree. Provably optimal pruning is, however, still computationally ruinous and the specific approximations humans employ remain unknown. We designed a new sequential reinforcement-based task and showed that human subjects adopted a simple pruning strategy: during mental evaluation of a sequence of choices, they curtailed any further evaluation of a sequence as soon as they encountered a large loss. This pruning strategy was Pavlovian: it was reflexively evoked by large losses and persisted even when overwhelmingly counterproductive. It was also evident above and beyond loss aversion. We found that the tendency towards Pavlovian pruning was selectively predicted by the degree to which subjects exhibited sub-clinical mood disturbance, in accordance with theories that ascribe Pavlovian behavioural inhibition, via serotonin, a role in mood disorders. We conclude that Pavlovian behavioural inhibition shapes highly flexible, goal-directed choices in a manner that may be important for theories of decision-making in mood disorders.
Deptuła, A.; Partyka, M. A.
2014-08-01
The method of minimization of complex partial multi-valued logical functions determines the degree of importance of construction and exploitation parameters playing the role of logical decision variables. Logical functions are taken into consideration in the issues of modelling machine sets. In multi-valued logical functions with weighting products, it is possible to use a modified Quine - McCluskey algorithm of multi-valued functions minimization. Taking into account weighting coefficients in the logical tree minimization reflects a physical model of the object being analysed much better
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luluk Lusiantoro
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Using minimum spanning tree technique (MST, this exploratory research was done to optimize the interrelation and hierarchical network design of Indonesian’s airports. This research also identifies the position of the Indonesian’s airports regionally based on the ASEAN Open Sky Policy 2015. The secondary data containing distance between airports (both in Indonesia and in ASEAN, flight frequency, and correlation of Gross Domestic Regional Product (GDRP for each region in Indonesia are used as inputs to form MST networks. The result analysis is done by comparing the MST networks with the existing network in Indonesia. This research found that the existing airport network in Indonesia does not depict the optimal network connecting all airports with the shortest distance and maximizing the correlation of regional economic potential in the country. This research then suggests the optimal networks and identifies the airports and regions as hubs and spokes formed by the networks. Lastly, this research indicates that the Indonesian airports have no strategic position in the ASEAN Open Sky network, but they have an opportunity to get strategic positions if 33 airports in 33 regions in Indonesia are included in the network.
Macpherson, Morag F; Kleczkowski, Adam; Healey, John R; Hanley, Nick
2017-04-01
Forests deliver multiple benefits both to their owners and to wider society. However, a wave of forest pests and pathogens is threatening this worldwide. In this paper we examine the effect of disease on the optimal rotation length of a single-aged, single rotation forest when a payment for non-timber benefits, which is offered to private forest owners to partly internalise the social values of forest management, is included. Using a generalisable bioeconomic framework we show how this payment counteracts the negative economic effect of disease by increasing the optimal rotation length, and under some restrictive conditions, even makes it optimal to never harvest the forest. The analysis shows a range of complex interactions between factors including the rate of spread of infection and the impact of disease on the value of harvested timber and non-timber benefits. A key result is that the effect of disease on the optimal rotation length is dependent on whether the disease affects the timber benefit only compared to when it affects both timber and non-timber benefits. Our framework can be extended to incorporate multiple ecosystem services delivered by forests and details of how disease can affect their production, thus facilitating a wide range of applications.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Debba, Pravesh
2009-08-01
Full Text Available computer intensive search technique to find the bands optimizing the value of TSAM as a function of the bands, by continually updating this function at succes- sive steps. Band selection by means of minimizing the total accumulated correlation...
Optimization Studies for the H $\\rightarrow$ WW Boosted Decision Tree Analysis
Strickland, Jessica
2014-01-01
The aim of this project was to follow the ATLAS $H \\rightarrow WW$ BDT analysis and try to optimize training variables, pre-selection cuts, and training parameters such as the depth \\cite{orig, spin}. Machine learning was done with Monte Carlo samples of the $H \\rightarrow W^+ W^- \\rightarrow e \\mu \
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hee Han
2018-03-01
Full Text Available An important task in forest residue recovery operations is to select the most cost-efficient feedstock logistics system for a given distribution of residue piles, road access, and available machinery. Notable considerations include inaccessibility of treatment units to large chip vans and frequent, long-distance mobilization of forestry equipment required to process dispersed residues. In this study, we present optimized biomass feedstock logistics on a tree-shaped road network that take into account the following options: (1 grinding residues at the site of treatment and forwarding ground residues either directly to bioenergy facility or to a concentration yard where they are transshipped to large chip vans, (2 forwarding residues to a concentration yard where they are stored and ground directly into chip vans, and (3 forwarding residues to a nearby grinder location and forwarding the ground materials. A mixed-integer programming model coupled with a network algorithm was developed to solve the problem. The model was applied to recovery operations on a study site in Colorado, USA, and the optimal solution reduced the cost of logistics up to 11% compared to the conventional system. This is an important result because this cost reduction propagates downstream through the biomass supply chain, reducing production costs for bioenergy and bioproducts.
Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L
2017-06-01
Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingxin Gu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Regression tree models have been widely used for remote sensing-based ecosystem mapping. Improper use of the sample data (model training and testing data may cause overfitting and underfitting effects in the model. The goal of this study is to develop an optimal sampling data usage strategy for any dataset and identify an appropriate number of rules in the regression tree model that will improve its accuracy and robustness. Landsat 8 data and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-scaled Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were used to develop regression tree models. A Python procedure was designed to generate random replications of model parameter options across a range of model development data sizes and rule number constraints. The mean absolute difference (MAD between the predicted and actual NDVI (scaled NDVI, value from 0–200 and its variability across the different randomized replications were calculated to assess the accuracy and stability of the models. In our case study, a six-rule regression tree model developed from 80% of the sample data had the lowest MAD (MADtraining = 2.5 and MADtesting = 2.4, which was suggested as the optimal model. This study demonstrates how the training data and rule number selections impact model accuracy and provides important guidance for future remote-sensing-based ecosystem modeling.
Petit, Giai; Savi, Tadeja; Consolini, Martina; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Nardini, Andrea
2016-11-01
Efficient leaf water supply is fundamental for assimilation processes and tree growth. Renovating the architecture of the xylem transport system requires an increasing carbon investment while growing taller, and any deficiency of carbon availability may result in increasing hydraulic constraints to water flow. Therefore, plants need to coordinate carbon assimilation and biomass allocation to guarantee an efficient and safe long-distance transport system. We tested the hypothesis that reduced branch elongation rates together with carbon-saving adjustments of xylem anatomy hydraulically compensate for the reduction in biomass allocation to xylem. We measured leaf biomass, hydraulic and anatomical properties of wood segments along the main axis of branches in 10 slow growing (SG) and 10 fast growing (FG) Fraxinus ornus L. trees. Branches of SG trees had five times slower branch elongation rate (7 vs 35 cm year -1 ), and produced a higher leaf biomass (P trees in terms of leaf-specific conductivity (P > 0.05) and xylem safety (Ψ 50 ≈ -3.2 MPa). Slower elongation rate coupled with thinner annual rings and larger vessels allows the reduction of carbon costs associated with growth, while maintaining similar leaf-specific conductivity and xylem safety. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofie Demeyer
Full Text Available Subgraph matching algorithms are designed to find all instances of predefined subgraphs in a large graph or network and play an important role in the discovery and analysis of so-called network motifs, subgraph patterns which occur more often than expected by chance. We present the index-based subgraph matching algorithm (ISMA, a novel tree-based algorithm. ISMA realizes a speedup compared to existing algorithms by carefully selecting the order in which the nodes of a query subgraph are investigated. In order to achieve this, we developed a number of data structures and maximally exploited symmetry characteristics of the subgraph. We compared ISMA to a naive recursive tree-based algorithm and to a number of well-known subgraph matching algorithms. Our algorithm outperforms the other algorithms, especially on large networks and with large query subgraphs. An implementation of ISMA in Java is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/isma/.
Demeyer, Sofie; Michoel, Tom; Fostier, Jan; Audenaert, Pieter; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet
2013-01-01
Subgraph matching algorithms are designed to find all instances of predefined subgraphs in a large graph or network and play an important role in the discovery and analysis of so-called network motifs, subgraph patterns which occur more often than expected by chance. We present the index-based subgraph matching algorithm (ISMA), a novel tree-based algorithm. ISMA realizes a speedup compared to existing algorithms by carefully selecting the order in which the nodes of a query subgraph are investigated. In order to achieve this, we developed a number of data structures and maximally exploited symmetry characteristics of the subgraph. We compared ISMA to a naive recursive tree-based algorithm and to a number of well-known subgraph matching algorithms. Our algorithm outperforms the other algorithms, especially on large networks and with large query subgraphs. An implementation of ISMA in Java is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/isma/. PMID:23620730
Demeyer, Sofie; Michoel, Tom; Fostier, Jan; Audenaert, Pieter; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet
2013-01-01
Subgraph matching algorithms are designed to find all instances of predefined subgraphs in a large graph or network and play an important role in the discovery and analysis of so-called network motifs, subgraph patterns which occur more often than expected by chance. We present the index-based subgraph matching algorithm (ISMA), a novel tree-based algorithm. ISMA realizes a speedup compared to existing algorithms by carefully selecting the order in which the nodes of a query subgraph are inve...
Li, Chun-Ta; Wu, Tsu-Yang; Chen, Chin-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chien-Ming
2017-06-23
In recent years, with the increase in degenerative diseases and the aging population in advanced countries, demands for medical care of older or solitary people have increased continually in hospitals and healthcare institutions. Applying wireless sensor networks for the IoT-based telemedicine system enables doctors, caregivers or families to monitor patients' physiological conditions at anytime and anyplace according to the acquired information. However, transmitting physiological data through the Internet concerns the personal privacy of patients. Therefore, before users can access medical care services in IoT-based medical care system, they must be authenticated. Typically, user authentication and data encryption are most critical for securing network communications over a public channel between two or more participants. In 2016, Liu and Chung proposed a bilinear pairing-based password authentication scheme for wireless healthcare sensor networks. They claimed their authentication scheme cannot only secure sensor data transmission, but also resist various well-known security attacks. In this paper, we demonstrate that Liu-Chung's scheme has some security weaknesses, and we further present an improved secure authentication and data encryption scheme for the IoT-based medical care system, which can provide user anonymity and prevent the security threats of replay and password/sensed data disclosure attacks. Moreover, we modify the authentication process to reduce redundancy in protocol design, and the proposed scheme is more efficient in performance compared with previous related schemes. Finally, the proposed scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model under ECDHP.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanyuan Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since the concept of ubiquitous computing is firstly proposed by Mark Weiser, its connotation has been extending and expanding by many scholars. In pervasive computing application environment, many kinds of small devices containing smart cart are used to communicate with others. In 2013, Yang et al. proposed an enhanced authentication scheme using smart card for digital rights management. They demonstrated that their scheme is secure enough. However, Mishra et al. pointed out that Yang et al.’s scheme suffers from the password guessing attack and the denial of service attack. Moreover, they also demonstrated that Yang et al.’s scheme is not efficient enough when the user inputs an incorrect password. In this paper, we analyze Yang et al.’s scheme again, and find that their scheme is vulnerable to the session key attack. And, there are some mistakes in their scheme. To surmount the weakness of Yang et al.’s scheme, we propose a more efficient and provable secure digital rights management authentication scheme using smart card based on elliptic curve cryptography.
Wu, Tsu-Yang; Chen, Chin-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chien-Ming
2017-01-01
In recent years, with the increase in degenerative diseases and the aging population in advanced countries, demands for medical care of older or solitary people have increased continually in hospitals and healthcare institutions. Applying wireless sensor networks for the IoT-based telemedicine system enables doctors, caregivers or families to monitor patients’ physiological conditions at anytime and anyplace according to the acquired information. However, transmitting physiological data through the Internet concerns the personal privacy of patients. Therefore, before users can access medical care services in IoT-based medical care system, they must be authenticated. Typically, user authentication and data encryption are most critical for securing network communications over a public channel between two or more participants. In 2016, Liu and Chung proposed a bilinear pairing-based password authentication scheme for wireless healthcare sensor networks. They claimed their authentication scheme cannot only secure sensor data transmission, but also resist various well-known security attacks. In this paper, we demonstrate that Liu–Chung’s scheme has some security weaknesses, and we further present an improved secure authentication and data encryption scheme for the IoT-based medical care system, which can provide user anonymity and prevent the security threats of replay and password/sensed data disclosure attacks. Moreover, we modify the authentication process to reduce redundancy in protocol design, and the proposed scheme is more efficient in performance compared with previous related schemes. Finally, the proposed scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model under ECDHP. PMID:28644381
Refining discordant gene trees.
Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver
2014-01-01
Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The author investigates the query optimization problem for parallel relational databases. A multi-weighted tree based query optimization method is proposed. The method consists of a multi-weighted tree based parallel query plan model, a cost model for parallel qury plans and a query optimizer. The parallel query plan model is the first one to model all basic relational operations, all three types of parallelism of query execution, processor and memory allocation to operations, memory allocation to the buffers between operations in pipelines and data redistribution among processors.The cost model takes the waiting time of the operations in pipelining execution into consideration and is computable in a bottom-up fashion. The query optimizer addresses the query optimization problem in the context of Select-Project-Join queries that are widely used in commercial DBMSs. Several heuristics determining the processor allocation to operations are derived and used in the query optimizer. The query optimizer is aware of memory resources in order to generate good-quality plans. It includes the heuristics for determining the memory allocation to operations and buffers between operations in pipelines so that the memory resourse is fully exploit. In addition, multiple algorithms for implementing join operations are consided in the query optimizer. The query optimizer can make an optimal choice of join algorithm for each join operation in a query. The proposed query optimization method has been used in a prototype parallel database management system designed and implemented by the author.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longhi, Antonio Eduardo Bier; Pessoa, Artur Alves; Garcia, Pauli Adriano de Almada
2015-01-01
Since low-demand safety instrumented systems (SISs) do not operate continuously, their failures are often only detected when the system is demanded or tested. The conduction of tests, besides adding costs, can raise risks of failure on demand during their execution and also increase the frequency of spurious activation. Additionally, it is often necessary to interrupt production to carry out tests. In light of this scenario, this paper presents a model to optimize strategies for operation and testing of these systems, applying modeling by fault trees associated with optimization by a genetic algorithm. Its main differences are: (i) ability to represent four modes of operation and test them for each SIS subsystem; (ii) ability to represent a SIS that executes more than one safety instrumented function; (iii) ability to keep track of the down-time generated in the production system; and (iv) alteration of a genetic selection mechanism that permits identification of more efficient solutions with smaller influence on the optimization parameters. These aspects are presented by applying this model in three case studies. The results obtained show the applicability of the proposed approach and its potential to help make more informed decisions. - Highlights: • Models the integrity and cost related to operation and testing of low-demand SISs. • Keeps track of the production down-time generated by SIS tests and repairs. • Allows multiobjective optimization to identify operation and testing strategies. • Enables integrated assessment of an SIS that executes more than one SIF. • Allows altering the selection mechanism to identify the most efficient strategies
Which trees should be removed in thinning?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timo Pukkala
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background: In economically optimal management, trees that are removed in a thinning treatment should be selected on the basis of their value, relative value increment and the effect of removal on the growth of remaining trees. Large valuable trees with decreased value increment should be removed, especially when they overtop smaller trees. Methods: This study optimized the tree selection rule in the thinning treatments of continuous cover management when the aim is to maximize the profitability of forest management. The weights of three criteria (stem value, relative value increment and effect of removal on the competition of remaining trees were optimized together with thinning intervals. Results and conclusions: The results confirmed the hypothesis that optimal thinning involves removing predominantly large trees. Increasing stumpage value, decreasing relative value increment, and increasing competitive influence increased the likelihood that removal is optimal decision. However, if the spatial distribution of trees is irregular, it is optimal to leave large trees in sparse places and remove somewhat smaller trees from dense places. However, the benefit of optimal thinning, as compared to diameter limit cutting is not usually large in pure one-species stands. On the contrary, removing the smallest trees from the stand may lead to significant (30–40 % reductions in the net present value of harvest incomes. Keywords: Continuous cover forestry, Tree selection, High thinning, Optimal management, Spatial distribution, Spatial growth model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ádám Z Lendvai
Full Text Available Studies of animal behavior often rely on human observation, which introduces a number of limitations on sampling. Recent developments in automated logging of behaviors make it possible to circumvent some of these problems. Once verified for efficacy and accuracy, these automated systems can be used to determine optimal sampling regimes for behavioral studies. Here, we used a radio-frequency identification (RFID system to quantify parental effort in a bi-parental songbird species: the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor. We found that the accuracy of the RFID monitoring system was similar to that of video-recorded behavioral observations for quantifying parental visits. Using RFID monitoring, we also quantified the optimum duration of sampling periods for male and female parental effort by looking at the relationship between nest visit rates estimated from sampling periods with different durations and the total visit numbers for the day. The optimum sampling duration (the shortest observation time that explained the most variation in total daily visits per unit time was 1h for both sexes. These results show that RFID and other automated technologies can be used to quantify behavior when human observation is constrained, and the information from these monitoring technologies can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of human observation methods.
A Provably Necessary Symbiosis
Hochberg, Robert; Gabric, Kathleen
2010-01-01
The "new biology" of the 21st century is increasingly dependent on mathematics, and preparing high school students to have both strong science and math skills has created major challenges for both disciplines. Researchers and educators in biology and mathematics have been working long hours on a project to create high school teaching modules…
A bicriterion Steiner tree problem on graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vujošević Mirko B.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a formulation of bicriterion Steiner tree problem which is stated as a task of finding a Steiner tree with maximal capacity and minimal length. It is considered as a lexicographic multicriteria problem. This means that the bottleneck Steiner tree problem is solved first. After that, the next optimization problem is stated as a classical minimums Steiner tree problem under the constraint on capacity of the tree. The paper also presents some computational experiments with the multicriteria problem.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.
Tree compression with top trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.
2013-01-01
We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...
Tree compression with top trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.
2015-01-01
We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...
... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...
Stonecipher, Karl; Parrish, Joseph; Stonecipher, Megan
2018-05-18
This review is intended to update and educate the reader on the currently available options for laser vision correction, more specifically, laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). In addition, some related clinical outcomes data from over 1000 cases performed over a 1-year are presented to highlight some differences between the various treatment profiles currently available including the rapidity of visual recovery. The cases in question were performed on the basis of a decision tree to segregate patients on the basis of anatomical, topographic and aberrometry findings; the decision tree was formulated based on the data available in some of the reviewed articles. Numerous recent studies reported in the literature provide data related to the risks and benefits of LASIK; alternatives to a laser refractive procedure are also discussed. The results from these studies have been used to prepare a decision tree to assist the surgeon in choosing the best option for the patient based on the data from several standard preoperative diagnostic tests. The data presented here should aid surgeons in understanding the effects of currently available LASIK treatment profiles. Surgeons should also be able to appreciate how the findings were used to create a decision tree to help choose the most appropriate treatment profile for patients. Finally, the retrospective evaluation of clinical outcomes based on the decision tree should provide surgeons with a realistic expectation for their own outcomes should they adopt such a decision tree in their own practice.
Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.
Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A
2017-02-02
Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert
2012-01-01
We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
user
Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.
Tolman, Marvin
2005-01-01
Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen
2018-01-01
We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Srimath
Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.
Barekati-Goudarzi, Mohamad; Boldor, Dorin; Nde, Divine B
2016-02-01
In-situ transesterification (simultaneous extraction and transesterification) of Chinese tallow tree seeds into methyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A high degree of oil extraction and efficient conversion of oil to biodiesel were found in the proposed range. The process was further optimized in terms of product yields and conversion rates using Doehlert optimization methodology. Based on the experimental results and statistical analysis, the optimal production yield conditions for this process were determined as: catalyst concentration of 1.74wt.%, solvent ratio about 3 (v/w), reaction time of 20min and temperature of 58.1°C. H(+)NMR was used to calculate reaction conversion. All methyl esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Durable Flash Memory Search Tree
Clay III, James; Wortman, Kevin
2012-01-01
We consider the task of optimizing the B-tree data structure, used extensively in operating systems and databases, for sustainable usage on multi-level flash memory. Empirical evidence shows that this new flash memory tree, or FM Tree, extends the operational lifespan of each block of flash memory by a factor of roughly 27 to 70 times, while still supporting logarithmic-time search tree operations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles E. Flower
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Forest resources face numerous threats that require costly management. Hence, there is an increasing need for data-informed strategies to guide conservation practices. The introduction of the emerald ash borer to North America has caused rapid declines in ash populations (Fraxinus spp. L.. Natural resource managers are faced with a choice of either allowing ash trees to die, risking forest degradation and reduced functional resilience, or investing in conserving trees to preserve ecosystem structure and standing genetic diversity. The information needed to guide these decisions is not always readily available. Therefore, to address this concern, we used eight microsatellites to genotype 352 white ash trees (Fraxinus americana L. across 17 populations in the Allegheny National Forest; a subset of individuals sampled are part of an insecticide treatment regimen. Genetic diversity (number of alleles and He was equivalent in treated and untreated trees, with little evidence of differentiation or inbreeding, suggesting current insecticidal treatment is conserving local, neutral genetic diversity. Using simulations, we demonstrated that best practice is treating more populations rather than more trees in fewer populations. Furthermore, through genetic screening, conservation practitioners can select highly diverse and unique populations to maximize diversity and reduce expenditures (by up to 21%. These findings will help practitioners develop cost-effective strategies to conserve genetic diversity.
Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert
2016-01-01
We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.
Optimally Stopped Optimization
Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel
We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known, and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time, optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer and the HFS solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N = 1098 variables, the D-Wave device is between one to two orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S
2013-01-01
The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Srimath
shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.
Urban tree mortality: a primer on demographic approaches
Lara A. Roman; John J. Battles; Joe R. McBride
2016-01-01
Realizing the benefits of tree planting programs depends on tree survival. Projections of urban forest ecosystem services and cost-benefit analyses are sensitive to assumptions about tree mortality rates. Long-term mortality data are needed to improve the accuracy of these models and optimize the public investment in tree planting. With more accurate population...
Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.
Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco
2013-11-01
Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
sriranga
Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
user
Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening.
Mark J. Ambrose
2012-01-01
Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.
Univariate decision tree induction using maximum margin classification
Yıldız, Olcay Taner
2012-01-01
In many pattern recognition applications, first decision trees are used due to their simplicity and easily interpretable nature. In this paper, we propose a new decision tree learning algorithm called univariate margin tree where, for each continuous attribute, the best split is found using convex optimization. Our simulation results on 47 data sets show that the novel margin tree classifier performs at least as good as C4.5 and linear discriminant tree (LDT) with a similar time complexity. F...
Stock Picking via Nonsymmetrically Pruned Binary Decision Trees
Anton Andriyashin
2008-01-01
Stock picking is the field of financial analysis that is of particular interest for many professional investors and researchers. In this study stock picking is implemented via binary classification trees. Optimal tree size is believed to be the crucial factor in forecasting performance of the trees. While there exists a standard method of tree pruning, which is based on the cost-complexity tradeoff and used in the majority of studies employing binary decision trees, this paper introduces a no...
Rojas Huamani, Jairo Martin
2017-01-01
The main goal is to have a direct measurement of the Yukawa coupling of the Higgs boson to the top quark which is only possible in the production process → ttH + . In this analysis, final states with 2 same sign leptons (neutrinos not counted) have been used in order to estimate the expected significance of the ttH process. A study using Boosted Decision Trees was done using Monte Carlo simulation equivalent to a luminosity of 36.5 fb-1 at √s=13 TeV, characteristics of the years 2015 and 2016 of Run-2 at LHC. The focus of my summer student program was to investigate the performance of the BDT, mainly: To avoid building of a rigid and possible overtrained BTD (Boosted Decision Tree) in charge of identifying pp→ttH+X process by removing systematically the number of variables used in the analysis. Look the expected sensitivity’s dependence on different parameters that takes in account the BDT.
Properly placed shade trees reduce summertime electricity bills in Sacramento, California
Geoffery H. Donovan; David R. Butry
2009-01-01
The discovery that shade trees can reduce home cooling costs is hardly surprising. Anybody who has sat under a tree on a warm summer day understands the shade benefit of trees. However, quantifying the effect a shade tree has on home energy use and carbon footprint, and identifying the optimal location for a shade tree, is less straightforward. Past studies that have...
Timing-Driven-Testable Convergent Tree Adders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johnnie A. Huang
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Carry lookahead adders have been, over the years, implemented in complex arithmetic units due to their regular structure which leads to efficient VLSI implementation for fast adders. In this paper, timing-driven testability synthesis is first performed on a tree adder. It is shown that the structure of the tree adder provides for a high fanout with an imbalanced tree structure, which likely contributes to a racing effect and increases the delay of the circuit. The timing optimization is then realized by reducing the maximum fanout of the adder and by balancing the tree circuit. For a 56-b testable tree adder, the optimization produces a 6.37%increase in speed of the critical path while only contributing a 2.16% area overhead. The full testability of the circuit is achieved in the optimized adder design.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Esben Sloth
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to bring forth an interaction between evolutionary economics and industrial systematics. The suggested solution is to reconstruct the "family tree" of the industries. Such a tree is based on similarities, but it may also reflect the evolutionary history in industries....... For this purpose the paper shows how matrices of input-output coefficients can be transformed into binary characteristics matrices and to distance matrices, and it also discusses the possible evolutionary meaning of this translation. Then these derived matrices are used as inputs to algorithms for the heuristic...... finding of optimal industrial trees. The results are presented as taxonomic trees that can easily be compared with the hierarchical structure of existing systems of industrial classification....
Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees
Engelfriet, Joost
1976-01-01
The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.
TreeNetViz: revealing patterns of networks over tree structures.
Gou, Liang; Zhang, Xiaolong Luke
2011-12-01
Network data often contain important attributes from various dimensions such as social affiliations and areas of expertise in a social network. If such attributes exhibit a tree structure, visualizing a compound graph consisting of tree and network structures becomes complicated. How to visually reveal patterns of a network over a tree has not been fully studied. In this paper, we propose a compound graph model, TreeNet, to support visualization and analysis of a network at multiple levels of aggregation over a tree. We also present a visualization design, TreeNetViz, to offer the multiscale and cross-scale exploration and interaction of a TreeNet graph. TreeNetViz uses a Radial, Space-Filling (RSF) visualization to represent the tree structure, a circle layout with novel optimization to show aggregated networks derived from TreeNet, and an edge bundling technique to reduce visual complexity. Our circular layout algorithm reduces both total edge-crossings and edge length and also considers hierarchical structure constraints and edge weight in a TreeNet graph. These experiments illustrate that the algorithm can reduce visual cluttering in TreeNet graphs. Our case study also shows that TreeNetViz has the potential to support the analysis of a compound graph by revealing multiscale and cross-scale network patterns. © 2011 IEEE
E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini
2010-01-01
We know that âtrees are good,â and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individualâs attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...
Phylogenetic search through partial tree mixing
2012-01-01
Background Recent advances in sequencing technology have created large data sets upon which phylogenetic inference can be performed. Current research is limited by the prohibitive time necessary to perform tree search on a reasonable number of individuals. This research develops new phylogenetic algorithms that can operate on tens of thousands of species in a reasonable amount of time through several innovative search techniques. Results When compared to popular phylogenetic search algorithms, better trees are found much more quickly for large data sets. These algorithms are incorporated in the PSODA application available at http://dna.cs.byu.edu/psoda Conclusions The use of Partial Tree Mixing in a partition based tree space allows the algorithm to quickly converge on near optimal tree regions. These regions can then be searched in a methodical way to determine the overall optimal phylogenetic solution. PMID:23320449
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahr, Patrick
2012-01-01
Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...
David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond
2015-01-01
Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...
Tree Resolution Proofs of the Weak Pigeon-Hole Principle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dantchev, Stefan Stajanov; Riis, Søren
2001-01-01
We prove that any optimal tree resolution proof of PHPn m is of size 2&thetas;(n log n), independently from m, even if it is infinity. So far, only a 2Ω(n) lower bound has been known in the general case. We also show that any, not necessarily optimal, regular tree resolution proof PHPn m is bound...
Malhi, Yadvinder; Jackson, Tobias; Patrick Bentley, Lisa; Lau, Alvaro; Shenkin, Alexander; Herold, Martin; Calders, Kim; Bartholomeus, Harm; Disney, Mathias I
2018-04-06
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) opens up the possibility of describing the three-dimensional structures of trees in natural environments with unprecedented detail and accuracy. It is already being extensively applied to describe how ecosystem biomass and structure vary between sites, but can also facilitate major advances in developing and testing mechanistic theories of tree form and forest structure, thereby enabling us to understand why trees and forests have the biomass and three-dimensional structure they do. Here we focus on the ecological challenges and benefits of understanding tree form, and highlight some advances related to capturing and describing tree shape that are becoming possible with the advent of TLS. We present examples of ongoing work that applies, or could potentially apply, new TLS measurements to better understand the constraints on optimization of tree form. Theories of resource distribution networks, such as metabolic scaling theory, can be tested and further refined. TLS can also provide new approaches to the scaling of woody surface area and crown area, and thereby better quantify the metabolism of trees. Finally, we demonstrate how we can develop a more mechanistic understanding of the effects of avoidance of wind risk on tree form and maximum size. Over the next few years, TLS promises to deliver both major empirical and conceptual advances in the quantitative understanding of trees and tree-dominated ecosystems, leading to advances in understanding the ecology of why trees and ecosystems look and grow the way they do.
Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.
Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume
2013-01-01
The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.
Quantifying branch architecture of tropical trees using terrestrial LiDAR and 3D modelling
Lau, Alvaro; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Martius, Christopher; Shenkin, Alexander; Bartholomeus, Harm; Raumonen, Pasi; Malhi, Yadvinder; Jackson, Tobias; Herold, Martin
2018-01-01
Tree architecture is the three-dimensional arrangement of above ground parts of a tree. Ecologists hypothesize that the topology of tree branches represents optimized adaptations to tree’s environment. Thus, an accurate description of tree architecture leads to a better understanding of how form is
E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper
2012-01-01
This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...
Kevin T. Smith
2009-01-01
Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...
Microwave sensing of tree trunks
Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien
2015-04-01
The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model
Reconciliation with non-binary species trees.
Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton; Durand, Dannie
2008-10-01
Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|V(G) | x (k(S) + h(S))) time, where |V(G)| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, h(S) is the height of the species tree and k(S) is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in NOTUNG, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets.
Classification and regression trees
Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J
1984-01-01
The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.
Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Design of data structures for mergeable trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Georgiadis, Loukas; Tarjan, Robert Endre; Werneck, Renato Fonseca F.
2006-01-01
merge operation can change many arcs. In spite of this, we develop a data structure that supports merges and all other standard tree operations in O(log2 n) amortized time on an n-node forest. For the special case that occurs in the motivating application, in which arbitrary arc deletions...... are not allowed, we give a data structure with an O(log n) amortized time bound per operation, which is asymptotically optimal. The analysis of both algorithms is not straightforward and requires ideas not previously used in the study of dynamic trees. We explore the design space of algorithms for the problem......Motivated by an application in computational topology, we consider a novel variant of the problem of efficiently maintaining dynamic rooted trees. This variant allows an operation that merges two tree paths. In contrast to the standard problem, in which only one tree arc at a time changes, a single...
The decision tree approach to classification
Wu, C.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Swain, P. H.
1975-01-01
A class of multistage decision tree classifiers is proposed and studied relative to the classification of multispectral remotely sensed data. The decision tree classifiers are shown to have the potential for improving both the classification accuracy and the computation efficiency. Dimensionality in pattern recognition is discussed and two theorems on the lower bound of logic computation for multiclass classification are derived. The automatic or optimization approach is emphasized. Experimental results on real data are reported, which clearly demonstrate the usefulness of decision tree classifiers.
Stratified B-trees and versioning dictionaries
Twigg, Andy; Byde, Andrew; Milos, Grzegorz; Moreton, Tim; Wilkes, John; Wilkie, Tom
2011-01-01
A classic versioned data structure in storage and computer science is the copy-on-write (CoW) B-tree -- it underlies many of today's file systems and databases, including WAFL, ZFS, Btrfs and more. Unfortunately, it doesn't inherit the B-tree's optimality properties; it has poor space utilization, cannot offer fast updates, and relies on random IO to scale. Yet, nothing better has been developed since. We describe the `stratified B-tree', which beats all known semi-external memory versioned B...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.
1981-01-01
This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation
Stochastic search, optimization and regression with energy applications
Hannah, Lauren A.
Designing clean energy systems will be an important task over the next few decades. One of the major roadblocks is a lack of mathematical tools to economically evaluate those energy systems. However, solutions to these mathematical problems are also of interest to the operations research and statistical communities in general. This thesis studies three problems that are of interest to the energy community itself or provide support for solution methods: R&D portfolio optimization, nonparametric regression and stochastic search with an observable state variable. First, we consider the one stage R&D portfolio optimization problem to avoid the sequential decision process associated with the multi-stage. The one stage problem is still difficult because of a non-convex, combinatorial decision space and a non-convex objective function. We propose a heuristic solution method that uses marginal project values---which depend on the selected portfolio---to create a linear objective function. In conjunction with the 0-1 decision space, this new problem can be solved as a knapsack linear program. This method scales well to large decision spaces. We also propose an alternate, provably convergent algorithm that does not exploit problem structure. These methods are compared on a solid oxide fuel cell R&D portfolio problem. Next, we propose Dirichlet Process mixtures of Generalized Linear Models (DPGLM), a new method of nonparametric regression that accommodates continuous and categorical inputs, and responses that can be modeled by a generalized linear model. We prove conditions for the asymptotic unbiasedness of the DP-GLM regression mean function estimate. We also give examples for when those conditions hold, including models for compactly supported continuous distributions and a model with continuous covariates and categorical response. We empirically analyze the properties of the DP-GLM and why it provides better results than existing Dirichlet process mixture regression
Implementing optimal thinning strategies
Kurt H. Riitters; J. Douglas Brodie
1984-01-01
Optimal thinning regimes for achieving several management objectives were derived from two stand-growth simulators by dynamic programming. Residual mean tree volumes were then plotted against stand density management diagrams. The results supported the use of density management diagrams for comparing, checking, and implementing the results of optimization analyses....
Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2015-11-19
We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.
Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan
The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daria Pimenta de Oliveira
2006-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to define the optimal conditions for invertase assay, seeking to determine the ideal parameters for the different isoenzymes of leaf and bark tissues in adult rubber trees. Assays of varying pH, sucrose concentration and temperature of the reaction medium were conducted for the two investigated isoenzymes. The results pointed out the existence of two different pH related isoforms for the two analyzed tissues, with an isoenzyme being more active at pH 5,5 and the other at neutral/alkaline pH. Leaf blade isoenzymes presented similar values for substrate concentration, whereas the bark isoenzyme presented maximum values below those previously reported. The assays at different temperatures presented similar values for leaf isoenzymes, though they have differed significantly among the obtained values.O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir as condições ótimas para a realização do ensaio enzimático da invertase, procurando-se determinar os parâmetros ideais para as diferentes isoenzimas de tecidos foliares e da casca de plantas adultas de seringueira. Foram realizados ensaios variando-se o pH, a concentração da sacarose e a temperatura do meio de reação para as duas isoenzimas estudadas. Os resultados indicaram a existência de duas isoformas diferentes em relação ao pH nos dois tecidos analisados, sendo uma isoenzima mais ativa a pH 5,5 e outra em pH neutro/alcalino. Com relação à concentração do substrato, as isoenzimas da lâmina foliar apresentaram valores semelhantes, enquanto a isoenzima da casca, valores máximos inferiores aos observados anteriormente. Os ensaios conduzidos em diferentes temperaturas tiveram valores semelhantes nas isoenzimas da folha, embora tenham diferido significativamente entre dos valores obtidos.
Total Path Length and Number of Terminal Nodes for Decision Trees
Hussain, Shahid
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new tool for study of relationships between total path length (average depth) and number of terminal nodes for decision trees. These relationships are important from the point of view of optimization of decision trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid
2015-01-01
We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...
System optimization by fault tree analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krieger, G.
1985-01-01
Reliability evaluation are performed during design phasis as well as during erection phasis. Sensitivity analysis are performed to evaluate the balance of system. A suitable representation allows cost and related effect to be directly determined. Thus there is an advantage for decision making where as qualitative evaluations do not give so much insight. (orig.) [de
2011-03-01
To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...
Buntine, Wray
1994-01-01
IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.
Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.
Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.
This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas
2015-01-01
We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid
2013-01-01
We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...
Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy
2011-01-01
Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.
cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....
Towards improving searches for optimal phylogenies.
Ford, Eric; St John, Katherine; Wheeler, Ward C
2015-01-01
Finding the optimal evolutionary history for a set of taxa is a challenging computational problem, even when restricting possible solutions to be "tree-like" and focusing on the maximum-parsimony optimality criterion. This has led to much work on using heuristic tree searches to find approximate solutions. We present an approach for finding exact optimal solutions that employs and complements the current heuristic methods for finding optimal trees. Given a set of taxa and a set of aligned sequences of characters, there may be subsets of characters that are compatible, and for each such subset there is an associated (possibly partially resolved) phylogeny with edges corresponding to each character state change. These perfect phylogenies serve as anchor trees for our constrained search space. We show that, for sequences with compatible sites, the parsimony score of any tree [Formula: see text] is at least the parsimony score of the anchor trees plus the number of inferred changes between [Formula: see text] and the anchor trees. As the maximum-parsimony optimality score is additive, the sum of the lower bounds on compatible character partitions provides a lower bound on the complete alignment of characters. This yields a region in the space of trees within which the best tree is guaranteed to be found; limiting the search for the optimal tree to this region can significantly reduce the number of trees that must be examined in a search of the space of trees. We analyze this method empirically using four different biological data sets as well as surveying 400 data sets from the TreeBASE repository, demonstrating the effectiveness of our technique in reducing the number of steps in exact heuristic searches for trees under the maximum-parsimony optimality criterion. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Puillandre
2017-09-01
Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.
Ghadie, Mohamed A; Japkowicz, Nathalie; Perkins, Theodore J
2015-08-15
Stem cell differentiation is largely guided by master transcriptional regulators, but it also depends on the expression of other types of genes, such as cell cycle genes, signaling genes, metabolic genes, trafficking genes, etc. Traditional approaches to understanding gene expression patterns across multiple conditions, such as principal components analysis or K-means clustering, can group cell types based on gene expression, but they do so without knowledge of the differentiation hierarchy. Hierarchical clustering can organize cell types into a tree, but in general this tree is different from the differentiation hierarchy itself. Given the differentiation hierarchy and gene expression data at each node, we construct a weighted Euclidean distance metric such that the minimum spanning tree with respect to that metric is precisely the given differentiation hierarchy. We provide a set of linear constraints that are provably sufficient for the desired construction and a linear programming approach to identify sparse sets of weights, effectively identifying genes that are most relevant for discriminating different parts of the tree. We apply our method to microarray gene expression data describing 38 cell types in the hematopoiesis hierarchy, constructing a weighted Euclidean metric that uses just 175 genes. However, we find that there are many alternative sets of weights that satisfy the linear constraints. Thus, in the style of random-forest training, we also construct metrics based on random subsets of the genes and compare them to the metric of 175 genes. We then report on the selected genes and their biological functions. Our approach offers a new way to identify genes that may have important roles in stem cell differentiation. tperkins@ohri.ca Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Optimal Halbach permanent magnet designs for maximally pulling and pushing nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarwar, A.; Nemirovski, A.; Shapiro, B.
2012-01-01
Optimization methods are presented to design Halbach arrays to maximize the forces applied on magnetic nanoparticles at deep tissue locations. In magnetic drug targeting, where magnets are used to focus therapeutic nanoparticles to disease locations, the sharp fall off of magnetic fields and forces with distances from magnets has limited the depth of targeting. Creating stronger forces at a depth by optimally designed Halbach arrays would allow treatment of a wider class of patients, e.g. patients with deeper tumors. The presented optimization methods are based on semi-definite quadratic programming, yield provably globally optimal Halbach designs in 2 and 3-dimensions, for maximal pull or push magnetic forces (stronger pull forces can collect nanoparticles against blood forces in deeper vessels; push forces can be used to inject particles into precise locations, e.g. into the inner ear). These Halbach designs, here tested in simulations of Maxwell's equations, significantly outperform benchmark magnets of the same size and strength. For example, a 3-dimensional 36 element 2000 cm 3 volume optimal Halbach design yields a 5× greater force at a 10 cm depth compared to a uniformly magnetized magnet of the same size and strength. The designed arrays should be feasible to construct, as they have a similar strength (≤1 T), size (≤2000 cm 3 ), and number of elements (≤36) as previously demonstrated arrays, and retain good performance for reasonable manufacturing errors (element magnetization direction errors ≤5°), thus yielding practical designs to improve magnetic drug targeting treatment depths. - Highlights: ► Optimization methods presented to design Halbach arrays for drug targeting. ► The goal is to maximize forces on magnetic nanoparticles at deep tissue locations. ► The presented methods yield provably globally optimal Halbach designs in 2D and 3D. ► These designs significantly outperform benchmark magnets of the same size and strength. ► These
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balasubramanian, K.
1982-01-01
A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees
Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan
2015-02-01
Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.
Protecting organic fruit trees from direct rain and sun
Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig
2017-01-01
Fruit trees grown in orchards are highly nursed to maintain a specific growth structure for optimal yield and maintenance. Maintenance includes heavy spraying protocols to avoid fungal diseases both in conventional and organic orchards. Would it be possible to avoid fungal diseases by shielding the trees.
FB-Tree: A B+-Tree for Flash-Based SSDs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Martin V.; Rasmussen, René B.; Saltenis, Simonas
2011-01-01
Due to their many advantages, flash-based SSDs (Solid-State Drives) have become a mainstream alternative to magnetic disks for database servers. Nevertheless, database systems, designed and optimized for magnetic disks, still do not fully exploit all the benefits of the new technology. We propose....... As a consequence, the FB-tree outperforms a regular B+-tree in all scenarios tested. For instance, the throughput of a random workload of 75% updates increases by a factor of three using only two times the space of the B+-tree....
Path Minima Queries in Dynamic Weighted Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao
2011-01-01
In the path minima problem on a tree, each edge is assigned a weight and a query asks for the edge with minimum weight on a path between two nodes. For the dynamic version of the problem, where the edge weights can be updated, we give data structures that achieve optimal query time\\todo{what about...
Favre, Charles
2004-01-01
This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.
Effects of tree-to-tree variations on sap flux-based transpiration estimates in a forested watershed
Kume, Tomonori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Komatsu, Hikaru; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Higashi, Naoko; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Otsuki, Kyoichi
2010-05-01
To estimate forest stand-scale water use, we assessed how sample sizes affect confidence of stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates calculated from sap flux (Fd) and sapwood area (AS_tree) measurements of individual trees. In a Japanese cypress plantation, we measured Fd and AS_tree in all trees (n = 58) within a 20 × 20 m study plot, which was divided into four 10 × 10 subplots. We calculated E from stand AS_tree (AS_stand) and mean stand Fd (JS) values. Using Monte Carlo analyses, we examined potential errors associated with sample sizes in E, AS_stand, and JS by using the original AS_tree and Fd data sets. Consequently, we defined optimal sample sizes of 10 and 15 for AS_stand and JS estimates, respectively, in the 20 × 20 m plot. Sample sizes greater than the optimal sample sizes did not decrease potential errors. The optimal sample sizes for JS changed according to plot size (e.g., 10 × 10 m and 10 × 20 m), while the optimal sample sizes for AS_stand did not. As well, the optimal sample sizes for JS did not change in different vapor pressure deficit conditions. In terms of E estimates, these results suggest that the tree-to-tree variations in Fd vary among different plots, and that plot size to capture tree-to-tree variations in Fd is an important factor. This study also discusses planning balanced sampling designs to extrapolate stand-scale estimates to catchment-scale estimates.
Coded Splitting Tree Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar
2013-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...
Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity
Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...
A support vector machine based test for incongruence between sets of trees in tree space
2012-01-01
Background The increased use of multi-locus data sets for phylogenetic reconstruction has increased the need to determine whether a set of gene trees significantly deviate from the phylogenetic patterns of other genes. Such unusual gene trees may have been influenced by other evolutionary processes such as selection, gene duplication, or horizontal gene transfer. Results Motivated by this problem we propose a nonparametric goodness-of-fit test for two empirical distributions of gene trees, and we developed the software GeneOut to estimate a p-value for the test. Our approach maps trees into a multi-dimensional vector space and then applies support vector machines (SVMs) to measure the separation between two sets of pre-defined trees. We use a permutation test to assess the significance of the SVM separation. To demonstrate the performance of GeneOut, we applied it to the comparison of gene trees simulated within different species trees across a range of species tree depths. Applied directly to sets of simulated gene trees with large sample sizes, GeneOut was able to detect very small differences between two set of gene trees generated under different species trees. Our statistical test can also include tree reconstruction into its test framework through a variety of phylogenetic optimality criteria. When applied to DNA sequence data simulated from different sets of gene trees, results in the form of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that GeneOut performed well in the detection of differences between sets of trees with different distributions in a multi-dimensional space. Furthermore, it controlled false positive and false negative rates very well, indicating a high degree of accuracy. Conclusions The non-parametric nature of our statistical test provides fast and efficient analyses, and makes it an applicable test for any scenario where evolutionary or other factors can lead to trees with different multi-dimensional distributions. The
Transforming phylogenetic networks: Moving beyond tree space.
Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang
2016-09-07
Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that are used to represent reticulate evolution. Unrooted phylogenetic networks form a special class of such networks, which naturally generalize unrooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we define two operations on unrooted phylogenetic networks, one of which is a generalization of the well-known nearest-neighbor interchange (NNI) operation on phylogenetic trees. We show that any unrooted phylogenetic network can be transformed into any other such network using only these operations. This generalizes the well-known fact that any phylogenetic tree can be transformed into any other such tree using only NNI operations. It also allows us to define a generalization of tree space and to define some new metrics on unrooted phylogenetic networks. To prove our main results, we employ some fascinating new connections between phylogenetic networks and cubic graphs that we have recently discovered. Our results should be useful in developing new strategies to search for optimal phylogenetic networks, a topic that has recently generated some interest in the literature, as well as for providing new ways to compare networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kevin T. Smith
2009-01-01
Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...
Decision tree methods: applications for classification and prediction.
Song, Yan-Yan; Lu, Ying
2015-04-25
Decision tree methodology is a commonly used data mining method for establishing classification systems based on multiple covariates or for developing prediction algorithms for a target variable. This method classifies a population into branch-like segments that construct an inverted tree with a root node, internal nodes, and leaf nodes. The algorithm is non-parametric and can efficiently deal with large, complicated datasets without imposing a complicated parametric structure. When the sample size is large enough, study data can be divided into training and validation datasets. Using the training dataset to build a decision tree model and a validation dataset to decide on the appropriate tree size needed to achieve the optimal final model. This paper introduces frequently used algorithms used to develop decision trees (including CART, C4.5, CHAID, and QUEST) and describes the SPSS and SAS programs that can be used to visualize tree structure.
Proactive data mining with decision trees
Dahan, Haim; Rokach, Lior; Maimon, Oded
2014-01-01
This book explores a proactive and domain-driven method to classification tasks. This novel proactive approach to data mining not only induces a model for predicting or explaining a phenomenon, but also utilizes specific problem/domain knowledge to suggest specific actions to achieve optimal changes in the value of the target attribute. In particular, the authors suggest a specific implementation of the domain-driven proactive approach for classification trees. The book centers on the core idea of moving observations from one branch of the tree to another. It introduces a novel splitting crite
SCHEME ANALYSIS TREE DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PROCESSING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constanta RADULESCU
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents one of the steps that help us to determine the optimal tolerances depending on thetechnological capability of processing equipment. To determine the tolerances in this way is necessary to takethe study and to represent schematically the operations are used in technological process of making a piece.Also in this phase will make the tree diagram of the dimensions and machining tolerances, dimensions andtolerances shown that the design execution. Determination processes, and operations of the dimensions andtolerances tree scheme will make for a machined piece is both indoor and outdoor.
Whelan, Simon
2007-10-01
Phylogenetic tree estimation plays a critical role in a wide variety of molecular studies, including molecular systematics, phylogenetics, and comparative genomics. Finding the optimal tree relating a set of sequences using score-based (optimality criterion) methods, such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, may require all possible trees to be considered, which is not feasible even for modest numbers of sequences. In practice, trees are estimated using heuristics that represent a trade-off between topological accuracy and speed. I present a series of novel algorithms suitable for score-based phylogenetic tree reconstruction that demonstrably improve the accuracy of tree estimates while maintaining high computational speeds. The heuristics function by allowing the efficient exploration of large numbers of trees through novel hill-climbing and resampling strategies. These heuristics, and other computational approximations, are implemented for maximum likelihood estimation of trees in the program Leaphy, and its performance is compared to other popular phylogenetic programs. Trees are estimated from 4059 different protein alignments using a selection of phylogenetic programs and the likelihoods of the tree estimates are compared. Trees estimated using Leaphy are found to have equal to or better likelihoods than trees estimated using other phylogenetic programs in 4004 (98.6%) families and provide a unique best tree that no other program found in 1102 (27.1%) families. The improvement is particularly marked for larger families (80 to 100 sequences), where Leaphy finds a unique best tree in 81.7% of families.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E
2015-01-01
We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)
J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson
2011-01-01
Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...
L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann
2005-01-01
In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.
1975-01-01
Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling
Tree biology and dendrochemistry
Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle
1996-01-01
Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...
Harvey A. Holt
1989-01-01
Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...
Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren
2017-01-01
This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.
Structural Equation Model Trees
Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman
2013-01-01
In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…
Matching Subsequences in Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li
2009-01-01
Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...
Environmental tritium in trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, R.M.
1979-01-01
The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)
Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil
2017-01-01
We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resul......We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...... as the complementing theory with a number of examples....
A recursive algorithm for trees and forests
Guo, Song; Guo, Victor J. W.
2017-01-01
Trees or rooted trees have been generously studied in the literature. A forest is a set of trees or rooted trees. Here we give recurrence relations between the number of some kind of rooted forest with $k$ roots and that with $k+1$ roots on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$. Classical formulas for counting various trees such as rooted trees, bipartite trees, tripartite trees, plane trees, $k$-ary plane trees, $k$-edge colored trees follow immediately from our recursive relations.
Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel
2006-01-01
It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldama, Mariana Espinosa
2015-01-01
The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)
Franklin, Oskar; Palmroth, Sari; Näsholm, Torgny
2014-11-01
Tree breeding and biotechnology can enhance forest productivity and help alleviate the rising pressure on forests from climate change and human exploitation. While many physiological processes and genes are targeted in search of genetically improved tree productivity, an overarching principle to guide this search is missing. Here, we propose a method to identify the traits that can be modified to enhance productivity, based on the differences between trees shaped by natural selection and 'improved' trees with traits optimized for productivity. We developed a tractable model of plant growth and survival to explore such potential modifications under a range of environmental conditions, from non-water limited to severely drought-limited sites. We show how key traits are controlled by a trade-off between productivity and survival, and that productivity can be increased at the expense of long-term survival by reducing isohydric behavior (stomatal regulation of leaf water potential) and allocation to defense against pests compared with native trees. In contrast, at dry sites occupied by naturally drought-resistant trees, the model suggests a better strategy may be to select trees with slightly lower wood density than the native trees and to augment isohydric behavior and allocation to defense. Thus, which traits to modify, and in which direction, depend on the original tree species or genotype, the growth environment and wood-quality versus volume production preferences. In contrast to this need for customization of drought and pest resistances, consistent large gains in productivity for all genotypes can be obtained if root traits can be altered to reduce competition for water and nutrients. Our approach illustrates the potential of using eco-evolutionary theory and modeling to guide plant breeding and genetic technology in selecting target traits in the quest for higher forest productivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved
Exact Algorithms for Duplication-Transfer-Loss Reconciliation with Non-Binary Gene Trees.
Kordi, Misagh; Bansal, Mukul S
2017-06-01
Duplication-Transfer-Loss (DTL) reconciliation is a powerful method for studying gene family evolution in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. DTL reconciliation seeks to reconcile gene trees with species trees by postulating speciation, duplication, transfer, and loss events. Efficient algorithms exist for finding optimal DTL reconciliations when the gene tree is binary. In practice, however, gene trees are often non-binary due to uncertainty in the gene tree topologies, and DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees is known to be NP-hard. In this paper, we present the first exact algorithms for DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees. Specifically, we (i) show that the DTL reconciliation problem for non-binary gene trees is fixed-parameter tractable in the maximum degree of the gene tree, (ii) present an exponential-time, but in-practice efficient, algorithm to track and enumerate all optimal binary resolutions of a non-binary input gene tree, and (iii) apply our algorithms to a large empirical data set of over 4700 gene trees from 100 species to study the impact of gene tree uncertainty on DTL-reconciliation and to demonstrate the applicability and utility of our algorithms. The new techniques and algorithms introduced in this paper will help biologists avoid incorrect evolutionary inferences caused by gene tree uncertainty.
Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance
Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.
2012-01-01
Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree
Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables
Kevin T. Smith
2018-01-01
The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...
A bijection between phylogenetic trees and plane oriented recursive trees
Prodinger, Helmut
2017-01-01
Phylogenetic trees are binary nonplanar trees with labelled leaves, and plane oriented recursive trees are planar trees with an increasing labelling. Both families are enumerated by double factorials. A bijection is constructed, using the respective representations a 2-partitions and trapezoidal words.
A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lobo, Albin
Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... organisms. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to explore genetic resilience and phenotypic plasticity mechanisms that allows trees to adapt and evolve with changing climates. The thesis focus on the abiotic factors associated with climate change, especially raised temperatures and lack...... age of these tree species and the uncertainty around the pace and effect of climate, it remains an open question if the native populations can respond fast enough. Phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic regulation of spring phenology is found to be present in a tree species which might act...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.
1985-01-01
What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de
Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees
Thompson, David R.
2011-01-01
Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter
2007-01-01
We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jaeger, Manfred
2006-01-01
We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....
2014-01-01
With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010. Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group
E.G. McPherson
2007-01-01
Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...
Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction
Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando
2015-01-01
We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of
Close to Optimally Secure Variants of GCM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Zhang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Galois/Counter Mode of operation (GCM is a widely used nonce-based authenticated encryption with associated data mode which provides the birthday-bound security in the nonce-respecting scenario; that is, it is secure up to about 2n/2 adversarial queries if all nonces used in the encryption oracle are never repeated, where n is the block size. It is an open problem to analyze whether GCM security can be improved by using some simple operations. This paper presents a positive response for this problem. Firstly, we introduce two close to optimally secure pseudorandom functions and derive their security bound by the hybrid technique. Then, we utilize these pseudorandom functions that we design and a universal hash function to construct two improved versions of GCM, called OGCM-1 and OGCM-2. OGCM-1 and OGCM-2 are, respectively, provably secure up to approximately 2n/67(n-12 and 2n/67 adversarial queries in the nonce-respecting scenario if the underlying block cipher is a secure pseudorandom permutation. Finally, we discuss the properties of OGCM-1 and OGCM-2 and describe the future works.
SCHEME ANALYSIS TREE DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PROCESSING
Constanta RADULESCU; Liviu Marius CÎRŢÎNĂ; Constantin MILITARU
2011-01-01
This paper presents one of the steps that help us to determine the optimal tolerances depending on thetechnological capability of processing equipment. To determine the tolerances in this way is necessary to takethe study and to represent schematically the operations are used in technological process of making a piece.Also in this phase will make the tree diagram of the dimensions and machining tolerances, dimensions andtolerances shown that the design execution. Determination processes, and ...
Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.
2012-12-01
Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kee, Ernest J.; Sun, Alice; Rodgers, Shawn; Popova, ElmiraV; Nelson, Paul; Moiseytseva, Vera; Wang, Eric
2006-01-01
South Texas Project uses a large fault tree to produce scenarios (minimal cut sets) used in quantification of plant availability and event frequency predictions. On the other hand, the South Texas Project probabilistic risk assessment model uses a large event tree, small fault tree for quantifying core damage and radioactive release frequency predictions. The South Texas Project is converting its availability and event frequency model to use a large event tree, small fault in an effort to streamline application support and to provide additional detail in results. The availability and event frequency model as well as the applications it supports (maintenance and operational risk management, system engineering health assessment, preventive maintenance optimization, and RIAM) are briefly described. A methodology to perform availability modeling in a large event tree, small fault tree framework is described in detail. How the methodology can be used to support South Texas Project maintenance and operations risk management is described in detail. Differences with other fault tree methods and other recently proposed methods are discussed in detail. While the methods described are novel to the South Texas Project Risk Management program and to large event tree, small fault tree models, concepts in the area of application support and availability modeling have wider applicability to the industry. (authors)
Economic Valuation of Urban Trees: Ribnjak Park Case Study, Zagreb
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karlo Beljan
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Population growth, urbanisation and technological development are creating a growing need for urban forests and parks, which are becoming green oases for recreation and relaxation. Apart from the sociological and economic components, urban forest valuation is presented through tourism, the market value of main and secondary forest products, and the growing value of real estate in the vicinity of green areas. Environmental economics explores the optimal ratio between the costs and the benefits received from the investment in the environment. The aim of this research is monetary valuation of urban trees. Materials and Methods: A Danish model for tree value determination was applied in Ribnjak Park as a case study. The model is based on tree growing costs and the present value. It is limited by the subjective aesthetic tree value estimation, but it is used in Europe because of its practicality. Individual tree value estimation is used because of the tree damage from vehicles or new residential buildings. The method is suitable for individual trees or groups of trees, but it is not appropriate for forest stands. Twenty random selected trees from nine different tree species have been analysed in the park. Diameter at breast height, tree height, expected age, aesthetic value and location were recorded for each tree. Furthermore, ecological, social and health tree values were taken into account separately with the calculation of points. Results: According to the evaluation, the average monetary value of one tree in Ribnjak Park is 542 EUR. The average diameter at breast height is 57.86 cm with the average age of 96.14 years. Plane trees have the highest value in comparison to other sampled species. Conclusions: Tree values vary depending on age, dimension or aesthetic values. The disadvantage of this method is in the estimation of very old tree value and in high involvement of personal estimation, which creates an opportunity
USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Öznur İŞÇİ
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.
Tree-inception in PMMA with a barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gefle, O S; Lebedev, S M; Pokholkov, Y P; Gockenbach, E; Borsi, H
2004-01-01
The experimental results of a study of the tree-inception phenomenon for three-layer dielectrics in a divergent field are presented in this paper. It is shown that the tree-inception time depends on both the position of the high-permittivity barrier in the insulating gap and the ratio of the permittivities of the barrier material and main dielectric, and that it has a maximum at the optimal barrier position. It is found that the tree-inception length has a minimum value at this barrier position. Good agreement between the coefficient of the local field non-uniformity and the tree-inception time or the initial tree length was found
Minimum spanning trees and random resistor networks in d dimensions.
Read, N
2005-09-01
We consider minimum-cost spanning trees, both in lattice and Euclidean models, in d dimensions. For the cost of the optimum tree in a box of size L , we show that there is a correction of order L(theta) , where theta or =1 . The arguments all rely on the close relation of Kruskal's greedy algorithm for the minimum spanning tree, percolation, and (for some arguments) random resistor networks. The scaling of the entropy and free energy at small nonzero T , and hence of the number of near-optimal solutions, is also discussed. We suggest that the Steiner tree problem is in the same universality class as the minimum spanning tree in all dimensions, as is the traveling salesman problem in two dimensions. Hence all will have the same value of theta=-3/4 in two dimensions.
Du, Ding-Zhu
2001-01-01
This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...
Context Tree Estimation in Variable Length Hidden Markov Models
Dumont, Thierry
2011-01-01
We address the issue of context tree estimation in variable length hidden Markov models. We propose an estimator of the context tree of the hidden Markov process which needs no prior upper bound on the depth of the context tree. We prove that the estimator is strongly consistent. This uses information-theoretic mixture inequalities in the spirit of Finesso and Lorenzo(Consistent estimation of the order for Markov and hidden Markov chains(1990)) and E.Gassiat and S.Boucheron (Optimal error exp...
Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kraus, Martin
2010-01-01
Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria
2012-01-01
The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....
ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees.
Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J
2009-07-31
Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.
Wind-Induced Reconfigurations in Flexible Branched Trees
Ojo, Oluwafemi; Shoele, Kourosh
2017-11-01
Wind induced stresses are the major mechanical cause of failure in trees. We know that the branching mechanism has an important effect on the stress distribution and stability of a tree in the wind. Eloy in PRL 2011, showed that Leonardo da Vinci's original observation which states the total cross section of branches is conserved across branching nodes is the best configuration for resisting wind-induced fracture in rigid trees. However, prediction of the fracture risk and pattern of a tree is also a function of their reconfiguration capabilities and how they mitigate large wind-induced stresses. In this studies through developing an efficient numerical simulation of flexible branched trees, we explore the role of the tree flexibility on the optimal branching. Our results show that the probability of a tree breaking at any point depends on both the cross-section changes in the branching nodes and the level of tree flexibility. It is found that the branching mechanism based on Leonardo da Vinci's original observation leads to a uniform stress distribution over a wide range of flexibilities but the pattern changes for more flexible systems.
Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees
S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes
Balgooy, van M.M.J.
1998-01-01
With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...
Programming macro tree transducers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.
2013-01-01
transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...
Mark J. Ambrose
2014-01-01
Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. Extremely high mortality, however, can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....
A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.
Offner, Susan
2001-01-01
Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Balcar, B.; Doucha, Michal; Hrušák, M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-81 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : forcing * Boolean algebras * base tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11083-013-9316-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard, Jean-Marc
2010-01-01
A brief review review is presented of models tentatively leading to stable multiquarks. A new attempt is presented, based on a Steiner-tree model of confinement, which is inspired by by QCD. It leads to more attraction than the empirical colour-additive model used in earlier multiquark calculations, and predict several multiquark states in configurations with different flavours.
Decision-Tree Formulation With Order-1 Lateral Execution
James, Mark
2007-01-01
A compact symbolic formulation enables mapping of an arbitrarily complex decision tree of a certain type into a highly computationally efficient multidimensional software object. The type of decision trees to which this formulation applies is that known in the art as the Boolean class of balanced decision trees. Parallel lateral slices of an object created by means of this formulation can be executed in constant time considerably less time than would otherwise be required. Decision trees of various forms are incorporated into almost all large software systems. A decision tree is a way of hierarchically solving a problem, proceeding through a set of true/false responses to a conclusion. By definition, a decision tree has a tree-like structure, wherein each internal node denotes a test on an attribute, each branch from an internal node represents an outcome of a test, and leaf nodes represent classes or class distributions that, in turn represent possible conclusions. The drawback of decision trees is that execution of them can be computationally expensive (and, hence, time-consuming) because each non-leaf node must be examined to determine whether to progress deeper into a tree structure or to examine an alternative. The present formulation was conceived as an efficient means of representing a decision tree and executing it in as little time as possible. The formulation involves the use of a set of symbolic algorithms to transform a decision tree into a multi-dimensional object, the rank of which equals the number of lateral non-leaf nodes. The tree can then be executed in constant time by means of an order-one table lookup. The sequence of operations performed by the algorithms is summarized as follows: 1. Determination of whether the tree under consideration can be encoded by means of this formulation. 2. Extraction of decision variables. 3. Symbolic optimization of the decision tree to minimize its form. 4. Expansion and transformation of all nested conjunctive
Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Austin Matthews
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.
Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees
Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David
2015-01-01
Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.
Cost Comparison Among Provable Data Possession Schemes
2016-03-01
of Acronyms and Abbreviations AE authenticated encryption AWS Amazon Web Services CIO Chief Information Officer DISA Defense Information Systems Agency...the number of possible challenges, H be a cryptographic hash function, AE be an authenticated encryption scheme, f be a keyed pseudo-random function...key kenc R←− Kenc for symmetric encryption scheme Enc, and a random HMAC key kmac R←− Kmac. The secret key is sk = 〈kenc, kmac〉 and public key is pk
Towards Provably Secure Efficiently Searchable Encryption
Sedghi, S.
2012-01-01
Traditional encryption systems are designed in such a way that either the whole data is decrypted, if the encryption and decryption keys match, or nothing is decrypted otherwise. However, there are applications that require a more flexible encryption system which supports decrypting data partially.
Optimization and Optimal Control
Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider
2010-01-01
During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou
Adjustable chain trees for proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus
2012-01-01
A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....
Introduction to fault tree analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.
1975-01-01
An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed
Gear, Jim
1993-01-01
The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)
Nyhuis, Jane
Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…
Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zachariasen, Martin
1999-01-01
The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...
Inferences from growing trees backwards
David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald
1997-01-01
The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...
Genetic transformation of forest trees
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Admin
In this review, the recent progress on genetic transformation of forest trees were discussed. Its described also, different applications of genetic engineering for improving forest trees or understanding the mechanisms governing genes expression in woody plants. Key words: Genetic transformation, transgenic forest trees, ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Radel, Dietrich; Sand, Andreas; Steel, Mike
2013-01-01
criterion. This provides, for the first time, a rigorous way to test tree search algorithms on homoplasy-rich data, where we know in advance what the ‘best’ tree is. In this short note we consider just one search program (TNT) but show that it is able to locate the globally optimal tree correctly for 32......Finding optimal evolutionary trees from sequence data is typically an intractable problem, and there is usually no way of knowing how close to optimal the best tree from some search truly is. The problem would seem to be particularly acute when we have many taxa and when that data has high levels...... of homoplasy, in which the individual characters require many changes to fit on the best tree. However, a recent mathematical result has provided a precise tool to generate a short number of high-homoplasy characters for any given tree, so that this tree is provably the optimal tree under the maximum parsimony...
TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sefa Akbulut
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.
Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.
Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin
2014-12-01
We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.
Decision and Inhibitory Trees for Decision Tables with Many-Valued Decisions
Azad, Mohammad
2018-06-06
Decision trees are one of the most commonly used tools in decision analysis, knowledge representation, machine learning, etc., for its simplicity and interpretability. We consider an extension of dynamic programming approach to process the whole set of decision trees for the given decision table which was previously only attainable by brute-force algorithms. We study decision tables with many-valued decisions (each row may contain multiple decisions) because they are more reasonable models of data in many cases. To address this problem in a broad sense, we consider not only decision trees but also inhibitory trees where terminal nodes are labeled with “̸= decision”. Inhibitory trees can sometimes describe more knowledge from datasets than decision trees. As for cost functions, we consider depth or average depth to minimize time complexity of trees, and the number of nodes or the number of the terminal, or nonterminal nodes to minimize the space complexity of trees. We investigate the multi-stage optimization of trees relative to some cost functions, and also the possibility to describe the whole set of strictly optimal trees. Furthermore, we study the bi-criteria optimization cost vs. cost and cost vs. uncertainty for decision trees, and cost vs. cost and cost vs. completeness for inhibitory trees. The most interesting application of the developed technique is the creation of multi-pruning and restricted multi-pruning approaches which are useful for knowledge representation and prediction. The experimental results show that decision trees constructed by these approaches can often outperform the decision trees constructed by the CART algorithm. Another application includes the comparison of 12 greedy heuristics for single- and bi-criteria optimization (cost vs. cost) of trees. We also study the three approaches (decision tables with many-valued decisions, decision tables with most common decisions, and decision tables with generalized decisions) to handle
Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.
Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A
2014-03-06
Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.
Greedy heuristics for minimization of number of terminal nodes in decision trees
Hussain, Shahid
2014-10-01
This paper describes, in detail, several greedy heuristics for construction of decision trees. We study the number of terminal nodes of decision trees, which is closely related with the cardinality of the set of rules corresponding to the tree. We compare these heuristics empirically for two different types of datasets (datasets acquired from UCI ML Repository and randomly generated data) as well as compare with the optimal results obtained using dynamic programming method.
Greedy heuristics for minimization of number of terminal nodes in decision trees
Hussain, Shahid
2014-01-01
This paper describes, in detail, several greedy heuristics for construction of decision trees. We study the number of terminal nodes of decision trees, which is closely related with the cardinality of the set of rules corresponding to the tree. We compare these heuristics empirically for two different types of datasets (datasets acquired from UCI ML Repository and randomly generated data) as well as compare with the optimal results obtained using dynamic programming method.
Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics
Ilstedt, U.; Bargués Tobella, A.; Bazié, H. R.; Bayala, J.; Verbeeten, E.; Nyberg, G.; Sanou, J.; Benegas, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Laudon, H.; Sheil, D.; Malmer, A.
2016-01-01
Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world’s people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people. PMID:26908158
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-09-01
Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele
2011-01-01
We review two novel techniques used to calculate tree-level scattering amplitudes efficiently: MHV diagrams, and on-shell recursion relations. For the MHV diagrams, we consider applications to tree-level amplitudes and focus in particular on the N=4 supersymmetric formulation. We also briefly describe the derivation of loop amplitudes using MHV diagrams. For the recursion relations, after presenting their general proof, we discuss several applications to massless theories with and without supersymmetry, to theories with massive particles, and to graviton amplitudes in general relativity. This article is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)
Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.
Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.
One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rob Garbutt
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.
Recursive Trees for Practical ORAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moataz Tarik
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We present a new, general data structure that reduces the communication cost of recent tree-based ORAMs. Contrary to ORAM trees with constant height and path lengths, our new construction r-ORAM allows for trees with varying shorter path length. Accessing an element in the ORAM tree results in different communication costs depending on the location of the element. The main idea behind r-ORAM is a recursive ORAM tree structure, where nodes in the tree are roots of other trees. While this approach results in a worst-case access cost (tree height at most as any recent tree-based ORAM, we show that the average cost saving is around 35% for recent binary tree ORAMs. Besides reducing communication cost, r-ORAM also reduces storage overhead on the server by 4% to 20% depending on the ORAM’s client memory type. To prove r-ORAM’s soundness, we conduct a detailed overflow analysis. r-ORAM’s recursive approach is general in that it can be applied to all recent tree ORAMs, both constant and poly-log client memory ORAMs. Finally, we implement and benchmark r-ORAM in a practical setting to back up our theoretical claims.
Mathematical foundations of event trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papazoglou, Ioannis A.
1998-01-01
A mathematical foundation from first principles of event trees is presented. The main objective of this formulation is to offer a formal basis for developing automated computer assisted construction techniques for event trees. The mathematical theory of event trees is based on the correspondence between the paths of the tree and the elements of the outcome space of a joint event. The concept of a basic cylinder set is introduced to describe joint event outcomes conditional on specific outcomes of basic events or unconditional on the outcome of basic events. The concept of outcome space partition is used to describe the minimum amount of information intended to be preserved by the event tree representation. These concepts form the basis for an algorithm for systematic search for and generation of the most compact (reduced) form of an event tree consistent with the minimum amount of information the tree should preserve. This mathematical foundation allows for the development of techniques for automated generation of event trees corresponding to joint events which are formally described through other types of graphical models. Such a technique has been developed for complex systems described by functional blocks and it is reported elsewhere. On the quantification issue of event trees, a formal definition of a probability space corresponding to the event tree outcomes is provided. Finally, a short discussion is offered on the relationship of the presented mathematical theory with the more general use of event trees in reliability analysis of dynamic systems
On defining a unique phylogenetic tree with homoplastic characters.
Goloboff, Pablo A; Wilkinson, Mark
2018-05-01
This paper discusses the problem of whether creating a matrix with all the character state combinations that have a fixed number of steps (or extra steps) on a given tree T, produces the same tree T when analyzed with maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood. Exhaustive enumeration of cases up to 20 taxa for binary characters, and up to 12 taxa for 4-state characters, shows that the same tree is recovered (as unique most likely or most parsimonious tree) as long as the number of extra steps is within 1/4 of the number of taxa. This dependence, 1/4 of the number of taxa, is discussed with a general argumentation, in terms of the spread of the character changes on the tree used to select character state distributions. The present finding allows creating matrices which have as much homoplasy as possible for the most parsimonious or likely tree to be predictable, and examination of these matrices with hill-climbing search algorithms provides additional evidence on the (lack of a) necessary relationship between homoplasy and the ability of search methods to find optimal trees. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An automated approach to the design of decision tree classifiers
Argentiero, P.; Chin, R.; Beaudet, P.
1982-01-01
An automated technique is presented for designing effective decision tree classifiers predicated only on a priori class statistics. The procedure relies on linear feature extractions and Bayes table look-up decision rules. Associated error matrices are computed and utilized to provide an optimal design of the decision tree at each so-called 'node'. A by-product of this procedure is a simple algorithm for computing the global probability of correct classification assuming the statistical independence of the decision rules. Attention is given to a more precise definition of decision tree classification, the mathematical details on the technique for automated decision tree design, and an example of a simple application of the procedure using class statistics acquired from an actual Landsat scene.
Optimal Halbach permanent magnet designs for maximally pulling and pushing nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarwar, A., E-mail: azeem@umd.edu [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland at College Park (United States); Nemirovski, A. [H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering (ISyE), Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Shapiro, B. [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, College Park, MD (United States); Institute for Systems Research (United States); University of Maryland at College Park (United States)
2012-03-15
Optimization methods are presented to design Halbach arrays to maximize the forces applied on magnetic nanoparticles at deep tissue locations. In magnetic drug targeting, where magnets are used to focus therapeutic nanoparticles to disease locations, the sharp fall off of magnetic fields and forces with distances from magnets has limited the depth of targeting. Creating stronger forces at a depth by optimally designed Halbach arrays would allow treatment of a wider class of patients, e.g. patients with deeper tumors. The presented optimization methods are based on semi-definite quadratic programming, yield provably globally optimal Halbach designs in 2 and 3-dimensions, for maximal pull or push magnetic forces (stronger pull forces can collect nanoparticles against blood forces in deeper vessels; push forces can be used to inject particles into precise locations, e.g. into the inner ear). These Halbach designs, here tested in simulations of Maxwell's equations, significantly outperform benchmark magnets of the same size and strength. For example, a 3-dimensional 36 element 2000 cm{sup 3} volume optimal Halbach design yields a 5 Multiplication-Sign greater force at a 10 cm depth compared to a uniformly magnetized magnet of the same size and strength. The designed arrays should be feasible to construct, as they have a similar strength ({<=}1 T), size ({<=}2000 cm{sup 3}), and number of elements ({<=}36) as previously demonstrated arrays, and retain good performance for reasonable manufacturing errors (element magnetization direction errors {<=}5 Degree-Sign), thus yielding practical designs to improve magnetic drug targeting treatment depths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization methods presented to design Halbach arrays for drug targeting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to maximize forces on magnetic nanoparticles at deep tissue locations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presented methods yield provably globally optimal Halbach
Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe
2005-01-01
of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose......Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....
Submodular unsplittable flow on trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Chalermsook, Parinya; Ene, Alina
2016-01-01
We study the Unsplittable Flow problem (UFP) on trees with a submodular objective function. The input to this problem is a tree with edge capacities and a collection of tasks, each characterized by a source node, a sink node, and a demand. A subset of the tasks is feasible if the tasks can...... simultaneously send their demands from the source to the sink without violating the edge capacities. The goal is to select a feasible subset of the tasks that maximizes a submodular objective function. Our main result is an O(k log n)-approximation algorithm for Submodular UFP on trees where k denotes...... the pathwidth of the given tree. Since every tree has pathwidth O(log n), we obtain an O(log2 n) approximation for arbitrary trees. This is the first non-trivial approximation guarantee for the problem and it matches the best approximation known for UFP on trees with a linear objective function. Our main...
Khina, Anatoly
2016-08-15
We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.
Model-Based Design of Tree WSNs for Decentralized Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashraf Tantawy
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The classical decentralized detection problem of finding the optimal decision rules at the sensor and fusion center, as well as variants that introduce physical channel impairments have been studied extensively in the literature. The deployment of WSNs in decentralized detection applications brings new challenges to the field. Protocols for different communication layers have to be co-designed to optimize the detection performance. In this paper, we consider the communication network design problem for a tree WSN. We pursue a system-level approach where a complete model for the system is developed that captures the interactions between different layers, as well as different sensor quality measures. For network optimization, we propose a hierarchical optimization algorithm that lends itself to the tree structure, requiring only local network information. The proposed design approach shows superior performance over several contentionless and contention-based network design approaches.
Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size
Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.
2014-01-01
Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.
Constructing multi-labelled decision trees for junction design using the predicted probabilities
Bezembinder, Erwin M.; Wismans, Luc J. J.; Van Berkum, Eric C.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we evaluate the use of traditional decision tree algorithms CRT, CHAID and QUEST to determine a decision tree which can be used to predict a set of (Pareto optimal) junction design alternatives (e.g. signal or roundabout) for a given traffic demand pattern and available space. This is
Liu, Kevin; Warnow, Tandy J; Holder, Mark T; Nelesen, Serita M; Yu, Jiaye; Stamatakis, Alexandros P; Linder, C Randal
2012-01-01
Highly accurate estimation of phylogenetic trees for large data sets is difficult, in part because multiple sequence alignments must be accurate for phylogeny estimation methods to be accurate. Coestimation of alignments and trees has been attempted but currently only SATé estimates reasonably accurate trees and alignments for large data sets in practical time frames (Liu K., Raghavan S., Nelesen S., Linder C.R., Warnow T. 2009b. Rapid and accurate large-scale coestimation of sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees. Science. 324:1561-1564). Here, we present a modification to the original SATé algorithm that improves upon SATé (which we now call SATé-I) in terms of speed and of phylogenetic and alignment accuracy. SATé-II uses a different divide-and-conquer strategy than SATé-I and so produces smaller more closely related subsets than SATé-I; as a result, SATé-II produces more accurate alignments and trees, can analyze larger data sets, and runs more efficiently than SATé-I. Generally, SATé is a metamethod that takes an existing multiple sequence alignment method as an input parameter and boosts the quality of that alignment method. SATé-II-boosted alignment methods are significantly more accurate than their unboosted versions, and trees based upon these improved alignments are more accurate than trees based upon the original alignments. Because SATé-I used maximum likelihood (ML) methods that treat gaps as missing data to estimate trees and because we found a correlation between the quality of tree/alignment pairs and ML scores, we explored the degree to which SATé's performance depends on using ML with gaps treated as missing data to determine the best tree/alignment pair. We present two lines of evidence that using ML with gaps treated as missing data to optimize the alignment and tree produces very poor results. First, we show that the optimization problem where a set of unaligned DNA sequences is given and the output is the tree and alignment of
Gower, Robert M.
2018-02-12
We present the first accelerated randomized algorithm for solving linear systems in Euclidean spaces. One essential problem of this type is the matrix inversion problem. In particular, our algorithm can be specialized to invert positive definite matrices in such a way that all iterates (approximate solutions) generated by the algorithm are positive definite matrices themselves. This opens the way for many applications in the field of optimization and machine learning. As an application of our general theory, we develop the {\\\\em first accelerated (deterministic and stochastic) quasi-Newton updates}. Our updates lead to provably more aggressive approximations of the inverse Hessian, and lead to speed-ups over classical non-accelerated rules in numerical experiments. Experiments with empirical risk minimization show that our rules can accelerate training of machine learning models.
Monte-Carlo Tree Search by Best Arm Identification
E. Kaufmann (Emilie); W.M. Koolen-Wijkstra (Wouter)
2017-01-01
textabstractRecent advances in bandit tools and techniques for sequential learning are steadily enabling new applications and are promising the resolution of a range of challenging related problems. We study the game tree search problem, where the goal is to quickly identify the optimal move in a
Monte-Carlo tree search by best arm identification
E. Kaufmann (Emilie); W.M. Koolen-Wijkstra (Wouter)
2017-01-01
textabstractRecent advances in bandit tools and techniques for sequential learning are steadily enabling new applications and are promising the resolution of a range of challenging related problems. We study the game tree search problem, where the goal is to quickly identify the optimal move in a
Diameter sensors for tree-length harvesting systems
T.P. McDonald; Robert B. Rummer; T.E. Grift
2003-01-01
Most cut-to-length (CTL) harvesters provide sensors for measuring diameter of trees as they are cut and processed. Among other uses, this capability provides a data collection tool for marketing of logs in real time. Logs can be sorted and stacked based on up-to-date market information, then transportation systems optimized to route wood to proper destinations at...
On Determining if Tree-based Networks Contain Fixed Trees.
Anaya, Maria; Anipchenko-Ulaj, Olga; Ashfaq, Aisha; Chiu, Joyce; Kaiser, Mahedi; Ohsawa, Max Shoji; Owen, Megan; Pavlechko, Ella; St John, Katherine; Suleria, Shivam; Thompson, Keith; Yap, Corrine
2016-05-01
We address an open question of Francis and Steel about phylogenetic networks and trees. They give a polynomial time algorithm to decide if a phylogenetic network, N, is tree-based and pose the problem: given a fixed tree T and network N, is N based on T? We show that it is [Formula: see text]-hard to decide, by reduction from 3-Dimensional Matching (3DM) and further that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable.
Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon
G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry
2010-01-01
We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...
Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mattos Jr. Dirceu
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.
Systolic trees and systolic language recognition by tree automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinby, M
1983-01-01
K. Culik II, J. Gruska, A. Salomaa and D. Wood have studied the language recognition capabilities of certain types of systolically operating networks of processors (see research reports Cs-81-32, Cs-81-36 and Cs-82-01, Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada). In this paper, their model for systolic VLSI trees is formalised in terms of standard tree automaton theory, and the way in which some known facts about recognisable forests and tree transductions can be applied in VLSI tree theory is demonstrated. 13 references.
Minimization of Decision Tree Average Depth for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions
Azad, Mohammad
2014-09-13
The paper is devoted to the analysis of greedy algorithms for the minimization of average depth of decision trees for decision tables such that each row is labeled with a set of decisions. The goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of average depth of decision trees.
Minimization of Decision Tree Average Depth for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions
Azad, Mohammad; Moshkov, Mikhail
2014-01-01
The paper is devoted to the analysis of greedy algorithms for the minimization of average depth of decision trees for decision tables such that each row is labeled with a set of decisions. The goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of average depth of decision trees.
Unrealistic phylogenetic trees may improve phylogenetic footprinting.
Nettling, Martin; Treutler, Hendrik; Cerquides, Jesus; Grosse, Ivo
2017-06-01
The computational investigation of DNA binding motifs from binding sites is one of the classic tasks in bioinformatics and a prerequisite for understanding gene regulation as a whole. Due to the development of sequencing technologies and the increasing number of available genomes, approaches based on phylogenetic footprinting become increasingly attractive. Phylogenetic footprinting requires phylogenetic trees with attached substitution probabilities for quantifying the evolution of binding sites, but these trees and substitution probabilities are typically not known and cannot be estimated easily. Here, we investigate the influence of phylogenetic trees with different substitution probabilities on the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting using synthetic and real data. For synthetic data we find that the classification performance is highest when the substitution probability used for phylogenetic footprinting is similar to that used for data generation. For real data, however, we typically find that the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting surprisingly increases with increasing substitution probabilities and is often highest for unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one. This finding suggests that choosing realistic model assumptions might not always yield optimal predictions in general and that choosing unrealistically high substitution probabilities close to one might actually improve the classification performance of phylogenetic footprinting. The proposed PF is implemented in JAVA and can be downloaded from https://github.com/mgledi/PhyFoo. : martin.nettling@informatik.uni-halle.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Tree felling: a necessary evil
CERN Bulletin
2013-01-01
CERN started a campaign of tree felling in 2010 for safety reasons, and it will continue this year in various parts of the Meyrin site. As in previous years, the trees cut down in 2013 will be recycled and some will be replaced. Diseased tree that had to be cut down on the Meyrin site. In association with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP), CERN commissioned the Geneva school of landscaping, engineering and architecture (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture, HEPIA) to compile an inventory of the trees on the Meyrin site. In total, 1285 trees (excluding poplars) were recorded. 75.5% of these trees were declared to be in a good state of health (i.e. 971 trees), 21.5% in a moderate state of health (276 trees) and 3% in a poor state of health (38 trees). As for the poplars, the 236 specimens recorded on the Meyrin site were judged to be too old, to...
Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ostrom, L.T.
1993-01-01
Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision
Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.
Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A
2017-01-01
It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.
Occurrence of leguminous trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.
1984-01-01
Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.
Hwang, FK; Winter, P
1992-01-01
The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...
Rasmuson, Marianne
2008-02-01
Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther
2013-01-08
Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.
Multi-pruning of decision trees for knowledge representation and classification
Azad, Mohammad
2016-06-09
We consider two important questions related to decision trees: first how to construct a decision tree with reasonable number of nodes and reasonable number of misclassification, and second how to improve the prediction accuracy of decision trees when they are used as classifiers. We have created a dynamic programming based approach for bi-criteria optimization of decision trees relative to the number of nodes and the number of misclassification. This approach allows us to construct the set of all Pareto optimal points and to derive, for each such point, decision trees with parameters corresponding to that point. Experiments on datasets from UCI ML Repository show that, very often, we can find a suitable Pareto optimal point and derive a decision tree with small number of nodes at the expense of small increment in number of misclassification. Based on the created approach we have proposed a multi-pruning procedure which constructs decision trees that, as classifiers, often outperform decision trees constructed by CART. © 2015 IEEE.
Multi-pruning of decision trees for knowledge representation and classification
Azad, Mohammad; Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
We consider two important questions related to decision trees: first how to construct a decision tree with reasonable number of nodes and reasonable number of misclassification, and second how to improve the prediction accuracy of decision trees when they are used as classifiers. We have created a dynamic programming based approach for bi-criteria optimization of decision trees relative to the number of nodes and the number of misclassification. This approach allows us to construct the set of all Pareto optimal points and to derive, for each such point, decision trees with parameters corresponding to that point. Experiments on datasets from UCI ML Repository show that, very often, we can find a suitable Pareto optimal point and derive a decision tree with small number of nodes at the expense of small increment in number of misclassification. Based on the created approach we have proposed a multi-pruning procedure which constructs decision trees that, as classifiers, often outperform decision trees constructed by CART. © 2015 IEEE.
Minimization of decision tree depth for multi-label decision tables
Azad, Mohammad
2014-10-01
In this paper, we consider multi-label decision tables that have a set of decisions attached to each row. Our goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions for each row by using decision tree as our tool. Considering our target to minimize the depth of the decision tree, we devised various kinds of greedy algorithms as well as dynamic programming algorithm. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of depth of decision trees.
Minimization of decision tree depth for multi-label decision tables
Azad, Mohammad; Moshkov, Mikhail
2014-01-01
In this paper, we consider multi-label decision tables that have a set of decisions attached to each row. Our goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions for each row by using decision tree as our tool. Considering our target to minimize the depth of the decision tree, we devised various kinds of greedy algorithms as well as dynamic programming algorithm. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of depth of decision trees.
Visualizing Individual Tree Differences in Tree-Ring Studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Trouillier
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Averaging tree-ring measurements from multiple individuals is one of the most common procedures in dendrochronology. It serves to filter out noise from individual differences between trees, such as competition, height, and micro-site effects, which ideally results in a site chronology sensitive to regional scale factors such as climate. However, the climate sensitivity of individual trees can be modulated by factors like competition, height, and nitrogen deposition, calling attention to whether average chronologies adequately assess climatic growth-control. In this study, we demonstrate four simple but effective methods to visually assess differences between individual trees. Using individual tree climate-correlations we: (1 employed jitter plots with superimposed metadata to assess potential causes for these differences; (2 plotted the frequency distributions of climate correlations over time as heat maps; (3 mapped the spatial distribution of climate sensitivity over time to assess spatio-temporal dynamics; and (4 used t-distributed Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding (t-SNE to assess which trees were generally more similar in terms of their tree-ring pattern and their correlation with climate variables. This suite of exploratory methods can indicate if individuals in tree-ring datasets respond differently to climate variability, and therefore, should not solely be explored with climate correlations of the mean population chronology.
Tree Size Comparison of Some Important Street Trees Growing at ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF HORSFALL
More research is needed on these trees for healthy environment of city. The present ..... use and CO2 emissions from power plants. Environ. Poll. .... Anna. Bot., 65:567-574. Kozlowski, T.T., 1971. Growth and Development of. Trees. Vol. 1.
DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning
Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu
2010-01-01
A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…
Picking a tree: habitat use by the tree agama, Acanthocercus ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We studied tree agama (Acanthocercus a. atricollis) habitat use in the Magaliesberg mountain range in northern South Africa using sightings of marked individuals, and in a few cases, radio-telemetry. Acanthocercus a. atricollis preferentially selected thorn trees (46%; Acacia karroo), followed by common sugarbush (10%; ...
Polytomy refinement for the correction of dubious duplications in gene trees.
Lafond, Manuel; Chauve, Cedric; Dondi, Riccardo; El-Mabrouk, Nadia
2014-09-01
Large-scale methods for inferring gene trees are error-prone. Correcting gene trees for weakly supported features often results in non-binary trees, i.e. trees with polytomies, thus raising the natural question of refining such polytomies into binary trees. A feature pointing toward potential errors in gene trees are duplications that are not supported by the presence of multiple gene copies. We introduce the problem of refining polytomies in a gene tree while minimizing the number of created non-apparent duplications in the resulting tree. We show that this problem can be described as a graph-theoretical optimization problem. We provide a bounded heuristic with guaranteed optimality for well-characterized instances. We apply our algorithm to a set of ray-finned fish gene trees from the Ensembl database to illustrate its ability to correct dubious duplications. The C++ source code for the algorithms and simulations described in the article are available at http://www-ens.iro.umontreal.ca/~lafonman/software.php. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.
Trait acclimation mitigates mortality risks of tropical canopy trees under global warming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank eSterck
2016-05-01
Full Text Available There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and – the notoriously unknown – physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25-35ºC and ambient CO2 concentrations (390-800 ppm predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10-20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2ºC, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change.
Trait Acclimation Mitigates Mortality Risks of Tropical Canopy Trees under Global Warming
Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P. R.; Schieving, Feike; Zuidema, Pieter A.
2016-01-01
There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and – the notoriously unknown – physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area) to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25–35°C) and ambient CO2 concentrations (390–800 ppm) predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10–20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2°C, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change. PMID:27242814
Maximum parsimony, substitution model, and probability phylogenetic trees.
Weng, J F; Thomas, D A; Mareels, I
2011-01-01
The problem of inferring phylogenies (phylogenetic trees) is one of the main problems in computational biology. There are three main methods for inferring phylogenies-Maximum Parsimony (MP), Distance Matrix (DM) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), of which the MP method is the most well-studied and popular method. In the MP method the optimization criterion is the number of substitutions of the nucleotides computed by the differences in the investigated nucleotide sequences. However, the MP method is often criticized as it only counts the substitutions observable at the current time and all the unobservable substitutions that really occur in the evolutionary history are omitted. In order to take into account the unobservable substitutions, some substitution models have been established and they are now widely used in the DM and ML methods but these substitution models cannot be used within the classical MP method. Recently the authors proposed a probability representation model for phylogenetic trees and the reconstructed trees in this model are called probability phylogenetic trees. One of the advantages of the probability representation model is that it can include a substitution model to infer phylogenetic trees based on the MP principle. In this paper we explain how to use a substitution model in the reconstruction of probability phylogenetic trees and show the advantage of this approach with examples.
Classification tree for the assessment of sedentary lifestyle among hypertensive.
Castelo Guedes Martins, Larissa; Venícios de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos; Gomes Guedes, Nirla; Paixão de Menezes, Angélica; de Oliveira Farias, Odaleia; Alves Dos Santos, Naftale
2016-04-01
To develop a classification tree of clinical indicators for the correct prediction of the nursing diagnosis "Sedentary lifestyle" (SL) in people with high blood pressure (HTN). A cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient care center specializing in high blood pressure and Mellitus diabetes located in northeastern Brazil. The sample consisted of 285 people between 19 and 59 years old diagnosed with high blood pressure and was applied an interview and physical examination, obtaining socio-demographic information, related factors and signs and symptoms that made the defining characteristics for the diagnosis under study. The tree was generated using the CHAID algorithm (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection). The construction of the decision tree allowed establishing the interactions between clinical indicators that facilitate a probabilistic analysis of multiple situations allowing quantify the probability of an individual presenting a sedentary lifestyle. The tree included the clinical indicator Choose daily routine without exercise as the first node. People with this indicator showed a probability of 0.88 of presenting the SL. The second node was composed of the indicator Does not perform physical activity during leisure, with 0.99 probability of presenting the SL with these two indicators. The predictive capacity of the tree was established at 69.5%. Decision trees help nurses who care HTN people in decision-making in assessing the characteristics that increase the probability of SL nursing diagnosis, optimizing the time for diagnostic inference.
Classification tree for the assessment of sedentary lifestyle among hypertensive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larissa Castelo Guedes Martins
Full Text Available Objective.To develop a classification tree of clinical indicators for the correct prediction of the nursing diagnosis "Sedentary lifestyle" (SL in people with high blood pressure (HTN. Methods. A cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient care center specializing in high blood pressure and Mellitus diabetes located in northeastern Brazil. The sample consisted of 285 people between 19 and 59 years old diagnosed with high blood pressure and was applied an interview and physical examination, obtaining socio-demographic information, related factors and signs and symptoms that made the defining characteristics for the diagnosis under study. The tree was generated using the CHAID algorithm (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection. Results. The construction of the decision tree allowed establishing the interactions between clinical indicators that facilitate a probabilistic analysis of multiple situations allowing quantify the probability of an individual presenting a sedentary lifestyle. The tree included the clinical indicator Choose daily routine without exercise as the first node. People with this indicator showed a probability of 0.88 of presenting the SL. The second node was composed of the indicator Does not perform physical activity during leisure, with 0.99 probability of presenting the SL with these two indicators. The predictive capacity of the tree was established at 69.5%. Conclusion. Decision trees help nurses who care HTN people in decision-making in assessing the characteristics that increase the probability of SL nursing diagnosis, optimizing the time for diagnostic inference.
MDTS: automatic complex materials design using Monte Carlo tree search
Dieb, Thaer M.; Ju, Shenghong; Yoshizoe, Kazuki; Hou, Zhufeng; Shiomi, Junichiro; Tsuda, Koji
2017-12-01
Complex materials design is often represented as a black-box combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we present a novel python library called MDTS (Materials Design using Tree Search). Our algorithm employs a Monte Carlo tree search approach, which has shown exceptional performance in computer Go game. Unlike evolutionary algorithms that require user intervention to set parameters appropriately, MDTS has no tuning parameters and works autonomously in various problems. In comparison to a Bayesian optimization package, our algorithm showed competitive search efficiency and superior scalability. We succeeded in designing large Silicon-Germanium (Si-Ge) alloy structures that Bayesian optimization could not deal with due to excessive computational cost. MDTS is available at https://github.com/tsudalab/MDTS.
Succinct partial sums and fenwick trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Christiansen, Anders Roy; Prezza, Nicola
2017-01-01
We consider the well-studied partial sums problem in succint space where one is to maintain an array of n k-bit integers subject to updates such that partial sums queries can be efficiently answered. We present two succint versions of the Fenwick Tree â€“ which is known for its simplicity...... and practicality. Our results hold in the encoding model where one is allowed to reuse the space from the input data. Our main result is the first that only requires nk + o(n) bits of space while still supporting sum/update in O(logbn)/O(blogbn) time where 2 â‰¤ b â‰¤ log O(1)n. The second result shows how optimal...... time for sum/update can be achieved while only slightly increasing the space usage to nk + o(nk) bits. Beyond Fenwick Trees, the results are primarily based on bit-packing and sampling â€“ making them very practical â€“ and they also allow for simple optimal parallelization....
Decision tree ensembles for online operation of large smart grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steer, Kent C.B.; Wirth, Andrew; Halgamuge, Saman K.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We present a new technique for the online control of large smart grids. ► We use a Decision Tree Ensemble in a Receding Horizon Controller. ► Decision Trees can approximate online optimisation approaches. ► Decision Trees can make adjustments to their output in real time. ► The new technique outperforms heuristic online optimisation approaches. - Abstract: Smart grids utilise omnidirectional data transfer to operate a network of energy resources. Associated technologies present operators with greater control over system elements and more detailed information on the system state. While these features may improve the theoretical optimal operating performance, determining the optimal operating strategy becomes more difficult. In this paper, we show how a decision tree ensemble or ‘forest’ can produce a near-optimal control strategy in real time. The approach substitutes the decision forest for the simulation–optimisation sub-routine commonly employed in receding horizon controllers. The method is demonstrated on a small and a large network, and compared to controllers employing particle swarm optimisation and evolutionary strategies. For the smaller network the proposed method performs comparably in terms of total energy usage, but delivers a greater demand deficit. On the larger network the proposed method is superior with respect to all measures. We conclude that the method is useful when the time required to evaluate possible strategies via simulation is high.
Joshi, Vinayak S; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Garvin, Mona K; Abramoff, Michael D
2014-01-01
The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV) classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.
Lee, Charles; Alena, Richard L.; Robinson, Peter
2004-01-01
We started from ISS fault trees example to migrate to decision trees, presented a method to convert fault trees to decision trees. The method shows that the visualizations of root cause of fault are easier and the tree manipulating becomes more programmatic via available decision tree programs. The visualization of decision trees for the diagnostic shows a format of straight forward and easy understands. For ISS real time fault diagnostic, the status of the systems could be shown by mining the signals through the trees and see where it stops at. The other advantage to use decision trees is that the trees can learn the fault patterns and predict the future fault from the historic data. The learning is not only on the static data sets but also can be online, through accumulating the real time data sets, the decision trees can gain and store faults patterns in the trees and recognize them when they come.
Better trees through systematic breeding
Robert Z. Callaham
1957-01-01
Today I would like to tell you briefly about the efforts of forest geneticists to improve the quality of forest trees. What do we mean by quality? Here, the consumer has the first word. The trees we produce are primarily for timber production, and the timber growing and wood-using industries give us our guidelines. Nevertheless, many of the characteristics sought by...
Tree physiology and bark beetles
Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood
2015-01-01
Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...
Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises
Denny, Mark
2012-01-01
Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…
Boosted decision trees and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coadou, Y.
2013-01-01
Decision trees are a machine learning technique more and more commonly used in high energy physics, while it has been widely used in the social sciences. After introducing the concepts of decision trees, this article focuses on its application in particle physics. (authors)
Who pays for tree improvement?
Tom D. Byram; E. M. Raley
2011-01-01
Tree improvement has been one of the most successful collaborative research efforts in history, eliciting participation from a wide variety of players. This effort has included state forestry agencies, research universities, integrated forest industries, and the USDA Forest Service. Tree improvement was organized through cooperatives whose objectives were to distribute...
Borgs, C.; Chayes, J.T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.
1999-01-01
We introduce a mean-field model of lattice trees based on embeddings into d of abstract trees having a critical Poisson offspring distribution. This model provides a combinatorial interpretation for the self-consistent mean-field model introduced previously by Derbez and Slade [9], and provides an
Modelling tree biomasses in Finland
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Repola, J.
2013-06-01
Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of
Efficient reduction and modularization for large fault trees stored by pages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Shanqi; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jiaqun; Wang, Fang; Hu, Liqin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • New fault tree pre-processing methods used in RiskA are presented. • Including the fault tree paging storage, simplification and modularization. • For getting MCS for fault trees containing more than 10,000 gates and events. • Reduce computer resources needs (RAM) and improve computation speed. - Abstract: Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), an indispensable tool used in Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been used throughout the commercial nuclear power industry for safety and reliability analyses. However, large fault tree analysis, such as those used in nuclear power plant requires significant computer resources, which makes the analysis of PRA model inefficient and time consuming. This paper describes a fault tree pre-processing method used in the reliability and probabilistic safety assessment program RiskA that is capable of generating minimal cutsets for fault trees containing more than 10,000 gates and basic events. The novel feature of this method is not only that Boolean reduction rules are used but also that a new objective of simplification is proposed. Moreover, since the method aims to find more fault tree modules by the linear-time algorithm, it can optimize fault tree modularization, which further reduces the computational time of large fault tree analysis.
Decision trees in epidemiological research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashwini Venkatasubramaniam
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. Main text We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Conclusions Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.
Decision trees in epidemiological research.
Venkatasubramaniam, Ashwini; Wolfson, Julian; Mitchell, Nathan; Barnes, Timothy; JaKa, Meghan; French, Simone
2017-01-01
In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART) technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree) technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.
Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?
Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.
2006-08-01
In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.
EEG feature selection method based on decision tree.
Duan, Lijuan; Ge, Hui; Ma, Wei; Miao, Jun
2015-01-01
This paper aims to solve automated feature selection problem in brain computer interface (BCI). In order to automate feature selection process, we proposed a novel EEG feature selection method based on decision tree (DT). During the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing, a feature extraction method based on principle component analysis (PCA) was used, and the selection process based on decision tree was performed by searching the feature space and automatically selecting optimal features. Considering that EEG signals are a series of non-linear signals, a generalized linear classifier named support vector machine (SVM) was chosen. In order to test the validity of the proposed method, we applied the EEG feature selection method based on decision tree to BCI Competition II datasets Ia, and the experiment showed encouraging results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunfeng Shan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the ﬁnding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reﬂects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.
Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities
Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.
2014-12-01
Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.
Linking and Cutting Spanning Trees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luís M. S. Russo
2018-04-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of uniformly generating a spanning tree for an undirected connected graph. This process is useful for computing statistics, namely for phylogenetic trees. We describe a Markov chain for producing these trees. For cycle graphs, we prove that this approach significantly outperforms existing algorithms. For general graphs, experimental results show that the chain converges quickly. This yields an efficient algorithm due to the use of proper fast data structures. To obtain the mixing time of the chain we describe a coupling, which we analyze for cycle graphs and simulate for other graphs.
Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avery Morrow
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren
1998-01-01
Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...... images such as halftones. By utilizing randomized subsampling in the template selection, the speed becomes acceptable for practical image coding...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davies, D J.G.; Macfarlane, R P
1979-01-01
The potential for soil conservation and agroforestry of several native and exotic legumes is discussed. Flowering period, chemical composition of leaves/pods, hardiness to frost and drought, timber value, forage potential for livestock and bees, ornamental value and other products are tabulated with information on up to 38 species. Two low-growing species that have proved useful for slope stabilization as well as forage are tree lucerne (Cytisus palmensis) and tree medick (Medicago arborea), the latter being shrubby and more suitable for cold districts. Gleditsia triacanthos is recommended as a shade and fodder tree for farm pasture.
Generalising tree traversals to DAGs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil
2015-01-01
We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...... is not sound. Therefore, we complement our implementation of the recursion scheme with a number of correspondence theorems that ensure soundness for various classes of traversals. We illustrate the practical applicability of the implementation as well as the complementing theory with a number of examples....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hou, X.; Sun, S.
2017-07-01
Phoenix tree (Firmiana simplex) seed oil is a novel oil which is rich in sterculic acid. Sterculic acid, a cyclopropene fatty acid, can be used as the inhibitor of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase system and mammary carcinomas growth. In this work, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed hydrolysis of the novel Phoenix tree seed oil was used to prepare sterculic acid. High temperature GC-FID and the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were used to monitor the reaction progress. Effects of reaction variables on the hydrolysis were evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology. Results showed that sterculic acid can be successfully prepared from the novel seed oil, and the effect of reaction variables on the hydrolysis decreased in the order of reaction time > enzyme load > temperature. A high yield of fatty acids (DH, 98.2±0.8%) can be obtained under optimized conditions (45 ºC, mass ratio of water to oil 10:1, enzyme load 10%, and 18 h). The Arrhenius equation for the hydrolysis was LnV0 = 9.12 − 4721/T. The activation energy was 39.25KJ/mol. The kinetic values for Vmax, K/m were 0.232mol/(L∙min) and 0.084 mol/L, respectively. [Spanish] El aceite de semilla del árbol fenix (Firmiana simplex) es un nuevo tipo de aceite rico en ácido estercúlico. Este es un ácido graso ciclopropeno, que se puede utilizar como inhibidor del sistema de estearoyl-CoA desaturasa y del crecimiento de los carcinomas mamarios. En este trabajo, se utilizó la hidrólisis catalizada por Lipozyme TLIM del nuevo aceite de semilla de árbol fenix para preparar ácido estercúlico. Se utilizaron GC-FID a alta temperatura y el grado de hidrólisis (DH) para monitorizar el progreso de la reacción. Los efectos de las variables de reacción de hidrólisis se evaluaron y optimizaron utilizando la metodología de superficie de respuesta. Los resultados mostraron que el ácido estercúlico puede prepararse con éxito a partir del nuevo aceite de semilla, y el efecto de las variables de reacción en la hidr
Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance.
Eilmann, Britta; Rigling, Andreas
2012-02-01
Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree species' potential for surviving future aggravated environmental conditions is rather demanding. The aim of this study was to find a tree-ring-based method suitable for identifying very drought-tolerant species, particularly potential substitute species for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Valais. In this inner-Alpine valley, Scots pine used to be the dominating species for dry forests, but today it suffers from high drought-induced mortality. We investigate the growth response of two native tree species, Scots pine and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), and two non-native species, black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. var. menziesii), to drought. This involved analysing how the radial increment of these species responded to increasing water shortage (abandonment of irrigation) and to increasingly frequent drought years. Black pine and Douglas fir are able to cope with drought better than Scots pine and larch, as they show relatively high radial growth even after irrigation has been stopped and a plastic growth response to drought years. European larch does not seem to be able to cope with these dry conditions as it lacks the ability to recover from drought years. The analysis of trees' short-term response to extreme climate events seems to be the most promising and suitable method for detecting how tolerant a tree species is towards drought. However, combining all the methods used in this study provides a complete picture of how water shortage could limit species.
TreeCluster: Massively scalable transmission clustering using phylogenetic trees
Moshiri, Alexander
2018-01-01
Background: The ability to infer transmission clusters from molecular data is critical to designing and evaluating viral control strategies. Viral sequencing datasets are growing rapidly, but standard methods of transmission cluster inference do not scale well beyond thousands of sequences. Results: I present TreeCluster, a cross-platform tool that performs transmission cluster inference on a given phylogenetic tree orders of magnitude faster than existing inference methods and supports multi...
Moose?tree interactions: rebrowsing is common across tree species
Mathisen, Karen Marie; Milner, Jos M.; Skarpe, Christina
2017-01-01
Background Plant strategies to resist herbivory include tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance strategies, such as rapid regrowth which increases the palatability of new shoots, can lead to positive feedback loops between plants and herbivores. An example of such a positive feedback occurs when moose (Alces alces) browse trees in boreal forests. We described the degree of change in tree morphology that accumulated over time in response to repeated browsing by moose, using an index of accumulated ...
Multistage stochastic optimization
Pflug, Georg Ch
2014-01-01
Multistage stochastic optimization problems appear in many ways in finance, insurance, energy production and trading, logistics and transportation, among other areas. They describe decision situations under uncertainty and with a longer planning horizon. This book contains a comprehensive treatment of today’s state of the art in multistage stochastic optimization. It covers the mathematical backgrounds of approximation theory as well as numerous practical algorithms and examples for the generation and handling of scenario trees. A special emphasis is put on estimation and bounding of the modeling error using novel distance concepts, on time consistency and the role of model ambiguity in the decision process. An extensive treatment of examples from electricity production, asset liability management and inventory control concludes the book
Belitsky, A. V.
2018-04-01
The form factor program for the regularized space-time S-matrix in planar maximally supersymmetric gauge theory, known as the pentagon operator product expansion, is formulated in terms of flux-tube excitations propagating on a dual two-dimensional world-sheet, whose dynamics is known exactly as a function of 't Hooft coupling. Both MHV and non-MHV amplitudes are described in a uniform, systematic fashion within this framework, with the difference between the two encoded in coupling-dependent helicity form factors expressed via Zhukowski variables. The nontrivial SU(4) tensor structure of flux-tube transitions is coupling independent and is known for any number of charged excitations from solutions of a system of Watson and Mirror equations. This description allows one to resum the infinite series of form factors and recover the space-time S-matrix exactly in kinematical variables at a given order of perturbation series. Recently, this was done for the hexagon. Presently, we successfully perform resummation for the seven-leg tree NMHV amplitude. To this end, we construct the flux-tube integrands of the fifteen independent Grassmann component of the heptagon with an infinite number of small fermion-antifermion pairs accounted for in NMHV two-channel conformal blocks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L
2010-01-01
We investigate a network growth model in which the genealogy controls the evolution. In this model, a new node selects a random target node and links either to this target node, or to its parent, or to its grandparent, etc; all nodes from the target node to its most ancient ancestor are equiprobable destinations. The emerging random ancestor tree is very shallow: the fraction g n of nodes at distance n from the root decreases super-exponentially with n, g n = e −1 /(n − 1)!. We find that a macroscopic hub at the root coexists with highly connected nodes at higher generations. The maximal degree of a node at the nth generation grows algebraically as N 1/β n , where N is the system size. We obtain the series of nontrivial exponents which are roots of transcendental equations: β 1 ≅1.351 746, β 2 ≅1.682 201, etc. As a consequence, the fraction p k of nodes with degree k has an algebraic tail, p k ∼ k −γ , with γ = β 1 + 1 = 2.351 746
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hallman, N.
2000-01-01
Full text: Tree roots extract metal ions form wet soils in two different ways. At the soil/root hair interface soluble ions in contact with the cellulose wall move through it and enter the cell through the plasmalemma; the semi permeable membrane that encloses every living cell. Some ions, especially those that are part of cellular metabolic processes eg. Na, K, Fe, Mg, S move into the cytoplasm, are bound into organic complexes and travel from cell to cell within the cytoplasm. This requires energy, and the amount of any of these metabolically active ions taken in tends to be regulated by the plant. The movement of the ions from cell to cell is slow, selective, and regulated by requirements of synthesis of for example Mg in the chlorophyll molecule. This means that more Mg is transported to cells of leaves than of cells of roots. This movement of ions is simplistic, or within the cytoplasm. Other ions are swept along in the transpiration stream and enter the complex plumbing system that brings water to the leaves for metabolism and cooling. Water in this apoplastic pathway travels within the pipes (xylem) of the wood and in the cellulose of the walls. It travels along essentially non-living parts of the plant. Ions such as As, Pb, Ni, Cr accumulate in sites such as leaves and bark. Analysis of plant parts can indicate the presence of heavy metals and can give an indication of ore bodies within the root zone
A model for the inverse 1-median problem on trees under uncertain costs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kien Trung Nguyen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of justifying vertex weights of a tree under uncertain costs so that a prespecified vertex become optimal and the total cost should be optimal in the uncertainty scenario. We propose a model which delivers the information about the optimal cost which respect to each confidence level \\(\\alpha \\in [0,1]\\. To obtain this goal, we first define an uncertain variable with respect to the minimum cost in each confidence level. If all costs are independently linear distributed, we present the inverse distribution function of this uncertain variable in \\(O(n^{2}\\log n\\ time, where \\(n\\ is the number of vertices in the tree.
Optimization of RAPD-PCR reaction system for genetic relationships ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2010-02-08
Feb 8, 2010 ... Camellia features beautiful tree shape, various petal color, .... (Huzhuabai (C. japonica)) was randomly selected for optimization of .... Afr. J. Biotechnol. Figure 1. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis by primer S256 (left-up), ...
Fault trees for decision making in systems analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, H.E.
1975-01-01
The application of fault tree analysis (FTA) to system safety and reliability is presented within the framework of system safety analysis. The concepts and techniques involved in manual and automated fault tree construction are described and their differences noted. The theory of mathematical reliability pertinent to FTA is presented with emphasis on engineering applications. An outline of the quantitative reliability techniques of the Reactor Safety Study is given. Concepts of probabilistic importance are presented within the fault tree framework and applied to the areas of system design, diagnosis and simulation. The computer code IMPORTANCE ranks basic events and cut sets according to a sensitivity analysis. A useful feature of the IMPORTANCE code is that it can accept relative failure data as input. The output of the IMPORTANCE code can assist an analyst in finding weaknesses in system design and operation, suggest the most optimal course of system upgrade, and determine the optimal location of sensors within a system. A general simulation model of system failure in terms of fault tree logic is described. The model is intended for efficient diagnosis of the causes of system failure in the event of a system breakdown. It can also be used to assist an operator in making decisions under a time constraint regarding the future course of operations. The model is well suited for computer implementation. New results incorporated in the simulation model include an algorithm to generate repair checklists on the basis of fault tree logic and a one-step-ahead optimization procedure that minimizes the expected time to diagnose system failure. (80 figures, 20 tables)
Optimal induced universal graphs and adjacency labeling for trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs
2017-01-01
In this article, we show that there exists a graph G with O(n) nodes such that any forest of n nodes is an induced subgraph of G Furthermore, for constant arboricity k, the result implies the existence of a graph with O(nk) nodes that contains all n-node graphs of arboricity k as node-induced sub...
Optimizing tree-species classification in hyperspectal images
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Barnard, E
2010-11-01
Full Text Available for classification. Scaling of these components so that all features have equal variance is found to be useful, and their best performance (88.9% accurate classification) is achieved with 15 scaled features and a support vector machine as classifier. A graphical...
Optimal induced universal graphs and adjacency labeling for trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs
2015-01-01
bound. The lower bound and previously best upper bounds were presented in Alstrup and Rauhe (FOCS'02). Our upper bounds are obtained through a log2 n + O(1) labeling scheme for adjacency queries in forests. We hereby solve an open problem being raised repeatedly over decades, e.g. in Kannan, Naor...
Information about the SFBWQP Fremont Tree-Well Filter Spine project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.
Decision tree modeling using R.
Zhang, Zhongheng
2016-08-01
In machine learning field, decision tree learner is powerful and easy to interpret. It employs recursive binary partitioning algorithm that splits the sample in partitioning variable with the strongest association with the response variable. The process continues until some stopping criteria are met. In the example I focus on conditional inference tree, which incorporates tree-structured regression models into conditional inference procedures. While growing a single tree is subject to small changes in the training data, random forests procedure is introduced to address this problem. The sources of diversity for random forests come from the random sampling and restricted set of input variables to be selected. Finally, I introduce R functions to perform model based recursive partitioning. This method incorporates recursive partitioning into conventional parametric model building.
Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kraus, Martin
2010-01-01
Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization...... that is suitable for large contour trees and efficiently conveys the topological structure of the most important isosurface components. This visualization is integrated into a histogram of the volume data; thus, it offers strictly more information than a traditional histogram. We present algorithms...... to automatically compute the graph layout and to calculate appropriate approximations of the contour tree and the surface area of the relevant isosurface components. The benefits of this new visualization are demonstrated with the help of several publicly available volume data sets....
Distance labeling schemes for trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben
2016-01-01
We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...
Pareto Efficient Solutions of Attack-Defence Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming
2015-01-01
Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as proba......Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes......, such as probability or cost of attacks and defences. In case of multiple parameters most analytical methods optimise one parameter at a time, e.g., minimise cost or maximise probability of an attack. Such methods may lead to sub-optimal solutions when optimising conflicting parameters, e.g., minimising cost while...... maximising probability. In order to tackle this challenge, we devise automated techniques that optimise all parameters at once. Moreover, in the case of conflicting parameters our techniques compute the set of all optimal solutions, defined in terms of Pareto efficiency. The developments are carried out...
A framework for sensitivity analysis of decision trees.
Kamiński, Bogumił; Jakubczyk, Michał; Szufel, Przemysław
2018-01-01
In the paper, we consider sequential decision problems with uncertainty, represented as decision trees. Sensitivity analysis is always a crucial element of decision making and in decision trees it often focuses on probabilities. In the stochastic model considered, the user often has only limited information about the true values of probabilities. We develop a framework for performing sensitivity analysis of optimal strategies accounting for this distributional uncertainty. We design this robust optimization approach in an intuitive and not overly technical way, to make it simple to apply in daily managerial practice. The proposed framework allows for (1) analysis of the stability of the expected-value-maximizing strategy and (2) identification of strategies which are robust with respect to pessimistic/optimistic/mode-favoring perturbations of probabilities. We verify the properties of our approach in two cases: (a) probabilities in a tree are the primitives of the model and can be modified independently; (b) probabilities in a tree reflect some underlying, structural probabilities, and are interrelated. We provide a free software tool implementing the methods described.
Bounds on Average Time Complexity of Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
In this chapter, bounds on the average depth and the average weighted depth of decision trees are considered. Similar problems are studied in search theory [1], coding theory [77], design and analysis of algorithms (e.g., sorting) [38]. For any diagnostic problem, the minimum average depth of decision tree is bounded from below by the entropy of probability distribution (with a multiplier 1/log2 k for a problem over a k-valued information system). Among diagnostic problems, the problems with a complete set of attributes have the lowest minimum average depth of decision trees (e.g, the problem of building optimal prefix code [1] and a blood test study in assumption that exactly one patient is ill [23]). For such problems, the minimum average depth of decision tree exceeds the lower bound by at most one. The minimum average depth reaches the maximum on the problems in which each attribute is "indispensable" [44] (e.g., a diagnostic problem with n attributes and kn pairwise different rows in the decision table and the problem of implementing the modulo 2 summation function). These problems have the minimum average depth of decision tree equal to the number of attributes in the problem description. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley
2011-01-01
There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...
Generic physical protection logic trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle
Border trees of complex networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villas Boas, Paulino R; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Travieso, Gonzalo; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da
2008-01-01
The comprehensive characterization of the structure of complex networks is essential to understand the dynamical processes which guide their evolution. The discovery of the scale-free distribution and the small-world properties of real networks were fundamental to stimulate more realistic models and to understand important dynamical processes related to network growth. However, the properties of the network borders (nodes with degree equal to 1), one of its most fragile parts, remained little investigated and understood. The border nodes may be involved in the evolution of structures such as geographical networks. Here we analyze the border trees of complex networks, which are defined as the subgraphs without cycles connected to the remainder of the network (containing cycles) and terminating into border nodes. In addition to describing an algorithm for identification of such tree subgraphs, we also consider how their topological properties can be quantified in terms of their depth and number of leaves. We investigate the properties of border trees for several theoretical models as well as real-world networks. Among the obtained results, we found that more than half of the nodes of some real-world networks belong to the border trees. A power-law with cut-off was observed for the distribution of the depth and number of leaves of the border trees. An analysis of the local role of the nodes in the border trees was also performed
Generic physical protection logic trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Objective consensus from decision trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig
2014-01-01
Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties
Objective consensus from decision trees.
Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig
2014-12-05
Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.
Longest common extensions in trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li
2016-01-01
to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...
Longest Common Extensions in Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li
2015-01-01
to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...
Factors that influence Christmas tree sales
Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett
1970-01-01
An analysis of the metropolitan Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N. C., shows that to sell more trees, Christmas tree retailers should locate their lots on heavily traveled streets in business areas, have adequate parking facilities, advertise, and have attractive displays of trees. Retailers who follow these practices can expect to receive higher prices for...
Critical wind speed at which trees break
Virot, E.; Ponomarenko, A.; Dehandschoewercker, É.; Quéré, D.; Clanet, C.
2016-02-01
Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42 m /s ), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.
Field guide to red tree vole nests
Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle
2017-01-01
Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (â¥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...
Mitered fractal trees: constructions and properties
Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, K.; Bosch, R.; McKenna, D.; Sarhangi, R.
2012-01-01
Tree-like structures, that is, branching structures without cycles, are attractive for artful expression. Especially interesting are fractal trees, where each subtree is a scaled and possibly otherwise transformed version of the entire tree. Such trees can be rendered in 3D by using beams with a
Critical wind speed at which trees break.
Virot, E; Ponomarenko, A; Dehandschoewercker, É; Quéré, D; Clanet, C
2016-02-01
Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42m/s), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.
Boosted Multivariate Trees for Longitudinal Data
Pande, Amol; Li, Liang; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Ehrlinger, John; Kogalur, Udaya B.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Ishwaran, Hemant
2017-01-01
Machine learning methods provide a powerful approach for analyzing longitudinal data in which repeated measurements are observed for a subject over time. We boost multivariate trees to fit a novel flexible semi-nonparametric marginal model for longitudinal data. In this model, features are assumed to be nonparametric, while feature-time interactions are modeled semi-nonparametrically utilizing P-splines with estimated smoothing parameter. In order to avoid overfitting, we describe a relatively simple in sample cross-validation method which can be used to estimate the optimal boosting iteration and which has the surprising added benefit of stabilizing certain parameter estimates. Our new multivariate tree boosting method is shown to be highly flexible, robust to covariance misspecification and unbalanced designs, and resistant to overfitting in high dimensions. Feature selection can be used to identify important features and feature-time interactions. An application to longitudinal data of forced 1-second lung expiratory volume (FEV1) for lung transplant patients identifies an important feature-time interaction and illustrates the ease with which our method can find complex relationships in longitudinal data. PMID:29249866
Constructal tree-shaped flow structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bejan, A.; Lorente, S.
2007-01-01
This paper is an introduction to a new trend in the conceptual design of energy systems: the generation of flow configuration based on the 'constructal' principle that the global performance is maximized by balancing and arranging the various flow resistances (the irreversibilities) in a flow system that is free to morph. The paper focuses on distribution and collection, which are flows that connect one point (source, or sink) with an infinity of points (volume, area, curve). The flow configurations that emerge from this principle are tree-shaped, and the systems that employ them are 'vascularized'. The paper traces the most recent progress made on constructal vascularization. The direction is from large-scale applications toward microscales. The large-scale tree-shaped designs of electric power distribution systems and networks for natural gas and water are now invading small-scale designs such as fuel cells, heat exchangers and cooled packages of electronics. These flow configurations have several properties in common: freedom to morph, multiple scales, hierarchy, nonuniform (optimal) distribution of scales through the available volume, compactness and finite complexity
Fitting Markovian binary trees using global and individual demographic data
Hautphenne, Sophie; Massaro, Melanie; Turner, Katharine
2017-01-01
We consider a class of branching processes called Markovian binary trees, in which the individuals lifetime and reproduction epochs are modeled using a transient Markovian arrival process (TMAP). We estimate the parameters of the TMAP based on population data containing information on age-specific fertility and mortality rates. Depending on the degree of detail of the available data, a weighted non-linear regression method or a maximum likelihood method is applied. We discuss the optimal choi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Borowiecki
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Trees are generalized to a special kind of higher dimensional complexes known as \\((j,k\\-trees ([L. W. Beineke, R. E. Pippert, On the structure of \\((m,n\\-trees, Proc. 8th S-E Conf. Combinatorics, Graph Theory and Computing, 1977, 75-80], and which are a natural extension of \\(k\\-trees for \\(j=k-1\\. The aim of this paper is to study\\((k-r,k\\-trees ([H. P. Patil, Studies on \\(k\\-trees and some related topics, PhD Thesis, University of Warsaw, Poland, 1984], which are a generalization of \\(k\\-trees (or usual trees when \\(k=1\\. We obtain the chromatic polynomial of \\((k-r,k\\-trees and show that any two \\((k-r,k\\-trees of the same order are chromatically equivalent. However, if \\(r\
Tree Notation: an antifragile program notation
Yunits, Breck
2017-01-01
This paper presents Tree Notation, a new simple, universal syntax. Language designers can invent new programming languages, called Tree Languages, on top of Tree Notation. Tree Languages have a number of advantages over traditional programming languages. We include a Visual Abstract to succinctly display the problem and discovery. Then we describe the problem--the BNF to abstract syntax tree (AST) parse step--and introduce the novel solution we discovered: a new family of 2D programming langu...
3D modeling of olive tree and simulating the harvesting forces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glăvan Dan Ovidiu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study regarding the influence of shaking forces on olive tree harvesting systems. Shaking forces can be released through several methods. Important is the end result, namely the shaking force and the cadence of shaking speed. Mechanical and automatic harvesting methods collect more olives than traditional methods but may damage the olive trees. In order to prevent this damage, we need to calculate the necessary shaking force. An original research method is proposed to simulate shaking forces using a 3D olive tree model with Autodesk Inventor software. In the experiments, we use different shaking forces and various shaking speeds. We also use different diameters of the olive tree trunk. We analyze the results from this experiment to determine the optimal shaking force for harvesting olives without damaging the olive tree.
Leaché, Adam D; Banbury, Barbara L; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros
2015-11-01
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the
Wang, Le
2003-10-01
textures occurring due to branches and twigs. As a result from the inverse wavelet transform, the tree crown boundary is enhanced while the unwanted textures are suppressed. Based on the enhanced image, an improvement is achieved when applying the two-stage methods to a high resolution aerial photograph. To improve tree species classification, we develop a new method to choose the optimal scale parameter with the aid of Bhattacharya Distance (BD), a well-known index of class separability in traditional pixel-based classification. The optimal scale parameter is then fed in the process of a region-growing-based segmentation as a break-off value. Our object classification achieves a better accuracy in separating tree species when compared to the conventional Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC). In summary, we develop two object-based methods for identifying individual trees and classifying tree species from high-spatial resolution imagery. Both methods achieve promising results and will promote integration of Remote Sensing and GIS in forest applications.
Fixed Parameter Evolutionary Algorithms and Maximum Leaf Spanning Trees: A Matter of Mutations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kratsch, Stefan; Lehre, Per Kristian; Neumann, Frank
2011-01-01
Evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be very successful for a wide range of NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. We investigate the NP-hard problem of computing a spanning tree that has a maximal number of leaves by evolutionary algorithms in the context of fixed parameter tractabil...... two common mutation operators, we show that an operator related to spanning tree problems leads to an FPT running time in contrast to a general mutation operator that does not have this property....
Bridging process-based and empirical approaches to modeling tree growth
Harry T. Valentine; Annikki Makela; Annikki Makela
2005-01-01
The gulf between process-based and empirical approaches to modeling tree growth may be bridged, in part, by the use of a common model. To this end, we have formulated a process-based model of tree growth that can be fitted and applied in an empirical mode. The growth model is grounded in pipe model theory and an optimal control model of crown development. Together, the...
Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)
1983-01-01
Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.
Isoprene emission from Indian trees
Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap
2003-12-01
Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 μmolm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 μg g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 μg g-1 h-1) in the present study.
Automated Generation of Attack Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2014-01-01
Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica......Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error......-prone and impracticable for large systems. Nonetheless, the automated generation of attack trees has only been explored in connection to computer networks and levering rich models, whose analysis typically leads to an exponential blow-up of the state space. We propose a static analysis approach where attack trees...... are automatically inferred from a process algebraic specification in a syntax-directed fashion, encompassing a great many application domains and avoiding incurring systematically an exponential explosion. Moreover, we show how the standard propositional denotation of an attack tree can be used to phrase...
Drawing Contour Trees in the Plane.
Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G
2011-11-01
The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.
Integrated fault tree development environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixon, B.W.
1986-01-01
Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use
A tree-ring perspective on the terrestrial carbon cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babst, F.; Alexander, M.R.; Szejner, P.; Trouet, V.; Alexander, M.R.; Moore, D.J.P.; Bouriaud, O.; Klesse, S.; Frank, D.; Roden, J.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.
2014-01-01
Tree-ring records can provide valuable information to advance our understanding of contemporary terrestrial carbon cycling and to reconstruct key metrics in the decades preceding monitoring data. The growing use of tree rings in carbon-cycle research is being facilitated by increasing recognition of reciprocal benefits among research communities. Yet, basic questions persist regarding what tree rings represent at the ecosystem level, how to optimally integrate them with other data streams, and what related challenges need to be overcome. It is also apparent that considerable unexplored potential exists for tree rings to refine assessments of terrestrial carbon cycling across a range of temporal and spatial domains. Here, we summarize recent advances and highlight promising paths of investigation with respect to (1) growth phenology, (2) forest productivity trends and variability, (3) CO 2 fertilization and water-use efficiency, (4) forest disturbances, and (5) comparisons between observational and computational forest productivity estimates. We encourage the integration of tree-ring data: with eddy-covariance measurements to investigate carbon allocation patterns and water-use efficiency; with remotely sensed observations to distinguish the timing of cambial growth and leaf phenology; and with forest inventories to develop continuous, annually resolved and long-term carbon budgets. In addition, we note the potential of tree-ring records and derivatives thereof to help evaluate the performance of earth system models regarding the simulated magnitude and dynamics of forest carbon uptake, and inform these models about growth responses to (non-)climatic drivers. Such efforts are expected to improve our understanding of forest carbon cycling and place current developments into a long-term perspective. (authors)
Ant colony optimization and constraint programming
Solnon, Christine
2013-01-01
Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search
Total Path Length and Number of Terminal Nodes for Decision Trees
Hussain, Shahid
2014-09-13
This paper presents a new tool for study of relationships between total path length (average depth) and number of terminal nodes for decision trees. These relationships are important from the point of view of optimization of decision trees. In this particular case of total path length and number of terminal nodes, the relationships between these two cost functions are closely related with space-time trade-off. In addition to algorithm to compute the relationships, the paper also presents results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository1. These experiments show how two cost functions behave for a given decision table and the resulting plots show the Pareto frontier or Pareto set of optimal points. Furthermore, in some cases this Pareto frontier is a singleton showing the total optimality of decision trees for the given decision table.
Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree
Woese, C. R.
2000-01-01
The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist.
Columnar apple tree named 'Moonlight'
Tupý, J. (Jaroslav); Louda, O. (Otto); Zima, J. (Jan)
2010-01-01
A new and distinct Malus domestica (Borkh.) apple tree variety is provided which exhibits a columnar tree type, weakly vigorous compact growth, predominant bearing on spurs and V.sub.f-resistance against scab. The new variety yields late maturing, medium-sized, globose-conical to conical fruits having good storage quality. The fruit color is yellow-green to yellow with a partial red to orange blush. The fruits have a yellow-colored firm flesh that is crisp and juicy with a good sweet/sour bal...
Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees
Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun
2018-01-01
This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....
Usefulness of problem tree, objective tree and logical framework ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The discussion has led to the conclusion that higher learning institutions are not adequately preparing graduates to face the increasing labor market demands in terms of skills and competitiveness. Having outlined the roots of the problem through the problem tree, the researchers proposed potential strategies to handle the ...
DLRS: gene tree evolution in light of a species tree.
Sjöstrand, Joel; Sennblad, Bengt; Arvestad, Lars; Lagergren, Jens
2012-11-15
PrIME-DLRS (or colloquially: 'Delirious') is a phylogenetic software tool to simultaneously infer and reconcile a gene tree given a species tree. It accounts for duplication and loss events, a relaxed molecular clock and is intended for the study of homologous gene families, for example in a comparative genomics setting involving multiple species. PrIME-DLRS uses a Bayesian MCMC framework, where the input is a known species tree with divergence times and a multiple sequence alignment, and the output is a posterior distribution over gene trees and model parameters. PrIME-DLRS is available for Java SE 6+ under the New BSD License, and JAR files and source code can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/jprime/. There is also a slightly older C++ version available as a binary package for Ubuntu, with download instructions at http://prime.sbc.su.se. The C++ source code is available upon request. joel.sjostrand@scilifelab.se or jens.lagergren@scilifelab.se. PrIME-DLRS is based on a sound probabilistic model (Åkerborg et al., 2009) and has been thoroughly validated on synthetic and biological datasets (Supplementary Material online).
Water Transport in Trees--An Artificial Laboratory Tree
Susman, K.; Razpet, N.; Cepic, M.
2011-01-01
Water transport in tall trees is an everyday phenomenon, seldom noticed and not completely understood even by scientists. As a topic of current research in plant physiology it has several advantages for presentation within school physics lectures: it is interdisciplinary and clearly shows the connection between physics and biology; the…
Learning in data-limited multimodal scenarios: Scandent decision forests and tree-based features.
Hor, Soheil; Moradi, Mehdi
2016-12-01
Incomplete and inconsistent datasets often pose difficulties in multimodal studies. We introduce the concept of scandent decision trees to tackle these difficulties. Scandent trees are decision trees that optimally mimic the partitioning of the data determined by another decision tree, and crucially, use only a subset of the feature set. We show how scandent trees can be used to enhance the performance of decision forests trained on a small number of multimodal samples when we have access to larger datasets with vastly incomplete feature sets. Additionally, we introduce the concept of tree-based feature transforms in the decision forest paradigm. When combined with scandent trees, the tree-based feature transforms enable us to train a classifier on a rich multimodal dataset, and use it to classify samples with only a subset of features of the training data. Using this methodology, we build a model trained on MRI and PET images of the ADNI dataset, and then test it on cases with only MRI data. We show that this is significantly more effective in staging of cognitive impairments compared to a similar decision forest model trained and tested on MRI only, or one that uses other kinds of feature transform applied to the MRI data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nai Fovino, Igor; Masera, Marcelo; De Cian, Alessio
2009-01-01
In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.
Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indhumathi Raman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.
On Tree-Based Phylogenetic Networks.
Zhang, Louxin
2016-07-01
A large class of phylogenetic networks can be obtained from trees by the addition of horizontal edges between the tree edges. These networks are called tree-based networks. We present a simple necessary and sufficient condition for tree-based networks and prove that a universal tree-based network exists for any number of taxa that contains as its base every phylogenetic tree on the same set of taxa. This answers two problems posted by Francis and Steel recently. A byproduct is a computer program for generating random binary phylogenetic networks under the uniform distribution model.
Human action analysis with randomized trees
Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng
2014-01-01
This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.
Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nai Fovino, Igor [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy)], E-mail: igor.nai@jrc.it; Masera, Marcelo [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy); De Cian, Alessio [Department of Electrical Engineering, University di Genova, Genoa (Italy)
2009-09-15
In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.
Ruszczynski, Andrzej
2011-01-01
Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...
Recursive algorithms for phylogenetic tree counting.
Gavryushkina, Alexandra; Welch, David; Drummond, Alexei J
2013-10-28
In Bayesian phylogenetic inference we are interested in distributions over a space of trees. The number of trees in a tree space is an important characteristic of the space and is useful for specifying prior distributions. When all samples come from the same time point and no prior information available on divergence times, the tree counting problem is easy. However, when fossil evidence is used in the inference to constrain the tree or data are sampled serially, new tree spaces arise and counting the number of trees is more difficult. We describe an algorithm that is polynomial in the number of sampled individuals for counting of resolutions of a constraint tree assuming that the number of constraints is fixed. We generalise this algorithm to counting resolutions of a fully ranked constraint tree. We describe a quadratic algorithm for counting the number of possible fully ranked trees on n sampled individuals. We introduce a new type of tree, called a fully ranked tree with sampled ancestors, and describe a cubic time algorithm for counting the number of such trees on n sampled individuals. These algorithms should be employed for Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference when fossil data are included or data are serially sampled.
A Metric on Phylogenetic Tree Shapes.
Colijn, C; Plazzotta, G
2018-01-01
The shapes of evolutionary trees are influenced by the nature of the evolutionary process but comparisons of trees from different processes are hindered by the challenge of completely describing tree shape. We present a full characterization of the shapes of rooted branching trees in a form that lends itself to natural tree comparisons. We use this characterization to define a metric, in the sense of a true distance function, on tree shapes. The metric distinguishes trees from random models known to produce different tree shapes. It separates trees derived from tropical versus USA influenza A sequences, which reflect the differing epidemiology of tropical and seasonal flu. We describe several metrics based on the same core characterization, and illustrate how to extend the metric to incorporate trees' branch lengths or other features such as overall imbalance. Our approach allows us to construct addition and multiplication on trees, and to create a convex metric on tree shapes which formally allows computation of average tree shapes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.
King, Andrew
2008-01-01
Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a
Transitions from Trees to Cycles in Adaptive Flow Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erik A. Martens
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Transport networks are crucial to the functioning of natural and technological systems. Nature features transport networks that are adaptive over a vast range of parameters, thus providing an impressive level of robustness in supply. Theoretical and experimental studies have found that real-world transport networks exhibit both tree-like motifs and cycles. When the network is subject to load fluctuations, the presence of cyclic motifs may help to reduce flow fluctuations and, thus, render supply in the network more robust. While previous studies considered network topology via optimization principles, here, we take a dynamical systems approach and study a simple model of a flow network with dynamically adapting weights (conductances. We assume a spatially non-uniform distribution of rapidly fluctuating loads in the sinks and investigate what network configurations are dynamically stable. The network converges to a spatially non-uniform stable configuration composed of both cyclic and tree-like structures. Cyclic structures emerge locally in a transcritical bifurcation as the amplitude of the load fluctuations is increased. The resulting adaptive dynamics thus partitions the network into two distinct regions with cyclic and tree-like structures. The location of the boundary between these two regions is determined by the amplitude of the fluctuations. These findings may explain why natural transport networks display cyclic structures in the micro-vascular regions near terminal nodes, but tree-like features in the regions with larger veins.
Alternative measures of risk of extreme events in decision trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohwein, H.I.; Lambert, J.H.; Haimes, Y.Y.
1999-01-01
A need for a methodology to control the extreme events, defined as low-probability, high-consequence incidents, in sequential decisions is identified. A variety of alternative and complementary measures of the risk of extreme events are examined for their usability as objective functions in sequential decisions, represented as single- or multiple-objective decision trees. Earlier work had addressed difficulties, related to non-separability, with the minimization of some measures of the risk of extreme events in sequential decisions. In an extension of these results, it is shown how some non-separable measures of the risk of extreme events can be interpreted in terms of separable constituents of risk, thereby enabling a wider class of measures of the risk of extreme events to be handled in a straightforward manner in a decision tree. Also for extreme events, results are given to enable minimax- and Hurwicz-criterion analyses in decision trees. An example demonstrates the incorporation of different measures of the risk of extreme events in a multi-objective decision tree. Conceptual formulations for optimizing non-separable measures of the risk of extreme events are identified as an important area for future investigation
Allman, Elizabeth S; Degnan, James H; Rhodes, John A
2011-06-01
Gene trees are evolutionary trees representing the ancestry of genes sampled from multiple populations. Species trees represent populations of individuals-each with many genes-splitting into new populations or species. The coalescent process, which models ancestry of gene copies within populations, is often used to model the probability distribution of gene trees given a fixed species tree. This multispecies coalescent model provides a framework for phylogeneticists to infer species trees from gene trees using maximum likelihood or Bayesian approaches. Because the coalescent models a branching process over time, all trees are typically assumed to be rooted in this setting. Often, however, gene trees inferred by traditional phylogenetic methods are unrooted. We investigate probabilities of unrooted gene trees under the multispecies coalescent model. We show that when there are four species with one gene sampled per species, the distribution of unrooted gene tree topologies identifies the unrooted species tree topology and some, but not all, information in the species tree edges (branch lengths). The location of the root on the species tree is not identifiable in this situation. However, for 5 or more species with one gene sampled per species, we show that the distribution of unrooted gene tree topologies identifies the rooted species tree topology and all its internal branch lengths. The length of any pendant branch leading to a leaf of the species tree is also identifiable for any species from which more than one gene is sampled.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rayner, Hugh [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: hrz@ansto.gov.au; Hathaway, Paul [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hauser, Nick [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Fei, Yang [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Franceschini, Ferdi [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lam, Tony [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)
2006-11-15
Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.
Tree value conversion standards revisited
Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale
1991-01-01
Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...
Induction of Ordinal Decision Trees
J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)
2003-01-01
textabstractThis paper focuses on the problem of monotone decision trees from the point of view of the multicriteria decision aid methodology (MCDA). By taking into account the preferences of the decision maker, an attempt is made to bring closer similar research within machine learning and MCDA.
Fisahn, Joachim
2018-01-24
Tree stem diameters and electrical stem potentials exhibit rhythmic variations with periodicities of 24-25 h. Under free-running conditions of constant light or darkness these rhythms were suggested to be mediated by the lunisolar gravitational force. To further unravel the regulation of tree stem diameter dilatations, many of the published time courses of diameter variations were re-evaluated in conjunction with the contemporaneous time courses of the lunisolar tidal acceleration. This was accomplished by application of the Etide program, which estimates, with high temporal resolution, local gravitational changes as a consequence of the diurnal variations of the lunisolar gravitational force due to the orbits and relative positions of Earth, Moon and Sun. In all instances investigated, it was evident that a synchronism exists between the times of the turning points of both the lunisolar tide and stem diameter variations when the direction of extension changes. This finding of synchrony documents that the lunisolar tide is a regulator of the tree stem diameter dilatations. Under the described experimental conditions, rhythms in tree stem diameter dilations and electrical stem potentials are controlled by the lunisolar gravitational acceleration. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Tree improvement and environmental forestry
Warren T. Doolittle
1971-01-01
I was invited to talk to you about some of the things tree improvement can do to help our forest environment. Now I do not claim to have a corner on the market for ideas that geneticists can use in our environment, and I know that a number of scholarly papers have been presented previously on this subject.
Eucalyptus as a landscape tree
W. Douglas Hamilton
1983-01-01
Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....
A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge
We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...
Trees of Our National Forests.
Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
Presented is a description of the creation of the National Forests system, how trees grow, managing the National Forests, types of management systems, and managing for multiple use, including wildlife, water, recreation and other uses. Included are: (1) photographs; (2) line drawings of typical leaves, cones, flowers, and seeds; and (3)…
Costa, M. E. G.; Rodrigues, M. A. S.
2012-04-01
In our school the activities linked with sciences are developed in a partnership with other school subjects. Interdisciplinary projects are always valued from beginning to end of a project. It is common for teachers of different areas to work together in a Science project. Research of English written articles is very important not only for the development of our students' scientific literacy but also as a way of widening knowledge and a view on different perspectives of life instead of being limited to research of any articles in Portuguese language. In this study we are going to collect data about the predominant tree species in the region, especially the invasive trees from the acacia species, the native tree species and the commercial species. We are going to study the reasons for the appearance of each species and draw a chart of soil occupation in the council. This chart will also allow the study of the distribution and use of land for each tree species. This research work is the first stage for a contribution to warn the town council of the dangers of the invasive species to the future economy of the council.
Wellhead and tree standards updated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dach, A.J. Jr.; Haeberle, T.
1996-01-01
Revisions in the API 6A, 17th Edition, have resolved a number of long-term problems and expanded its scope and coverage of wellhead and christmas tree equipment. The 17th Edition, Feb. 1, 1996, represents the state-of-the-art in international requirements for wellhead and christmas tree equipment. The design, materials, and quality control aspects of API 6A have all been improved with an emphasis on making the document more acceptable around the world. However, there are unresolved issues that raise many questions about the future direction of efforts aimed at international standardization of wellhead and christmas tree equipment. Unfortunately, these unresolved issues confuse both manufacturers and companies purchasing this equipment. This ultimately increases wellhead and christmas tree costs, so it is to everyone's advantage to resolve these issues. This article describes the significant revisions that are included in API 6A, 17th Edition. Also discussed are the regulatory, standardization, and customer acceptance issues that cloud the future of API 6A, 17th Edition
Milbrath, Sherry
2009-01-01
Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony
2006-01-01
Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation
Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28
Can Children Read Evolutionary Trees?
Ainsworth, Shaaron; Saffer, Jessica
2013-01-01
Representations of the "tree of life" such as cladograms show the history of lineages and their relationships. They are increasingly found in formal and informal learning settings. Unfortunately, there is evidence that these representations can be challenging to interpret correctly. This study explored the question of whether children…
Ornes, Stephen
2018-04-01
The ability of trees to cool by transporting water from their roots to the leaves has been known for centuries. But as Stephen Ornes discovers, the principles of transpiration are also inspiring innovative techniques to cool vehicles travelling at hypersonic speeds, where unwanted heat is a problem too
A distributed spanning tree algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge
1988-01-01
We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well as comm...
Decision tree based knowledge acquisition and failure diagnosis using a PWR loop vibration model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauernfeind, V.; Ding, Y.
1993-01-01
An analytical vibration model of the primary system of a 1300 MW PWR was used for simulating mechanical faults. Deviations in the calculated power density spectra and coherence functions are determined and classified. The decision tree technique is then used for a personal computer supported knowledge presentation and for optimizing the logical relationships between the simulated faults and the observed symptoms. The optimized decision tree forms the knowledge base and can be used to diagnose known cases as well as to include new data into the knowledge base if new faults occur. (author)
Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR
Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien
2016-04-01
configurations is presented. Future research will focus on the design of an adapted radar antenna for that application to optimize living tree trunk tomography. This research is funded by the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS, Belgium) and benefits from networking activities carried out within the EU COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".
Optimal Halbach Permanent Magnet Designs for Maximally Pulling and Pushing Nanoparticles.
Sarwar, A; Nemirovski, A; Shapiro, B
2012-03-01
Optimization methods are presented to design Halbach arrays to maximize the forces applied on magnetic nanoparticles at deep tissue locations. In magnetic drug targeting, where magnets are used to focus therapeutic nanoparticles to disease locations, the sharp fall off of magnetic fields and forces with distances from magnets has limited the depth of targeting. Creating stronger forces at depth by optimally designed Halbach arrays would allow treatment of a wider class of patients, e.g. patients with deeper tumors. The presented optimization methods are based on semi-definite quadratic programming, yield provably globally optimal Halbach designs in 2 and 3-dimensions, for maximal pull or push magnetic forces (stronger pull forces can collect nano-particles against blood forces in deeper vessels; push forces can be used to inject particles into precise locations, e.g. into the inner ear). These Halbach designs, here tested in simulations of Maxwell's equations, significantly outperform benchmark magnets of the same size and strength. For example, a 3-dimensional 36 element 2000 cm(3) volume optimal Halbach design yields a ×5 greater force at a 10 cm depth compared to a uniformly magnetized magnet of the same size and strength. The designed arrays should be feasible to construct, as they have a similar strength (≤ 1 Tesla), size (≤ 2000 cm(3)), and number of elements (≤ 36) as previously demonstrated arrays, and retain good performance for reasonable manufacturing errors (element magnetization direction errors ≤ 5°), thus yielding practical designs to improve magnetic drug targeting treatment depths.
Comparing Individual Tree Segmentation Based on High Resolution Multispectral Image and Lidar Data
Xiao, P.; Kelly, M.; Guo, Q.
2014-12-01
from multispectral image and Lidar data: recall, precision and F-score. This work explores the tradeoff between the expensive Lidar data and inexpensive multispectral image. The conclusion will guide the optimal data selection in different density canopy areas for individual tree segmentation, and contribute to the field of forest remote sensing.
International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...
Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models
Pirk, Sö ren; Jarząbek, Michał; Hadrich, Torsten; Michels, Dominik L.; Palubicki, Wojciech
2017-01-01
We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical
EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
EDITORIAL Development Linkages between Tree Breeding Programmes and National/Regional Tree Seed Centres in Africa. ... Discovery and Innovation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.
Systolic automata for VLSI on balanced trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Culik, K Ii; Gruska, J; Salomaa, A
1983-01-01
Systolic tree automata with a binary (or, more generally, balanced) underlying tree are investigated. The main emphasis is on input conditions, decidability, and characterization of acceptable languages. 4 references.
Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms
Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.
2003-01-01
Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...... proposed edge. The currently best algorithm for computing the refined Buneman tree from a given distance measure has a running time of O(n 5) and a space consumption of O(n 4). In this paper, we present an algorithm with running time O(n 3) and space consumption O(n 2). The improved complexity of our...
Understanding search trees via statistical physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ary search tree model (where stands for the number of branches of the search tree), an important problem for data storage in computer science, using a variety of statistical physics techniques that allow us to obtain exact asymptotic results.
Tree rings and radiocarbon calibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbetti, M.
1999-01-01
Only a few kinds of trees in Australia and Southeast Asia are known to have growth rings that are both distinct and annual. Those that do are therefore extremely important to climatic and isotope studies. In western Tasmania, extensive work with Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) has shown that many living trees are more than 1,000 years old, and that their ring widths are sensitive to temperature, rainfall and cloud cover (Buckley et al. 1997). At the Stanley River there is a forest of living (and recently felled) trees which we have sampled and measured. There are also thousands of subfossil Huon pine logs, buried at depths less than 5 metres in an area of floodplain extending over a distance of more than a kilometre with a width of tens of metres. Some of these logs have been buried for 50,000 years or more, but most of them belong to the period between 15,000 years and the present. In previous expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s, we excavated and sampled about 350 logs (Barbetti et al. 1995; Nanson et al. 1995). By measuring the ring-width patterns, and matching them between logs and living trees, we have constructed a tree-ring dated chronology from 571 BC to AD 1992. We have also built a 4254-ring floating chronology (placed by radiocarbon at ca. 3580 to 7830 years ago), and an earlier 1268-ring chronology (ca. 7,580 to 8,850 years ago). There are many individuals, or pairs of logs which match and together span several centuries, at 9,000 years ago and beyond
Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization
Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián
2011-01-01
Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkholm, Klavs
2010-01-01
En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system......En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system...
MacBain, Keith M
2009-01-01
Intends to supplement the engineer's box of analysis and design tools making optimization as commonplace as the finite element method in the engineering workplace. This title introduces structural optimization and the methods of nonlinear programming such as Lagrange multipliers, Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and calculus of variations.
Using tree diversity to compare phylogenetic heuristics.
Sul, Seung-Jin; Matthews, Suzanne; Williams, Tiffani L
2009-04-29
Evolutionary trees are family trees that represent the relationships between a group of organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics are used to search stochastically for the best-scoring trees in tree space. Given that better tree scores are believed to be better approximations of the true phylogeny, traditional evaluation techniques have used tree scores to determine the heuristics that find the best scores in the fastest time. We develop new techniques to evaluate phylogenetic heuristics based on both tree scores and topologies to compare Pauprat and Rec-I-DCM3, two popular Maximum Parsimony search algorithms. Our results show that although Pauprat and Rec-I-DCM3 find the trees with the same best scores, topologically these trees are quite different. Furthermore, the Rec-I-DCM3 trees cluster distinctly from the Pauprat trees. In addition to our heatmap visualizations of using parsimony scores and the Robinson-Foulds distance to compare best-scoring trees found by the two heuristics, we also develop entropy-based methods to show the diversity of the trees found. Overall, Pauprat identifies more diverse trees than Rec-I-DCM3. Overall, our work shows that there is value to comparing heuristics beyond the parsimony scores that they find. Pauprat is a slower heuristic than Rec-I-DCM3. However, our work shows that there is tremendous value in using Pauprat to reconstruct trees-especially since it finds identical scoring but topologically distinct trees. Hence, instead of discounting Pauprat, effort should go in improving its implementation. Ultimately, improved performance measures lead to better phylogenetic heuristics and will result in better approximations of the true evolutionary history of the organisms of interest.
Locating a tree in a phylogenetic network
van Iersel, Leo; Semple, Charles; Steel, Mike
2010-01-01
Phylogenetic trees and networks are leaf-labelled graphs that are used to describe evolutionary histories of species. The Tree Containment problem asks whether a given phylogenetic tree is embedded in a given phylogenetic network. Given a phylogenetic network and a cluster of species, the Cluster Containment problem asks whether the given cluster is a cluster of some phylogenetic tree embedded in the network. Both problems are known to be NP-complete in general. In this article, we consider t...
The transposition distance for phylogenetic trees
Rossello, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel
2006-01-01
The search for similarity and dissimilarity measures on phylogenetic trees has been motivated by the computation of consensus trees, the search by similarity in phylogenetic databases, and the assessment of clustering results in bioinformatics. The transposition distance for fully resolved phylogenetic trees is a recent addition to the extensive collection of available metrics for comparing phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we generalize the transposition distance from fully resolved to arbi...
Animals and trees: food for thought
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Openshaw, K.
1979-01-01
In many areas of Africa, combining tree-growing with animal rearing is advantageous, as the trees provide shade, animal fodder and timber for fuel and building, while grazing animals reduce the fire hazard from ground vegetation and improve soil fertility through droppings. Acacia albida, Prosopis cineraria, P. chilensis, leucaena leucocephala and Ailanthus excelsa are discussed as promising fodder trees, and an appendix is included with notes on 21 other trees for fodder or the production of medicines.
Stacy A. Drury; Jason M. Herynk
2011-01-01
The National Tree-List Layer (NTLL) project used LANDFIRE map products to produce the first national tree-list map layer that represents tree populations at stand and regional levels. The NTLL was produced in a short time frame to address the needs of Fire and Aviation Management for a map layer that could be used as input for simulating fire-caused tree mortality...
Dynamic Event Tree advancements and control logic improvements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Mandelli, Diego; Sen, Ramazan Sonat; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph
2015-01-01
The RAVEN code has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory since 2012. Its main goal is to create a multi-purpose platform for the deploying of all the capabilities needed for Probabilistic Risk Assessment, uncertainty quantification, data mining analysis and optimization studies. RAVEN is currently equipped with three different sampling categories: Forward samplers (Monte Carlo, Latin Hyper Cube, Stratified, Grid Sampler, Factorials, etc.), Adaptive Samplers (Limit Surface search, Adaptive Polynomial Chaos, etc.) and Dynamic Event Tree (DET) samplers (Deterministic and Adaptive Dynamic Event Trees). The main subject of this document is to report the activities that have been done in order to: start the migration of the RAVEN/RELAP-7 control logic system into MOOSE, and develop advanced dynamic sampling capabilities based on the Dynamic Event Tree approach. In order to provide to all MOOSE-based applications a control logic capability, in this Fiscal Year an initial migration activity has been initiated, moving the control logic system, designed for RELAP-7 by the RAVEN team, into the MOOSE framework. In this document, a brief explanation of what has been done is going to be reported. The second and most important subject of this report is about the development of a Dynamic Event Tree (DET) sampler named 'Hybrid Dynamic Event Tree' (HDET) and its Adaptive variant 'Adaptive Hybrid Dynamic Event Tree' (AHDET). As other authors have already reported, among the different types of uncertainties, it is possible to discern two principle types: aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. The classical Dynamic Event Tree is in charge of treating the first class (aleatory) uncertainties; the dependence of the probabilistic risk assessment and analysis on the epistemic uncertainties are treated by an initial Monte Carlo sampling (MCDET). From each Monte Carlo sample, a DET analysis is run (in total, N trees). The Monte Carlo employs a pre
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Damkilde, Lars
2007-01-01
. A way to solve the initial design problem namely finding a form can be solved by so-called topology optimization. The idea is to define a design region and an amount of material. The loads and supports are also fidefined, and the algorithm finds the optimal material distribution. The objective function...... dictates the form, and the designer can choose e.g. maximum stiness, maximum allowable stresses or maximum lowest eigenfrequency. The result of the topology optimization is a relatively coarse map of material layout. This design can be transferred to a CAD system and given the necessary geometrically...... refinements, and then remeshed and reanalysed in other to secure that the design requirements are met correctly. The output of standard topology optimization has seldom well-defined, sharp contours leaving the designer with a tedious interpretation, which often results in less optimal structures. In the paper...
Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.
2014-01-01
Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971
On Tree-Constrained Matchings and Generalizations
S. Canzar (Stefan); K. Elbassioni; G.W. Klau (Gunnar); J. Mestre
2011-01-01
htmlabstractWe consider the following \\textsc{Tree-Constrained Bipartite Matching} problem: Given two rooted trees $T_1=(V_1,E_1)$, $T_2=(V_2,E_2)$ and a weight function $w: V_1\\times V_2 \\mapsto \\mathbb{R}_+$, find a maximum weight matching $\\mathcal{M}$ between nodes of the two trees, such that
Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover
David J. Nowak; Rowan A. Rowntree; E. Gregory McPherson; Susan M. Sisinni; Esther R. Kirkmann; Jack C. Stevens
1996-01-01
Measurement of city tree cover can aid in urban vegetation planning, management, and research by revealing characteristics of vegetation across a city. Urban tree cover in the United States ranges from 0.4% in Lancaster, California, to 55% in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two important factors that affect the amount of urban tree cover are the natural environment and land...
Understanding the challenges of municipal tree planting
E.G. McPherson; R. Young
2010-01-01
Nine of the twelve largest cities in the U.S. have mayoral tree planting initiatives (TPIs), with pledges to plant nearly 20 million trees. Although executive-level support for trees has never been this widespread, many wonder if this support will endure as administrations change and budgets tighten. In an effort to share lessons learned from successes and setbacks, a...
THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGROFORESTRY TREE PRODUCTS TO ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
philiph
contribution of agro-forestry tree products to the livelihood of rural farmers was high and accounted for ... systems in which trees are grown with ... livelihood of farmers in rural areas and .... pulp, the seed are boiled in water and dried .... treatment of fracture/dislocation of bones. Some agroforestry trees that provides the rural ...
Sampling the quality of hardwood trees
Adrian M. Gilbert
1959-01-01
Anyone acquainted with the conversion of hardwood trees into wood products knows that timber has a wide range in quality. Some trees will yield better products than others. So, in addition to rate of growth and size, tree values are affected by the quality of products yielded.
Locating a tree in a phylogenetic network
Iersel, van L.J.J.; Semple, C.; Steel, M.A.
2010-01-01
Phylogenetic trees and networks are leaf-labelled graphs that are used to describe evolutionary histories of species. The Tree Containment problem asks whether a given phylogenetic tree is embedded in a given phylogenetic network. Given a phylogenetic network and a cluster of species, the Cluster
Finding small equivalent decision trees is hard
Zantema, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.
2000-01-01
Two decision trees are called decision equivalent if they represent the same function, i.e., they yield the same result for every possible input. We prove that given a decision tree and a number, to decide if there is a decision equivalent decision tree of size at most that number is NPcomplete. As
Aspects of insertion in random trees
Bagchi, Arunabha; Reingold, E.M.
1982-01-01
A method formulated by Yao and used by Brown has yielded bounds on the fraction of nodes with specified properties in trees bult by a sequence of random internal nodes in a random tree built by binary search and insertion, and show that in such a tree about bounds better than those now known. We
Coalescent methods for estimating phylogenetic trees.
Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili; Kubatko, Laura; Pearl, Dennis K; Edwards, Scott V
2009-10-01
We review recent models to estimate phylogenetic trees under the multispecies coalescent. Although the distinction between gene trees and species trees has come to the fore of phylogenetics, only recently have methods been developed that explicitly estimate species trees. Of the several factors that can cause gene tree heterogeneity and discordance with the species tree, deep coalescence due to random genetic drift in branches of the species tree has been modeled most thoroughly. Bayesian approaches to estimating species trees utilizes two likelihood functions, one of which has been widely used in traditional phylogenetics and involves the model of nucleotide substitution, and the second of which is less familiar to phylogeneticists and involves the probability distribution of gene trees given a species tree. Other recent parametric and nonparametric methods for estimating species trees involve parsimony criteria, summary statistics, supertree and consensus methods. Species tree approaches are an appropriate goal for systematics, appear to work well in some cases where concatenation can be misleading, and suggest that sampling many independent loci will be paramount. Such methods can also be challenging to implement because of the complexity of the models and computational time. In addition, further elaboration of the simplest of coalescent models will be required to incorporate commonly known issues such as deviation from the molecular clock, gene flow and other genetic forces.
Evaluating realized genetic gains from tree improvement.
J.B. St. Clair
1993-01-01
Tree improvement has become an essential part of the management of forest lands for wood production, and predicting yields and realized gains from forests planted with genetically-improved trees will become increasingly important. This paper discusses concepts of tree improvement and genetic gain important to growth and yield modeling, and reviews previous studies of...